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Respiratory system

The respiratory system's function is to allow gas exchange to all parts of the body.
The space between the alveoli and the capillaries, the anatomy or structure of the
exchange system, and the precise physiological uses of the exchanged gases vary
depending on the organism. In humans and other mammals, for example, the
anatomical features of
the respiratory system
include airways, lungs,
and the respiratory
muscles. Molecules of
oxygen and carbon
dioxide are passively
exchanged, by diffusion,
between the gaseous
external environment and
the blood. This exchange
process occurs in the
alveolar region of the
lungs.[1]
Other animals, such as
insects, have respiratory
systems with very simple
anatomical features, and in amphibians even the skin plays a vital role in gas
exchange. Plants also have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas
exchange can be opposite to that in animals. The respiratory system in plants also
includes anatomical features such as holes on the undersides of leaves known as
stomata.

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

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Fish Respiratory System

gill
filament
s

Gill filaments (detail)

The thousands of fine branches on


gill bar each filament expose a large surface
area to the water. Blood circulates in
the filament branches and is
Head of herring with operculum cut away separated from the water by a thin
epithelium so that oxygen and carbon
to reveal gills. There are usually 4 gills on each side dioxide diffuse through easily
gills
operculum gullet
Breathing current
mouth
Water is taken in through the mouth,
passes over the gills and is expelled via
the operculum. Movements of the mouth
floor and operculum create the current and
the ‘valves’ system
circulatory (skin flaps)
Themaintain a one-way
heart pumps blood
forward in the ventral vessel and through the
gill filaments where oxygen is absorbed and
carbon dioxide expelled. The dorsal vessel
skin flaps prevent
carries oxygenated blood to all parts of the
return of water
body
Breathing current
air bladder
dorsal blood vessel (maintains
circulation buoyancy)
vertebral
in gills
column

capillary circulation
ventral blood
2 in tissues
vessel
heart gut
Circulatory system
JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

Insects Respiratory System

Air enters the respiratory system of most insects through a series of external
openings called spiracles. These external openings, which act as muscular valves in
some insects, lead to the internal respiratory system, a densely-networked array of
tubes called trachea. The tracheal system within an individual is composed of
interconnecting transverse and longitudinal tracheae which maintain equivalent
pressure throughout the system. These tracheae branch repeatedly, eventually
forming tracheoles, which are blind-ended, water-filled compartments only one
micrometer in diameter.[8] It is at this level of the tracheoles that oxygen is delivered
to the cells for respiration.

Insects were once believed to exchange gases with the environment continuously by
the simple diffusion of gases into the tracheal system. More recently, however, large
variation in insects ventilatory patterns have been documented and insect respiration
appears to be highly variable. Some small insects do demonstrate continuous
respiration and may lack muscular control of the spiracles. Others, however, utilize
muscular contraction of the abdomen along with coordinated spiracle contraction and
relaxation to generate cyclical gas exchange patterns. The most extreme form of
these patterns is termed discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGC).

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

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Human Respiratory System

The human respiratory system consists of the lungs and tubes associated with the
lungs. It is located in the thorax or chest. The thorax is surrounded by the ribs. The
diaphragm forms the base of the thorax.
Contractions of the diaphragm and the intercostals muscle change the size of the
thorax and, thus, cause air to move in and out of the lungs.
The main job of the respiratory system is to get oxygen into the body and get waste
gases out of the body. It is the function of the respiratory system to transport gases
to and from the circulatory system.

Parts of the Respiratory System

The human respiratory system consists of the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, smaller conducting passageways (bronchi and bronchioles), and lungs.

The Nose or Nasal Cavity

As air passes through the nasal cavities it is warmed and humidified, so


that air that reaches the lungs is warmed and moist. The Nasal airways
are lined with cilia and kept moist by mucous secretions. The combination
of cilia and mucous helps to filter out solid particles from the air an Warm
and moisten the air, which prevents damage to the delicate tissues that
form the Respiratory System. The moisture in the nose helps to heat and
humidify the air, increasing the amount of water vapor the air entering
the lungs contains. This helps to keep the air entering the nose from
drying out the lungs and other parts of our respiratory system. When air
enters the respiratory system through the mouth, much less filtering is
done. It is generally better to take in air through the nose.

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

To review: his nose does the following:


1. Filters the air by the hairs and mucous in the nose
2. Moistens the air
3. Warms the air

The Pharynx

The pharynx is also called the throat. As we saw in the digestive system, the
epiglottis closes off the trachea when we swallow. Below the epiglottis is the larynx
or voice box. This contains 2 vocal cords, which vibrate when air passes by them.
With our tongue and lips we convert these vibrations into speech. The area at the top
of the trachea, which contains the larynx, is called the glottis.

The Trachea
The trachea or windpipe is made of muscle and elastic fibers with rings of cartilage.
The cartilage prevents the tubes of the trachea from collapsing. The trachea is
divided or branched into bronchi and then into smaller bronchioles. The bronchioles
branch off into alveoli. The alveoli will be discussed later.

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The Lungs

The lungs are spongy structure where the exchange of gases takes place. Each lung
is surrounded by a pair of pleural membranes. Between the membranes is pleural
fluid, which reduces friction while breathing. The bronchi are divided into about a
million bronchioles. The ends of the bronchioles are hollow air sacs called alveoli.
There are over 700 million alveoli in the lungs. This greatly increases the surface
area through which gas exchange occurs. Surrounding the alveoli are capillaries.
The lungs give up their oxygen to the capillaries through the alveoli. Likewise, carbon
dioxide is taken from the capillaries and into the alveoli.

Gas Exchange

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

Body cells use the inhaled oxygen gotten from the alveoli of the lungs. In
turn, they produce carbon dioxide and water, which is taken to the alveoli
and then exhaled. These exchanges occur as a result of diffusion. In each
case the materials move from an area of high concentration to an area of
lower concentration.

The alveoli are well suited for the important job they have. There are about
300,000,000 alveoli per lung! That means there is a great surface area for gas
exchange. Also, the walls of the alveoli as well as the capillaries are very thin so that
the gases can diffuse readily.

When the blood picks up the diffused gases the gases are carried to their
destinations. Most of the oxygen is carried by the hemoglobin in the red blood cells
with only a small % dissolved in the plasma. Carbon dioxide and water are carried in
the plasma of the blood.

The Mechanism of Breathing

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

Inspiration or inhalation is said to be an active process because it involves muscle


contraction. The diaphragm and intercostals muscles contract. The contracting
diaphragm flattens and stretches the elastic lungs downward. The contracting
intercostals pull the ribcage up and out causing the elastic lungs to stretch. The
expanding lungs cause the air inside to expand (a gas will always fill its container).
The expansion of air causes a drop in air pressure in the lungs. The air in the lungs
is at a lower pressure than the air outside. Air flows from higher to lower pressure so
air flows into the lungs from outside.

Expiration or exhalation is said to be a passive process because it does not involve


muscle contraction. The diaphragm and the intercostal muscles relax. The deforming
force on the elastic lungs has been removed. The lungs recoil elastically reducing
their volume – a passive process. The volume of air in the lungs decreases causing
an increase in the air pressure. The air in the lungs is at a higher pressure than the
air outside. Air flows from higher to lower pressure so the air flows out of the lungs.
The elastic recoil of the lungs pulls up the adhering diaphragm and drags in the
adhering ribcage.

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

710501095092

LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

Breathing is normally under


unconscious control. We don’t have
to think about breathing. Exercise
increases the rate of breathing. The
brain detects a large increase in
carbon dioxide and increases the
rate of breathing. Now, exhalation,
which is normally passive, becomes
active. Other times when we control
our breathing rate is in speaking,
singing, or swimming.

Breathing is always controlled by


the brain’s detection of carbon
dioxide in the blood. When carbon
dioxide is in the blood the pH of the
blood is slightly lowered. The brain
detects this slight drop and sends
impulses to the diaphragm and
intercostal muscles. Thus, our breathing mechanism is controlled by rising levels of
carbon dioxide, not low levels of oxygen. Just as the level of carbon dioxide controls
the stomata opening in leaves it also controls our breathing.

PRACTICAL 4 : RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OF FISH, INSECT AND

MAMMAL

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

710501095092

LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

Objectives : (1) To train students to dissect fish, insect and small

mammal.

(2) To train students how to use dissecting instruments.


(3) To increase students’ skill in displaying, drawing and
labeling respiratory organs.
(4) To enable students to examine the structures of the main
organs involved in respiration (lung, trachea, diaphragm,
rib cage and intercostal muscles)
(5) To increase students’ understanding of the process of
gas exchange in animals.
Material and apparatus:

Rats/guinea pig/white mice

Cockroach

Bony fish

Dissecting instruments

Dissecting board

Dissecting microscope

Hand lens

Transparent plastic ruler

Thread

Procedure:

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

(a) Dissection of the fish respiratory system

1. The shape of the fish was observed: streamlined, neck less, paired fins and
flexible tail.

2. What was the advantage of having such shape?


The thin width helps it slice through the water quickly, and it also thin tail
helps it propel itself through the water.

3. Fish bodies were covered with scales. What was the function of the scales?
Scales serve a primarily protective function.

4. Bony fishes had a movable operculum or gill-cover protecting the gills on each
side of the body. The operculum was cut on one side to expose the gills. How
many pairs of gill can be found?
Four pairs.

5. The gills were mounted on bony structures called gill arch. Each complete gill
consisted of a bony gill arch supporting two rows of delicate gill filaments. The gill
filaments were examined under the dissection microscope, drawn and labeled.
What were the blood vessels found in the gill filaments?
The pillar cells of the lamellae, the interlamellar vessels in the filament and
the small vessels in the filament and arch.

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

6. Gaseous exchange took place in the gill filaments. Describe the characteristic of
the gill filament so that an efficient gaseous exchanged can happen. Explain the
function of the gill filament.
Fish have developed gills for respiration which have:
• large surface area which is needed for more oxygen to get in.
• high blood flow
• small/short diffusion distances
• contain 4 gill arches (Bony fishes
• each gill arch has 2 rows (hemibranchs) of gill filaments
• each gill filament has many lamellae
The function of the gill filament extracts oxygen from the water to use in
processes like respiration.

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

(b) Dissection of the cockroach respiratory system

External anatomy

1. The cockroach was killed using chloroform in the killing jar.

2. The cockroach was taken and identified the segmented body parts.

3. The head, thorax and abdomen were drawn and labeled. The number of
segments that make up the head, thorax and abdomen were counted.

4. The exoskeleton was made up of the hard and waxy chitin layer. Where
could you find the legs attached to?
Each thoracic segment bears a pair of walking legs on the ventral side.

5. The wings were opened up. What was the different between the two pairs
of wing and what their functions were?
The mesothorax and the metathorax bear each, a pair of wings. The
anterior pair of wings, called forewings are used as wing covers for the
posterior pair of wings called hindwings, which are used for flight.

6. The spiracle at each side of the segment was observed. The number of
spiracles found on the thorax and abdomen were counted. Was there any
spiracle on the thorax?
There are two thoracic and eight abdominal spiracles on the body of
cockroach.

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

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Internal anatomy

1. The legs and wings of the cockroach were cut.

2. From the dorsal posterior to the anterior part were cut gently.3

3. The inner part was opened up and was observed under the dissection
microscope. Air would flow through the spiracles, tracheae and end up in
very fine tubules called tracheoles.

4. Some tissues were gotten and mounted on a slide. A drop of water was
put and the coverslip was lowered gently.

5. The tissues were examined under the microscope. The respiratory tract
was drawn and labeled. (tracheae and tracheoles).

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

(c) Dissection of the mammalian respiratory system


.
1. The rat was pinned to the dissecting board with the ventral surface uppermost.

2. A mid-ventral incision was made through the skin and was cut forward as far as
the lower jaw and then backwards to the anus.

3. Holding the skin with the forceps, the connective tissues between the skin and
the body was wall cut away as far as possible around the animal’s body and the
skin was pinned back.

4. The ventral and lateral thoracic walls were cut away to expose the thoracic cavity.

5. The thymus gland was removed.

6. Muscles and tissues of the neck were cut away to expose the trachea and larynx.

7. The larynx was cut above. The connective tissues attached to the trachea were
cut off.

8. The heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus and larynx were removed together.

9. The esophagus was carefully separated from the heart. The larynx, trachea and
lungs were pinned to the board.

10. A large labeled drawing of the structures I had taken out was made.

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

Results:

Drawings and labeling

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Questions:

1. (a) How many pairs of ribs does this animal have?

12 pairs which consists of 7 pair "true" ribs and 5 pair "false" ribs.

The upper seven true


ribs (costae verae,
vertebrosternal ribs,
I-VII). are attached in
the front to the
sternum by means of
costal cartilage. Due
to their elasticity
they allow movement
when inhaling and
exhaling.
The 8th, 9th, 10th,
11th, and 12th ribs are called false ribs (costae spuriae,
vertebrochondral ribs, VIII-X), and join with the costal cartilages
of the ribs above.
The 11th and 12th ribs are also known as floating ribs (costae
fluitantes, vertebral ribs, XI-XII), as they do not have any anterior
connection to the sternum.

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

(b) How does the rib cage function during gas exchange in this animal?

The movement of the rib cage is controlled by two main sets of


muscles, that is
the external
intercostal
muscles which
are found
between the ribs,
running
downward
toward the
sternum and the
internal
intercostal muscles which are found between the ribs, running at right
angle to the external intercostal muscles.

During inspiration, the external intercostal muscles contract while the


internal intercostal muscles relax. The rib cage is raised outwards and
upwards.

During expiration, the internal intercostal muscles contract while the


external intercostal muscles relax. The rib cage is pulled inwards and
downwards.

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

2. (a) Describe the appearance and characteristic of the diaphragm.

The diaphragm is a dome-shaped musculofibrous septum that


separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity, its convex upper
surface forming the floor of the former, and its concave under surface
the roof of the latter. Its peripheral part consists of muscular fibers that
take origin from the circumference of the inferior thoracic aperture and
converge to be inserted into a central tendon.

(b) What is the importance of this characteristic of the diaphragm in relation to its
function during gas exchange?

The diaphragm functions in


breathing. During
inhalation, the diaphragm
contracts, thus enlarging
the thoracic cavity (the
external intercostal muscles
also participate in this
enlargement). This reduces
intra-thoracic pressure: In
other words, enlarging the

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

cavity creates suction that draws air into the lungs. When the
diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by elastic recoil of the lung and
the tissues lining the thoracic cavity in conjunction with the
abdominal muscles, which act as an antagonist paired with the
diaphragm's contraction.

3. Describe the appearance of the left and right lungs. Squeeze the lungs and note its
texture. Place it in hot water. The air within the lung expands causing it to float.

The Left lung is divided into two lobes, an upper and a lower, by the oblique
fissure, which extends from the costal to the mediastinal surface of the lung both
above and below the hilum.

The Right lung is divided into three lobes (as opposed to two lobes on the left),
superior, middle, and inferior, by two interlobular fissures.

The lungs of mammals have a spongy texture and are honeycombed with
epithelium, having a much larger surface area in total than the outer surface
area of the lung itself.

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JAMALULHASLINA BINTI FUAD

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LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES (SCE3101)

Resources :

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_system
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Pulmonary.html
http://www.cdli.ca/~dpower/resp/main.htm
http://www.biotopics.co.uk/humans/resyst.html
http://www.coventry.ac.uk/ec//~nhunt/180sor/howgate/air.html
Mah Chee Wai and Dr. Tina Lim Swee Kim, (2008). Nexus SPM Biology. Petaling
Jaya : Sasbadi Sdn Bhd.

http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/science/biological_sciences/lab16/

http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/animal-morphology/respiratory-
excretory-nervous-reproductive-system-rat.php

https://www.msu.edu/course/lbs/158h/manual/Ratdissect.pdf

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