Who Are Farmer/Peasents ? One who works on or operates a farm. One who has paid for the right to collect and retain certain revenues or profits. Farmer is a person who is engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. This is a way of life that has been the dominant occupation of human beings since the dawn of civilization.

What is a movement ? A movement has a class base and intends to alter the existing social order or the power structure at least at the regional levels where it takes place. It also has an ideology to justify it.

harassment. Once again unrest broke out amidst peasants in 1870`s in East Bengal.The indigo peasants of Bihar revolted in large scale in Darbhanga and Champaran in 1866-68.However the peasants fought against the Britishers at every single step. The intelligentsia of Bengal rose and organized a powerful campaign for the support of peasants. illegal seizure of .This behaviour came in more action after 1858. One of the most popular event of peasant revolt was the indigo cultivation in Bengal in 1859-60 where the peasants were forced to cultivate indigo and sell them at cheaper rates to the Britishers. They freely took recourse to ejection. the peasants got frustrated and burst out into anger and refrained from cultivating indigo. ruthlessly and brutally so as to compel them to cultivate indigo. After this. The powerful and cunning zamindars were infamous for their notorious acts for oppression of the tenants. The government was compelled to appoint a commission for investigation and mitigation of the system. There was a change in the resistance behaviour of the peasant`s cause they started fighting for their demands and the unjust done to them.Introduction: The exploitation of british colonialism was borne by the Indian peasants adversely. The cultivation of indigo would make their lands infertile and bare forever. If the peasants refused to cultivate indigo they would be beaten illegally. . This oppression was portrayed very well by famous Bengali writer DinbanduMitra in his play Neel Darpan in 1860.

property. Debi Singh. when the peasants of North Bengal had rebelled against the East India Company`s revenue farmer. But this time again large sections of the new intelligentsia gave support to the peasants` cause. This created a situation of uneasiness and unrest amongst the peasants and it ended when the government promised to take some action on the zamindari oppression. From 1872 to 1876 the peasants came together unitedly in the form of No-rent union and fought against the zamindars and their agents. The barbarous behaviour of the police is till today remembered by the people of Assam. The situation provoked in Assam because of high land revenue assessment. The peasants refused to pay enhanced revenue demands to the landlords and fought against the land revenue collectors to seize their lands. including crops and chattels and extortions. The situation worsened and Police had to mobilize their network to suppress the peasants. and large-scale use of force to increase rents and to prevent the peasants from acquiring occupancy rights. The Bengal peasants also had a long tradition of resistance stretching back to 1782. .Peasant unrest also broke out in several other parts of country such as North Kerala and Assam. Many peasants were killed ruthlessly and brutally in the riots. It was stopped only when the government suppressed the peasants acts of violence.

their courage and heroism. But the Peasants always resisted the britishers efforts to get control and power in the name of maintaining law and order. But at the same time their acts were doomed to failure. Every time they were tortured so adversely that they had to rebel. . reveal the immense sources of resistance to imperialism that lay dormant among the Indian people. The popular movements and rebellions of the 19th century did. their willingness to make immense sacrifices were no match against the imperialist power armed with the latest weapons and the resources of a world-wide empire.These movements or riots of peasants at any time did not create any threat to the british rule but proved that the Indian peasants reactions were instant and spontaneous to every situation. in practical the illiterate and ignorant people performed acts of appreciation against the menace of the increasing british colonialism that even the higher class and literates could not perform. Their faith. Thus. however.

Police failed in meeting the fury of peasant`s resistance which was suppressed only when the whole military force at Poona took the field against them. . More and more land got mortgaged and sold out to the moneylenders who tried their level best to achieve the land at legal and illegal terms.PEASENT MOVEMENT IN MAHARASHTRA: A major agrarian unrest took place in Poona and Ahmednagar -districts of Maharashtra in 1875. At the same time . But it pointed out that the source of misery of peasants was high revenue rates and government`s incapabilities to provide loan at cheaper rates. In Maharashtra the british government had directly settled the revenue with the peasants. Once again the modern intelligentsia of Maharashtra supported the peasant`s increased the rates of revenue so high that it was impossible to pay the revenue and they had no option left other than borrowing the money from the moneylenders who charged high interest rates. Peasant patience got exhausted by the end of the year1875 and huge agrarian riots took place.



by retaining within it the surplus. prices close to those demanded.1980-Farmer Movement In Maharashtra The Shetkari Sangathana Formation: Founded in late 1970¶s by Sharad Joshi The main objective of the Sangathana was to reconstitute the village community.Prices of onion were increased by 2530%. Achievements: Remunerative prices.Advance for purchase of sugarcane was also increased. Major Demand & outcomes: Main Focus on the issue of remunerative prices to farmers. and Politically. by devolving power from the state to the traditional Panchayats. Economically. socially. by providing an employment generating self-sufficient village community based on artisan production.Farmers relieved of debts.Succeeded in getting concessions from the electricity department. A very strong awareness can be seen amongst farmers regarding the prices of their agricultural produce .

etc. Monopoly purchase of cotton in the state .abolition of taxes on agricultural implements. Lack of enthusiasm in improving the quality of rural life. .Farmer promoted development companies as an alternative to land acquisition by Government. Essential commodities act of 1955.Benefits: Grant of easier loans at low rates of interest. Shortcomings: Cause of the most deprived was ignored. Another neglected issue is the one concerning the wage levels in agriculture. Encouraging novel methods of Jowar utilization . Creating alternatives for marketing agricultural produce. Sugarcane industry and Levy on sugar.

it has at times quite militantly challenged the state. but it has its own concepts of exploitation and the struggle against it. It has its base among peas." "middle. . Gujarat. Maharashtra. Though laying a claim to the Gandhian heritage of nonviolent struggle." and "rich") in the most capitalistically developed rural areas of the country ² Punjab.." grown outside the framework of the traditional left parties and their linked mass organizations. like other "new social movements. and Karnataka ² and is spreading in other areas as peasants become more involved in market production and investment.ants of varying economic status (traditionally defined as "poor. The "New Peasant Movement" in India: A new peasant movement is rising in India that is mounting a challenge not only to the Indian state but also to our traditional left concepts of analysis.Abolition of quota system on Export / Import. No corresponding increase in Output price.Threat posed by WTO. * and over the years has counted many dozens killed in cases of police shooting peasants. Above challenges may result in a new Farmers¶ movement but that is not happening because of«. western Uttar Pradesh.CURRENT CHALLENGES TO FARMERS: Increasing Input cost. It has. with campaigns of road and rail blockage and gheraos of state legislatures.

the fact remains that rather than a movement based on agricultural laborers and poor peasants arising as a powerful and united force. struggles over land are going on (though quite often today these are struggles between different sections of toiling people. and of mounting mass struggles at the same level. claiming to represent the united interest of all categories of peasants. landless laborers and middle.g. It is the only movement (aside perhaps from the massive workers' rallies organized by DattaSamant in Bombay) capable of regularly organizing mass rallies involving. literally.times violent conflict. that has become perhaps the single biggest mass movement in India today. Such contradictions and organizing around them cannot be ignored. the fight of Maharashtra cotton growers for higher prices involved this many (with 30-40. as did the Gujarat farmers' struggle primarily against higher electricity rates and a sudden explosion.village contradictions do continue and are expressed in some. agricultural laborers are struggling for higher wages. Dalits (Scheduled Caste members ² exuntouchables) do continue to confront suppression and atrocities from higher-caste village elites. e.caste sharecroppers). . Nevertheless.The form this peasant movement has taken has been primarily that of an "all-peasant" movement whose enemies are primarily (though not entirely) outside the village.000 arrested in a railroad and rasta-roko or road-blocking campaign in December-January). instead it has been the peasant movement. Intra. hundreds of thousands of people. In the last year.

but also every one of us looks up to agriculture for our sustenance too´ . Not only the economy. with almost the entire economy being sustained by agriculture. Farmers becoming aware of their rights and consequently reduction in their exploitation. ³ Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian Economy´said Mahatma Gandhi five decades ago. which is the mainstay of the villages. the situation is still the same.Conclusion/Outcomes of Farmers· Movement: Farmers become more involved in market production and investment. Even today. as we enter the new millennium. Represent the united interest of all categories of farmers that has taken the shape of the single biggest mass movement in India today.

P.S.M.Singh Degree College Bandra (E) .P.

Index Who Are Farmer/Peasents ? What is a movement ? Introduction: PEASENT MOVEMENT IN MAHARASHTRA: 1980-Farmer Movement In Maharashtra The Shetkari Sangathana Major Demand & outcomes: Achievements: Achievements: Shortcomings: CURRENT CHALLENGES TO FARMERS: The "New Peasant Movement" in India: Conclusion/ Outcomes of Farmers¶ Movement: .

. Suggestions are welcome for improvement from the teachers. I hope this assignment will help everyone to study the topic better. my friends and well wishers.Preface It gives an immense pleasure to present this assignment for the course of Advertising at TYBMM level of the subject ³Contemporary Issues´ on the topic ³PEASENT MOVEMENTS IN MAHARASHTRA´. Aatish Singh and all others for giving me an opportunity to make assignment on this particular topic. I would like to thank my Prof. This topic has been discussed in detail and has covered all the possible topics under it.

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