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Quantum Dots

Martin Eriksson Pauline Rippert Damien Salomon 861113 861008 850620

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Friday, November 7th, 2008

Introduction

Quantum dots are semiconductors whose excitons are confined in all three dimensions of space. Quantum dots have properties combined between

Those of bulk semiconductors Those of atoms

Different methods to create quantum dots. Multiple applications.

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Fabrication of Quantum Dots 3.Outline 1. Quantum Confinement and Quantum Dots 2. Quantum Dot Applications 3 .

A. Saleh. B. Fundamentals of Photonics.1-29. 16.E. Quantum Confinement and Quantum Dots Bulk Semiconductors Electrons in conduction band (and holes in the valence band) are free to move in all three dimensions of space.1-10 and 16.C. 4 .1. fig. Teich. M.

B. Quantum Confinement and Quantum Dots Thin Film Semiconductors Electrons in conduction band (and holes in the valence band) are free to move in two dimensions.1.A. Teich. 13. 5 .C. Potential well created due to a larger bandgap of the semiconductors on either side of the thin film. fig.E.1-29.1-11 and 16. Thinner films lead to higher energy levels. Fundamentals of Photonics. Saleh. Confined in one dimension by a potential well. M.

16. 6 . Quantum wire acts as a potential well. fig.C.1-29. Quantum Confinement and Quantum Dots Quantum Wire Thin semiconductor wire surrounded by a material with a larger bandgap. Teich. Saleh.A. Surrounding material confines electrons and holes in two dimensions (carriers can only move in one dimension) due to its larger bandgap. B.E. M.1. Fundamentals of Photonics.

Like bulk semiconductor. M. Saleh. Discrete energy levels (artificial atom). Teich. A quantum dot has a larger bandgap. electrons tend to make transitions near the edges of the bandgap in quantum dots. fig. Fundamentals of Photonics.C. B. 7 . Quantum Confinement and Quantum Dots Quantum Dot Electrons and holes are confined in all three dimensions of space by a surrounding material with a larger bandgap.A.E.1-29. 16.1.

pyramids.) 8 . Different shapes (cubes.1. etc. Quantum Confinement and Quantum Dots Quantum Dot Very small semiconductor particles with a size comparable to the Bohr radius of the excitons (separation of electron and hole). Typical dimensions: 1 ± 10 nm Can be as large as several m. spheres.

´ Evident Technologies. and also the shape. Figures are from ³Quantum Dots Explained. 2008. Higher band gap energy. of the quantum dot.1. 9 . Quantum Confinement and Quantum Dots Discrete Energy Levels The energy levels depend on the size. Smaller quantum dot: Higher energy required to confine excitons to a smaller volume. Energy levels increase in energy and spread out more.

C. M. 10 . Fundamentals of Photonics.E.A.1-12.1.5 nm dots: violet B. Teich. Saleh. 13. fig. Quantum Confinement and Quantum Dots CdSe Quantum Dot 5 nm dots: red 1.

Fabrication of Quantum Dots How to Make Quantum Dots There are three main ways to confine excitons in semiconductors: Lithography Colloidal synthesis Epitaxy: Patterned Growth SelfSelf-Organized Growth 11 .2.

Fabrication of Quantum Dots Lithography Quantum wells are covered with a polymer mask and exposed to an electron or ion beam. P.2. contamination. Wojs. 2. Resulting quantum dot etched in GaAs/AlGaAs superlattice.2. Hawrylak. Pillars are etched into the entire surface. defect formation. L. low density. A. Quantum dots fig. Disadvantages: slow. Jacak. Multiple layers are applied this way to build up the properties and size wanted. The surface is covered with a thin layer of metal. then cleaned and only the exposed areas keep the metal layer. 12 .

Typically group II-VI materials (e. CdS. Taking a silicate glass with 1% semiconducting phase (CdS. Fabrication of Quantum Dots Colloidal Synthesis Immersion of semiconductor microcrystals in glass dielectric matrices. Formation of microcrystals of nearly equal size. 13 . or CuBr).2.g. CuCl. Heating for several hours at high temperature. CdSe) IISize variations (³size dispersion´). CdSe.

Quantum dots fig 2.2. Growth is restricted by coating it with a masking compound (SiO2) and etching that mask with the shape of the required crystal cell wall shape. A. Hawrylak. L. P. 14 . Jacak. Fabrication of Quantum Dots Epitaxy: Patterned Growth Semiconducting compounds with a smaller bandgap (GaAs) are grown on the surface of a compoundwith a larger bandgap (AlGaAs). Wojs.7. Disadvantage: density of quantum dots limited by mask pattern.

Disadvantages: size and shape fluctuations. A. Wojs. Jacak. Fabrication of Quantum Dots Epitaxy: Self-Organized Growth SelfUses a large difference in the lattice constants of the substrate and the crystallizing material. Hawrylak.1. ordering. The breakdown results in randomly distributed islets of regular shape and size. Quantum dots fig 8. Schematic drawing of lens-shaped selforganized quantum dot. P. When the crystallized layer is thicker than the critical thickness. 15 . there is a strong strain on the layers. L.2.

Quantum Dot Applications Applications Photovoltaic devices: solar cells Biology : biosensors. imaging Light emitting diodes: LEDs Quantum computation Flat-panel displays Memory elements Photodetectors Lasers 16 .3.

Electrons concentrate on one side of the cell and holes on the other side. 17 . Sunlight excites electrons and creates electron-hole pairs. Quantum Dot Applications Solar Cells Photovoltaic effect: p-n junction. Connecting the 2 sides creates electricity.3.

3. 18 Second generation: Third generation: . expensive. Quantum Dot Applications Different Generations of Solar Cells First generation: Single crystal silicon wafer. Advantages: less expensive. Disadvantages: efficiency lower compared with silicon solar cells. Thin-film technology. Advantages: high carrier mobility. Disadvantages: most of photon energy is wasted as heat. Enhance electrical performances of the second generation while maintaining low production costs. Nanocrystal solar cells.

3. Quantum Dot Applications Solar Cells Efficiency What limits the efficiency: Photons with lower energy than the band gap are not absorbed. . Photons with greater energy than the band gap are absorbed but 19 the excess energy is lost as heat.

The maximum theoretical efficiency of the solar cell is as high as 63. 20 . Quantum Dot Applications How Can Quantum Dots Improve the Efficiency? The quantum dot band gap is tunable and can be used to create intermediate bandgaps.2% with this method.3.

21 .3. Quantum Dot Applications How Can Quantum Dots Improve the Efficiency? Quantum dots can generate multiple exciton (electronhole pairs) after collision with one photon.

Energy levels depend on the size of the dot. Lithography Colloidal synthesis Epitaxy Different methods for fabricating quantum dots.Conclusion Quantum dot: Semiconductor particle with a size in the order of the Bohr radius of the excitons. Multiple applications. 22 .

³Increasing the Efficiency of Ideal Solar Cells by Photon Induced Transitions at Intermediate Levels. P.´ Chemical Physics Letters 457 (2008) 3±11. Florida. Hawrylak. Jacak. Springer1998. Springer-Verlag. ³Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum Nozik. dots.´ Evident Technologies. June 1997. Antonio Luque and Antonio Mart . 3± 23 .C. Wojs. B.References L. Berlin. 78.evidenttech. Levels. Letters.com/quantum-dots<http://www. John Wiley & Sons. <http://www. Orlando. Quantum dots.´ Phy.Y. 2nd ed. Orlando. New Jersey. 2007. M.com/quantum-dots-explained. June Arthur J.E. 26. dots. Inc. Teich. M. ³Quantum Dots Explained. dots.A.evidenttech. Photovoltaics Specialist Conference. Saleh. Levy et al. 2008. Fundamentals of Photonics. Nozik. Photonics. 26. Rev.´ Technologies. ³Quantum dot intermediate band solar cell material systems with negligible valence band offsets. Explained. January 2005. Hoboken.html>. A.´ Presented at the 31st IEEE offsets.

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