Alchemy 2005 : How to Transmutate Silver or Lead Metal into Created 10KT Gold Coins ?

by Brother Daniel Izzo " Gold can be manufactured from other elements by several methods. The penultimate means of transmutation is the Philosophers' Stone ( maybe a radioactive stone ? lead + neutron bombardment into gold ) of any degree, but that is another matter altogether. The transmutation of silver to gold is perhaps the easiest -- or least difficult -- of such experiments. If nothing else, the attempt may serve to enlighten aspiring souffleurs " ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Facts on Lead Metal and its Transmutation into Gold (1) Lead metal has 82 protons & electrons and contains Gold in it already. Lead is the ONLY METAL that can be the STANDARD WEIGHT as 10kt Gold ( that is semi safe to use ) (2) Lead metal will transmutate into Gold when bombarded with a source of neutrons. (3) It is alleged that Lead naturally transmutes into Gold over millions of years within a vein of quartz chrystals and the piezo electric effect interaction, like coal into diamonds. (4) Certain compounds when added to lead metal , will turn lead into golden color, see " yellow lead " " naples yellow " ( a gold color ) and see the golden lead chrystal, " Vanadinite ." (5) Being the only metal suitable as the Standard Weight as 10kt gold, lead can be easily transmuted into $100 US Created Gold Coins for the US Mint and its $100 Created Gold certificates and if a layer of real 10kt gold covers the created gold coin, it will be safe for people to handle. (6) Lead is decayed uranium. needs a Modern Alchemist please let me know,

" Therefore buy of me gold refined in the fire " God rev 3:18 Suffering.

Because Money Ends

May God Bless You Yours Faithfully Rev Daniel Izzo BA/ MS science researcher inventor 512 Onondaga Ave Syracuse, NY 13207 1-315-472-5088 -------------------------------------------------------------CITED REFERENCES: ABSTRACT BELOW --------------------------------------------------------------Return to Home

Refining Assaying (Au), chemical element, a dense, lustrous, yellow precious metal of Group Ib, Period 6, of the periodic table. Gold has several qualities that have made it exceptionally valuable throughout history. It is attractive in color and brightness, durable to the point of virtual indestructibility, highly malleable, and usually found in nature in a comparatively pure form. The history of gold is unequaled by that of any other metal because of its value in the minds of men from earliest times. Gold is one of the heaviest of all metals. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It is also soft and the most malleable and ductile of metals; an ounce (28 g) can be beaten out to 187 square feet (about 17 square m) in extremely thin sheets called gold leaf. Note that mining industry standards refer to troy ounces (1 troy ounce = 31.12035g). Because gold is visually pleasing and workable and does not tarnish or corrode, it was

one of the first metals to attract human attention. Examples of elaborate gold workmanship, many in nearly perfect condition, survive from ancient Egyptian, Minoan, Assyrian, and Etruscan artisans, and gold has continued to be a highly favored material out of which to craft jewelry and other decorative objects. Owing to its unique qualities, gold has been the one material that is universally accepted in exchange for goods and services. In the form of coins or bullion, gold has occasionally played a major role as a high-denomination currency, although silver has generally been the standard medium of payments in the world's trading systems. Gold began to serve as backing for paper-currency systems when they became widespread in the 19th century, and from the 1870s until World War I the gold standard was the basis for the world's currencies. Although gold's official role in the international monetary system had come to an end by the 1970s, the metal remains a highly regarded reserve asset, and approximately 45 percent of all the world's gold is held by governments and central banks for this purpose. Gold is still accepted by all nations as a medium of international payment. Gold is widespread in low concentrations in all igneous rocks. Its abundance in the Earth's crust is estimated at about 0.005 parts per million. It occurs mostly in the native state, remaining chemically uncombined except with tellurium, selenium, and possibly bismuth. The element's only naturally occurring isotope is gold-197. Gold often occurs in association with copper and lead deposits, and, though the quantity present is often extremely small, it is readily recovered as a byproduct in the refining of those base metals. Large masses of gold-bearing rock rich enough to be called ores are unusual. Two types of deposits containing significant amounts of gold are known: hydrothermal veins, where it is associated with quartz and pyrite (fool's gold); and placer deposits, both consolidated and unconsolidated, that are derived from the weathering of goldbearing rocks. The origin of enriched veins is not fully known, but it is believed that the gold was carried up from great depths with other minerals, at least in partial solid solution, and later precipitated. The gold in rocks usually occurs as invisible disseminated grains, more rarely as flakes large enough to be seen, and even more rarely as masses or veinlets. Crystals about 2.5 cm (1 inch) or more across have been found in California. Masses, some on the order of 90 kg (200 pounds), have been reported from Australia. Alluvial deposits of gold found in or along streams were the principal sources of the metal for ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Other deposits were found in Lydia (now in Turkey) and the lands of the Aegean and in Persia (now Iran), India, China, and other lands. During the Middle Ages the chief sources of gold in Europe were the mines of Saxony and Austria. The era of gold production that followed the Spanish discovery of the Americas in the 1490s was probably the greatest the world had witnessed to that time. The exploitation of mines by slave labor and the looting of Indian palaces, temples,

and graves in Central and South America resulted in an unprecedented influx of gold that literally unbalanced the economic structure of Europe. From Christopher Columbus' discovery of the New World in 1492 to 1600, more than 225,000 kg (8,000,000 ounces) of gold, or 35 percent of world production, came from South America. The New World's mines--especially those in Colombia--continued into the 17th and 18th centuries to account for 61 and 80 percent, respectively, of world production; 1,350,000 kg (48,000,000 ounces) were mined in the 18th century. Because pure gold is too soft to resist prolonged handling, it is usually alloyed with other metals to increase its hardness for use in jewelry, goldware, or coinage. Most gold used in jewelry is alloyed with silver, copper, and a little zinc to produce various shades of yellow gold or with nickel, copper, and zinc to produce white gold. The color of these gold alloys goes from yellow to white as the proportion of silver in them increases; more than 70 percent silver results in alloys that are white. Alloys of gold with silver or copper are used to make gold coins and goldware, and alloys with platinum or palladium are also used in jewelry. The content of gold alloys is expressed in 24ths, called karats; a 12-karat gold alloy is 50 percent gold, and 24-karat gold is pure. Because of its high electrical conductivity (71 percent that of copper) and inertness, the largest industrial use of gold is in the electric and electronics industry for plating contacts, terminals, printed circuits, and semiconductor systems. Thin films of gold that reflect up to 98 percent of incident infrared radiation have been employed on satellites to control temperature and on space-suit visors to afford protection. Used in a similar way on the windows of large office buildings, gold reduces the air-conditioning requirement and adds to the beauty. Gold has also long been used for fillings and other repairs to teeth. The characteristic oxidation states of gold are +1 (aurous compounds) and +3 (auric compounds). Gold is more easily displaced from solution by reduction than any other metal; even platinum will reduce Au3+ ions to metallic gold. Among the relatively few gold compounds of practical importance are gold(I) chloride, AuCl; gold(III) chloride, or gold trichloride, AuCl3; and chlorauric acid, HAuCl4. All three are involved in the electrolytic refining of gold. Potassium cyanoaurate, K[Au(CN)2], is the basis for most gold-plating baths (the solution employed when gold is plated). The soluble salt sodium aurichloride, NaAuCl42H2O, is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Several organic compounds of gold have industrial applications. For example, gold mercaptides, which are obtained from sulfurized terpenes, are dissolved in certain organic solutions and used for decorating china and glass articles. atomic number 79 atomic weight 196.967 melting point 1,063º C (1,945º F) boiling point 2,966º C (5,371º F) specific gravity 19.3 (20º C) valence 1, 3 electronic config. 28-18-32-18-1

Refining Gold extracted by amalgamation or cyanidation contains a variety of impurities, including zinc, copper, silver, and iron. Two methods are commonly employed for purification: the Miller process and the Wohlwill process. The Miller process is based on the fact that virtually all the impurities present in gold combine with gaseous chlorine more readily than gold does at temperatures equal to or greater than the melting point of gold. The impure gold is therefore melted and gaseous chlorine is blown into the resulting liquid. The impurities form chloride compounds that separate into a layer on the surface of the molten gold. The Miller process is rapid and simple, but it produces gold of only about 99.5 percent purity. The Wohlwill process increases purity to about 99.99 percent by electrolysis. In this process, a casting of impure gold is lowered into an electrolyte solution of hydrochloric acid and gold chloride. Under the influence of an electric current, the casting functions as a positively charged electrode, or anode. The anode dissolves, and the impurities either pass into solution or report to the bottom of the electrorefining tank as an insoluble slime. The gold migrates under the influence of the electric field to a negatively charged electrode called the cathode, where it is restored to a highly pure metallic state. Although the Wohlwill process produces gold of high purity, it requires the producer to keep on hand a substantial inventory of gold (mainly for the electrolyte), and this is very costly. Processes based on direct chemical purification and recovery from solution as elemental gold can greatly speed gold processing and virtually eliminate expensive inprocess inventories. Assaying Fire assay is considered the most reliable method for accurately determining the content of gold, silver, and platinum-group metals (except osmium and ruthenium) in ores or concentrates. This process involves melting a gold-bearing sample in a clay crucible with a mixture of fluxes (such as silica and borax), lead oxide (called litharge), and a reducing agent (frequently flour). The fluxes lower the melting point of the oxidic materials, allowing them to fuse, and the molten litharge is reduced by the flour to extremely fine drops of lead dispersed throughout the charge. The drops of lead dissolve the gold, silver, and platinum-group metals, then coalesce and gradually descend through the sample to form a metallic layer at the bottom of the crucible. After cooling, the lead "button" is separated from the slag layer and heated under oxidizing conditions to oxidize and eliminate the lead. The shiny metallic bead that is left contains the precious metals. The bead is boiled in nitric acid to dissolve the silver (a process called parting), and the gold residue is weighed. If platinum metals are present, they will alter

the appearance of the bead, and their concentration can sometimes be determined by use of an arc spectrograph. In the jewelry industry, gold content is specified by karat. Pure gold is designated 24 karats; therefore, each karat is equal to 4.167 percent gold content, so that, for example, 18 karats equals 18 4.167, or 75 percent gold. "Fineness" refers to parts per thousand of gold in an alloy; e.g., three-nines fine would correspond to gold of 99.9 percent purity.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Return to Home --------------------------------------------------------------GOLDEN YELLOW LEAD PAINT / nae pulls yel • low / Naples yellow

1. Overview

2. History of use

3. Making the pigment

4. Technical details

Bleiantimonat jaune d'antimoine giallo di Napoli Chemical name: Lead(II)-antimonate A painted swatch of Naples yellow: Source of Naples yellow: Natural mineral: bindheimite identical with the mineral bindheimite (at Mineralogy Database) Other yellows (intro) .Brief description of Naples yellow: One of the oldest synthetic pigments with very good hiding power and good chemical stability.Indian yellow lead tin yellow .chrome yellow .Lemon yellow .cadmium yellow .Naples yellow .Orpiment .Yellow ochre ------------------------------------------------------------- .. Names for Naples yellow: Pronounciation: nae pulls yel • low Alternative names: Lead antimonate yellow Non-English names: German French Italian Neapelgelb.Cobalt yellow .Orpiment .

less than 1. Arizona. Betts Show Locs (554) Wulfenite Gallery Formula: PbMoO 4 System: Tetragonal Colour: Typically orange-yellow. Trigo Mts. Lustre: Sub-Vitreous.Resinous Hardness: 2½ .and wolframates [WO4]2- ..3 Name: Named after Austrian mineralogist.0 cm in size. usually on the small side . Classification of Wulfenite IMA status: Approved Validity of Species: A valid mineral species Strunz ID: 6/G. . Chromates. Molybdates G : Molybdates [MoO4]2. Silver District. La Paz Co. F. Wulfen (1728-1805) Typically found as thin tabular crystals with a bright orange-red to yellow-orange color.Main Menu Log In Message Board Event List Mindat Mall Register Search Pages Chatroom Links Statistics Wulfenite Red Cloud Mine.. USA © 2003 John H..01-30 6 : Sulphates. X.

mindat.435.815 g/cm3 Crystallography of Wulfenite Crystal System: Tetragonal Class (H-M): 4/m . X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data for Wulfenite X-Ray Data: 4. Streak: White Hardness (Mohs') 2½ . common but rarely seen due to the typical {001} morphology. vicinal.html Please feel free to link to this page.3. Austria Year of Discovery: 1845 Physical Properties of Wulfenite Lustre: Sub-Vitreous. indistinct on {001}. and even black.72(20) .3.01 : Scheelite . c = 12. pyramid truncating or replacing {001}. Type Occurrence of Wulfenite Type Locality: Sankt Joannis von Nepomuceni mine. may have a flat.03(20) 2.3 mindat. brown.961(10) 3.Sub-Conchoidal Density (measured): 6. Lower Austria.228 Morphology: Commonly thin tabular.7 g/cm3 Density (calculated): 6.3 Hardness Data: Measured Tenacity: Brittle Cleavage: Distinct/Good Distinct on {011}. {001}. Annaberg. (Powellite . Fracture: Irregular/Uneven.org URL: http://www.Resinous Diapheny: Translucent Colour: Typically orange-yellow.25(10) 3.7 . more rarely pseudo-octahedral. reddish-orange.11 Ratio: a:c = 1 : 2.Raspite) Dana ID: 48.: 27. {013}. square. Twinning: Twins on [001]. and very rarely either cubic or short prismatic pyramidal. rarely grey.org/min-4322.1.Wulfenite series.Dipyramidal Space Group: I41/a Cell Parameters: a = 5.1 Hey's CIM Ref. yellow.

098 Surface Relief: Very High Relationship of Wulfenite to other Species Associates: Mimetite Calcite Hemimorphite Cerussite Duftite Quartz Barite Psilomelane Pyromorphite Aragonite Related Minerals (Strunz Grouping): 6/G.2.02(20) 1.01-50 Raspite PbWO 4 .01-10 Powellite CaMoO 4 6/G.353 (average) Maximum Birefriengence: d=0.01-20 Scheelite CaWO 4 6/G.304 n=2.402 ne=2.653(20) Optical Data of Wulfenite Type: Uniaxial (-) RI values n?=2.921(10) 1.01-40 Stolzite PbWO 4 6/G.787(10) 1.

W. O.01-60 Koechlinite Bi 2 MoO 6 6/G. Pb Common Impurities: W.Cr.Ti Other Names for Wulfenite Synonyms: Carinthit Carinthita Carinthite Gelbbleierz Lead molybdate Melinose Molybdän Bleispath Molybdänbleierz Molybdänbleirz Wulfenit Wulfenita Yellow Lead Ore Varieties: Calcian Wulfenite Chillagite Chromian Wulfenite .6/G.V.As.01-70 Russellite Bi 2 WO 6 Chemical Properties of Wulfenite Formula: PbMoO 4 Elements: Mo.Ca.

mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Further information contact the webmaster. et.H2Sb2O5 lipcsi sárga.References for Wulfenite Dana's New Mineralogy. citromsárga Cologne yellow. párizsi sárga. 999. királysárga. horganysárga zink-kromát zinc chromate primer zinc chromate ZnCrO3 antimonokker. Site Map. 8th Edition (1997) by Gaines. cervantite (Sb2O)4. szenarmonit antimony ochre. Site hosted & developed by Mysterious Ways (More websites) Table of yellow pigments Comparison of yellow pigments Magyar English név vegyület name compound empirical formula brillantsárga brillinant yellow anilinsárga p-amino-benzol aniline yellow p-amino-benzol alizarinsárga trioxi-benzofenon alizarin yellow trioxi-benzophenone kénsárga brimstone yellow cinksárga. p..al. chromium yellow krómokker chrome ochre antimonsárga bázisos ólomantimonát antimony yellow basic lead-antimonate . Locality. Internet Links for Wulfenite Search Engines: Look for Wulfenite on Google Look for Wulfenite images on Google Mineral Databases: Look for Wulfenite on Webmineral Look for Wulfenite on Athena Mineralogy Mineral Dealers: Purchase text-link adverts with pay-per-click online here very soon! Others: Mining & Geology Jobs Minerals: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z or find: Localities: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z or find: Photos: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Copyright © Jolyon Ralph 1993-2003.

nH2O indiai sárga euxantsav magnéziumsója indian yellow.PbO indiai sárga kálium-kobalt-nitrit cobalt yellow potassium-cobalt-nitrite K3[Co(NO2)6]. tuzvasérc kova. euxenit magnesium salt of the euxanthic acid MgC19H16O11.chromate BaCrO4 berberin. aluminiumszilikát yellow ochre.PbO narancsos krómsárga ólomoxid-kromát chrome yellow-orange lead(II)-chromate-oxide PbCrO4. huangbo [C20H18NO4]+ kadmiumsárga kadmium-szulfid cadmium yellow.. karotenoid dikarboxilsav saffron caroteoid-dicarboxylic acid C20H24O4 stronciumsárga stroncium-kromát strontium yellow strontium-chromate SrCrO4 aranyokker. C29H36O6 kalcium kromát kalcium-kromát yellow ultramarine calcium-chromate CaCrO4 ón-ólom sárga ólom-sztannát lead tin yellow lead(II)-stannate PbSnO4 ón-ólom sárga sziliciumos ólom-sztannát lead tin yellow silicon substituted lead(II)stannate PbSn.Al2(SiO3)3 cinksárga cink-kromát zinc yellow zinc-chromate ZnCrO4 kvercitron quercitron (Quercus tinctoria) --------------------------------Vanadinite Mineral Data Pronunciation Guide Worldwide Minerals for the Discerning Collector Offering Specimens from Thumbnail to Museum Size . citromsárga.tropeolin gold yellow flavantrén indanthrene yellow indigósárga indigo yellow flaviánsav naphtol yellow urániumsárga uranium yellow baritsárga. agyag.SixO3 Mars sárga szintetikus vas-hidroxid Mars yellow synthetic iron(III)hydroxide Fe(OH)3 nápolyi sárga ólom-antimonát Naples yellow lead(II)-antimonate Pb2Sb2O7 ólomglét ólom-oxid massicot orthothrombic lead(II)-oxide PbO auripigment arzén-szulfid orpiment arsenic(III)-sulfide As4S3 pararealgár arzén-monoszulfid pararealgar arsenic(II)-monosulfide As3S3 sáfrány crocetin.5H2O gamboge gamboge-sav gamboge gamboge acids C38H44O8. silica Fe2O3. greenockite cadmium-sulfide CdS krómsárga ólom-kromát chrome yellow lead(II)-chromate(IV) PbCrO4 krómsárga ólomoxid-kromát chrome yellow deep lead(II)-chromate-oxide PbCrO4.H2O. földsárga. goethite clay. baryta yellow. sárga ultramarin bárium-kromát barium yellow. jamaicin berberine. lemon chrome barium.

Photo by Francesc Fabre / Fabre Minerals Vanadinite Crystallography Axial Ratios: a:c = 1:0.Stereo I .72 Den(Calc)= 6. V = 678. 3 x 2. Midelt. Mibladen.343.org Location Data.Manipulate Crystal Drag2 .Start-Stop Rotation F .416. 3.5 cm. Synonym: Endlichite(As) ICSD 203074 PDF 43-1461 Vanadinite Image Images: Vanadinite.Cycle Display Modes Drag1 .00 % = TOTAL OXIDE Empirical Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl IMA Status: Valid Species (Pre-IMA) Locality: Link to MinDat.50 % Cl . c = 7.Fit to Screen M .988(1).79 % V 19.26 % V2O5 Lead 73.068(0.384(0.6). 3.27 gm Vanadium 10.Start-Stop Rotation RMB .50 % Cl 2.Resize Keyboard S .85).Menu Help on Above Forms: [ 0 1 0] [ 0 0 1] .15 % Pb 78.Indicies <space> .% Cl -0.General Vanadinite Information Chemical Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl Composition: Molecular Weight = 1.56 % -O=Cl2 Oxygen 13. Name Origin: Named for its vanadium content.93 Crystal System: Hexagonal .DipyramidalH-M Symbol (6/m) Space Group: P 63/m X Ray Diffraction: By Intensity(I/Io): 2. Morocco. Z = 2.80 % PbO Chlorine 2.331.56 % O ______ ______ 100.71077 Cell Dimensions: a = 10.00 % 100. Forms: Mouse Dbl Clk .

Gladstone-Dale: CI meas= -0.0660.8.Apatite . cations of medium and big size: Mg. Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen (41.35.39-20 Chlorapatite Ca5(PO4)3Cl P 63/m 6/m .8 .1 Pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl P 63/m 6/m 41. Brown red.8)where (A)5 (XO4)3 Zq (41. Physical Properties of Vanadinite Cleavage: None Color: Brown. O.94 Diaphaniety: Subtranslucent to opaque Fracture: Brittle .3 (41)Anhydrous Phosphates. OH. etc. and Ca. Vanadinite Classification Dana Class: 41.5-4 . Nodular .Warning: this large pop-up is very compute intensive and may not work well with some computers.Copper Penny-Fluorite Luminescence: None.KPDmeas= 0.7.8.3 Vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl P 63/m 6/m Strunz Class: VII/B.KC= 0.Phosphates. Brownish yellow.8. Density: 6. Yellow. Zn. Habits: Globular .Tuberose forms having irregular prot uberances over the surface. Luster: Adamantine Streak: brownish yellow Optical Properties of Vanadinite Dichroism (e): none.4.Spherical. Average = 6.4)Dana Group 41.416. Cu.g. Colorless. tourmaline).39-10 Fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F P 63/m 6/m VII/B.1996.1. wavellite). w=2.8.39-170 VII . Na. e=2.4. Ba.4.8.1782 Optical Data: Uniaxial (-).Very brittle fracture producing small. K.Waterfree phosphates with unfamiliar anions F. rounded forms (e.199.39 . Prismatic Crystals Shaped like Slender Prisms (e. Dichroism (w): none.117 (Poor) .. Arsenates and Vanadates VII/B . or nearly so. conchoidal fragments..Pyromorphite group VII/B.12 (Poor) . Hardness: 3.Conchoidal .2 Mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl P 63/m 6/m 41. Cl.g. bire=0. Pb VII/B.where the CI = (1-KPDcalc/KC) KPDcalc= 0.where the CI = (1-KPDmeas/KC) CI calc= -0.4.

EUROmin Project 5 .39-90 Fermorite (Ca.Sr)5(AsO4.Applied Mineralogy 2 -Athena 3 .com Mineral Locations 4 .Pb)5(AsO4.39-115 Belovite-(La)! (Sr.P 63 Hex VII/B.39-165 Clinomimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl P 21/b 2/m VII/B.39-160 Mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl P 63/m 6/m VII/B.PO4)3Cl P 63/m.COM] [Netscape] [YAHOO] Visit our Advertisers for Vanadinite : John Betts Fine Minerals Dakota Matrix Minerals Dale Minerals International Edwards Minerals Excalibur Mineral Company Exceptional Minerals Fabre Minerals Mineral of the Month Club Trinity Mineral Co.39-80 Johnbaumite Ca5(AsO4)3(OH) P 63/m.CO3)3F P 63/m 6/m VII/B. PROP.OH) P 3 3 VII/B.Sr.Rare Minerals Dan Weinrich Fine Minerals Wright's Rock Shop .(Mason68) See Also: Links to other databases for Vanadinite : 1 .CO3)3(OH) P 63/m 6/m VII/B..39-40 Carbonate-hydroxylapatite Ca5(PO4.Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom 11 -The Mineral Gallery 12 .39-130 Morelandite (Ba.Na.Ca)5(PO4)3(F.P)O4]3Cl P 63/m 6/m VII/B.39-140 Hedyphane Ca2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl P 63/m 6/m VII/B.39-170 Vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl P 63/m 6/m Other Vanadinite Information References: NAME( Duda&Rejl90) PHYS.WWW-MINCRYST 13 -theimage 14 -École des Mines de Paris Search for Vanadinite using: [ALTAVISTA] [AOL] [All-The-Web] [GO.39-50 Carbonate-fluorapatite Ca5(PO4.COM] [GOOGLE] [Ixquick] [LookSmart] [MAMMA] [MSN.Crocoite.39-120 Alforsite Ba5(PO4)3Cl P 63/m 6/m VII/B.VII/B.OH) P 63/m 6/m VII/B.Ca)5(PO4)3(F.Ce.39-100 Strontium-apatite (Sr. .39-150 Pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl P 63/m 6/m VII/B.(Enc.39-60 Svabite Ca5(AsO4)3F P 63/m 6/m VII/B.Ca)5(PO4)3(OH) P 3 3 VII/B.Na)5(PO4)3F P 63 6 VII/B.P 63 Hex VII/B.Glendale Community College 6 -Google Images 7 -MinDAT 8 -MinMax(Deutsch) 9 -MinMax(English) 10 .Ce.PO4)3(OH) P 63/m 6/m VII/B.La. of Minerals.1990) OPTIC PROP.39-30 Hydroxylapatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH) P 63/m 6/m VII/B.39-95 Fluorcaphite! (Ca.2nd ed.Ce.Ca.39-70 Turneaureite Ca5[(As.39-110 Belovite-(Ce)* (Sr.

8.3 Strunz No: VII/B. nice luster and one-of-a-kind crystal habits attract the attention of many collectors around the world. Its strong colors. This demonstrates the symmetry of just 4. There are conflicting results of various symmetry tests and this usually does not happen. Wulfenite is an enigma in terms of its symmetry.39-170 Locality: Notes: -------------------------------------------------------------GOLDEN YELLOW LEAD METAL/MINERAL CRYSTAL Vanadinite Composition: Pb5(VO4)3Cl -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Minerals | By_Name | By_Class | By_Groupings | Search | Properties | Sulfates GOLDEN YELLOW LEAD METAL/MINERAL CRYSTAL THE MINERAL WULFENITE Chemistry: PbMoO4. . Specimens Wulfenite is a nice collection type mineral and is popular as such.Ask about Vanadinite here : Mindat. It is either a symmetry of 4 or 4/m. The difference is the disputed existence of a mirror plane perpendicular to the four fold axis.4. If the mirror exists. Lead Molybdate Class: Sulfates Uses: A minor ore of molybdenum and as mineral specimens. then the crystals should have a top that is a mirror image of its bottom. Although most crystals don't show it clearly. the bottom pyramidal faces slant at a different angle from the top pyramidal faces.org's Discussion Groups Rockhounds Discussion Group on Yahoo Groups Ask-A-Mineralogist from the Mineralogical Society of America Print or Cut-and-Paste your Vanadinite Specimen Label here : Vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl Dana No: 41.

USA. limonite. Tsumeb. Nelson Part II ~ Chapter 1 . Hardness is 3. yellow. Specific Gravity is approximately 6. other tests of its symmetry show a 4/m symmetry. orange.28-2. silver and white. Best Field Indicators are crystal habit. 4/m or 4 Crystal Habits include very thin square or octahedral pinacoidal plates with pyramidal faces truncating just the edges of the crystal.1996 by Amethyst Galleries. Associated Minerals are mimetite. sometimes because of twinning. Fracture is conchoidal.However. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Minerals | By_Name | By_Class | By_Groupings | Search | Properties | Sulfates Copyright © 1995. Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.40 (very high. At times the pyramids become prominant and psuedo-dipyramidal crystal habits are seen. smithsonite. Also encrusting and cavernous aggregates due to intergrowth of crystal plates.8 (very heavy for translucent minerals) Streak is white. density and luster. Prismatic faces are also seen and can make psuedo-cubic crystals. vanadinite and galena.com Table of Contents ~ Home ~ Catalog ~ Links ~ Order -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Adept Alchemy by Robert A. color. Cleavage is perfect in one direction. Notable Occurances include Morocco. but typical of lead minerals). --------------------------------------------------------------rexresearch. Other Characteristics: index of refraction is 2. Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico. This symmetrical oddity only adds to wulfenite's interest among serious collectors. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Color is red. Crystal System is tetragonal. Nambia. Luster is vitreous. Inc.

an old French alchemical label for deluded fools who pump their bellows in vain) to wise up. and refining. but rather "hyper-chemistry" or "archymy". Tiffereau (2) R. etc. Mayhap so.of such experiments. there is every chance of success. followed by fluxing. Most of the 19th and 20th century experimenters in this genre used a variety of "wet" techniques (refluxing with nitric acid. (1) T.or least difficult -. and less dangerous. The penultimate means of transmutation is the Philosophers' Stone of any degree. the attempt may serve to enlighten aspiring souffleurs ("Puffers". granulation. Lea (8) References -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(1) Theodore Tiffereau ~ . Stephen Emmens used high-pressure hammering (500 tons/sq. Dr.). but I choose to include these factoids in this collection. Employing the methods developed by Francois Jollivet-Castelot. and do something more worthwhile. Emmens (7) C. in.) of silver at low temperature. profitable. The transmutation of silver to gold is perhaps the easiest -. but that is another matter altogether. or "dry" transmutations with alloys in the furnace. more hammering. Waite (4) Fulcanelli (5) F. get a life.Transmutations of Silver -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Gold can be manufactured from other elements by several methods. It has been argued by some purists that transmutations such as these are not alchemy at all. Hunter (3) A. however. If nothing else. albeit at great risk due to the use of arsenic. Jollivet-Castelot (6) S. treatment with "modified nitric acid".

Levol. 3) The silver was refluxed with concentrated nitric acid. pure nitric acid to the action of solar rays. While he claimed success in principle. Emmens also used Mexican silver in his work). 5) The acids were exposed to sunlight to "solarize" them. 7) Prolonged reaction time increased yields. and nitrogen protozide or deuteroxide. alumina and silica. and so did ozone. sometimes mixed with pure copper filings (Ag 9:1 Cu) and traces of zinc. over two days. accompanied with a very abundant deposit of intact filings agglomerated in a mass. . Tiffereau attempted many modifications of his techniques. Theodore Tiffereau submitted six memoirs to the French Academie des Sciences concerning transmutations of silver to gold. Tiffereau demonstrated his process at the French Mint in Paris before the assayer M. Tiffereau claimed that Mexican silver possesses peculiar qualities that lend to its augmentation as gold (Dr. Tiffereau complained that the French sun was not so effective as the Mexican.Between 1854-55. but the results were unsatisfactory.(25-27) Tiffereau conducted his experiments at considerable expense while supporting himself making daguerotypes in Mexico. Tiffereau attributed the production of gold in the earth to the action of the "microbe of gold". I added pure silver filings with pure copper filings in the proportions of the alloy of money (9:1). and claimed that certain experimental conditions influence the transmutation of silver to gold: 1) Pure silver filings were used. This was confirmed in the 1980s by the discovery that placer gold nuggets form around a nucleus of bacillus cereus. 4) Concentrated sulfuric acid was used at times. 2) Trace amounts of gold catalyze the reaction. He published a compilation of the papers ( Les Metaux sont des Corps Composes ) in 1855. The following experiment is typical of Tiffereau's general methods: "After having exposed. he made no capital gains. 6) Halides and sulfur in the presence of oxides of nitrogen improved the reaction. A lively reaction manifested. hyponitrous acid. iron.

"The disengagement of nitrous gas continued without interruption. During this time. R. . M. "Placing the matter again in pure nitric acid and boiling six hours. I raised the liquid just to ebullition. one is of more than passing interest.M. and again abandoned the liquid to rest five days. based on my actual experience." Carey Lea suggested that Tiffereau and other experimenters had merely prepared a goldcolored form of allotropic silver. it is then that I finally saw the disaggregated matter take the brilliance of natural gold. and to this end I have designed a plant to be erected in Philadelphia and am at this moment negotiating for $500. [The third test in this series] "presented an extraordinary phenomenon to be noted: the quantity of the alloy that I used experienced a transformation entirely to pure gold. Mr. "The matter obtained from the dessication is dry. but I know what I am doing and can afford to allow public sentiment to follow its own course. I realize that the public and most scientific men are adverse to the belief in the possibility of such an enterprise. I added a new quantity of pure concentrated nitric acid and boiled it anew.. of Philadelphia. dull. I saw the matter become clear green without ceasing to aggregate in small masses. gold may be manufactured at enormous profit. I then added a little water to the dissolution in which the product had precipitated. new vapors unceasingly disengaged. Hunter ~ In 1908. has written concerning 'synthetic gold' as follows: "I have so perfected the process that in my judgment. after which I evaporated it to dryness. I noted that the aggregate deposit was augmented sensibly in volume. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(2) R. and I left the liquid as is over twelve days.000 capital for its erection. blackish-green. which I maintained until the nitrous vapors ceased disengagement. Sir Henry Baskerville made mention of a contemporary claim to the production of artificial gold: "Among the many communications reaching the writer... Hunter. it did not offer an appearance of crystallization. "The five days having passed..

alternately. for it is yellowish."Enclosed with the letter was an affirmative affadavit. I have not made analyses of the samples. The Burning-Glass promptly brings on a decomposition of the salt. containing Nitric Acid. Supposing the experiment to last two or three entire hours. The Metal becomes disengaged very well. has to be avoided. Hunter promptly forwarded me samples of silver in which the gold is 'growing' and some 'grown-up' gold. said to have been produced by his secret process. so as to produce a milky fluid. But what is it? It cannot be silver. the interior parts undergoing no change: This difficulty. like that of Gold. evolving. since Nitric acid has no action on it. Chlorine. the effect will then be equal to a continuous midday sun of some 72 hours. and disengaging a metal on the other. It burnishes in an Agate Mortar. "The Chloride." ( 28) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(4) Fulcanelli ~ The renowned master Fulcanelli published this transmutation of silver in Les Demeures . place a glass Flask. Mr. the object being to cause the Chloride of Silver to form a minutely divided state. into the interior of which the brilliant convergent cone may pass. 2 inches in diameter. and the currents generated in the Flask by the Heat may so drift all the Chloride through the Light. diluted with its own volume of water: "Pour into the Nitric Acid. On request. 12 inches in diameter. small quantities of a Solution of Nitrate of Silver and of Muriatic acid. but its reflection is not like that of silver." (5) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(3) Arthur E. therefore. Waite ~ The eminent occultist Arthur E. if otherwise exposed to the Sun. merely blackens on the surface. on the one hand. Waite wrote A Collection of Alchymical Processes which includes a segment entitled "Silver Transmuted Into Gold By The Action Of Light": "In the focus of a Burning-Glass. "The Light must therefore have so transmuted the original silver as to enable it to exist in the presence of Nitric Acid.

When the emission of peroxide of azote has stopped and when the effervesence has quieted. one-third of its capacity in pure nitric acid. providing the instructions are carefully followed. Use distilled water to dilute this liquor. exactly like gold trichloride. Decant this silver into a powder and use it for your second dissolution. You will find a thin deposit in the form of black sand. it will give you a brilliant. "To increase with a new quantity this miniscule deposit. an elementary operation whose success we guarantee.Philosophales: "The simplest alchemic procedure consists in utilizing the effect of violent reactions --those of acids on the bases --. which is indicative of the property of saturation. then cautiously decant your clear solution into a beaker while it is still warm. Aqua regia will dissolve it and yields a magnificent yellow solution." (14) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(5) Francois Jollivet-Castelot ~ Francois Jollivet-Castelot was the Secretary General (and later President) of the . Turn off the fire. Wash this with lukewarm water. matte. Let it rest for half an hour. Wash well and dessicate this pulvurent precipitate. in this order of research. "Gently heat the apparatus short of reaching the boiling point for the acid (83o C). identical to that given by natural gold reduced in the same manner. you may repeat the operation as many times as you please. let drop into the liquor a second portion of pure silver. In this manner. with no hurry.to provoke in the midst of the effervesence the reunion of pure parts. their new arrangement being irreducible. Repeat introducing metal. starting from a metal close to gold --. coherent lamina with a beautiful yellow sheen by reflection. Adapt to the receiver an escape tube and arrange the apparatus in a sand bath. open the tube. of reddish brown coloration. free from gold traces. very fine. just as it also is in nitric acid. precipitate from a zinc blade. take up again the clear solution of silver nitrate diluted from the first washing water. and introduce a small portion of virgin silver. or of cupel. tall and tubular.it is possible to produce a small quantity of the precious metal. until the boiling and issuing of red vapors manifest little energy.preferably silver --. "Empty into a glass retort. You will recognize by making the assays that the precipitate is insoluble in hydrochloric acid. By compression on a sheet of glass or marble. and let it fall into a small porcelain capsule. having the look and superficial characteristics of the purest gold. Add nothing more. An amorphous powder will be obtained. reduce the metal with zinc or copper. green by transparence. In this case. Here is.

After hammering it became slightly golden. the liquor when decanted and filtered was analyzed and gave all the characteristic reactions for gold. he published La Fabrication Chimique de L'Or to report his successes using both "wet" and "dry" methods of transmutation: "By means of catalytic action I have succeeded in manufacturing gold chemically by acting on silver with arsenic and antimony sulfides. The residue obtained was again melted with the addition of orpiment. and served as a special delegate of the Supreme Council of Martinists. small quantities of orpiment being thrown in every five minutes.. When no further action took place. Chemical Engineer of Lyons. The mixture was heated to about 1600o C In a metal smelting furnace for about three quarters of an hour. This residue was attacked by aqua regia at the boiling point until it was almost completely dissolved. After having hammered for half an hour and remelted with the addition of small quantities of orpiment every ten minutes. Chemical Engineer of Buenos Aires. and tin. a system of non-occult chemical methods of transmutation.. in particular by Mr. He also edited the Society's journal L'Hyperchemie.. He authored several books and articles on alchemy and "hyperchemistry".. "The residue dissolved in chemically pure 36o nitric acid first cold and then hot. and Mr. and on 3. Outon.5 gr of chemically pure orpiment. The liquor then being chlorinated and filtered was subjected to the reagents of platinum and . This deposit after being washed and treated with ammonia to dissolve the arsenic and antimony salts was completely dissolved in aqua regia. A small quantity of the material became detached at this moment and formed a pulvurent black deposit. "This process gives a very high yield which has already been confirmed by several chemists. "I made a mixture composed of 3 gr of chemically pure silver and 1 gr of chemically pure orpiment and placed it in 36o nitric acid for several months cold and then brought it to ebullition. it was withdrawn.. it was again put back into the furnace. In 1920. I decanted off the solution and collected the insoluble residue. [December 1925] "I acted on 22 gr of chemically pure silver . tellurium.Alchemical Society of France (founded in 1896).. The liquid was kept at the boiling point for several days. The residue obtained had a dark metallic tint.... gave an abundant pulvurent deposit. Ballandras. "The object of the present leaflet is to enable chemists to repeat and check my experiments in their turn.. "After cooling and the addition of chemically pure antimony sulfide. (17-20) Jollivet-Castelot began experimenting with transmutations of silver in 1908..

twice adding a small quantity of SbS. Douai. "The addition of tin to the other bodies has certainly facilitated the reactions of the gold and increased the yield of this metal which can be manufactured artificially by my process. "The reactions of gold were quite characteristic. the insoluble residue was next washed with distilled water..gold. I then added the usual fluxes and then heated the whole in a crucible in the furnace to about 1100o C for about one hour.. i... I have introduced tin into these new tests as it is also often associated with gold in Nature.. "The quantity of gold obtained in this experiment was about one gramme. treated with ammonia. the transmutation of bodies into gold should be preceded or accompanied by their transmutation into platinum.. had thought that in accordance with the law of the evolution of matter. all the more so as the greater part of the silver employed can be recovered at each test. washed again and finally treated for a long time with boiling aqua regia. given the respective prices of gold and of the other substances that are used in my process to produce it. France). "The liquor when filtered and subjected to the reagents of gold showed the presence of this metal in the form of abundant deposits which may be estimated at 0.05 gr in all. . "I submit the hypothesis that the arsenic acts as a catalyst and the sulfur as a ferment in this transmutation. "I believe I now hold the key to the regular and even industrial manufacture of gold. "It would be very easy to show that. "I made an intimate mixture of 6 gr of chemically pure silver. thanks to which the percentage of gold obtained destroys all the objections that are raised with regard to impurities. first cold and then at the boiling point.." (December 1925. which is very high considering the 6 gr of silver employed. Andre Vandenberghe who was acting as preparator for this experiment. and one gr of tin. the reactions of platinum also seemed to reveal its presence. by synthesis and in measurable quantities.. The deposits when collected and dried had a yellow green metallic color and possessed all the characteristics of gold.. 2 gr of antimony sulfide...e. The following is a description of this new process. "The residue obtained was treated for a long time in 36o nitric acid. "As a sequel to my previous work on the artificial synthesis of gold.. 1 gr of orpiment. Mr. a profit could be obtained if the process were worked industrially.

This mixture was heated in the furnace in the usual way for one hour at about 1100o C. I found nothing. I added pure silica to the usual fluxes. 1926: "A Recent Experiment In Transmutation --. this thing would be found dissolved in the last liquor which I obtained. 1 gr of native orpiment free of gold.All my research work on transmutation since 1908 has started from the fact that gold is found in nature associated with antimony and arsenic sulfides as well as with tellurium. "After 18 hours of digestion at about 25o. I decided to proceed to a circumstantial analysis of the liquor which I obtained. then once more washed with distilled water. "The quantity of gold which was obtained was 0." Jollivet-Castelot read this memorandum to the Academie Royal des Sciences (Belgium) on June 6. then washed with distilled water. Then. and 3 gr of antimony sulfide. However. After refrigeration... The washed residue contained the slighter part of gold.. Jollivet-Castelot: Dosage of gold obtained by the second method": "From a mixture of 10 gr silver. that is as much to say that the powder which was obtained having been subdued first to the action of azotic acid. 1 gr of antimony sulfide and 2 gr of tellurium. Mr.. I filtered on glass wool and I looked if parts were not drawn along in suspense. or 0. 3 gr of tin.0476 gr of gold per gram of silver. Ballandras reported on "How I Succeeded In Making Gold According To The Process of Mr. for my only object is the search for pure scientific truth. which is considered as a mineralizer of gold.476 gr for 10 gr of silver employed. "I prepared a mixture composed of 6 gr of silver. in order to completely eliminate the silver and the tin employed. "It must be noted that this thing happened during the ebullition. I scrupled to begin again the indicated treatments. The insoluble residue was subdued to the prolonged action of aqua regia. The .. then subdued to the action of chloric acid.... 3 gr of arsenic sulfide.. the residue which had been obtained was crushed as much as possible and subjected to a treatment of pure chloric acid like in the first method.. then washed with distilled water. and these different operations were begun once again with another portion of pure chloric acid. I therefore considered that it was logical to introduce tellurium into the artificial combination of silver and arsenic and antimony sulfides that I make." In a correspondence to Jollivet-Castelot. I subdued the mixture to ebullition during 3 hours."But the industrial question is voluntarily put aside from my thoughts.

The crucible was then allowed to cool down. and tellurium entrain gold in their fusion and their volatilization. For the moment. At this moment the mass was fairly liquid. "I consider it certain that if the vapors were allowed to bubble through the melted silver. for it is known that arsenic. I placed 15 gr silver. although] a certain amount of gold was certainly lost in this test just as in all my previous tests.. "When subjected to the action of nitric acid.. Louis Outon. Ballandras also replicated the experiments and reported the results: "I will not conceal the fact that I have often heard ironical remarks aboutprocesses by which he succeeded in manufacturing gold. which had not changed. antimony. I determined to check his tests with the greatest possible accuracy. 6 gr antimony sulfide. in my laboratory and am amazed at the results. The solution was then decanted and a greenish-yellow residue remained which was kept at the boiling point of nitric acid for several hours. It weighed 6. treated with ammonia and then subjected to the action of boiling aqua regia in which it was entirely dissolved after boiling for several hours.. a pharmaceutical chemist in Buenos Aires... I had thought of making the vapors of arsenic acid and antimony sulfides and of tellurium act on the silver in fusion in a closed vessel by means of a special device. The crucible was heated at a temperature of 500o C and then for one hour and a half at 1100o C." Mr. The reddish-brown residue obtained weighed exactly 23.742 gr. while it is undoubtedly necessary to make them react on one another in the vapor state in a closed vessel.. was washed.. "In order to obviate this disadvantage. . I have repeated the experiments. 6 gr arsenic sulfide. After decanting off the liquor once again." Mr. a much higher yield of gold would be obtained than that I have obtained hitherto by an imperfect and too rapid contact of the bodies in presence.258 grams. A. reported to JollivetCastelot in a letter (July 26.. the residue. it is only the scientific side which interests me...residue obtained was of a blackish-grey color with violet reflections..42 grams. 1927): "Dear Sir. the residue was attacked with difficulty and greenish metallic particles become detached. or a loss of 3. "[The solution was chlorinated and subjected to the reagents of gold with positive results. "In a new quartz crucible.. since the cost of the gold obtained is often greater than the value of the metal.

. the results being the following: 1) Oxalic acid: flakey precipitate."I allowed this residue to cool in pure nitric acid in which the greater part was dissolved fairly easily. then residing in New York. 5) Sodium carbonate. and antimony sulfide (3 gr): "After having operated as previously. 4) Formol: rather light bluish coloration. "I have repeated this test several times and I have observed: 1) That the production of gold is a function of the rapidity with which the necessary heat is obtained. I again filtered on glass wool in order to separate any traces of the filter from the liquor. This I consider to be a highly interesting result. Stephen Emmens ~ Early in 1897. the whole was boiled for 3 hours.05 gr per gram of silver employed. I tried the various standard reagents. Emmens.. orpiment (3 gr). I obtained a quantity of gold corresponding to 0.. "These reactions are sufficiently characteristic and clearly prove the existence in the last liquor of a metal which. 2) Iron sulfate: glossy metallic black. "I think there must be a certain temperature that should not be exceeded and that the external conditions of pressure and electricity must be of considerable importance. the metal obtained and gold must be perfectly isotopic. It was of importance to prove its existence qualitatively at least. even if it is not gold.. 6) Sodium hydroxide. Any gold that might have been obtained would necessarily be found in the last liquor. Ballandras used silver (10 gr). .. After prolonged boiling the liquor was filtered on a new glass wool. the British chemist Stephen H. 3) Tin chloride: peach pink precipitate. must nevertheless be placed very close to the latter.. some of the tests were absolutely sterile and I inferred that this was due to some defect in the mounting.. "The glass wool was then macerated in aqua regia rich in hydrochloric. A crucible that is closed as tightly as possible gives better results.. tin (3 gr)." -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(6) Dr. "For this purpose. cloudy. after 18 hours maceration. potassium carbonate: light coloration after boiling. The resultant liquor was very clear and absolutely free of any particles." In another experiment. 2) That it is also a function of the degree of tightness of the crucible. potassium hydroxide: yellowish coloration. 3) That the amount of gold obtained was not always uniform.

" (14) In 1897... so far as silver and gold were concerned. Whether we are right as to this or not.S.. Carey Lea with regard to [colloidal silver]. this subdivision of metallic silver was attended by very considerable changes in the physical properties of the substance. and which he thought to be the intermediate matter from which silver and gold are formed. we named the substance Argentaurum.. It appeared to us almost self-evident that if we were right in supposing a common substance to be present in any single series of elements. The phenomena observed afforded indications of the existence of some substance common to the whole of the elements in what is known as Series 4 of Group 8 of the classification of Chemical Elements.. a certain product was obtained which seemed to differ from anything recorded in the textbooks.... therefore. we succeeded in bringing about a further subdivision of the silver.By certain physical methods and by the aid of a certain apparatus. Emmens' Argentaurum Laboratory on Staten Island produced over 660 ounces of gold from silver and sold it to the U. Argentaurum can be aggregated into molecules having a density considerably superior to that of ordinary gold molecules. the condensed . Emmens said: "Our claim is that the element in question is therefore neither silver nor gold.. the same would hold good for each group... "The next step was to ascertain whether this substance could be so treated as to be grouped into molecules of greater density than those of silver..gold and silver ~ it was obvious that our time and attention should be directed to these metals rather than to any other..announced the discovery of a new element which fills the "vacant space existing in the sub-group of Group I". but which may.. It seemed to require a new name and a new chemical symbol. We were not surprised to find that the substance obtained differed so far from ordinary silver that it could no longer be regarded as the same elementary substance. We found that. in 1892. as our theory was that this substance was common to both gold and silver. Argentaurum Papers #1: Some Remarks Concerning Gravitation: "Our work. and in reality was the raw material out of which both gold and silver were constructed by the hand of nature. "And as Group I of the classification contains the precious metals --. be converted into gold.. was afforded by the remarkable discoveries of Mr.. which converts silver into gold. The same product was subsequently found when the investigation was extended to the case of metallic cobalt. It was found that.. had its origin in the course of certain investigations which I undertook for the purpose of preparing chemically pure nickel. He revealed a few historical and technical details of his transmutation process in his book.. Assay Office... "Our starting point. Inasmuch. Dr. In attempting to prepare these pure metals [nickel and iron]. Dr. by our new physical methods.

and no unknown lines.. 23) Dr. 7-12. The fluxing and granulation serve.. Emmens' process comprised five stages: 1) mechanical treatment. Emmens said: "I regard the mechanical treatment as the causa causans... 16. I think. 2) fluxing and granulation.. 3) mechanical treatment." (15) The mechanical treatment was accomplished by means of Dr. magnetism. It consists of gold with a fair proportion of silver and a little copper. what we use is mainly energy in some of its various forms. contradicts the statement made elsewhere. Dr. Then subject it to heavy.." This analysis resembles that of ordinary bullion gold. using "modified nitric acid". Emmens has been examined with the spectrograph. were detected... One ounce of silver will produce three-quarters of an ounce of gold. No lines belonging to any other known elements. which exerted pressures in excess of 500 tons/in2 at very low temperatures." Sir Crookes was unable to replicate the experiment to his satisfaction. and at length you will find more than the trace (less than one part in 10." (4. Emmens included a sample of Argentaurum and these instructions in a letter (21 May 1897) to Sir William Crookes: "Take a Mexican dollar and dispose it in an apparatus which will prevent expansion or flow. and 5) refining. that "we do not consume any chemicals. gravity. chemical affinity. Test the material from hour to hour." (6) Herbert Fyfe reported that Dr. Emmens' "Force Engine".Argentaurum presents the appearance and is endowed with the properties of ordinary metallic gold. rapid. merely to render the molecular aggregate susceptible of displacement and rearrangement. cohesion.. such as heat. Step 4. which contains silver and copper to make it harder and more fusible than pure gold. Dr. 4) treatment with a "modified nitric acid". In a rejoinder. x-rays and the like. electricity. 15. and continuous beating under conditions of cold such as to prevent even a temporary rise of temperature when the blows are struck.000) of gold which the dollar originally contained. Emmens noted: "I have received a letter from a very eminent Fellow of the Royal Society informing me .. in our process. He reported: "A specimen of Argentaurum sent me by Dr. Our chief source of expense is the time required for bringing about the desired molecular changes. "We do not consume any chemicals and other costly materials in our process.

997 (25 July 1893). however. (21. 29. 30) Dr. Ordinary silver is protean in nature. at least two of them may be related to his process: #501. "Allotropic" is a misnomer. a syndicate which promised that for one ounce of silver (then worth about 50 cents) entrusted with payment of $4. and give perfectly clear solutions.9% more than the quantity of gold contained in the same dollar before the test.50 per ounce for conversion costs. Zsigmondy found that such silver actually was a monoatomic colloid of ordinary silver. Emmens' writings confuse the understanding of the process. Richard Zsigmondy. Professor of Chemistry at the University of Göttingen. the investor would be repaid with 3/5 ounce of gold (then worth about $11). Emmens' application for a patent on his process was refused. (24.996 (25 July 1893). received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his study of Lea's "allotropic" silver under the ultramicrosope. and ordinary forms. In 1925. since he would not have been able to protect his methods from unscrupulous competitors. Semantic ambiguities in Dr. Emmens' Force Engine produced hammering pressures in excess of 500 tons/in2 at very low temperatures. "intermediate". Dr.S. Dr. 1897. to Sir William Crookes. not another isotope. thus forming continuous films that are beautifully colored. Emmens floated the Argentaurum Company." In 1898. Dr. The gold contained in the Mexican dollar after 40 hours of intense cold and continuous hammering was found to be 20. Patents for inventions. The aqueous solutions are colloidal monoatoms. These effects can be achieved by a variety of modern methods. however. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(7) Carey Lea ~ Carey Lea discovered the preparation of so-called "allotropic" and "intermediate" silver in 1889 while he was studying reductions of silver nitrate. Argentaurum refers to a new element. Dr. Electrolytic bath. The several forms of "allotropic" silver (a-Ag) dry with their particles in optical contact with each other. so production never began. or to the gold produced from it. Apparatus for Electrolytic Extraction of Metals. and all are unstable. perfect mirrors. Lea determined that silver occurs in "allotropic". Emmens was issued several U. or to Lea's intermediate allotropic silver.that he has performed the crucial experiment suggested in my letter of May 21. Strong acids and pressure will convert a-Ag to the normal form. There are three forms of a-Ag. 22) . and #501. At times.

it is less so when wet. to normal silver. or fine acicular crystals up to 1 inch long. The second solution (which must be mixed immediately before using only) is poured into the first with constant stirring. No. The simplest preparation is as follows: "It has long been known that golden-yellow specks would occasionally show themselves in silver solutions. After washing it should be removed whilst in a pasty condition and spread over watch glasses or flat basins and allowed to dry spontaneously. Probably this phenomenon has often led to a supposition that silver might be transmuted into gold. It has a pure and perfect white color like the finest frosted jewelers' silver. interpenetrating with plant-like ramifications. but could not be obtained at will and the quantity thus appearing was infinitesimal. first in the air.There is also a very stable "intermediate form" of silver (i-Ag) which is easy to prepare. which on the filter has a beautiful bronze appearance. I found. or chemical action. falls. It is nearly as indifferent to oxidizing and chlorizing agents as is normal silver... and unaffected by pressure.. It will be seen that this is a reduction of silver nitrate by ferrous sulfate. 200 cc of a 20% solution of Rochelle salt and 800 cc of distilled water. the filter must be kept always full of water. I have found many ways of obtaining it. "It is a little curious that its permanency seems to depend entirely on details in the mode of preparation.. however. and then heat the middle of the plate carefully over a spirit lamp. 2.. This yellow product. 1 containing 200 cc of a 10% solution of silver nitrate. Intermediate silver can be formed from the allotropic varieties by light. then changing back to black. It dries into lumps exactly resembling highly polished gold. A powder. the following proportions give good results: "Two mixtures are required: No. heat. one process by which a quite permanent result could be obtained. is only an allotropic form of silver. The normal silver produced in this way is exquisitely beautiful. but it has all the color and brilliancy of gold... at first glittering red. we shall obtain with sufficient heat a .. then for an hour or two in a stove at 100o C. In washing. however. "If we coat a chemically clean glass plate with a film of gold-colored allotropic silver. Treatment with a very dilute solution of ferric chloride will enhance the appearance of its foliar structure. let it dry.. this is essential. tough. 200 cc of 20% solution of Rochelle Salt [Sodium potassium tartrate] and 800 cc of distilled water. It occurs as bright gold-yellow or green crystals with a metallic luster. Intermediate silver is hard. almost in fact exceeding the jeweler's best products. a fact which was apparent even in the minute specks hitherto obtained. but in a few months the specimens preserved changed spontaneously.. "Although the gold-colored silver (into which the nitrate used is wholly converted) is very permanent when dry. containing 107 cc of a 30% solution of ferrous sulfate.

"Its properties are better seen by using a film formed on pure paper. 18/19 (4). lustrous golden ring round it. "The Revival of . "A.: Chemical News 76: 61-62 (6 August 1897). 3rd. an immersion of one or two seconds converts a film on glass or on pure paper wholly to the intermediate form. 4th. Ridpath. Ind.: The Arena (Boston) 19(1): 139-140 (1898).: Popular Science Monthly 72 (1): 46-51 (1908).E. This ring consists of what I propose to call the "intermediate form". changing only by a slight deepening of color. somewhat lighter and brighter than the portion of the plate that has not been changed by heat.": Chimie et Industrie. When subjected to a shearing stress it does not whiten or change color in the slightest degree. effects the conversion.. Examining the changed part. "Some Recent Transmutations" 6. "With sulfuric acid diluted with four times its bulk of water and allowed to cool. p.circle of whitish gray with a bright. The intermediate form is distinguished from normal silver almost solely by its bright yellow color and its higher luster. That it has changed from a deep gold to a bright yellow gold color. "Of these characteristic changes the second is the most remarkable.. almost any touch. J. Henry C. It no longer shows the color reaction with potassium ferricyanide and ferric chloride.. The change is sudden and passes over the heated portion of the surface like a flash... "A.C. It is much harder. 2nd. "The Age of Gold" 5. as is readily perceived in burnishing it.": Nature 121 (# 3060). Suppl. 981 (June 23.C. Bolton. 3.A. any friction. we find: 1st. one end of which is heated over a spirit lamp to a temperature just below that at which paper scorches. C." -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(8) References ~ 1. Anonymous: Rev.. Chimie Industrielle 37: 63 (1928) 4. 1928) 2. The gold-colored silver in its original condition changes with singular facility to white silver. (1927). Baskerville.

: Arcanae Naturae (Paris.: Zeit.: Frank Leslie's Popular Magazine (March 1898) 14.: La Synthese de L'Or. "The Transmutation of Silver into Gold". MacKenzie. Jollivet-Castelot. Dr. C. 7: 340-341 (1894) 23.. ibid. Co.. A. 1896-1901) 20. ibid. 62 (14): 315. S. Tiffereau. Some Remarks Concerning Gravitation" 9. 1897). Woodward. 1909) 21. ibid. Carey: Amer..: L'Hyperchimie (Paris. E. H. Pauvert (Paris. ibid. Allgem. vol. S. Weiser (New York. S. Lea. 1896). Tiffereau. Theodore: Les Metaux Sont Des Corps Composes. Fr. 41 (243): 179-190 (March 1891).: La Fabrication Chimique de L'Or (Douai. Waite. H. Arthur E. ibid. 1987) 29. Emmens. A. V. C. W. S. Young. 642-644. Emmens.. ibid. ibid.. Fr. 386-389 (18 March 1898). Fletcher. 51 (24): 259-267 (April 1891). J. Emmens. Du Boistel (Bristol... E. Dr. "The Argentaurum Papers No. 51 (246): 282-289 (April 1891).: Science 5 (112): 314.: Argentaurum Papers #1: Some Remarks Concerning Gravitation. 189-200. 42 (250): 312-317 (October 1891). p.: L'Or et le Transmutation des Metaux 27. Chem. 942 (854). Tiffereau. Sci.. Francois: Chimie et Alchimie. 792. (Series 3) 37 (222): 476-491 (June 1889). R..: Comptes Rendu Acad.: Chemical News 76: 117-118 (3 September 1897). 38 (223): 47-50 (July 1889). 1855) 26. ibid. 39: 374.. H.. 22. Sci.48 (148): 343 (October 1894). 38 (224): 129 (August 1889).: A Collection of Alchymical Processes..: Spokane Mines & Electrician (17 February 1897) 24.: Argentaurana . Jollivet-Castelot. 1964) 15.A Rejoinder" 11. Dr. 316 (3 Oct. Daragon (Paris.: Science 7 (168): 9. Emmens. 315 (19 Feb. 38 (225): 237-241 (September 1889). 1897) 12.. Paris 38: 383. G. H. T. T. ibid. 40: 1317 (1855). Ibid. Fr. S. "The Age of Gold -. 10. 62 (11): 243. Plain Citizen Publ. ibid. 1. Fyfe. Gaddis. ibid. 1. C. 41: 647 (1855). 743. J. Jollivet-Castelot. 222 (5 September 1896). 244 (12 Sept. The Engineering & Mining Journal 62 (10): 221. J. Anorg.: Pearson's Magazine (March 1898) 16. (New York. 1896) 13. Fulcanelli: Les Demeures Philosophales. S. 1896).: Science 5 (112): 343-344 (19 February 1897) 30. Jollivet-Castelot. Emmens. S. H. 184-185.: Knowledge 20: 285 (1 December 1897) 25. 5 (113): 343-344 (26 February 1897). E. “ Emmens’ Transmutation of Ag into Au”. Ord. Lea. 1899). 123: 1097 (1896) 28. 1928) 19. ibid. Vaugirard (Paris.: Science 5 (113): 343-344 (26 February 1897) . ibid.Alchemy" 7. Emmens. H. Stephen H..: American Mercury 86: 65-69 (January 1958) 17. H.. "The Transmutation of Ag into Au" 8. Dr. 1205 (1854). Noury (Paris 1928) 18. ibid. Dr. Dr. H. Dr.

Called Zinc White and used as a pigment. Calomel. described by Basil Valentine. made by subliming a mixture of mercuric chloride and metallic mercury. Zinc Sulphate. made by heating a mixture of tin filings. common salt and nitre. Cinnabar or Vermillion. who prepared it by subliming mercury. sulphur and salammoniac. Described by Geber. which was also called Tuttia or Tutty. Spiritus fumans. Described by Basil Valentine. triturated in a mortar. Cinnabar. Tin salt. Golden-yellow glistening scales of crystalline stannic sulphide. Mercurous chloride. Turpeth mineral.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Top ~ Table of Contents ~ Home ~ Catalog ~ Links ~ Order rexresearch. Mercurius praecipitatus. Calamine. Made by lixiviating roasted zinc blende (zinc sulphide). This was heated in a iron pot and the crust of calomel formed on the lid was ground to powder and boiled with water to remove the very poisonous mercuric chloride. Corrosive sublimate. Hydrated stannous chloride. Mercuric sulphide. Zinc oxide made by burning zinc in air. or nix alba (white snow). Mercuric sulphide. . Mercuric chloride. first mentioned by Geber. discovered by Libavius in 1605. was probably zinc carbonate. Yellow crystalline powder. Red mercuric oxide. A hydrolysed form of mercuric sulphate. calcined green vitriol. Mosaic gold. Purgative. through distilling tin with corrosive sublimate. Philosophers' Wool.com ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Alchemical substances -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cadmia. White vitriol. Stannic chloride. Zinc carbonate.

Yellow powder form of lead monoxide. White lead. Antimony trisulphide. White crystalline antimony trichloride. A white powder of antimonious oxychloride. Scarlet crystalline powder. used by Lemery as a cosmetic. Butter of Antimony. Chrome orange. Marcasite. Made by Basil Valentine by distilling roasted stibnite with corrosive sublimate. made by heating litharge with sal ammoniac. Stibnite. Stable in air. Mineral form of Iron disulphide. Ferrous sulphate. Green Vitriol. Lead chromate. Basic carbonate of lead. Naples yellow. Mineral form of iron disulphide. Mixture of chrome yellow and chrome red. formed by fusing and powdering massicot. Glass of Antimony. Wismuth. Chrome red. Zaffre. Mixture of equal parts of white lead and barium sulphate. Made by dissolving lead oxide in vinegar. Lead oxide obtained from the flues at lead smelters. Hydrated stannic chloride. Impure cobalt arsenate. Chromic oxide. Nickel. Triplumbic tetroxide. Cobalt. Reddish-yellow crystalline form of lead monoxide. Grey mineral ore of antimony. Used as a pigment. left after roasting cobalt ore. Used as a yellow pigment for glass and porcelain. . made by by precipitation when a solution of butter of antimony in spirit of salt is poured into water. Litharge. Lead acetate. An oxychloride of lead. Lead chromate. Colcothar. Oxidises in moist air to green vitriol. Antimony. Chrome yellow. From latin 'antimonium' used by Constantinius Africanus (c.Butter of tin. Impure antimony tetroxide. Pearl white. Rouge. Sugar of Lead. Named by the copper miners of the Hartz Mountains after the evil spirits the 'kobolds' which gave a false copper ore. Mixture of one part of white lead to three of barium sulphate. Red varieties of ferric oxide are formed by burning green vitriol in air. Bismuth. Minium or Red Lead. Chrome yellow. Basic nitrate of bismuth. Venetian White. Basic lead chromate. Crocus. Pyrites. 1050) to refer to Stibnite. Massicot. Named by the copper miners of Westphalia the 'kupfer-nickel' or false copper. Chief ore of lead. Dutch White. obtained by roasting stibnite. Formed by roasting litharge in air. Chrome green. Plumbic sulphide. Glauber later prepared it by dissolving stibnite in hot concentrated hydrochloric acid and distilling. Galena. or Cassel yellow. Lead fume. Powder of Algaroth.

Sodium hydroxide. Native sodium carbonate. Made by adding lime to potash. Made by dissolving silver oxide in ammonia. very explosive when dry. Soda ash. Wood-ash or potash. Described by Geber. The green substance formed by the atmospheric weathering of copper. Aes cyprium. Made by adding lime to natron. Calcium sulphate. Highly explosive when dry. Sodium chloride. Silver nitrate. Caustic potash. Red cuprous oxide ore. stannous and stannic chlorides. Caustic soda. Lunar caustic. The soft colourless tough mass of silver chloride. Used for colouring glass.Copper glance. Natron. with alkali. Common salt. Cuprite. Sal Ammoniac. In more recent times the term 'verdigris' is more correctly applied to copper acetate. This is a complex basic carbonate of copper. Luna cornea. Made by adding ammonia to the auric hydroxide formed by precipitation by potash from metallic gold dissolved in aqua regis. Sodium carbonate formed by burning plants growing on the sea shore. made by fusing potash and sulphur. Cuprous sulphide ore. Resin of copper. argentum cornu. Slaked lime. made by the action of vinegar on copper. Purple of Cassius. Calcium carbonate. Blue vitriol or bluestone. Silver nitride. Complex of polysulphides of potassium. Made by Robert Boyle in 1664 by heating copper with corrosive sublimate. Described by Oswald Croll in 1608. Calcium oxide. Ammonium Chloride. Fulminating silver. Gypsum. lapis infernalis. made by heating horn silver till it forms a dark yellow liquid and then cooling. Liver of sulphur. Potassium carbonate made from the ashes of burnt wood. Chalk. A glass like ore of silver chloride. Cyprian brass or copper. Horn silver. Verdigris. Made by Andreas Cassius in 1685 by precipitating a mixture of gold. Potassium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide. Cupric sulphate. Caustic wood alkali. Glauber's Salt. Sodium sulphate. Caustic marine alkali. Cuprous chloride. Quicklime. Fulminating gold. .

White arsenic. Spirit of Hartshorn. White colloidal sulphur. Made from arsenical soot from the roasting ovens. Arsenic trisulphide. Flowers of sulphur. King's Yellow. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------at the bottom is a letter from someone who followed instructions with a bit of creative ingenuity and had solid success. A mixture of orpiment with white arsenic. ------------------------------------------------------------TRANSMUTATION RECIPES FOR MAKING GOLD The National Security Agency is EXTREMELY hostile to the distribution of the below -------------------------------------------------------------------------------COMMENTS ON TRANSMUTATION ARE BELOW THE RECIPES. purified by sublimation. light yellow crystalline powder. Auri-pigmentum. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Last modified January 4. Sulphur. Ammonium nitrate made by Glauber. Thion hudor (Zosimus refers to this as the 'divine water' or 'the bile of the serpent'). made by distilling sulphur.Sal volatile. Arsenious oxide. Oil of Vitriol. I believe. Orpiment. Used by Paracelsus. Realgar. red ore of arsenic. Geber made this by adding an acid to thion hudor. horns. Nitrum flammans. Sulphuric acid made by distilling green vitriol. imprisoned for this process. Extremely poisonous. Yellow ore of arsenic. Aqua tofani. Arsenic disulphide. 2003 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------RECIPE # 1 ************ It was Joe Champion who was. ************ Joe Champion 4833 Woodmere Fairway E-1 . A deep reddish-yellow liquid made by boiling flowers of sulphur with slaked lime. Ammonium hydroxide. Brimstone (from German Brennstein 'burning stone'). Volatile alkali. Milk of sulphur (lac sulphuris). etc. Ammonium carbonate made from distilling bones. Caustic volatile alkali. Arsenious oxide. also links which provide the images and an htm file that will help with visualization of the atom as it truly is.

the accepted norm of "high energy physics" and under a low energy nuclear exchange.Scottsdale. I observed what appeared to be the instant conversion of one element to another. Monti . Discovery Publishing Westboro.E. Arizona 1992 .R.S.Present Performed functional testing of low energy nuclear transmutation reactions. In an attempt to fully comprehend my findings I have collaborated with institutions throughout the world to solidify my position and priority. Since the initial introduction to this event. In my observation of an experiment being performed by a non-scientific person. Roberto A. Both domestic and international. to assimilate foundation data that low energy nuclear events do in fact occur in nature and are reproducible under controlled laboratory conditions. Replication of this event under controlled conditions caused me to consider the fact that nuclear events could occur under two sets of conditions. Information gathered was published in professional and public journals Instituto TE. Arizona 85251 (602)481-6249 (home) Personal Profile: SUMMARY OF DIRECTION Research into the Field of Low Energy Nuclear Transmutation 1989 . government and private research laboratories. I have dedicated full time to the cause and potential effects of this discovery. This "conversion" occurred under conditions wherein the applied energies were lower than those normally considered possible. Wisconsin Phoenix. Work Experience. Position includes interaction with academic.Present In 1989 I was fortunate to witness a phenomena which for all intents and purposes has been ruled by the established scientific community as an impossible event.

The results of these experiments are the following: *********** The final product of the ignition showed in crease of B (beta) radiation greater than twice the measured background. at the beginning of 1991.m. but the experimental foundations of this model could be found./ton Au. Bockris. This occasion came to me in April 1992. I made a summary of my ideas about aether and matter in two papers (4). 0. 99. The mixture before ignition contained less than 20 p. I have never had the possibility to make any experiment. I reconstructed the Periodic Table of the Elements (2). the mixture contained more than 400 p.99%) . Harkins. 20 g (Johnson Matthey.p.14 Oz. Kervran and Borghi (3). Lewis. (5).LOW ENERGY TRANSMUTATIONS (cold fusions and cold fissions) Introduction. Allen.m. and in light of this new model. At the beginning of February 1989 a new model of the atom was completed. Finally.p. Parson.047 Oz. through Prof. Since that time I was waiting for the occasion to make some experiments. in my opinion. 0. of gold. of gold. Experiment 2./ton Ag). in the papers of Thomson. At the end of October 1988 I made a summary of the ideas about the structure of the atom which I developed since I was a student (1). Experiment 2 consisted in the ignition of the following mixture of chemicals: Gold ore PbO 100 g (Action Mining. After the ignition.

are composite structures of hydrogen atoms. 300 mesh. The final product of the ignition showed the following results: 1) The total B (beta) radiation count was 2. of gold. 4) the nuclei.R. 'em Consiglio Nationale Delle Richerce Instituto TE. whose dimensions are greater than supposed by Rutherford. On the basis of Thomson's. of gold After the ignition. Parson's. 99. characterized by the following features: 1) substantial asymmetry of the Coulomb electric and magnetic fields of electrons and protons: 2) existence of positions of stable electromagnetic equilibrium of electrons in the vicinity of nuclei. 5) Physical and chemical . ( Studio e Technologie delle Radiazioni Extraterrestri) Via De Castagnoli I 40129 Bologna Tel 051-28 7011 Fax 229702 .p. of period 4 (Alpha-extended model).telex 511250 CNR BO I Roberto A.2 -10^4 CPM and five different energy peaks were observed. the mixture contained 1700 p..8 %) Fire assay Flux No ("o" is superscript) 486. 99.E.m. Lewis. A new model of the atom.5 %) 450 g (Baker.p. Monti COLD FUSION AND COLD FISSION : EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE ALPHA-EXTENDED MODEL OF THE ATOM. 3) the neutron is a particular "bond state" of the hydrogen atom. Part I . 2) The mixture before ignition contained certainly less than 20 p.2 %) 30 g (Spectrum) 20 g (Fisher. Summary. Allen's and Harkins' hypotheses a new model of the atom is advanced.S. 99. Action Mining Services Inc.C KNOs S Hg2Cl2 150 g (Johnson Matthey.

There IS a device that will plug into house current and give the specified electrical input in DC. 7) carbon isomeric configurations (allotropic forms). 3) the production an decay of Helium-B. the Periodic Table of the Elements has been reconstructed. 2) the synthesis of deuterium. In the light of this new model. 10) the distribution of the scattered radiation. 4) the production and decay of the nuclei from 11 a (alpha?) to 18 a (alpha?) . 29 RayI June 1991 RECIPE # 3 In response to many questions about this: The Quartz Geode is what should be used instead of the ceramic mortar when using the procedure followed in Recipe #1. That device costs $250. (1) R. 9) biological cold fusions and cold fissions (weak energy transmutations). Tritium.properties of each atom depend on the various. No sources for parts and equipment are available. 8) cold fusion in metal lattices. Reference. possible. you will have to check locally. ultra cold neutrons and thermal neutrons. Part II : Experimental evidence for the Alpha-extended model. avoiding the absorption of the Arsenic and the diminishment of results. Monti. The genesis of the elements and the Slpha-extended model of the atom are shown by means of: 1) neutron synthesis. Be meticulous and precise in . starting from a cold plasma of protons and electrons. The electrodes inserted into the mixture are copper coated or copper. Helium-3 and Helium-4. isomeric configurations.00. A brief history of the atom.A. Proceedings of the international Conference: "What Physics for the next century?" Ischia. cold fusion and cold fission. 6) cold fission. starting from the hydrogen. 5) "cold fusion" of Iron-56 . Italy. The process can take up to five hours.

Mercuric Sulfide.. connect car batteries to equal 48 volts at 3 amp per minute. do exactly as stated larger amounts at one time will produce radioactive gold. *** Do not hesitate to call the webmaster by phone to consult on this or to give information such as sources for cheap materials. You may get into deep trouble.. The vapors are also dangerous. .. sulfur powder (pharmaceutical grade) 3. 1 quartz geode 5.measurements. Wait 25 minutes produces 1.the element) copper electrodes place all shavings and powder into Quartz Geode. Wear mask!!!!!!!! and gloves!!!! "got this off the net" ====> source is traced to: http://www. 1/4 oz. Cinnabar with no TRACES of gold (also known as a mineral. can be substituted with one ounze of mercury. 10 oz.75 ounces of gold don't get greedy. silver shavings 99% pure 2. ***If you go into the "tribute" section you will find another link to where the original handwritten copy is found.. Also.. You will find that the cinnabar which Is WILDLY variable in price.. you can repeat the procedure to make more gold. Be cautious and patient. Keep exact records.geocities. 4 12 volt car batteries 6.. Do not try this to get rich. go to the link for "tribute" . the quartz geode with LARGE crystals may be . This can result in explosions. Small things can frustrate immediate success. 2 lead (Pb . Hgs).. 3 oz. zeropoint items needed 1.. from less than $200 to $900/oz.. place leads into powder in Quartz Geode..powder it 4.com/Area51/9357/ <<== at this site.

scalar physics and. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . and you can be more public. The text described the testing of a preparation of medicine. "if when flame is applied to the powder. Don't talk too much about what you are doing.g. It is suggested that various diabolical practises are merely rituals intended to give purchase to the material world to persons who very long ago ate such preparations but cannot orient to our state without contrivances by fools who engage is certain practises. the metal device turns to powder on the lab bench. then. there will be too much chaos for much policing.. The formation of ORMES as described in the link to David Hudson's site. The results of many overunity inventors end up in being piles of dust. the medicine is ready and should be taken. as is described in japanese. frank CORRECT chemistry/physics. if money is worth anything. The keeping of this science from the public is designed to allow maximum shock value when it is implemented. with respect to transmutation itself. This information is dispersed throughout the page and will be pathed to this first link dealing with transmutation. It is very simple but depends on the visualization of the ACTUAL shape of the atoms involved and how they interact. USA is expected to go down the toilet beginning summer 1999. the powder turns to gold. It is this powder that is the key. The means of determining the nature of the shape of the atom and of its substructure is esoteric in nature." This science depends on the facts articulated in the new science of ORMES. e.. It was an ancient Arabic text which caused the infamous quest to make gold from base metals.superior. is that "magic" which the Holy Bible says will disappear.. It is possible to make ORMES that when ingested do heal. Subsequent eating of certain of these preparations render the person a spirit who may spend millions of years in the state of the ethereal and require special fixation to be able to materialize. A frequently asked question is about the electrodes. The ability to manipulate matter and circumstances in this manner. These should be LEAD on the outside with copper feeds to the battery or the rheostat. be forgotten.htm. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------A FOURTH PROCESS/RECIPE from France! -------------------------------------------------------------------------------This site will eventually and soon include the explanations for how these effects are possible. Kundalini.

dumbval.gif. Flanges at ends are valence attachment points which. rebal. dumbval shows gold in high-pin state. Box 154 Berkeley. Gold atom in rest state.murray. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------BACK TO MAIN PAGE.gif shows another one of the several types of atomic configuration for another element.au/users/egel/VISIT THIS SITE FOR MORE OVERUNITY DEVICES AND GOOD GRAPHICS. subhelix. ftp/ pictures/ subdirectory. Member of the Internet Link Exchange LE FastCounter Contact information Fourth Millennium zap@dnai. subhelix.O. in high spin state allow for Cooper Pairing of the atom with itself or another atom. You can SUBSCRIBE TO ELECTRIFYING TIMES MAGAZINE by mail at: Electrifying Times Magazine -------------------------------------------------------------------------------http://www2.com P. bar.gif.Paranormal Observations Of ORMES Atomic structure This link is defunct in its original location and is provided with images that show the atomic structure and substructure as visualized by the unusual means described in this large htm file. And otherwise placed in this paragraph. bar. The viewing of the images and the understanding of what they show will explain the simplicity of transmutation.gif.gif.gif.gif shows substructure of the atom itself. CA 94701-0154 (510) 841-4819 . dumbell. The images will be hooked up to the htm by April 2.net. 1998.

I am astonished that this kind of information is available. this is a non scientific term as current flow is not measured in time but in instantaneous amperage. I have just completed the successful transmutation of gold as given by the recipe on your site. that's the hard part. I was very skeptical that this could possibly work.( Liberty Silver 1 oz ) I was able to proceed with only the minor expense of purchasing the sulfur and Cinnabar (mercury). this worked well and no problems were experienced with dangerous fumes. zeropoint From: xxxx Subject: Feedback from Web site/gold Hi to all at ZAP I am writing to say THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU. later.999% pure silver in coins.. well in any event we set up a Rheostat to limit current to 3amps as the flow rate.. but since I had on hand some . maybe I will give it a go as it seems a lot of the mixture is dross in any event. I am now sure I will be able to produce about 50 oz gold with the remaining silver I have on hand and then we will see what to do next.. . and I am sure a few micrograms of stone will be absorbed as part of it. The whole thing sure looked weird in the shed. Do be discrete about this. I was also concerned with the possible fumes from the reaction and so arranged an extractor fan to suck out fumes via a 6in chimney flue using a discarded computor cooling fan. I didn't want to use a grindstone for fear of contamination of the formula with stone particles. using a dashboard lamp dimmer from a wrecked truck and a multimeter to show the current. I have several more coins to file down to powder. Once again THANK YOU. Another concern was the regulating of the current to 3 amps a min. mercury & sulpher. Their colleagues don't like for the cat to be out of the bag. USA itself is using this process to help to fund SDI (star wars).-------------------------------------------------------------------------------From: "Fourth Millennium" Subject: PERSONAL SUCCESS WITH GOLD MANUFACTURE You are welcome. after it cools and hardens. Very welcome. but WOW the results say it all. and even more amazed that it WORKS. This is the one involving the use of silver.

so you can see why I am so happy.virginia. there is no such thing as "Modern Alchemy"..html> | Etext Center Homepage <http://etext. when I have finished the 50 oz I will pour it all into one bar and take it up there.com (510) 761-4602 toes show picture is fake -------------------------------------------------------------------------------In-House Counter ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Redgrove. Contact Information Fourth Millennium zap. the estimated value is $12500:00 xx. it is redeemable for cash at the xxxxxxxxxxxx. or that men no longer seek to apply the principles of Mysticism to phenomena on . thanks again. 1887-1943 .edu/> | Chapter 7 CHAPTER VII MODERN ALCHEMY § 85.edu/toc/modeng/public/RedAlch. Alchemy: Ancient and Modern Electronic Text Center. University of Virginia Library | Table of Contents for this work <http://etext.dnai@rcn. Correctly speaking..virginia. does not have to pay tax on it. Herbert Stanley. some 120 miles from where I live. "Modern Alchemy".html> | | All on-line databases <http://etext. not that Mysticism is dead.You may be interested to know that here in xxxxxxxxxx a person who finds gold as in prospecting.lib.lib.edu/uvaonline.lib.virginia.

" . X-Ray's and Becquerel rays. unless it be the not altogether satisfactory one of "Radioactivity.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> and it was found that more powerful effects can be produced by inserting a disc of platinum in the path of the kathode particles. since certain uranium salts are fluorescent. or "Becquerel rays." resemble X-rays in other particulars. This phenomenon is known as "radioactivity.virginia. and he also showed that these uranium radiations. to which we refer (it may be fantastically) by the expression "Modern Alchemy": the aptness of the title we hope to make plain in the course of the present chapter." and bodies which exhibit it are said to be "radioactive. Becquerel found that uranium salts which had never been exposed to sunlight were still capable of affecting a photographic plate. He found that uranium compounds affected a photographic plate from which they were carefully screened. a science as yet without a name. It has been shown that these rays are a series of irregular pulses in the ether. whether fluorescent or not. a certain aspect of it." It is this science.<http://wyllie. -117- § 86. and that this remarkable property was possessed by all uranium salts. but M. on the other to Physics. closely related on the one hand to Chemistry.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. As is commonly known. and Professor Rutherford showed that thorium compounds evolved also something resembling a gas. or. what are called X-rays are produced when an electric discharge is passed through a high-vacuum tube. perhaps we should say.lib. but dealing with changes more profound and reactions more deeply seated than are dealt with by either of these. which are set up when the kathode particles strike the walls of the glass vacuum -118tube. Becquerel who first discovered that there are substances which naturally emit radiations similar to X-rays. and it was thought at first that the above phenomenon exhibited by uranium salts was of a like nature. It was M. but they do so after another manner from that of the alchemists.the physical plane. however. A new science. He called this an "emanation. is born amongst us. It was already known that certain substances fluoresce (emit light) in the dark after having been exposed to sunlight." Schmidt found that thorium compounds possess a similar property.

In order to throw some light on this matter. Radium is an element resembling calcium. according to her first experiments. Mme. certain compounds of radium with other elements). The only logical conclusion to be drawn from these facts was that the ores in question must contain some unknown. shining metal resembling the other alkaline earth metals. indeed. and . It reacts very violently with water. Debierne has obtained a third radioactive substance from pitchblende. Mme. It fuses at 700o C. Curie.lib. and barium in chemical properties. generally radium chloride and radium bromide. which he has called "actinium. obtained the free metal. <http://wyllie.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> determined the radioactivity of many uranium and thorium compounds.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. E. and the Curies were able.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> Radium gives a -120characteristic spectrum. Curie. which has been confirmed by a further investigation carried out by Sir T. strontium.e. It is described as a white. and. which had a radioactivity much in excess of the normal. Curie prepared one of these ores by a chemical process and found that it possessed a normal radioactivity.both of which were extremely radioactive. a redetermination gave a slightly higher value. in certain cases. and blackens in the air. highly radioactive substance.virginia.. with the remarkable exception of certain natural ores. and is intensely radioactive. It should be noted that up to the middle of the year 1910 the element radium itself had not been prepared. in conjunction with M." § 88. to extract from pitchblende (the ore with the greatest radioactivity) minute quantities of the salts of two new elements -. M. Curie<http://wyllie. much greater than pure uranium. The Discovery of Radium. Debierne. Mme. in all the experiments carried out radium salts were employed (i. after very considerable labour.§ 87. chars paper with which it is allowed to come in contact. however. its atomic weight was determined by Mme. Thorpe. In that year. and found to be about 225. probably owing to the formation of a nitride.. Chemical Properties of Radium.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch.virginia.which they named "Polonium" and "Radium" respectively -. and found that there was a proportion between the radioactivity -119of such compounds and the quantity of uranium or thorium in them.lib.

and do not possess great penetrative power.virginia. passing for the most part through a thin sheet of metal. The -rays are similar to the kathode rays. they are slightly deviated by a magnetic field. and consist of (negative) electrons. . and possess medium penetrative power. and are not deviated by a magnetic field. with a mass approximately equal to that of four hydrogen atoms.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> § 89. and the difference in their penetrative power.<http://wyllie.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. The difference in the effect of the magnetic field on these rays. they are strongly deviated by a magnetic field. The they possess -121- -rays resemble X-rays. in a direction opposite to that in which the -particles are deviated. referred to by the Greek letters . .lib. Radium salts give off three distinct sorts of rays. The Radioactivity of Radium.is more volatile than barium. . The -rays have been shown to consist of of electrically charged (positive) particles. great penetrative power.

107. but the whole mystery becomes comparatively clear in terms of the corpuscular or the electronic theory of matter. It seemed.<http://wyllie.virginia. or by heating it. corresponding to values for the atomic weight varying from 216 to 227. and. The same law holds good on the more interior plane -. and actually does. and contains in virtue of their motion an enormous amount of energy. that of continuously emitting light and heat. that here was a startling contradiction to the law of the conservation of energy. § 90. neon. considered that in all probability it had an atomic weight of about 222½. namely. considered that there could no longer be any doubt that the emanation was one of the elements of the group of chemically inert gases. which tends to become occluded in the solid salt. W. The radium-atom is a system of a large number (see § 81) of corpuscles or electrons. Gray. krypton. and in this respect it resembles the rare gases of the atmosphere -. explode. for reasons which we shall note later.<http://wyllie. and manifests itself partly as heat and light.. so that a density of 100 would give its atomic weight as 200.virginia.e. Some free electrons are shot off (the . its volume varies inversely with its pressure).e. at first.lib.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. and it can be condensed to a liquid at low temperatures.lib.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. and xenon -. a specially sensitive -122balance being employed. The Disintegration of the Radium Atom. But it is known from Chemistry that atomic systems (i. an atomic weight of about 220 corresponds to a position in the column containing the rare gases in the periodic system.helium. The emanation exhibits the characteristic properties of a gas. That the emanation actually has an atomic weight of these dimensions was confirmed by further experiments carried out by the late Sir William Ramsay and Dr. argon.whence it is probable that its molecules are monatomic. Attempts to prepare chemical compounds of the emanation have failed. it obeys Boyle's Law (i. but can be conveniently liberated by dissolving the salt in water. Sir William Ramsay. therefore. were thereby: obtained.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> These chemists determined the density of the emanation by actually weighing minute quantities of known volume of the substance.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> As can be seen from the table on pp. 106. Radium salts emit also an emanation. Radium salts possess another very remarkable property.led to their detection and allows of their separate examination.. And the result? Energy is set free. R.the radium-atom is liable to. Values for the density varying from 108 to 113½. molecules) which contain very much energy are unstable and liable to explode. its density as determined by the diffusion method is about 100. sealed up in small capillary tubes. He proposed to call it Niton.

give rise to pulses in the ether (the rays).lib. however. This "induced radioactivity. striking the undecomposed particles of salt.<http://wyllie. B. the products being termed Radium A. . which. is found to be due to the emanation.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. Induced Radioactivity.-rays). it has been found that it is undergoing a series of sub-atomic changes. and is decomposed into minute traces of solid radioactive deposits.virginia. The and -rays do not. which is itself radioactive (it emits rays only)." as it may be called. result immediately from the exploding radium-atoms. the initial products being the emanation and one from each radium-atom destroyed. By examining the rate of decay of the activity of the deposit.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> just as the kathode particles give rise to X-rays when they -123strike the walls of the vacuum tube or a platinum disc placed in their path. Radium salts have the property of causing surrounding objects to become temporally radioactive. -particle § 91. C.

Thorium probably gives at least three solid products -.&c. § 92. It has been proved that all the and -rays emitted by radium salts are really due to certain of these secondary products. Radio-thorium. the last of which yields an emanation resembling that obtained from radium. as otherwise there would be none in existence -. This suggestion has been experimentally confirmed. on repeating the experiment.Meso-thorium. and M. it is quite certain that radium must be evolved in some way. Professors Rutherford and Barnes . Sir William Crookes<http://wyllie. the residual uranium having lost most of its activity. It has been suggested that radium may be the final product of the breaking up of the uranium-atom. Another product is also obtained by these decompositions. By distilling off the emanation from some radium bromide.virginia.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. found that the activity of the residual uranium was slowly regained.it would all have decomposed. -124Becquerel. with which we shall deal later (§ 94). Uranium and thorium differ in one important respect from radium. § 93. at any rate. Radium F is thought to be identical with Polonium (§ 87). and Thorium X. inasmuch as the first product of the decomposition of the uranium and thorium atoms is in both cases solid. but not identical with it. and measuring the quantities of heat given off by the emanation and the radium salt respectively.lib. the growth of radium in large quantities of a solution of purified uranyl nitrate having been observed. whilst that of the uranium X decayed. We must now more fully consider the radium emanation -.a substance with more astounding properties than even the radium compounds themselves. Properties of Uranium and Thorium. Uranium gives no emanation. This is most simply explained by the theory that uranium first changes into uranium X.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> was able to separate from uranium salts by chemical means a small quantity of an intensely radioactive substance. which he called Uranium X. The Radium Emanation.

It had been observed already that the radioactive minerals on heating give off Helium -a gaseous element. they carried out further very careful experiments. A research to settle this point was undertaken by Sir William Ramsay and Mr..lib. "The maximum amount of the emanation obtained from 50 milligrams of radium bromide was conveyed by means of oxygen into a U-tube cooled in liquid air. and the latter was then extracted by the pump.. in which the radium salt had been first of all heated in a vacuum for some time. After standing from July 17 to 21 the helium spectrum appeared.virginia.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. probably that of the emanation itself. What is the ultimate product of the decomposition of the emanation? § 94. The amount of energy liberated as heat during the decay of the emanation is enormous.virginia. and one may well ask. characterised by a particular yellow line in its spectrum -. proving that the helium obtained could not have been occluded in it." Sir William Ramsay performed a further experiment with a similar result. though the fact that the helium spectrum did not immediately appear.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. Soddy. It was suggested.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> proved that nearly three-fourths of the total amount of heat given out by a radium salt comes from the minute quantity of emanation that it contains." The spectrum was observed..and it seemed not unlikely that helium might be the ultimate decomposition product of the emanation. and the characteristic lines were observed. Undoubtedly this must indicate some profound change. one cubic centimetre liberates about four -125million times as much heat as is obtained by the combustion of an equal volume of hydrogen. Sir William Ramsay's results were confirmed by further careful experiments by Sir James Dewar and other chemists.<http://wyllie. it "was apparently a new one.10 <http://wyllie. in itself -126proves this point.lib.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> and a preliminary experiment having confirmed the above speculation. therefore. The Production of Helium from Radium. that the -particle consists of an electrically charged .

lib. This value is in agreement with Sir William Ramsay's determination of the density of the emanation. Here. the emanation-atom results from the radium-atom by the expulsion of one -particle.virginia. which was evacuated. and since this latter consists of an electrically charged helium-atom. This tube was surrounded by an outer jacket. therefore. This is a point which must be insisted upon.helium-atom. After a time the presence of helium in the space between the inner tube and the outer jacket was observed spectroscopically. but it has been completely demonstrated by Professor Rutherford and Mr. then..jpg> <http://etext. through the walls of which the particles could pass.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> Now. for it has been suggested that radium may be a compound of helium with some unknown element. a compound of helium .edu/images/modeng/public/RedAlch/RedAl126. leaving out of the question the nature of the emanation.e. Royds. and not only is this view in agreement with the value of the mass of this particle as determined experimentally. it follows that the emanation must have an atomic weight of 226-4. or. but which were impervious to gases.jpg> -127- § 95.lib.virginia.lib.virginia. 11 <http://wyllie. i. by the following scheme: -<http://etext.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. We may represent the degradation of the radium-atom. for the first time in the history of Chemistry. for. we have the undoubted formation of one chemical element from another. 222.edu/images/modeng/public/RedAlch/RedAl126. there can be no doubt that radium is a chemical element. These chemists performed an experiment in which the emanation from about one-seventh of a gramme of radium was enclosed in a thin- walled tube. perhaps. Nature of this Change.

to indicate some of the differences between helium and the emanation. The latter is a heavy gas. whereas helium does not possess this property.edu:8086/perl/toccernew? id=RedAlch. that the rate of decay of the emanation is unaffected by even extreme changes of temperature.virginia.) one very important fact has been observed. out of all proportion to that obtained even in the most violent chemical reactions. and falls in that column in the Periodic Table with those elements which it resembles as to its chemical properties. whereas helium -128is the lightest of all known gases with the exception of hydrogen and has been liquefied only by the most persistent effort.) The quantity of heat liberated on the decomposition of the emanation is. is radioactive.virginia.lib.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> The emanation. since it has been shown that lead is probably one of the end products of the decomposition of radium. however. 15 <http://wyllie. 13 <http://wyllie. and (iv. however. (ii.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. for the reason that it is a spontaneous change. it has a characteristic spectrum..lib.lib.) Radium possesses all the properties of a chemical element. as we have already indicated.14 <http://wyllie. that (in a sense) this change (viz.virginia. Is this Change a true Transmutation? It has been pointed out.) All attempts to prepare compounds of helium with other elements have failed. condensable to a liquid by liquid air (recently it has been solidified12 <http://wyllie.with lead. perhaps. namely.lib. show this view to be altogether untenable: (i. no effort of ours can bring it about or cause it to cease.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. It will also be advisable.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1>). of emanation into helium) is not quite what has been meant by the a expression "transmutation of the elements".virginia. whereas chemical actions are always affected in rate by changes of temperature.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? . moreover. although (save in these exceptional cases) in a very slight degree. giving off -particles.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> But the fact of the change does go to prove that the chemical elements are not the discrete units of matter that they were supposed to be. And since it appears that all matter is radioactive. (iii. § 96. The following considerations.

.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> We have -130next to consider whether there is any experimental evidence showing it to be possible (using the phraseology of the alchemists) for man to assist in Nature's work. The chemical elements are not permanent. resulted from a change. and hence of all matter. the essential truth in the old alchemistic doctrine of the growth of metals is vindicated. . in something of which we have no direct and intimate knowledge. although the process may be far -129slower than appears to have been imagined by certain of the alchemists. .virginia..virginia.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. stand in strong contrast with those which chiefly prevailed among experimental philosophers from the time of Newton.id=RedAlch.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> we here have evidence of a process of evolution at work among the chemical elements. . Tilden: " . As yet we know nothing with certainty. corresponding to condensation. As writes Professor Sir W.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> and although gold may not be the end product..16 <http://wyllie.) Thus. the sea. for the metals do grow in the womb of Nature. the air. Some have imagined this primal essence of all things to be identical with the ether of space. The Production of Neon from Emanation.edu:8086/perl/toccernew? id=RedAlch."17 <http://wyllie. § 97." " ." he adds. and the common elements merely mark those points where the rate of the evolutionary process is at its slowest. and hence all material substances of which the earth. and the host of heavenly bodies are all composed.lib.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu . the radium emanation contains a vast store of potential energy. and it was with the idea of utilising this energy for bringing about chemical changes that Sir William Ramsay18 <http://wyllie.lib.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch.. (See also §§ 78 and 83. As we have already indicated above (§ 93). they are all undergoing change. It seems probable. It appears that modern ideas as to the genesis of the elements.lib. and seem to reflect in an altered form the speculative views of the ancients.virginia. "that the chemical elements. but it is thought that by means of the spectroscope some stages of the operation may be seen in progress in the nebulæ and stars.

whereas this suggestion might be put forward in the case of argon. The first experiments were carried out on distilled water. after the removal of the ordinary gases.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> However. On examining spectroscopically the gas obtained by the action of the emanation on water.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. and a large number of the neon lines identified. Cameron. as indisputably proved. The spectrum of the residual gas after removing ordinary gases was successfully photographed.virginia. Moreover.blic&part=7&division=div1> undertook a research on the chemical action of this substance -. in Ramsay's opinion. A more careful experiment was carried out later by Sir William Ramsay and Mr. It had already been observed that the emanation decomposes water into its gaseous elements. and that the latter is always produced in excess. as the sparking tube had been used and tested before the experiment was carried out.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> attempts to obtain neon by the action of emanation -132on water.virginia.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. until a position of equilibrium is -131attained. by change of conditions. a most surprising result was observed -. in which a silica bulb was employed instead of glass. if a transmutation be defined as a transformation brought about at will. then this is the first case of transmutation of which conclusive evidence is put forward. Royds have been unable to confirm this result. Professor Rutherford and Mr. the neon could not have come from the aluminium of the electrodes (in which it might be thought to have been occluded). explaining the formation of an excess of hydrogen." 19 <http://wyllie. accompanied with some faint helium lines. Out of five experiments no neon was obtained.a research with the most surprising and the most interesting results. The authors conclude: "We must regard the transformation of emanation into neon. save in one case in which a . These results were confirmed and the presence of hydrogen peroxide was detected. oxygen and hydrogen. for the energy contained within the radium emanation appeared to behave like a veritable Philosopher's Stone. helium was also present.lib.lib. They describe 20 <http://wyllie. and. by leakage of air into the apparatus. it was also shown that the emanation brings about the reverse change to some extent. in presence of water.the gas showed a brilliant spectrum of neon. The presence of neon could not be explained. as the percentage of neon in the air is not sufficiently high. causing oxygen end hydrogen to unite with the production of water.

But if this is the true explanation of Ramsay's results. in the case of the experiment with a solution of a copper salt described below. and the gas evolved in the case of a solution of copper nitrate contained. the free metal might be obtained. if due to leakage. that a considerable quantity of sodium was present." therefore. § 98.small air leak was discovered. Cameron that if a solution of a metallic salt was employed in place of pure water.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. along with much nitric oxide and a little nitrogen. They found on removing the copper from a solution of a copper-salt which had been subjected to the action of the emanation. they conclude that Ramsay's positive results are due. Ramsay's Experiments on Copper. § 100). These "modern alchemists. neon and argon occur in the same column in the Periodic Table with emanation. for. proceeded to investigate the action of radium emanation on solutions of copper and lead salts.lib. It is worth while noticing that helium. It certainly seemed like a dual transformation of -133copper into lithium and sodium. but no helium. since the authors find that very minute quantities of this gas are sufficient to give a clearly visible spectrum. (2) that helium results from the `degradation' of the large molecule of emanation by its . together with traces of lithium. and spectroscopically examining the residue. it is difficult to understand why. They also observed that apparently carbon dioxide is continually evolved from an acid solution of thorium nitrate (see below. the presence of neon was not detected. the proportions of the rare gases present should presumably have been the same in all the experiments. to leakage of air into the apparatus. The fact that an excess of hydrogen was produced when water was decomposed by the emanation suggested to Sir William Ramsay and Mr. after all. Further research seems necessary conclusively to settle the question.virginia. and emanation into argon. and again apparently effected transmutations.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> The authors make the following suggestions: "(1) That helium and the -particle are not identical. and. argon (which was detected spectroscopically). in each case the elements produced being of lighter atomic weight than those decomposed. lithium and sodium with copper.21 <http://wyllie. and carbon with thorium.

liquid water. They failed to detect lithium after the action of the emanation.lib. or from water alone. as is the case when the emanation is dissolved in a solution of copper sulphate. (5) that when molecules of still greater weight and complexity are present.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. helium. The transmutation of copper into lithium. (4) that if particles of greater mass than hydrogen or oxygen are associated with the emanation. must be regarded as unproved.bombardment with -particles.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> repeated Cameron and Ramsay's experiments on copper salts.lib. produced when copper nitrate is present. lithium. platinum apparatus. is double that obtained from the blank experiment. using. (3) that this `degradation.' when the emanation is alone or mixed with oxygen and hydrogen.lib. and at the same time. A little later Madame Curie and Mademoiselle Gleditsch 23 <http://wyllie. and think that Cameron and Ramsay's results may be due to the glass vessels employed. namely. Dr. § 100. namely.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch.virginia. namely. In his presidential address to the Chemical Society. Perman24 <http://wyllie. but further research is necessary before any conclusive statements can be made on the subject. and is reduced to the lowest term of its series. We are inclined to believe too [they say] that (6) the copper also is involved in this process of degradation. after having brought forward some exceedingly interesting arguments for the possibility of ." 22 <http://wyllie. and has failed to detect any trace of lithium. Further Experiments on Radium and Copper. however.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> § 99. inasmuch as the weight of the residue of alkali. then the `degradation' of the emanation is less complete.virginia. the supposition is not excluded that the -134chief product of the `degradation' of copper is sodium.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> has investigated the direct action of the emanation on copper and gold. results in the lowest member of the inactive series.virginia. 1909. March 25. therefore. the product of `degradation' of the emanation is argon. and neon is produced. Ramsay's Experiments on Thorium and allied Metals.

also yielded carbondioxide when acted on by emanation. No one is better aware than I how insufficient the proof is. was then investigated. Sir William Ramsay described some experiments which he had carried out on -135thorium and allied elements.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> § 101. apparently. The action of radium emanation on compounds (not containing carbon) of other members of the carbon group. .' undergo degradation into carbon. but the suggestion still awaits experimental confirmation. zirconium and thorium.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> It was found. Their results confirm Sir William Ramsay's former experiments.lib. titanium. It has been suggested that it might be possible to obtain. Many other experiments must be made before it can confidently be asserted that certain elements. in this way. precautions being taken that the gas was not produced from the grease on the stopcock employed.lib. but in the case of lead chlorate the amount of carbon dioxide was quite insignificant. Sir William Ramsay concludes his discussion of these experiments as follows: "Such are the facts. in the cases of zirconium nitrate and hydrofluosilicic acid. it may be possible to build them up. a metal which belongs to the nitrogen group of elements.edu:8086/perl/toccernew? id=RedAlch. The question arises.transmutation. the perchlorate of bismuth. carbon-dioxide was continually evolved from an acid solution of thorium nitrate.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch.virginia. the amount of carbon dioxide obtained was inappreciable. zirconium and lead. Curiously enough.25 <http://wyllie. that. as we have already stated (§ 98). when exposed to `concentrated energy. and it also appeared that carbon-dioxide was produced by the action of radium emanation on thorium nitrate. carbon-dioxide was obtained. namely. and they also described an experiment with a compound of titanium. since these two elements occur in the same column in the Periodic Table.virginia. The Possibility of Making Gold It does not seem unlikely that if it is possible to "degrade" elements. In the case of lead." Some such confirmatory experiments were carried out by Sir William Ramsay and Mr. 26 <http://wyllie. Francis L Usher. gold from silver. Carbon-dioxide was obtained in appreciable quantities by the action of emanation on compounds -136of silicon. silicon.

-137Certain substances are known which. yellow phosphorus (a yellow.27 <http://wyllie. to take another example." A very suggestive argument for the transmutation of the metals was put forward by Professor Henry M. for not only is radium extremely rare. "If after defining `elements' as substances hitherto indivisible.D. judging from the above-described experiments. LL.g.or. behave chemically as if they were one and the same element. But the financial chaos which would follow if it were to be cheaply obtained surpasses the ordinary imagination. Sheffield Meeting.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> It has been customary to refer to such substances as different forms or allotropic modifications of the same element. highly inflammable solid) and red phosphorus (a difficultly-inflammable. and with the facts. It is a theme that ought to appeal to a novelist of exceptional imaginative power.. second. and different elements as those which differ in at least some one property.lib. moreover. In short. dark red substance. and on account of its instability will never be obtained in large quantities. probably possessing a minutely crystalline structure). we are confronted with the change from diamond into lampblack. § 102. However.virginia. but. we try to escape in a circle by saying that they are not different elements because they do change into each other. must be admitted.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. although differing in their physical properties very markedly. and not to regard them as being different elements. 1910. lampblack) -. in a paper entitled "Allotropy or Transmutation?" read before the British Association (Section B). Howe. far dearer than gold. waxy. first. and. and we define those which do transmute as . are.What would be the result if gold could be cheaply produced? That gold is a metal admirably adapted for many purposes. indeed. that they differ in every property. The Significance of "Allotropy.all of which are known chemically as "carbon" -. for which its scarcity prevents its use. we limit the name `element' to indivisible substances which cannot be transmuted into each other. graphite and charcoal (e. Such substances. that each is clearly -138indivisible hitherto and hence an element. convertible one into the other. if. the quantity of gold that may be hoped for by its aid is extremely small. giving rise to the same series of compounds. of which we may mention diamond. we need not fear these results.. As Professor Howe says. and after asserting that the elements cannot be transmuted into each other. the radium emanation is the true Philosopher's Stone.

" and not to any differences in the atoms themselves. the value obtained is the atomic weight of the element which forms derivatives.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> According to the atomic theory the differences between what are termed "allotropic modifications" are generally ascribed to differences in the number and arrangement of the atoms constituting the molecules of such "modifications. and different elements are distinguished by different atomic weights.lib. indeed.virginia. this is the sole fundamental -140- . is it not equally just to reply that calling two transmutable elements one element does not make them so? "Is it philosophical to point to the fact that two such transmutable elements yield but a single line of derivatives as proof that they are one element? Is not this rather proof of the readiness. indeed irresistibleness. different quantities of energy. 30 <http://wyllie. whenever it enters into combination. Is not this very like saying that. of their transmutation? Does not this simply mean that the derivativeless element.29 <http://wyllie. But we cannot argue that two such "allotropic modifications" or elements which are transmutable into one another -139are one and the same element.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. if we do.virginia. If we wish to distinguish between two such "allotropic modifications" apart from any theoretical views concerning the nature and constitution of matter. inevitably transmutes into its mate which has derivatives?28 <http://wyllie. we can say that such "modifications" are different because equal weights of them contain. according to modern views regarding the nature of matter.virginia. derivatives of such bodies are employed.ipso facto one element.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> since the change of one "form" to another takes place only with the evolution or absorption (as the case may be) of heat.lib. hence.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. regard the atomic weights of the elements as having any meaning beyond expressing the inertia-ratios in which they combine one with another. and then we say that the elements cannot be transmuted. for the reason that. because they possess the same atomic weight.lib. in the determination of atomic weights.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> But. then a calf has five legs? And if it is just to reply that calling a tail a leg does not make it a leg. or are equivalent to. from which that of its derivativeless mate may differ considerably for all we know to the contrary.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. if you call a calf's tail a leg.

§ 103. whereas different elements (so called) differ very greatly from one another in this respect. and it is not beyond the bounds of possibility that it may lead to that other goal of the philosophers of the dark ages -.lib. and hence are comparatively easy to convert one into the other. the Elixir Vitæ.difference between two different elements -.edu:8086/perl/toccer-new? id=RedAlch. demonstrate the fact of transmutation. The so-called "allotropic modifications of an element.such are different because equal weights of them contain or are equivalent to different quantities of energy. when the means of imparting and controlling energy shall have been investigated?" 31 <http://wyllie. For the action of living cells is also dependent on the nature and direction of the energy which they contain. We have shown that modern science indicates the essential truth of alchemistic doctrine. And of the other problem.the elixir vitæ. and it is worth noticing how many of the alchemists' obscure descriptions of their Magistery well apply to that marvellous something which we call Energy. and our task is ended. They must not be confused with the greenish-yellow phosphorescence which is also produced: the X-rays are invisible. . and who can say that it will be -141impossible to control their action. then the transmutations of the elements no longer appears an idle dream. The philosopher's stone will have been discovered.virginia. the only distinction being that what are called "allotropic modifications of the same element" differ only slightly in respect of the energy they contain. 2.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=pu blic&part=7&division=div1> Whatever may be the final verdict concerning his own experiments." therefore. whence it is to be concluded that the transmutation of one such element into another will only be attained by the utilisation of energy in a very highly concentrated form. are just as much different elements as any other different elements. the true "First Matter" of the Universe. Sir William Ramsay said: "If these hypotheses [concerning the possibility of causing the atoms of ordinary elements to absorb energy] are just. and the change from one "modification" to another is a true transmutation of the elements. 1904). Conclusion. those of Sir Ernest Rutherford. such as is evolved simultaneously with the spontaneous decomposition of the radium emanation. referred to in the Preface to the present edition. See Madame SKLODOWSKA CURIE'S Radio-active Substances (2nd ed. who knows? 1. Writing in 1904..

409 et seq. pp. vol. See Sir T." Philosophical Magazine [6]. DEBIERNE: "Sur le radium métallique." Philosophical Magazine [6].Sc.. E. 229 et seq. vol. 4. By Ramsay." Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences. ROYDS. This view regarding the -rays is not. lxxx. 298 et seq. lxxii.Sc. xvii. vol. W. 1907). 523525. vol. 175. some scientists regarding them as consisting of a stream of particles moving with very high velocities.R. p. 6. A. (May 15. pp. cli. THORPE: "On the Atomic Weight of Radium" (Bakerian Lecture for 1907. pp. (1909). (1904). cii.: "Heating Effect of the Radium Emanation. 12. 7. vol. vol. (1910). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. CURIE and M. however.. F. xxv. 8. lxvi. 126 et seq. universally accepted. pp. vii. 10. Sir WILLIAM RAMSAY and Dr.S. F. pp.. (1909). See Proceedings of the Chemical Society. R. 82 and 83. and T. (1903). see § 76. 11. cvi. (1910). 9.S. 1908). BARNES." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. RUTHERFORD. This follows from Avogadro's Hypothesis.R. (1900). reprinted in The Chemical News.S.: "The Nature of the -particle from Radio-active Substances. RUTHERFORD.3.R. Madame P. Sir WILLIAM CROOKES. D. vol. 204 et seq. vol. . 202 et seq. pp. F. xcvii. 281 et seq. vol. M. pp. GRAY: "La densité de l'émanation du radium.) 5. T. E. Delivered before the Royal Society.: "Radio-activity of Uranium. vol. June 20. (For an English translation of this paper see The Chemical News. E. pp. pp. Sir WILLIAM RAMSAY and FREDERICK SODDY: "Experiments in Radioactivity and the Production of Helium from Radium." Comptes Rendus heldomadaires des Séances l'Academie des Sciences. and H.

p. 17. 18. anticipated many modern discoveries and scientific theories. 992 et seq. (1907). "Pt. xci. 931 et seq. vol. On Water. vol. 125 -. Action on Distilled Water. pp. E. III. M. and T. as is now recognised by scientific men. TILDEN: The Elements: Speculations as to their Nature and Origin (1910). It would be a most interesting task to set forth the agreement existing between Swedenborg's theories and the latest products of scientific thought concerning the nature of the physical universe. pp. 55). Pt. and certain others of the alchemists expressed a similar view. F. C. . pp. ." ibid. that the common element potassium is radioactive." Journal of the Chemical Society. 966 et seq. Mr. Sir WILLIAM RAMSAY: "The Chemical Action of the Radium Emanation. A. 16." ibid. 109. "Pt. CAMERON and Sir WILLIAM RAMSAY. 37 (July 24. On Solutions containing Copper. 1908). 20. " ." (see The New Pearl of Great Price. ibid. With regard to Sir William Tilden's remarks. . we know that the generation of metals occupies thousands of years . Waite's translation. pp.S. and on Water. xciii. Journal of the Chemical Society.. I. for example. ALEXANDER T.. "Pt. .13. 19. E. though very feebly so (it emits -rays). p. It is also interesting to note that many common substances emit corpuscles at high temperatures. xciii.126. 15. Such. See Chemical News.. 812 et seq. It has been definitely proved.R. pp. and Lead... 997. (1908).: "The Action of Radium Emanation on Water. pp. xvi. RUTHERFORD. 1593 et seq.Sc. Says Peter Bonus. (1908). it is very interesting to note that Swedenborg (who was born when Newton was between forty and fifty years old) not only differed from that great philosopher on those very points on which modern scientific philosophy is at variance with Newton. By Professor Onnes. . vol. however. p. vol. ROYDS. On Water and Certain Gases. JONES: The Electrical Nature of Matter and Radioactivity (1906)." ibid. in Nature's workshop . however. (1908). 133 and 134. 108." Philosophical Magazine [6]. would lie without the confines of the present work. See Professor H. xcviii. . 14. pp. IV. . II. vol. but. Sir WILLIAM A.

so that the above suggestions must be modified in accordance therewith.e. pp. xcviii. p." Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de Séances de l'Acadimie des Sciences. 107." Journal of the Chemical Society. 345 et seq. EDGAR PHILIP PERMAN: "The Direct Action of Radium on Copper and Gold. cxlvii. 214. For a defence of the view that chemical substances may be regarded as energycomplexes. so far as very small diamonds are concerned. (See § 94. proved that the -particle does consist of an electrically charged helium-atom. (For an English translation of this paper.) 29. as something made up entirely of different units or atoms each characterised by the possession of a definite and constant weight at a fixed . pp. and that this view is equally as valid as the older notion of a chemical substance as an inertia-complex. Madame CURIE and Mademoiselle GLEDITSCH: "Action de 'émanation du radium sur les solutions des sels de cuivre. xcv. vol. vol. Diamond is transformed into graphite when heated by a powerful electric current between carbon poles. xci. See pp. p. 26.21. see The Chemical News. 209 (October 29. 25. vol. is a more difficult process. 1909). (1908). 1605-1606. pp. September 23. but the late Professor Moissan succeeded in effecting it. (1908). cii.) 23. vol. 1910. LL. by dissolving charcoal in molten iron or silver and allowing it to crystallise from the solution under high pressure.: "Allotropy or Transmutation. however." Proceedings of the Chemical Society. Journal of the Chemical Society. HOWE. at higher temperatures the reverse change sets in. however.) 24. i. 624 et seq. is the most suitable. Red phosphorus is produced from yellow phosphorus by heating the latter in absence of air. The artificial production of the diamond. 22. (1909). Sir WILLIAM RAMSAY: "Elements and Electrons. More recent experiments. vol." (See The Chemical News. The temperature 240-250o C. Graphite was also obtained. and both diamond and graphite can be indirectly converted into charcoal. pp. and this view was latterly accepted by Sir William Ramsay.. 157 and 158. 28. Professor HENRY M. (1907). For a brief account in English of these later experiments see The Chemical News.D. 27. 106. vol. pp. vol. xxiv. 153 and 154. red phosphorus being converted into yellow phosphorus. c.

vii. (European Edition). The Transmutation of Lead to Mercury. entitled "The Claims of Thermochemistry. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Adept Alchemy by Robert A. vol. Nelson. Sir WILLIAM RAMSAY: "Radium and its Products. vol. Karssen .point on the earth's surface. (New Series). p. Back to Adept alchemy contents. 30. THE END. 1910). Smits & A. see an article by the present writer. 57. Smits & A. however. Part II." Knowledge and Scientific News. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chapter 5 The Transmutation of Lead to Mercury (1) A. Karssen ~ (2) References (1) A. 227 et seq. More frequently. In some cases the heat change accompanying the transformation of an element into an "allotropic modication"{sic} can be measured directly." Harper's Magazine (December 1904). Chapter 5. xlix. it is calculated as the difference between the quantities of heat obtained when the two "forms" are converted into one and the same compound. pp. (July. 31.

Smits and Karssen reported further developments of their experimental protocol. The lamp was redesigned. Pure liquid lead was poured into storage vessel C. The apparatus was tilted so the liquid lead ran into the two legs (A. after which the open end was sealed off. the spectrum of a quartz mercury lamp was observed. The electrodes were inserted in two small removable copper water coolers (G. The lead oxide being dissociated. 5. They described their method as follows: After filling the storage vessel. and the lamp was evacuated again. the lamp and the lead were heated in high vacuum to redness. who claimed to have transformed mercury into gold in a modified Jaenicke mercury ultraviolet lamp. Their work was inspired by that of Prof. to facilitate comparison. which was connected to a mercury diffusion pump (Fig. which was continuously heated. The legs of the lamp were heated to redness to drive off the gases from the electrodes. Prof. B) of the lamp. of Amsterdam) published reports of their alleged transmutation of lead into mercury and thallium. (4. B). Then the lead was brought into the lamp. The use of a mercury manometer was avoided by employing a glass spring manometer. H). All the equipment was examined spectroscopically to make certain it was free from mercury and thallium. The lead was kept liquid at 350o C by an electric furnace around C. Then copper water coolers were placed around the legs. Two legs (A. 5) The lamp was constructed of lead quartz. Miethe.1). ending in narrow tubes. especially mercury. The lead was specially prepared and purified by the firm of Kahlbaum of Berlin to prevent every contamination. Arthur Smits and Dr. After 10 hours. vessel C was further heated with a Bunsen burner to dissociate all the oxide and gases. Tube D contained capillary F and terminated in stopcock K. plus those of thallium. At the end of the experiment. contain two steel electrodes cemented with sealing wax. the entire series of lines of mercury. The experiment was monitored with a quartz spectroscope. After that we burned the lamp at 40 A/80 V for 10 hours. the liquid lead was returned to vessel C. the liquid lead was as brilliant as mercury. Thus we obtained the spectrum of the lead in its initial state. by a Hilger quartz-spectrograph. and also the scale in such a way that.In 1924. After having done this the lead was poured into the storage vessel to obtain thorough mixing. a few mercury lines began to appear in the spectrum. the different spectra were adjacent. In 1926. A. Stopcock K was then closed and disconnected from the pump. After a current of 30-35 amperes/8 volts was passed through the system for 6 hours. and the lamp was ready to use. When a high vacuum was attained. the lead was then . were apparent in the visible and ultraviolet spectrum. and after ignition the spectrum was observed at 25 V/36 A. Karssen (Univ. Further. and the mercury diffusion pump was replaced by a mechanical pump to eliminate the possibility of contamination from that source.

Smits offered this explanation for the transmutations: In the case of the transmutation of lead into mercury. After 9-1/4 hours' sparking all mercury lines. the inactive isotopes having the atomic weights 206. In six such experiments.. however. after 10 hours' burning the strongest mercury lines had appeared in the visible as well as in the ultra-violet part of the spectrum. This. indicating a transmutation of lead into mercury and thallium. therefore. that the isotope 206 suffers a transmutation giving an isotope of mercury: Pb .. The researchers suspected that the CS2 had contained a trace of some organic mercury compound. because only by intensive air cooling could melting of the quartz-lamp be prevented.. 0. we used currents up to 60 A. and also the most characteristic thallium line. Positive results were still obtained. as it is known that a relatively strong quantity of mercury can cause the spectrum of another element to disappear. whilst initially the lead spectrum showed only very weakly the mercury line 2536 in the ultra-violet.a = Hg 201 . by applying not a continuous electrical current but sparks of high current densities. 208 and 210. however. even after it had been thoroughly purified.2 mg of mercury was recovered. we may assume.... While the lamp was kept oscillating by a mechanical arrangement.. were present. to change our method a little. We thought it better. But at all events our spectra show in a very convincing way the transmutation of lead into mercury. even the very weak ones. The mercury was chemically detected as the iodide. The researchers also conducted experiments with a nitrogen atmosphere at various pressures and a liquid dielectric (carbon disulfide) with 100 kv/2 milliamperes for 12 hours.. but that seemed to be dangerous.. and after ignition the spectrum was observed at 25 V/36 A.1-0. Since our experiments showed that a high current density is very favourable to this transformation... for example. This method was very successful.4 = 202 82 . a current of high-density [60-100 A] was breaking and making.2 = 80 . Similar results were obtained with 160 kv/10-20 milliamps.. does not yet prove the transmutation to be strong. The result was that.brought into the lamp again.

4 + 2 = 80 In the case of the transmutation of lead into thallium we can assume.C. as lead is the end-product of the spontaneous radioactive transformations. and: Pb .. While using the old quartz-lead lamp. for example.8 = 200 82 . They offered these speculations: In the case of the transmutation of lead (82) into mercury (80).2a .2 + 1 = 81 We see that of the different transmutation possibilities. This proves that the phenomena taking place in the quartz-lead lamp depend on influences unknown until now. The best method of learning the nature of the transmutation is to examine spectroscopically whether the process is accompanied by the formation of helium or hydrogen. [the first] is most simple.. A.2 = 80.2q = Hg 208 .. with our new lamps. The lamp showed distinctly different properties in burning and sparking.But we may also assume that the other isotopes 208 and 210 undergo a transmutation.. Davies and Frank Horton reported that they had been unsuccessful in their attempts to replicate the Smits-Karssen experiments.4 = 204 82 . and to determine the atomic weights of the heavier products.2a . In that case we obtain: Pb .. the following process: Pb . so that transmutation in the quartz-lead lamp is not so easy to reproduce as we expected. spectroscopically negative results were found even using 60 amperes. negative results were obtained only if the current strength was lower than 15 amperes..q = Tl 208 . Moreover.a .4 = 202 82 . but now. the change may occur . I suspected this process could be expected first.2q = Hg 208 . (2) In 1926.

When such a penetration does occur. 1926). Anonymous: Science-Supplement 62 (1602): 14 (11 Sept. Nature 117 (2952): 758-760 (29 May 1926). & Horton. the nucleus of the mercury atom. 81 (Feb.. When atoms are bombarded by electrons. 231 (Oct. one would expect to find evidence of a relatively large amount of thallium compared with the amount of mercury produced. Smits. Smits does not seem to have found such an effect. or by the removal of a proton from. A. and the subsequent conversion of the thallium into mercury by a second similar process. 4. For some unknown reason. 5.: Scientific American 133 (4): 230. 1926). the electron will be attracted towards the nucleus and may possibly be absorbed by it. ibid. 1924). 1925). 1926). and the issue disappeared from the scientific literature after 1928. Prof. (2) References 1. in some cases the absorption of an electron by the nucleus may render the latter unstable and disruption may occur with the ejection of a proton and an electron. it is possible that in a few instances an electron penetrates within the K shell of extra-nuclear electrons. ibid. in which case the final chemical state of the disturbed atom will be the same as if the electron had been absorbed by the nucleus and a stable condition attained. & Karssen. This line of research remains open to exploration. either separately or together. 117 (1948): 620 (1 May 1926). 117 (1931): 13-15 (2 Jan. Frank: Nature 117 (2935): 152 (30 Jan.. If the process occurs by the intermediate production of thallium. 2. these explorations were not continued. though it is certainly surprising that this is possible in the circumstances of these experiments. A. Davies. Even so. . ibid. 63 (1623): 10 (5 Feb. for he records stronger evidence of the production of mercury than of the production of thallium.C. 610 (25 Oct.."]. 3. Smits. "the entry of an electron into. 1925). ibid.. or it can occur as a one-stage change by the ejection from the lead nucleus of either one doubly charged positive particle (presumably an a -particle) or two singly charged positive particles (presumably protons) simultaneously. 134 (2): 80. A.either by the intermediate production of thallium by one of the processes already suggested [viz.. A.: Nature 114 (2869): 609... 1926).. since the questions it raised remain unanswered to this day.

he says several . to his friend and fellow scientist Jacques Dubourg.or least difficult -.6. Thomassen. But as if those things were not enough. *** * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------" Gold can be manufactured from other elements by several methods.: Nature 119 (3005): 813 (4 June 1927).of such experiments. If nothing else. Nostradamus-style. In the letter below. The transmutation of silver to gold is perhaps the easiest -. the attempt may serve to enlighten aspiring souffleurs " A Few Words From Our Forefather In a life filled with many accomplishments. among other things. L. he also took time out during his busy life to predict. Constitution.S. but that is another matter altogether. The penultimate means of transmutation is the Philosophers' Stone of any degree. "discovering" electricity and helping to write the U. Sort of. Ben Franklin gained notoreity for. the future practice of cryonic suspension.

. however distant. etc." will people be saying the same thing about you? Ruminating your passing? Wondering how you would have liked the way the world turned out? Unlike poor Ben. FRANKLIN. by L. and too near the infancy of science. More than anything... until that time. and the experiments which you propose for recalling to life those who appear to be killed by lightning. pp. There is no doubt that having him around today would be a tremendous boon to historians and the curiousity-filled public.. I am. in such a manner that they might be recalled to life at any period. 1956).. Your observations on the causes of death. April 1773. the science of his age was "too little advanced" to afford him the opportunity for more life.] [ Previous Section | Index ] ...things that now seem almost eerily prescient. having Ben Franklin alive today would have beend an even bigger boon to Ben Franklin himself. and a desire to be around in the far future to see how it all turns out. to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection.. for having a very ardent desire to see and observe the state of America a hundred years hence. historical figure or not. we live in a century too little advanced. W. being immersed with a few friends in a cask of Madeira. [From Mr. as he feared. (New Haven: Yale University Press. J.B. his words convey a general optimism about science and its value.. you have at least one option for avoiding that. Of course. A Selection from His Personal Letters. Too bad that. Bell. It appears that the doctrine of life and death in general is yet but little understood. then to be recalled to life by the solar warmth of my dear country! But. Jr. I wish it were possible. in all probability. 27-29. I should prefer to an ordinary death. demonstrate equally your sagacity and your humanity. Labaree and W. to invent a method of embalming drowned persons. Franklin. To Jacques Dubourg. "A hundred years hence. Will you? *** London. Today's cryonicists generally find more than a little to symapthize with in these thoughts.

B Lippincott & Co Philadelphia 1860 this is believed to be the first publishing since 1860 Tomas Edison certainly read this book and later used its knowledge to invent devices by 1875 I. INC. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------THE SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATION OF THINGS ( 1860 ) very rare poor copy scan Edited by R. OR T~K S()IE~TIFIC EXPL.All Rights Reserved. -.E Peterson 1860 J.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Home | TRANS TIME Intro | Cryonics Intro THE TRANS TIMES | Related Sites Bookstore | Feedback | Search © 2001 TRANS TIME. . PETERSON FAMILIAI~ SCI~NCE.ANATIO~ Op COMMO~ ~llING~.

. 11 voue dira Ia graud~ur dci Istres leur Vitesse Ct cur di~tar~re i'IterrO~~z~Ia ear 'utume qui esl taprec de lur. &pt 9. At a meeting ofthe floard of Educatico of the Ittouhi. P]]~TERSON. ~ ONE i1UNr~i:I) ANn z~ytmiI T1!OcJ~~Nfl PHTh~D£LPItI~: J. laCi. ave. held at tee ~eutro. lL'~t tt)C lO. 2.R. LIPPI~£ 0 TT & ~o NO. V~OI I c" 4 4114Ct ~cteuee.~4 Fitet D:sin'ci ~ feoucyvettia. Secry. ~ehlie ~hooii held flee." be iitr~ duced 41410 Ikie Gt'p. Im opeba OF 14 1~' )rutr Al a Meeting of the ( Op ~ 44 44 T~4~. PR!LADELPH!£ L'honirne ~ur 'In Ynondc d~ pou~~i~rc qui to~rn~ Ct 1~e~pnrt. E. Ttitsday.lIowittg t4'~O114t4 4' IV '441 44)IcI1 I~'c'()lVed. Qh4'4)).~t~ttt~44 ijOct 4)4 4 444 j ERC J t'~~ptttLL. B. MEM3NR OP THE ACAnEMV OF NATITRAL SCI~XO~8. 'Upidite'.'4c~~' 44444. ii gardera Ic sjIe'tce. T~et II. L.20 NORTh FnU?T~ ST~~EET 1860. ~ mesure' ~ dCs Ci'UX.

4 F ~P~E~ACE. and a candL' luininous th '1 n ater boils when subjected to heat.t. -. q5 ~ cli a-s by t~i-t ~4c those ilarts which wero -pm'ely applicable to Gicat britain. Care has been taleen howeveir. Igorwiob-in union with I'~ing'it ('ollege. and is wi-it-ten in language so pl~n as to be nngu~tood by all.e boili wldto. and adapting the whole to our own country As to the orron emial. ~plains about t~ 0 thousand of tliese questions. 9. Th~i '4 Petercue's Familiar Sciente. of Innity 11411. L.e work '5 lco'a the pen of the Re~ Or.~o the acquirement of the great u'~ie'tii~ efu -4 1 i ~ ~~bodied ii the wor'g. leaveS green. See'y. A part of the f~ollewin. as well a prac tical scientific knowledge.The work. ~ see that salt md snow i. itoLeitet. a mS red. in -t very popnlar and entertaining kim. to render it intelligible to . I.the fuituwilIg tesetutico ~ve~ tttoeled Resateed. wait not only sn nian~ ~ 0 uts Un itt d to the Anterican pupil. Cambri'.in '10 ioi'id of the pupil the different I-branches of ~ 1iich it 14 t '4 No science is mere generally interesting than that which ~xplains tIes COinitlon phenomena of life. however." be adopted as a tegl seek fur utS in the Public aehoots. Brewer. om &hocZ Beeia t~t. ice cold. DILTANGIIAM. a. -C~trls~ts efc~. It cOni4Ii)5 mud' useful.-' b~w few persons ever ask the rca-son why ~ e knou that a flute prodtices a ineesical sound.t. and Ire~zes fi'om cold but when a child looks up into our face and ask u~ why '-how many times is it silenced with a frown or called very foolish for asking such silly qnestions p This book intended for the use of faneilies and itchoola. in the endeavor. -~ t~e Clock's Ci't~ Os II"))" C44tttt of the Laslera th~tnci c--f i'~itta2yt'~utl.I f--'I~ . London.. al so. and also of clas~~~ yin. to the year 1~tl by ~O~ETh 41. by making many 4 additions. W.' Act cf OIIugre~e.'go. Head ~'1astef of King's C&Aege ~ch~ol.. as it erianated fiom the ~nghsh press.. and a cracI-ed hell a ducordaut one-that fire is hot. but was eAtremely deh~'~iit in its arran~ement Ihe L'ditor has endeavored to r~m~ ly ibes defects. and the violet a deep puiplc 1)1. be ~els con-fident it will be the 'c~~v . Entored according to '.

Puiaxit.cle.~werod. 1851. . -4 Dr Brew~'c Preface Ii 5 I I I IV PrtE~ACE. who are even tolerably U LI lL)r~nLd ic'~ i~L ~i~1I)etCnt to give. tn-cIty-five t~'o~eC~'1 ce~~ies ci the ~ngIish edition of the above work WOrO sold in L~idnn in loss than two years.reprn~. A little child ivbo icjs pro~ent asked. ~~by is the kettle so black with 11cr p i~ ~ l. [n the Preface to tL I' aglish edition. 1110 idim~ trusts his book may prove all intoresting and usoini companion to both old and young.the yenPog. ~ilIy child-you ask very fool ~h qoostions sit down and hold your tongue.~n love to am ~n'4 wbnt rn~ny older persons. to facilitate thi pupil's researches. that it ~ her given i~ full A rcin~rkal Ic m~t~ nec came before the author a few inon lbs since. of the s~a~ mont made in the earl~ part of thi~ Pr'~~c. ~11ecanso it has been on the fir ' But ' (nr~el the chilil) what is the good of its being bI~cJ 2' ~[~lie ~ontlein~n replicd. and not wilife Ii o the Ijiso dust oflime. to avoid that childish simplicity which ~ight be un~ccep~-~~de to tl4ose of riper years. either in the fatnily ~i. already mentioned~ there iS an anocd~~e related. Tbe coiicer~e~'0ii was ahont siuoke~why it wal hleck. A verji foil Index is app ecided to the work. or in the school-room.' Inforinqtion of that de~cription is just what childi. which is so appropriate. Apau~.

3d Dec. . Brewer: Itoarar E.-HEAT. BR~WEL HELE'S.The following is extracted from a letter received by the Ilditor. ?ETi:R50x ~5Q.e 'red the American editIon of my '~~ui~e to Is Cill'1~ ~ ~ n' hi~ it very handsonioly pUntel nit' I ~ esteem it an honor to give my full co~so~~e I ssiiig my approbatio~ Df your edjuon of in) ~ ~inili li Science and I thank you foi the kindness In havino' sent me a copy Deas ~i' Yours truly. m m ____ F 1< CONTENTS. PART 1. E. from the Rev.G. 1851. Dr. i)cAR Sic I have i. IsLE or Jansar.

. 7 u II E 2 c ire . . . . See I 1~o. . . 43 . . . 197 . . . 99 S ch'.. 5 Rell. . . . 2 co. -43 Itt 5Tc~3. 4 1 1 tt~ot heat . . . 'im'. . 3 TI. 151 171 154 117 141 142 . . . . ~III ~'TEO~~N ~ Atu. ·~r4 . .. . Sec. . 5 . . . . ') ~ 12 I 5 D u-~ from t~~h~otng. . 9 See 1 1 lrrrr~c~ty prodaerj I friction. 2 ~o. 175 " II Hyp-tor N A~D WATItEt. . . e .of Itghtaittg. See. . . \ co. 2]. . .urd. . a IV. 51 . . 59 2 ~ -t . PART 11 NON-3~ETALL1C ELEMENTS. MEra~~irAL ~~TWN. 2 Oxidee . . . . 176 . .n~~ . 121 4 Vi . See trru--~iot. I ~ i~i~~cu . . See 1 Oxigea. 15 . . 25 ret. . 6 Al) iri'nou . Iii CHFMtCAL Ar . . . .ti it ii. . . 12 42 0 19 .DAIL CIEIP I ~ . . 131 113 4 R~. . ici IL? lii 103 . . .ou.dcit-anoa or eompe~io1.lt' to~~ . i I . 2 Friet.r . See 1 iSo -Ca the PC~trCC2 ~oorre of heat. 161 151 .~l of heat . ra. . . . . . . . 101 .. 2 Air . . 79 9 110 111 . . i~&P I~OxvaEN ANn OxirEa.

AaTHe~wAaE· PART IV. Bee 1. 2. 272 S c I I r~v£ :>~::)o. Teode ~viadc.Me · 262 5.'vdrogeu. · 297 2 Huogec. - . 256 2. I. 1. . Dew. 1.20 See. . ~tu 240 250 P sT·T HI METALS. 1. 29. · 227 See. 211 cc VI ·C~S~ · · · 215 '-I cc V's ()~. . ~ I -7. · 3061 cc V 01 . 2 Carburetted Hydrogen V -P I- .8 2. ~ t.. . Carhooto acid. 1.-METEOROLOGY. eoo 210 212 V' CONTEn !~.-Pansp~oi. 5poot~ueous combastton. c-. · 217 " Viii AaT. l'o.~AL HEAT.~COyi~O5T~ · 2.-cLouns. 1. A!~ 164 ~ 21.-OR~ANIC CHEMISTRY CIl~AP I -ScoAa · · 275 It V'ccMP~TATTON ANr P~TttEFAcTeOU.noTcs ro POISON-.A. · · 240 Sec. CHAP.~ATMo~rnEaE.1cTALS A·O ALLOYC . · 269 · 223 - · 256 .Sec.-GLASS.I~~3AH1o . · · 115 Sec 1 Food. 256 ~' IV AN. . Ilodificotjocc of eloude. 1. V. 11'~tt~ooue ·· 245 ~ 112. - 195 . CHAP. 220 · 224 PART Y. tl23 4' Vl.co ANO P'IOsPH~~TTX1 LIYDHOGEN. 4 Fifervemeoce. · 275 '· III 14oMPO~F\'TC 0 vua AHIXAL Eony. Sec. P]'o~pho ~ .

. CHAP. Q. · · · · · . 1. 416 5.-H1~AT.--HFcOACTIOY.-SOU~~ CHAP I -~TRANSM'SStON Or.oe. PART VII. · .· 490 MItacELLANEGUS. · · · 427 IISec.· 258 cc IV. A. · · · · . Eehs.-Littur.-TIlE SUN TIlE PEIPIARY SOURCE OF RE&~ 1. e 2 Q.R~o'I. DeceptionS of vtctou. . A.1 477 415 · PART I. · · · cc PI. SOuND.-OPTICS.. ITusjeal counds. ~'. F0 F£Ost.A?. 1. What is the pn~ncip~ source of heat? The Su~ is an ine£ha~fible source of hea~.cc itt. .ow. · . 412 2.-UPeLocT. · · · . IKO ~1ON 1.~~cE. · · · Sec. · · . 1.-coLoII.11L~. . 3. · 259 · 413 PART YI. WI ~at is ~o~? The sensation of warm~h. IlotI. C·I. · 4ic 1. · · m 3. -. 472 " IV. 1. The eye the eeat of vision.-THE SUN. · 274 4 .

hut fires are never so bright wheu thc~ nm shines on them. ~e ~i~v~sii)le streani flou~~ from the hotter sn1)~£ance and produces on our nerves the sensation of warmth. the reason is not certainly 7 8 ThE SUN. Q.Q. 4. which produc~s the sensation of warmth. . a sv~. which flows from the hotter su~ stance? A. L sun-shine detrimental to coinbusLion? A. kncwn. Q. whereas this property is possessed by artificial heat in a very small degree. Q. therefore is the agent. Is caloric eqtiaUy distributed over the globe? A No. The heat of the Sun ~asses readily tlirol~h glass. How is the 5 ~ )i? of heat produced? A. but HFAT is the sensatica itself. When we to~ ~ ~ substance hotter ~han ourselves. Co'lorJc. Does the hea~ of the ~ possess any different propeihes from art fi cial heat ? A. Q. at the eqitc~to the average tempe. 5ECTiO~ iI~--cALoETC. 6. It is generaTly ~posed some chem~al e~ect is produced r~r)f~~n the ~ in contact with the fire which rn~~cc(es the progress of combustion. 5. WIiat is that "sn~tle invisi&le stream called. It is. CALORIc.

SECTION 1. why does it adhere to the t~ ble? . CHAP.i~ ew freseing. and brings it into active peration. 10. they knew that when amber (the Greek word of which is r~~I.. but it is often in a latent state. Q. Q. 9. 8.A I CALORIO.) is rubbed5 it acquires the property of attrac~ iog other bodies. J~1ectricity. Z~ao. 11. Q. 9 ~ture is 82~o. tica mean or medium tempemture. while at the potes it is believed to be about 130 below Zero.roop -electron. ~ is hidden concealed. Average ~ that iv. ~ heat. exists in all matter. Yes. friction dis~urb8 it.-ELECTRICITY PRODUCED BY FRICTION.-ELECTRICITY. THE SECOND SOURCE OF HEAT. When you rub a piece of p~er with Tndian r~~bber." the point irom which a thermometer ig gradeated~it . Was electricity kndwu to the ancLents? A. Why is electricity excited by fr~c(~o~? A.

No.ng herself? A. ~eeause her hair will not lie smooth. A. this odor is called "Ozo~E. sometimes the~sulphurous odor prevfiils. 16. to smooth the hair down. Because the electric ~uid passes through~air of different densit~es. LIGHTNING. Yes. near a large electrical machine ~n ~ood action. 20. . Why does the cat keep rnbb. the most d?y air.J2 ELECTRICITY. yellow. 18 Q. Q has this peculiar odor called "Ozone" been observed in thunder storms? A.ny appearance by ~hich it can be known? A. red aiid I)urple? A. Q. is in itself ~nvisible. Is -Q. ·~hi~ makes her feel as if she were co~ered with cobwebs. resembling sulphur and phosp~orus. red. Yes. The most rai~fi~d air produces a white light. such as white. electricity like beat. and the most damp produces yellow streaks." :9. Is electricity accompanied with any Odor. but has a perpetual tendency to become ruffled: ~o the cat keeps rubbing her coat and ears. there is always a peculiar odor. Q. and brush away the feeling of cobwebs. and sometimes the phosplloric.Why are there differen~ coior~ in the Aurora Borealis. though often accompanied by both light and heat. Does eleetneity present a.

the most y air.-LIGHTNING. Because the electric fluid passea through air of different densitzes. Wily are there different col0T6 in the Aurora Borealis. The most rar~ed air produces a white light. ¼. as ~ they come in coutacf~ with each other. and 3rd.-LIGHTNING." 22. 21.-Cun~nts of air of uu~ual temperatitre. Like that from a "Leyden Jar.SECTION 11. such as white. Q. i~d Rild purple? A.-The evaporation~from the earth's 2nd. which excite electricity by frictio~~. and the most damp producea yellow streaks. Q. Lightning is accumulated electricity ~ charged from the clouds. What produces electricity in the clou~s? lst. 2 a' I LIGHTNING. A. What is lightning? A. 2L . red. yellow. SECTION 11. t ~.-The chem~c~ changes whieh take place on the earth's ~ . Is I' 20.

~d s~eti'nes electric fluid rushes ottt of the earth into the r]oU~s. Yes . ~nd sfe~les.-The chem~c~ changes which take ~ace on tbe earth's surface~. Q. i~ there any other cau~e of Lightntng besides flie one iu~t mentioned? A. wi~ d1 ch~rge the li{+tl~~.~. some ~ ~ mount~ins. What is lightning? A. 'pproaches ano flier which is a~ dercharge(7. which excite electricity by frictio~.-~T~e evaporation £rom the e~rth'i 2nd. What causes the discharge of an eleo. rT(~ toe ctIIei ~eti'i~~ut : fliore ~r~qure~tiy e. Lightning is accumulated electricity ~ charged from the clouds. 23. the fluid rushes from the former into the latter. A." 22.ng from a cloud floatin~ ne~r. There are t~vo d~frereat kinde of T'. till both contain the same quantity. trees.ertr?ei~y~one Vi~re~u~.'~~led P~~itive a~id ~Q0'qt~Ve E~e~i rily. tric cloud? A. Q. 24 Q. overcharged with ele~ tnc fluid. What produces electricity in the clouds? 1st. aa they come in contaci with each other.-Currents of air of unequal tempera{~ire. 2 p -~ -i 14 ~WITY. Like tbat from a ~' Leyden jar. 'low hi il are the hghtniv g clouds trom th~ eart]i? . 25. ~~hen a cloud. 5nd 3rd. Q.

~iy is lightning sometimes forked? A. 15 Q how hiol are 2tt0 clouds ge2terally? A. 27. How does the ro44ance of the air make til3 lib taing zig-zag? A. in order to pass where there is the least resistance. aud. as tile fl~sh meets with very little resistance. A.tile reflection of di~ltant ftash~ -not distinctly visible.A ~ometimes they Ire ~evated fo~r or five ~ ~ hi oh. $ Q. when they are more fli an seven hun~i~d yan]s above the surface of the eai~h I LIGHTNING. 10 EIJ~cThIclTY. Because the lig'ntnin g-clond is at a greatdistance. it is not diverted. Q. What is 8heet lightning? Either . (in other words) tile flash is straight. Because tile ~igh~ing-cloud is n~ar ~rth. tT$L&t the electrical cuiwentisdiverted into a ~ coare. Q. the clouds are often four orflve miles abowe our ilew'ts. it flies from side to side. 29. 30. In a fine Uc/ji. Becanse (in very severe storms) the fln~ will diwide into two or more parts) each of whiuli will assume the zig-zag form. hi~t they ~ie rer~ly dischar~ed in a storm. ~ itli one of their ed~cs . A. but the average height of the clouds is from one and a half to two miles. Q. end sometimes~ac~u~1v touch the co~ I. 31. As the Jighti~ing condenses the air in the inn nec' cite ad\-ance of its path. Why are there sometimes two fla~1iei of for~4 li~litning at the same moment? A. 4+the rendante of tfre az~ is so great. Why is the flash sometimes quite ~traight? L [11 F. 22 Q. or beneath the .

Q. When lightning flashes from the earth ~o tile clouds. 32.ilorizon. or else several fla~hes intermingled. in consc-qu~l'ce of which. what i~ the flash ca1l~d? A. and wind is tile result ci this disturbance. 38 . Sometimes tile flash is globu~~. 33. which is tile most dangerous form of iigiltiiing. a part is given off in heavy ra~n. Q. Q. renderin~ it unable to ilQld SQ much water in sohition a~ it could before. 17 is disturbed by tile pass~~. 36. Q. Becansc the Iigiltuing~cIoucls are so J~r distant. Q. Why is lightning more common in ~mmer and in autumn than in spring and winter? A. What o~er form does lightning oceasionally assume? A. Tile flash produces a change in tile physical condition of the air. Wily is there n~ thunder to what is ~alled summ£~r lightnin~'? A. Why is a flash of lightning generally ~Ilowed by a gust of wind? A Because t}~e physical condition of the air MGIITNING.e of the ligllti)]flg. 3 Q. It is popularly called the "return~~ ~roke. flash of lightning generally followed by pouring rain? A.of water into vapor always developes electricity. that the sound of the thunder is lost before it reaches tile ear." because the earth (being overcharged with electric fluid. Why is a.) returns the surplus quantity to the clouds. and the ~onversion. Because the heat of summer and autumn produces great evaporation. 34.

Always from apo. it produce8 ~. 40. When the cloud~ cont(~in more cicc~'ic fluid than they generaMy do. What is meant by the ~ouds ba~g in a "negative state of electricity?'.n th~ £arth to the clouds? When tile clouds are in a "negative" 't~te of electricity. Q. A. A. What is meant by the clouds be~g in a "positive state of electricity?" A. Because. Q. When does hghtning pa~s :ro. just the same as fire would. When the clouds contain le&e e~ctric fluid than they gencr~y 10. that it destroys life 45.Dangerffom Lightni~g. as if it had bean set on fire? A. 42.. thoy ~ tO be in a "negative sta~e of c¼a~rlcity.' A.~itke body tl4~t i~ froni one over-charged with cTe~ti~iQ fll~d r DANGER ~()M UGHTh~JNG 19 A I. Why does lightning sometimes kill men ~d beasts? A. Why is a tree sometimes scor~hcd by lightning. Q.Q. 9* I U' 18 ELEOTRICITY. When does lightning pass f~rn the clouds to tile earth? When tile ~OU~L are in a "pQ5itive'~ ~ate of electricity. they are said to be in a "positive state oi~ ~ectricity. Q." 42. when the electric current passes through a man or beast.~' Q Does the fla~h proceed from a n~oti~'~ or positive body? A. Q. violent an action upon the nerves. The electric flu~d scorches by its own positive heat. .

Q. Q . 52~ Q. Q. sometimes they run a considerable dist~mce along #~iO ground. Because when they fall tliey exploci~e like a cannon. 4. 49. At other hmes they split into numerous -~maller bails. or lofty building.dangerous to be near a . 51.-. 20 48. what are they? N. 47 Q. Why are persons sometimes maimed by lightning? A. Lightning sometimes assumesthe am p~crance of balls of fire which ~all to tile ear~h. It is very dangerous to be near a tree. What places are most d~ngerous during a thunder storm? A. Do these balls of fire ever run along ihe gr~und? A. Because the electric fluid produces an action upon the nerves sufficient to injure them. when tlie eTc otric fluid ~in its way to tlie earth) actually passes through his ~ody. ~3. and e~1~ode in a mass. W?~en is a perso~ struck dead by ligil~ m~g? A. and also to be near a river. and occasion much mischief. Why is it . and kill all cattle and human beings which happen to be in their course. but not to destroy ii£e. Why are these balls of Ave so very dangerous? A. Tiley set fire to houses and bains. they generally move more slo~y than ligilt~g. Q.Q.What mischief do these balls of fire produce? A. that is. Q. or any running wa~er. Masses of c~l0sive gas formed in the air. ELECTRIOITY. each of which explodes in a similar manner..Yes. Only when his bQty forms a part of the l~htning's path.

21 tree or lofty building. Becaus~ running water is a good co~~ duc§~r. and if any one were stand mg near. it might no longei be too far off to be discharged. tile lightning might diverge froni the tree. or any other running water during a thunder storm? A. ~5.~g over a loin) may be too j~r oPI to bc'> ~ 1~y it3 but as a tree or spue Vi oni l shorten this di~. otorni? I ELECTRIcITY.tance. A Ug1itning-~ e'i ~ (~~9flt. a Q. and pass through tile finids of the human body. How can a tree or ~re discharge a lightning-cloud? A. F~)r e~~m~!o I~ lightaing-e~oud -~ere 750 yard above the earth.- t DANGER ~ROM LIGHTNING. Q. 54. it woa[d bo too i~er off to 1)0 doohotoot p-but trot or pitt 50 yaro high ~vtpt~pi taqko the tippud t~n1y 151 ~Pr~PO pif a touduttor. and lightning always takes in it~ course the Jtest coniNctor~. ~id (if there ~Vere 110 t~A'er obj~ct nigil) t}ie lightning nught make tile man its conductor to tile ~vatcr . A Because tile height of a m~in ~ay be ~ufficient to discil~ge a ~oud. Q. ~'hy is it d~ngero~e to b~ near a deep river. Because a tall pointed object (like q tree or spire) will frequently d~~harge a lightning-cloud. during a thunder st9rIn? A. Wiky is it dange~~ sfor a ~ to ·ear water in a thunde. ja toreeqttttot of ~~itij ttt dood would he iflutOfltiy ]io~htrgrd.

59. 57 9. especially when . and. Q. 9. it diminisiles its resistance to tile electric fluid. tile attics and tile cei{ar. Por tViO ~ I ]st. 28 the bell. Beonse the ~ 5tCCj)'(' ~Il~y di~ch~IU~~e merely from its hc~ ilt and 2n~. J~ is ~Jso Iniprudaut to sit close by tile walls. Whpt ~ ris of a d~:~lling are most dangerou~ dui4ng a tilunder storm? A. Wily is it unsaQ~ to run or drive ~ luring a tilunder storm? A. to rin~ I DANGER FROM LIGuTNING. Why is it dangerous to sit before a fir~ during a thunder storm? Because the heated air and soot are conductors of lightning. A.]. esj)eci~y if the fire be J.i~]ite'. it is a better conductor tilan ot. Q.Wil~ is it dan~~ovs to rin~ during a tilunder stoini? chureli hells A. Tile flre-~ace.-As tile swrnging of tile bells puts tile air in~motio~. or to bar the shutters d~'ng a tiluiider storm. in a state of rest.56. as ilir in motion affords less re&i~tance to the flasil. ~ecause it produces a current of qir.

and injure him. Wli<~~y is it daflgeroft~ to b~ in a cr6wd during a thunder storm? A. passing down tile wire might run through ilis hand and injure it 63 Q Why is it dangerous to bar a shutte? during a thunder storm? A. For two reasons: Because a mass of people forms a better conducto~r than an individual. 'or fire-irons. 65: Q. -~ -Q.connected with such excellent conductors as the stove. Because lightning sometimes passes from the clouds to tile earth. Why is a theatre dangerous during a thunder storm? . Becanse tile elec~'c fl'uid -~ill sometililes ~ -a wall. and 2nd. Q. and a person were to touch the bell handle the electric fluid. and t~ more conductors there are. (as a man is a bett~ con~uc~~~or< than a wall. Q. and. 62. the greater the danger will be. . and somehines --from ~e earth to the clouds.4 -~ 60-.-Because tile vapor arising from a crowd increases its conducting power. Q. A Bell-wire is an ercellent conductor. grate. in either case the middle story would be the safest place. Because vapor is a conductor. and tile electric fluid might run from tile bar through the person touching it.) woul4 leave the wnll and run down the~inan. -. Why are attics and cellars more dangerous in a thunder storm. Why is the da~ger increased by the vapor which rises from a crowd? A. 66. 61. Because the iron shutter-bar is an ercellent conductor. than the middle story of a house? A. Why is it dangerous to r~-ng a ~uring a thunder storm? I 24 ELECTRICITY. 64. Why is it dange-rous to lean against a wqli during a thunder storm? A.

I 25 I A. and great '~apor arisilig from so many living bodies. render it ~n excellent conductor of lightning. 69. is increased by its numbers. herd of cattle. building. in greater danger than a smaller nuin A. 67. lst. 68. or stream of water. Q. and 2nd.-Because each animal is a cond'~ctor of lightning. Any place about twenty or thirty feet froIn a tall tree. If a person be abroad in a thunder storm. Because the crowd.U I ¼ DANGER FROM LIGIITNING. . and tile conducting po~er of the flock or herd.-The very vapor arising from the Qock or herd increases its conducting power aud its danger. ~tc. what place is the safrst? A. Q.. ~Y11y is a flock of sheep.

Q. or hearth-rug. 73. and perhaps destroy life. fo! the hghtning to diverge from it to us.Q. Because tile electric finia migilt run down the sides of the carriage. If a person be in a house during a thunder storm. and (if a person were leaning against them) would make a choice of him fo? a conductor. without touching any of the four sides. Why would it be safe to stand twenty or thirty feet from a tall tree. 71 Q. Why should not a person lean against tile carriage in a storm? A. house. 3 [ I ELECTRICITY. Why is tile middle story of a hous8 ~afest in a thunder storm? A. Q. 70. what place is safest? A. He should not lean against tile car riage. before it reaciled tile middle story in consequence of which its force would be . but sit upright. 72. Tile centre of the room is the best. Any room in the middle story. during a tiunider storm? A. Q. bed. in what way can he travel most ~afely? A. especially if you place yourself on a mattrass. Because the fitdd (if it struck the house at all) would be diffused among the ~~everal conductors of the upper part of i:he I 1)ANGER FROM LlGIITNINU. If a person be in a carriage in a ~il~ni der storm. Because the lightning would aiway~ eti~ose the tall tree as a conductor and we should not be sufficiently near the tree.

ll. or hearth-rug. without touching our body at all. as lightning always makes choice of tile best conductors. 78. . it would not choose f6r its path such things as these. tile further distant from these. ile should draw his bedstead into the middle of his room. bed. Because tiley are all non-conductors." No greot danger flee. Q. and go to bed. it you ivoid taking your position near tall trees. is to stand about twenty feet from some tree. tile best tiling be can do. li~itning would pass down our wet clothes. spires. Q. "The very hairs of your head are all numbered. 76 Q.weakened. What is tile safest thing a person can do to avoid injury from lightning? N. and tilerefore. remembenug that our Lord has said. a good security against injury from lightning? A. therefore. Because wet clothes form a better con ductor tilan the fluids of our body. and.~LigAtning Conductor. the better. and get co?nplete/y drenched to the skin. Why is a mattrass. 74. Why is the middle of a room more safi ~ian any otiler part of it in a ~iunder ~torm? A. Is it better to be wet or dry during a tilLmder storm? A. To be wet. ~Yh'y is it better to be wet than dry? A. Q. 77Q. commit himself to the care of God.) would come down the chimney or walls of the room. if a person be in the open field.! really to be apprehended from lightning. and. or other elevated nljeelt J f 28 ELECTRICITY. 75. Because tile lightning (if it should strike the room at all.

acting at a much greater dittanec than h. rather than tile walls of tile building. Wbat is a lightoing conductor? A. 81. 82. thnt a Leyden jar of cosuiderable eluc may be safcly and tilcatly discharged. Q. care of corn. lst. 29 2nd.79. Q. Ity holdi'tg the poist ofa needle an inch or ttvo off. WIiy is copper better than iron? A. runring up tile whole ileigilt of a building.-It is not so readily injured by weather. As metal is a most excellent contiuctor. Why should lightning-conductors be pointed9 A. w. . A metal rod fixed in the eartil. Q.toha. 80. lightning (which makes choice of tile best conductors) will run down a metal rod. 1 'I LIG1iT~ING CONI)UCTOll~5. 83. Q ~Vhat is tile u~e of a lightning conductor? A. Because points conduct electricity ~way silently and imperceptibly.-Because copper is a better conductor than iron. 64. and II 3rd. F. Q. ~lsdre of erase. and rising in a point above it. but knobs produce an explosion which would endanger the building. P(dete empty the clouds of electricity. -It is not so easily fused or incited. aitd othcr pointed objects serve to cmpt7 the clouds of their electricity.~at metal is best for tius purpose? A Copper makes tile best conductor.

tile electric fluid (being obstructed in its path) will damage the building. Why are boughs of trees broken off by lightning? A. the lightning will fuse the metal. Yes. 89. 86. they will often be broken off by this force. Because the mechanical force of tile ligbti)illg is very great. If tile rod rise two feet above tile jionse. It will protect a space all round. Wily is an electric shock felt m~si al the elbow joint? UGHTIING CONDUCi~R5. How far will the beneficial influence a lightning-conductor extend? A. if tile rod be not large enough to conduct tile whole current to tile eartil. 85.Q. . Because the path of. How can lightning-conductors be pvcductive of harm? A. Q. 68. as tile boughs of a tree are imperfect conductors. 3- ELECTRICfl~. and. Is there any other evil to be apprehended from a lightning-rod? A.elt at the elbow) is caused by tlie fluid leaping from one bone to another. it will protect tile building for (at least) eight feet all round. Q. 87. an4 the shock (f. Q. Q. 31 A. the fluid is obItrileted by the joint. four times the length of that part of the roil which riecs vY)oi~e the littilding. Q. and injure the building. If tile rod be broken by weather or ticcident. Give inc an exam~e? A.

Q. and tile outside of a tree L5 a better conductor than the inside. As iron is a conductor. 32 ELECTRICITY 94. which impregitat~ the wood and bark. It runs down the outside of a tice. A. 95. 92 Q. Q Does lightning go through the inszele or down the outside of a tree? A. but passes through the tns~e of a ma)'. Q. Because tile fluids of the human body made a better conductor than the skin. Is not air a conductor of lightning? No.~. which is . but air (being a non~conductor. Why does lightning part file air through which it passes? it does not part a rod of iron. and not down his skin. Q. Q. 91.90. Because the grain of the oak. Q. A. Wilv is an oak stru~~ by lightning more frequently than any other tree? A. being closer than that of any other tree of tile same bulk. 96. 93. A. Why would tile lightning run through a man touching a bell ilandTe? Because tile human body is a better conductor than tile wall. Because it always makes choice of the best conducto. Why does lightning pass down the outside 0£ a tree? A. therefore. it allows the fluid to pass freely thi~ugh it. renders it a better conductor. Why does lightning pass through the ~side of a man? A.) resists its passage. lightning passes through a man. dry air is not a conductor o~ lightning. ~t jesald thst tite sap ofthe oak rontaiss a larce qaastitvo~i~aa in 500-lion. thus inoreasing its eonduclir~ ~ower.

101. Q. Wity is the bark of a tree often rippe~ quite off by a fla~ of lightiung? ELECTRIcITY. 99. melts) the flinty matter of tile soiJ into a vitreous (or ~assy) substance.between tile bell handle and the floor.~h tile o~~Z canductors. Hollow tubes produced in sandy soils by tile action of lightning. Q. What are fulgu rites? A. is more likely to be struck than CL single individual. and. Why would lightning fly from a tree or spire into a man standing near? A. it would (in this case) pass tlirough tile nian. it would pass through the man standing near tile tree. if tile iluman fluids proved the better conductor. Q. IIl. There ~voaTd he no d~s~er if he ~pire were made of eteral. A. and as ligil~ fling always chooses tile best conductor fo~ its path.-~ffec's of Lightning. bceaut~ metal i~ a better eoodoeto? than the human fluids. When it enters the earth.'. rather than down tile tree itself. . (that is. 100. cal~d ~ fu!gu rite. How does lightning producefulgurites? A. Q. and in a connected mass of ~tc. it fuses. Because tile electric fluid (c~ed lig~~ ning) aiways chooses for its p. 97.li EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING 33 ~onductors. Q. 98. P WIiy is a mass of bodies a better condt~ctor than a single body? ~ach living body is a condudor of ~kdricity.

in order to reach tilem. which lay between. and (as it flew from bar ii~ bar) smashed the stones of the church. Q. (London. Tile steeple. 106. turns milk Sour. vane. and (as it darts from bar to bar) shatters to atoms the bricks and stones which oppose its progress. Sometimes the mere heat of the air. B. 102. and thua produces a poison. turns it sour. Q. 105. Q. Why did the lightning fly about from place to ~ace? EFFECT~ OF LIGHTNING. employed to snppor~ tbe building. some small portion of which. Why does hghtning turn milk sour? A. Ssme part of this is prohsbly due to the simple earchaniral tsrre of the tghtr. The lightning first struck the meta1. 35 A. Because it always takes in its course the b~st condudors. about one ilmidred years ago? A. How does lightning sometimes knock down houses and churches? A. 104. Because the latent heat of tile tret (being very rapidly developed by the electric fll~id) forces away tile bark in its im petuosity to escape. doriug the storm. Can you tell me how St.irg. Q. 103. the lightning then darts to the iron bars and cramps employed in tile building. called nitric acid. or chimney is first struck.) was nearly destroyed by lightning. N. and will fly both right ind left. Bride's church.. it thell darted to the iron cramps.A. Lightning causes the gases of the air (through which it passes) to combine. mixing witli the milk. and ran down the rod. .

then those ingredients are said to be combined. 110.Q. Q. Q.~ incomplete. bine. Q Give me an example? A. but water poured on quick~lime. when shaken in a bottle. poured on l]me. sad nitric arid. Oxygen cesthin~d with nitr'~grn. viz -nitross oxide. Q. 107. When oxygen and nitrogen combine. Because if beer be new and the pro -~ss of fermentah. lightning so acc~!erate the process. Different colored sands (shaken together in a bottle) will mir. Wily il water. but when tile natural properties of each are altered by the union. said to combine with it? A. nitric oxide. sitrous achI.' 0 be mixed when they are shaken toge flier? A Because (though nlingled together. and the water that of flie lime. as grains of stind would do. but not com * Tee sir is composed of two gasee. will combine with the lime and not mix with it. as to turn ~)C EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING . called oxycen and nitrogen. What is the difference between combining and mixing? A. they do not constitute air. 109. tiley are said to be mixed. Q. Do oxygen and nitrogen cotn~ine.7ie saine ~ it was before. hyponitrous seid. ~lie property of each grain remains t. 108. prodttcei lYe deadly poirons. the lime alters the cliaracter of the water. or only mix together in atmospheric air? A. Because the properties of each are altered by the mixture. They only mix together. When different ingredients are mingled together without undergoing any chemical change. Why are different grains of sand sail. Why does lightning turn beer sour al(hough contained in a close cask? A. tegether htxt not remhierd. 111. but acid poisons. according to the proportion of earh gss Is Its SSsseiesti(m r 36 ELECTRICITY.

litnagdon of inme portions of the o~ygcu and titrogen of the air. Whv is not old beer and strong porter ~a~e sour by lightning? A. and 2nd. Nitric acid acts very powerfully i~ d~ ~roying the exhalations. 115. is less affected by electrical influence. Yes. without pass mg through the intermediate state of a/co ~ol. in its passage through the air. 112. and. . 114. Q. Becau. Q. Why does lightning purify the air? A.~e the electric fluid produces nitric acid'. 117. A. Q. Because the fermentation is more co~~ete. Q. Tite titric ecid " ic prodeced hy the ce. Why is metal sometimes fase~ by lightning? A. 1st.~~gar into acetic acid at once. 113. therefore. Because the dimension 0£ the rnet~ is too small to afford a path for the electric current. 4 flow dods the production of nitric icid purify the air? ELECTRICiTY. 116. bars of iron and steel are some-times rendered magnetic by lightning. Be~ause the agitation of the storm stirs up the air. Does not lightning sometimes affect the character of iron and steel? A. Q. For two reasons. which arise froni ~itrid vegetable and animal matters.

What is thunder? The noise made by the concussion oi r THUNDER. . Give mc an instance of the magnetic effects of lightning? A. (on which sonnd depends) reach the ear at the same moment. A. and that part which onght to point south. 120. and produce a continuous sound.drtal chai. and sometimes destroy its magnetism altogether.Q. Q. is made to point t~ ward the north. A part of hO noiee icowing to certain ~'~aical aed cittc. and as all the vibrations of the air. That 1)art of the needle which ought to point toward the north. 118. ~he air when it closes again. Q.-THUND~R. Because the lightning-cloud is near thia !~rth. they reach the ear at different times. Why is thunder sometimes one vast ~rash? A. Sometimes it will reverse the needle of the magnet. SECTION I~I. What is meant by the magnetic needle being reversed? A. Q. after it has been parted by the ligh~ng flash. 122. they seem like one vast sound. 121 Q. 119.eei p~ fhtced ii the air hy the electric fluid. Because the lightning-cloud is at a great distance. and as some of the vibrations of the air have much further to travel than others. Why is the peal sometimes an irregular broken roar? A. is made to point toward the south.

Those produced in the lowest portions (If ilie air. a hear the the ader if it Ircat Six t'ulottit aIr. Because the storm is far distant. If a thunder-cioud were ~e ~ious~fl(~ niu~ hundred yards oft. Q. 380115=19r0 A popular method of trileg how far off a atorm ia. aad ~t 00. but s~lnd tal\es a ~io1e second of time to travel three hundred and eighty yards. 123. Q. the flatter ~e country ~ie more '~nbroken the peal. V TIIUXDER. Bound) is aimost instantaneous. 41 127. 126. then those more remote. Which vibranons will be soones~ I~eard? A. Is not the sound of thunder afferte~ by local circumstances? A. 125 Q. A~~iuntains break the pe~ and make it harsh and in'eguh~. and the sound of the thunder indistinct. and it would be i~ve seconds before those ~ibrations could reach us. i£t~velvc puloanaoa. it is two Io~lCs off. tl~e Itumo is otic mile off. Why is thunder sometimes like a deep growl? A. which are made last? Because the flash (which produces the 40 ELECTRICITY. how long would tile peal last? A.Q. Five seconds. Why will those vibrations be heard first. Yes. is thi~The momeat you ccc he tla~h pat yiboc satid up' It your puI~-e. .111 httw molly time it heat hefore y. Itt C. which were made in the immediate vicinity of the cloud. 124. 01. Q. A. we sho~d first hear the Vil)rati()ns produced in ~hose portIons of the air contiguons to the earth .

130. 131. Q. contrihutee in ~ILe mea. A. Why is the thunder often several moments ~fter the flash? A. No.Q ~Yhat is the cause of rolling /hunder? A. Q. till a consider~~ble time after the flash. Q. The vibrations of air (having differen~ lengths to travel) reach the ear at successive il~tervals. which sometimes fall from ~he clouds. A. if the flash be five secoud~ he~ore the thunder~ the cloud is nineteen hundI~etl )~ttt~l5 off.ure t~ thia effect. Why does a tAzinder-storm generaily follow very dry weather? Because dry air (being a non-conductor) will not rehe~~e the clouds of their . Yes . or else from the gaseous fire-balls. L e 380 ~5=l90I yarda. The reverhcrati~~ (or echo) tamongtt the tuasaive cloud. if. Lightning travcis nearly a million times faster than thunder. Do thunder-bolts ever drop from the clouds? A. :28. Because it has a long distance to travel. the flash is instanfaneous. Sec queetioo 46. the thunder has a great distance to come. by observing the interval whieb elapses between the flash and flie peal? 4* 42 ELECTRICITY. the notion of thunder-bolts arises either f'rom the glo~ular form which lightmng s~metimes assumes. Q. Can we not tell the distance of a thunder-cloud. therefore. 129. it will not reach the earth.* bul thunder will t~re a whole second of time tc travel three huudred and eighty yards Ilence.

wl. (either by the ab~traction of some of their gases. Ir the Mute Bp~e of ntue Y. Many things.What is meant by chemical action l)eIlig flie source of heat? A. or enlarges their dimensions. so the fluid accumulates. thuader woull g~ imrcrly thirteen utile. Q. the air will expand till the lilad~!cr bursts. What kind of weatlier gener~y precedes a thunder-storm? A. Yes.-CHEMTCAL ACTION~ TilE THIRD CHIEF SOURCE OF HEAT. *The ~peed of lightuleg S ~o great. What effect has heat upon substances generally? It expands them. It is generally preceded by hot weatiler. Why does a thunder-storm rarely succeed wet weather? A. 1312. 133.-Expansion of Liquids and Gases. Q. Q. 137. EXPANSIO~. Q. III. . while the change is going on. 134.-EXPANSION. or by tie (2ombination of others not before united) evolve heat. Does heat expand air? A. till the clouds are discharged in a storm.) carries down the electric fluid gradually and silently to the earth.a-e the fire. Because moist air or flillin rain (being a Conductor. Q. IECTION 1. when their chemical con~titution is changed.electricity. if a bladder (partiaUy ~ed witb air) be tied up at tile nCci(. A.~. and laid befi. that it would go tour huedred rod tighty timea round the earth ii' one mieut. 135. 1. CHAP. 136.rre~~.

Q. 139. ~ides air and water? A. What occasions the loud crack or report which we hear? A. Because the heat of flie fire will drive the particles of air apart from each other. and not being able to escape. 140.Q. when it escapes from a E EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS AND GASES. 1st~~The sudden bursting of the shel~ makes a report. and cause them to occupy more room than they did before. 141. slitting it. 45 . if snapped in two. 138. and making a great noise. Does heat expand everything else be. Why do unslit chestnuts crack with a loud noise when roasted? A. every thing (that man is acquainted with) is expanded by heat. in the san~e way as gunpowder. bursts violently through the thick rind. in the same way as a piece of wood or glass would do. Yes. Q.~The escape of hot air from the ~iestnut makes a report also. Because they contain a great deal of air which is expanded by the heat of the fire. Q. Why wUl the air swell if the Madder be laid before the fire?. 44 C~EM [CAL ACTIO~ - A. und 2nd.

How can all this air be stowed in an apple? A. as would fill a space forty-eight times as large as the apple itseif. Because a violent jerk is given to ~e air. Q. m~~e a report? A. A. This jerk produces rapid undulations in the air. 142. it will not crack. carrying th~ aice of the apple along with it. while all the rest remains hard? A. much more. 144. Q. 145 Q. when the attraction of cohesion ]5 ti) IlS suddenly overcome. 14G. 147. There is as much condensed air in a common apple. which (being expanded by the heat ~ the fire) bursts through the peel. Why does the escape of air froin the chestnut. The inside of an apple consists of little cells (like a honey-comb. Q. why is one part made soft. If a chestnut be slit.Q. Because the heated air of the ~estuitt can then freely escape through the slit in lie rind. Q. Does an apple contain more air in pro' portion than a chestnut? A. pro duce a report? A. Q.) each of which contains a portion of air. why is this? A. Because the sudden expansion o~ the imprisoned air produces a parti)LI vacuum the report is caused by the rushing of fresh air to fill up this vacuum. the cell~ . or the explosion of gunpowder. Yes. which (strik~g upon the ear) give th~ ~~ram a sensation of sound. When an apple is roasted. Why does the sudden burst~ng of the or snapping of a piece of wood. Because the air in those cells next the fire is expanded. ~Yh'y does an app!e s~it and ~ ~)out when roasted? Because it contains a vast q~~tity of CHEMICAL ACTIONair. 143. and flies out.

log by the force of the air. which resisted its passage. ~d their juices mixed together. when it bursts from its confinement 152. Why does light porous wo6d make more snapping than any other kind? A. Very small pieces of wood made red hot. Because the air (expanded by the heat) forces its way through the pores of the wood. Q. 149 Q. . of fire which burst from the wood? A. 48 153.. Very small holes in the wood. 151.ai'~ broke??. through which the sap circulates. Q. Why do sparks of fire start (wi~i a crackling noise) from pieces of wood laid upon afire? A. and carries along with it the coverin~ of the pore.) and feels soft in those parts. and ~ontaiu more air than woo~ of a c/c~~i groin. 47 A. CIIE~IICAL ACTION. 148. Because the pores are very large. EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS AND GASES. Q. so flie apple coliapses(from loss of air and jitice. 150. and the apple becomes flabby arid shriveled. It means that the plumpness gives way. and separated from the. What is meant by the "pores of the wood?" A. in What is meant by the '~ ap~e cot laps. What are the sparks. Q.

154. by the formation of the sap or mois ture into steam. Because the pores being filled with Sal). Why does gree~a wood make less snape piug than dry? A. and 2nd. Q. 154.~ecause it prevents tile hydrogen of the fuel from mixing with the oxygen of the air. Why does green wood make less snap. Q. 157. contain very little air. 155 ~iy (loes drJ? wool m~~e more snap~')ing tI~an ~ ? Bee~ii~se the sap is driel np. Q. and the pores are filled with air instead. Why does moistz~re extinguish flame? A. 155 Why 4oes dry wood make more snap ping than green? Because the stip is dried up. Beeau~e ~1e pores of dry wood are flied with air wjiie}i supports Comhust]on ~t ~1C ~)ores of green or wet wood are filled ~vith 'noist)(re.Q. Wily does dry wood burn more easily than green or wet wood? A. to form car~onic acid gas. Bc~cause the pores being filled witb sap. ph?~~ tl1~ (ir/I? A. Wfiy does dr1. but flic pores of green or wet wood are filled with rnoistl~re. A. 156. and the pores aic fiNed wit~i air in~te~d. eont~~in verj~ /1(1/c air. Q. wood ~urn more eas~y tTian Oreen or wet ~oo(1? A. Q. Ist. . Q. CHEMICAL ACTION. Q. I p -1 Why do stones snap and fly about when ~eated in the fire? 48 I 153. Because the pores of dry wood are ~lcd with air which supports combustion. A.-Because heat is perpetually carried off. which extingnishes flame. which extin~iishes flame.

ana sets firo to the cotton or sponge (which has been steeped in spirits of wine. Q. 44( r why do stones snap and fly about when ~eated in the fire? _ EXPANSION OF LIQUII)5 AND OASES. When a boy makes a balloon. . tearing the stone to atoms. it bursts forth with great violence. Because the air of the balloon is ex5 50 CHEMICAL ACTION. Because the heat of the fire sets free the carbonic acid of the liquor. 49 A. and 2n4l. Why does ale or porter froth more after it has been set before the fire? A. which is entangled as it rises through the liquor.Q.~ecause it pre\~~ts the h~~drogen of the fuel fro~n ~iN1n. and produces bubbles or froth.r with the OY/I(ren of the air. Because the carbonic acid of the liquor expands by the heat. ~)y (loes moisture eyti7)~vish flame ? A. Garhonie acid gas is a componod of carbon and oxygen 159. by the forniat~on of the sap or mois ture into steam. and ~)rciflg the fragments into the room.) why is the balloon inflated? A. and drives out the cork. to fi)nu ear/1'ooie arid sas . ~~rohabty some part of this effect is due to the setting free of the ~ r~~taLlizatiea 158. Q. Because the close texture of the stone prevents the hot air from escaping. When bottled ale or porter is set befbre a fire. 1st. why is the cork forced out sometimes? A. 160. Q.~Becanse heat is per~)etually carrie~ off. Q. in con-sequence of which. 157.

and carries the smoke in its current. and sweep the ascending smoke back into the room. Q. and cotton are added. Q. Because the heat of the fire expands the air in the chimney. unles~ the fire be fierce enough to heat all the air in the chimney flue? I EXPANSION OF LI~U1D5 AND OASES. it is still lighter than common air. Q. to prevent the wind from blowing into the chimney.-It would prevent the smoke from getting out.51 A. Why does the balloon rise after it h£is been inflated by the expanded air? A. A. Because the same quantity of air 1~ expanded to three or four times its original volume. 162. 165 Q. Why will a long chimney smoke. till every crumple i~ inflated and made smooth. and made so much lighter. that eveii when all the paper. 166. which (being thus made lighter than the air around) rises up the chimney. 161. wire. unless the fire be pretty fierce? A. Because the heat of the fire will not ~e sufficient to rarify all the air in the chim 164. What is the use of a cowl upon a chimney-pot? A. Why dQes smoke rush up a chimney? A. What harm would the wind do if it were to blow into a chimney? lst. Why will the chimney smoke. Q. Because the cold air (condensed in ~he upper part of the flue) will sink from its own weight. Q. and . It acts as a screen.panded by the flame. 163.

expanded dunug the frost. Its principal use is to hold the crust up. 52 168. Because the moisture beneath them. into a fruit pie. Q. EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS AND OASLS. 171. why is this done? A. the moisture thawed and condensed again. with openings below to admit the cold air from the cellar to rush in to sup-ply ~ie place of the heated air which ascends into the rooms above. Q.2nd. ilow are houses and other buildings heated with hot air? A. and drive the smoke with it into the room. The fire is kindled in a grate or stove which is erected in the cellar. when the cooked frtiit gives way under it. This fire heats the air in contact with it in tI)e air chamber. 169. which conduct the cold air outside of the house into the air chamber. ~ometimes the air chamber is supplied with cold air by pipes. 63 . 170. Q. In I~n~and. and prevent it from sinking. as it is called-and as heated air always ascends. but afterward. leaving the bricks and stone~ loose.-The cold air (introduced into the chimney by the wind) would fall down the flue. CHEMICAL ACTION. What is an air chamber? A. 167. Why are the bricks and flag stones of our pavements frequently loosened after a frost? A. It is an enclosure around the grate 0! sLove. it is forced up into the dif~ ferent apartments of the building. and raised the bricks and flag-stones from their beds. it is customary to plaec a cup in an inverted position. Q.

172. No-it will rather tend to make it boil over. Mercury or quicksilver. juice rushes in to occupy the void. What metal is distinguished from ~I others by its fluidity at ordinary telnperatures? A. which rushes unob CHEMICAL ACTION. When the pie is put into the oven the air in the cup will begin to expand. . in c~isequence of which. than if the cup were taken out. and occupy a smaller space. Q.ts the 3uiee fuun hei'~g upul SteT tI~e Crssst ~hes the pie je Curried utout fu~m place to plaeC. us soon 55 It is teket Out of the uven tIe cup peve.Q. why is the cup always full of juice when the pie is cut up? A. Does not the cup prevent the fruit of the pie from boili~g over? A. Explain this. ~ructed into the cup. Sieee the juice of tie pie rune into the cup. 174. I I. A. Why does juice rush into the cup when the cup is not full of air? A.-Expa~~ioit of Metats. Because as soon as the pie is taken out of the oven. N. Because the external air presses upon ~4e s'irfa~ of the juice.' aittough it does n~ ~revcut the fruit frum huilitig over. as the cup is no longer full of air. the pie-dish will have a cup-full less room to hold its fruit in. Q. Q. 173. 175. and. and drive every particle of juice from under it. as mercury ri~e~ thrc'ugh the tube of a barometer. the air in the cup begins to condense again. as there will be less room in the dish. T3. If the juice is driven out of the cup. Q.

Does mercury like other metals ex pand by heat? A. ila consequence of this unequal expansion. Why does a glass snap because the inner surface is hotter than the outer? A. For what philosophical instruments i~ mercury generally used? A. Q. 181. Its regular expansion and contraction by every increase or diminution of temperature. consequently. which ~beiug increased in bulk) occupies a largef fipace. Q. and not the outside.rm~ mete~ rise in hot weather? EXPA\~~SiON O~ METALS. an opposing force is created. so the glass snaps. 182 Q. Because the inner surface is expanded and not the outer.176. Because glass is a bad conductor of ~eat. Q. which break~ the glass. Q. It readily expands or contracts with every variation of temperature. Q Why does the mercury of ~ the. and. 180. Why is a china cup broken if 1~t wa icr be poured into it? . in consequence of which. Because heat expa~ds the metal. Why is not the outside of the glas~ expanded by the hot water as well as the inside? A. Why is a glass broken when hof wa1~r is poured into it? -A. 177. Because the inside of the glass is expanded by the hot water. and breaks before the heat of the inner surface is conducted to the outside. renders it preferable to all other liq~ds for filling the tubes of barometers and ~hermometers 178. 55 A. 179. rises higher rn the tube. Q.

if a bar of metal be accurately mea~tired when cold. tb~ hoops wUl be large.-As iron expands by r1~eat. lst. and 2nd -As iron contracts by cold. which breaks the cup. Why do most persons dip their razoi in hot water before shaving with it? A. the hoop~ will shrink as they cool down. a~ ~ie inner surface expands from the heat.-That it may girt the wheel mor~ tightly. and a bar of iron when hot will measure more than when it was cold. for being made re~ hot? . 185. Q. and 2nd. all metals expand by beat. Why does a wheelwright make the tire re~ hot which he fixes on a wheel? A. A Because it is a bad conductor. 186. Will the iron contract in size on cooling. and girt the tub with a tighter grasp. EXPANSION OF METALS. (and not the outer. after it has been heated? A. Why will the wheelwright's tire fit the whee~ more easily. Yes. Because the heat of the water expands the edge. will its dimensions have increased? A. by that means rendering more fine and sha~. and. Yes. Q. 186. they will fit on Lhe tub more easily. it will return to its former dimensions on getting cold again. Why does a cooper heat his hoops re~ lot when he puts them on a tub? A ~st. and afterwards heated very hot.when they are r~d ~i~t. 187. 183. Q. 57 LI' consequence of which.56 CHEMICAL ACTION.-That it may fit on more easily. Q. Q. Q. 184.) an opposing force i~ ~reated.

193. anci ~ie parts of the stove ru~bing against each other. Why does the plaster roulfd a stove crack and fall away? A. 190. etr. and leaves the "setting" behind. Q. ~uently fall away from its own weight.. Q. Why does a stove make a c'. Because it will shrink when it coo1~ down. girt the wheel with a tighter grasp. . Q Why does a stove make a similar crackltng noise when a large fire is put out? A. and pushes them away. the parts rub against each other again. Q. Because (when the fire is lighted) the iron work expands more than the bnckwork and plaster. Because it expands from the heat. As a chink is left (between the "se~ ting" and the stove.) the plaster will The. Why does the plaster fall away? A. Because it will be expanded by the heat. Why will the tire which has been on hot. and the bricks are again disturbed. The ~' setting ' la a technical word for the plaeter. but (when the fire is put out) the metal shrinks again.A. prod uco q crackling noise. in stumediata roufart with the stove. in consequence of which. and (being larger) will go on the wheel more easily. 191.~wkl'iog ~ise when a fire is very hot? 58 CHEMICAL ACTION A. therefore. girt the wheel more firmly? A. The~e qoe~~ions apply more particularly to what is called a ~ Frankliz ~ove ~~they may be seen it' many of our farm housm. Q. or driving against the bricks. 192. when the fire is removed. Because it contracts again. and. 189.

Because the heat of the fire has caused the metal of which the boiler is composed to erpand. and if the decanter was last used in a heated room. Q. the szze of the iron stove varies also. WIiat other cause contributes to brzn~ lie plaster down? A. Q. Why is this? A. why will a cloth wrung out of hot water. the boiler cracks or bursts. causing it to expand. as soon as the hot air enclosed in the inside has been . of the bottle. If the stopper be damp. and this swdU ing and contracting keep up such a constan~ disturbance about the plaster. 194< 59 Q. 196. loosen the stopper? A. 195. it fits the decanter air-tight. but the cold water very suddenly contracts again those parts with which it comes in contact. and wrapped around the neck of the bottle. a Q When the stopper of a decanter or smelling-bottle sticks. that it cracks and falls off. leaving the fire-place very unsightly. Why does the stopper of a decanter stid~ fast if it be put in damp? A. it Will be very lIely to crack or burst. be filled with cold water sometime after the fire has been lighted. Because the hot cloth heats tbe neck I 60 CHEMICAL ACTION. and con sequently loosens the stopper. 197. If the boiler or kettle attached to a ldtchen range. As the heat of the fire varies. and as one part is larger than the other.EXPANSION OF METALVS.

condensed by the cold. Q. 199. there are always two urrent~ of . 198. A. Because the contents of a smelling-bottle are very volatile.densed by the cold. flow do you know that there are these two currents of air in every occupied room? A. and another of cold air fiow~ig into the room.) N B. 61 Q. the we¼Ait of the external air will be sufficient to press the stopper down. the flame will be blown inwards (into the room.. . one of hot tiir Ilowing out of the room. have been co'. Q.) but if I hold the candle at the bottom of the door. weight of the external air will he sufficient to preet the e. the flame will be blown outward (towards the hall. and the stopper. \¼ VENTILATION. § ~ii. Thie is not the ease if a flee be in the room. ~ the emelling-huttle wan last need in a hot room. Inelde the bottle.. 202. Yes. and make it stick fast.opper dc and make it elick.qfr in the room we occupy.Ventilation. 201. and leave the neck of the botUe. Q. When a fire i~ lighted. an inward current is drawn through all the crevices. What is ventilation? The renewal of fresh air-a con hnual §hange of air. 200. a seon the hot alt sea volatIle e~ence. If I hold a lighted candle near the Crevice at the top of the door. Why does the stopper of a smelling-bottle very often stick fast? A. damp. Is the air in a room in perpetual mo~ tion as the air abroad is? A.

ascends. wlhich rushes (under the duor.) 6 62 203 CIIEMICAL ACTi()N. Why would the flame be blown ~ wards (into the room. and cold air from the hall rushes under the door. Give me an illustration? A If I dip a pail into a pond and fill it with water. A vacuum means a place from which the air has been taken. and through the ~L~indow crevices) into the roo~. What is meant by a "partial vacuum being made at the bottom of the room?" A. Q. and (floating about the upper part of the room) some of it escapes through the crev~ce at the top of the door. as soon as the warm air of the room has ascended to the ceiling. when the air near the floor ascends to the ceiling. 33 . and consequently rarifled. or made its escape from the room. Q.) if the candle be held at the bottom of the door? A. and a partial vacuum" means a place from which a part of the air has been taken away. And how is the vacuum filled up again? A. Thus. 20G. Q. 205.Q. It is filled up by colder air. to supply the void. Because the air 6f the room being heated. Why would the flame be blown ou~wards (towards the hall. Q. a partial vacunin is made near the floor. producing a current of air outwards (into the hall. Because a partial vacuum is made at the bottom of the room. 204. a hole (or vaenula) is made in VENTILAI ION.) if a candle be held at the top of the door? A.

~he pond as ~ig as the pail. another colder portion surrounds us. Why is there a strong draught und~~ the door. 207. Why is a room (even without a fire) generally warmer than the open air? A. the air from the hall rushes through t~e keyhole into the room. Q. Because the air in the room we occupy is warmer than the air in the h~l. Show how this illustration applies? A. but Lhe m9fl~ent ~ draw the pail out. 209. Because flie external air (being colder than the air of the room we occupy) rushes through the window crevices to supply the deficiency. caused by the escape . Th~ heated air. Because the air (which surrounds us'. caused by the escape of warm air up the chimney. which ascends from the ~ttom of a room. etc. A. and through the crevice on each ~ide? A. 203. 212. 210. there-fore. Why do we generally feel colder ou~ of-doors than in-doors? A. and (as the void was instantly supplied by other water tn the pond) so the void of air is supplied by the air around. Q. Why is there always a draught through the window crevices? A. Because cold air rushes from the hall. Q. to absorb more heat. Q.s always changing. Why is there a strong draught through the keyhole of a door? '4 64 cIl~HCAL ACTION. to supply the void in the room. and as fast as one p0]' hon of air has become warmer by contact with our body. Q. 15 as much taken away as the water in the pail. the hole is filled up by the water around. . Q. when it no longer feels cold. Because the air in a room is not sul)ject to much chan~e and soon becomes of the same temperature as our skin. and causes a draught 211.

and (of course) there will be less draught inwards. 217. the heated air of the room will Iii - VLNTILATION. If the lower sash be open. or theatre? A. Q. 216. A room is better ventilated by Opening the upper sash. 213 Q. Why is the gallery of all public places kotter thim the lower parts of the building? A. Q. because the hot vitiated air ~which always ascends toward the ceiling) ~an escape more easily. 65 oztt. 215. Explain the reason of this? A. and all. till it has become . The gallery. because the c~d air can enter more freely at the lower part of the room. than at the upper. the cold air (which cai~ en ter through the doors and wiladows) keep. Q. there is more draught than if you open the upper sash. etc. cold external air will rush freely into the room and cause ~ great draught inwards. By which means is a room better i'entilated-By opening the upper or the lower e AL.? to the floor. Beca~~e the heated air of the building ascends. Which is the hottest place in a church~ i~apel. A hot room is cooled more quickly by opening the lower sash. but if the upper ~ be open. Q.of warm up the chimney. 1))y which means is a hot room more quickl) cooled-By opening the upper or the lower sash ? A. If you open the lower sash of a wmdow. 214.

th~ Prove that rarifled air ascends? When a boy sets fire to the cotton or 8p()nge of his balloon.heated 6* U I CII~IIC2~L ACTION. carrying with it all the noxious gases. while cold a~r flows to the bottom from the doors and windows. as a cork (put at the bottom of a basin of water) rises to the surface. atre h~~tter than the aisle or pit? A. It is made lighter and ascends thr)ug~ colder strata. aiid carries the balloon with it. 222 . Because the hot air ascends from the bottom to the top of the building. which becomes so light. Q. A. By keeping up a fire in one of these shafts. that air forced down one. 67 air. Q. How are mines ventilated? A. the flame heats VLNTILATION. The mine is furnished with two shafts or flues. causing an ascending current. that it ascends. and rendering the air pure. 218. Q. These flues are so arranged. 221. shall traverse the whole extent of the mine before it escapes by the ~her. Why is the gallery of a chuT ch or the. Q. What effect is produced upon air by rar~faction? A. the air is rarfied or expanded within. 220. 219.

228. Wiy should stoves be fixed as neai the floor of a room as possible? A. Because the air of the room (when it passes over the fire) becomes lighter for being heated. Q. Small particles of carbon. carrying the smoke with it. As the fire consumes the air which passes over it. rushing con. Q. the heat of a fire has very little effect upon the air below the level of the grate. cold air nishes through the crevices of the doors and windows. What is smoke? 68 GIIEMIC~~ ACTiON. 227. Q. A. Q. A. Why does smoke ascend the chimney ~. 22G. to supply the deficiency. but not consumed. Would not the air in the lower part of a room be heated equally well if the stoves were more elevated? A. No. separated by combustion from the fuel.Q. 224. deprive them of theji warmth. ~antly over our feet. Explain the reason of this? A. A. Our feet are very frequently cold when we sit close by a good fire. and therefore. In order that the air in the loiter pw~ ~f the room may be heated by the fire. along the floor of the room. Q. Why do some chimneys smoke? Because fresh air is not admitted into a room as fast as it is consumed by the . Because they are forced round and round by the ascending and descending currents of air. every grate should be as near the floor as possible. Why do smoke and steam cz. 225 Q. 223. and these currents of cold air.rl as they ascend? A. (being thus made lighter) ascends the chimney.

Why is a chimney raised s~ ~igh above the roof? A. That it may not smoke. Q. driving the smoke along with it. 233. Because the fire will be plentifully supplied with air by the tube.fire. What is the best remedy in such 8 case? A. and all 'uch contrivances keep out the dr~~nght. sand bags at the threshold of the doors. 11 VENTILATiON. . Curtains round the windows. Q Why will the air come down the L:himney? A. ~Yhat is meant by the j?~nncl or fl~. in consequence of which a current of air rushes ~own the chimney to supply the deficiency. Why cannot air be supplied as fast as it is consumed by the fire? A. without the inconvenience of draughts of air and cold feet. the doors and windows may all remain air-tight. is to carry a sma~ tube from the hearth into the external air. 232. but by far the best remedy. Why is that the best remedy? A. as all fimnels do which are too short 234. I Q. Q. and we may enjoy a warm fire-side. Q. Q. VI 229. Because it can get into the room i~' no other way. 69 230. 231. if the doors and windows ~e a]l made air-tight. The speediest remedy is to open flie door or window.

as the rarifled sJr passes very tardily up the chimney-fresh air flows as tardily toward the fire. the fire be clear and hot and the flue be unobstructed) the faster it goes~. . Q. 235. a funnel be very short. Q. to supply it with oxygen. 3d. A. 238. Because the draught of a short flue is too slack to carry the smoke up the chimney. 239. and. 237. Why is the fire always dull and sluggish.-Becanse the wind. the smoke never acquires its full velocity.-Because the fire is always dull and sluggish if the c~imney be too short: 2nd. That part of a chimney through ~bicL ~he smoke passes.of a chimney? 70 CHEMICAL ACTION. Q. if the chimney flue be very short? A. Q. Why does not smoke acquire its full ~wlority in a ~hort fimnel? VENTILATION. rain. and air~ have more influence over a short funnel than over a long one. and. 236. (provided. therefore. 71 A. Why does a chimney smoke if thefun~zel be very short? A. if.-Becanse the smoke rolls out of the chimney before it has acquired its full velocity. Why is the draught of a short flue more slack than that of a long one? A. lst. Because flie draught is bad. Because the higher smoke ascends.

and therefore. 243. To contract the opening of the chimney contiguous to the stove. Q. more fu~el is consumed in the same time.Q. Q. and (being more heated' pass I will rise through the chimney more rapidly. Q. Because the draught being greater. Why will a smaller opening in that part of the chimney near the fire prevent ~moking? A. and. Q. Yes. The more quickly hot air flies up the chimney. what is the best remedy to prevent smoking? A. the greater the draught. compensate for the shortness of the flue. this increase of heat will. To increase the intensity of the fire. . II ened. the more quickly cold air will rush toward the fire to supply the place. 241. If a short chimney cannot be length El K I 72 CHEMICAL ACTION. of course. therefore. 244. Because the air will be compelled to nearer the fire. Why is the intensity of a fire increased by !engthening the flue? A. Does the draught of a chimney depend on the speed of the smoke through the flue? A. the intensit~ of the heat is proportionally greater. the longer the flue. 240. 242. Why are the chimneys of manufacto ries made so very long? A.

73 24G. and present its back to the wind. Q. that liel ther will need to borrow fr~n the other. To fix a oowl on the chimney top to turn like a weather-cock. Because the wind (striking against the steeple) is reflected back. What is the common remedy in this case? A. 245. and destroys its draught. and draw from the smaller one. Let a tube be carried from the hearth &~f each fire into thQ external air. Because the fiercer fire will exhaust the most air. and both rooms will be filled with ~moke. Q. Because the wind (striking against the surrounding hills) bounds back again upon the chimney. Q. often smoke? A. and. Why will a chimney smoke if there be a fire in two rooms communicating with each other? A. forces the smoke ~nto the room. 247. What is the best remed~ in this case? A. to supply its demand. Why does a house in a valley very. Because (whenever the door between the two rooms is opened) air w]ll rush from the chimney of the inferior fire to supply the other. Why do vestry chim~~eys so often smoke? A. Q. Q. and then ea~ fire will be so well supplied. .Q. rushing down the vestry chimney. jV I VENTILATION. Why will a room be full of smoke if there be two fires in it? A. 249. 248. 250.

A. Q. Why do almost all chimneys smoke in gusty weather? Because the column of smoke is sud VENTILATION. 7 Why will not a cowl always prevent a chimney smoking? 76 CHEMICAL ACTION.Q. Q. and this cold air (mixing with the hot) so reduces the temperature of the air in the ~nmney. has never passed near enough to the fire to become heated. Because the opening of the chimney place is so very large. 262. 77 denly chilled by the wind. and (being more heated) will fly faster up the chimney. that it ascends very slowly and the draught is destroyed. 259 Q. If the opening of a chimney be too ~arge what remedy can be applied? A. Q. 260. Because the current of air up the chimney is not powerful enough to buoy up the smoke through the flue. . Why does a chimney smoke if the draught be slack? A. Why will contracting the chimney-place prevent its smoking? A. and (being unable to ascend) rushes back into the room. 263. 261. The chimney-place must be contracted. that lunch of the ail which goes up the chimney. Because the air will then pass nearer the fire. A.

and ascends the chimney more rapidly. the faster will cold air rush towards the fire. Why is a fire better supplied with oxygen while the blower is before it? A. . 0551 a dulI~rE. to supply it with oxygen 267. Q. the air of the lower part of the room would never be heated by the fire at all. It serves to increase the draught when the opening of a chimney is too large.Q. A. Q.~t. Because heated air always ascends. Because the blower increases the draught. and leaves a di:~:. Q. If. How does a chimney-pot increase flie draught of a chimney? A. and iiot towards the ceiling? A. 266. 269. ~vive it? A. What is the use of a chimney-pot? A. Q. and a draught created.-Air is arrested in the narrow aperture between the poker and the coals. ~Yhy does a parlor often smcll di~ agreeably of' soot in s'im~or time ? 78 CHEMICAL ACTION. when placed before d' grate. Q. therefore.-~Because the poker concentrates the heat. the fire were not near the floor. 264. ~Vhy does a poker lai~~ uc. 268. Why do blowerg. tend to kindle the fire? A. it must pass through more quickly. and 2nd. 270. and the faster flie hot air flies up ~he chimney.reeable smell of so~t behind. For two reasons: I . Q. Why are fires placed on the floor of ~ room. As the same quantity of hot air has to escape through a smaller opening. ai~d therefore incre~~es it. 265. Because the air (by passing through the fire) is made mnch hotter. Because flie air in the (~'~imney (beitig colder ~an the ~ur in the 12'(~~lor) descends ii~to the room.

-Cond~ctors of Heae 273. With the hot end upwards. A. Q. Q. why is the hand!e intensely hot? A. Because the hot end of the poker heats Ihe qir around it. What is meant by conduction of heat? Heat communicated from one body to another by actual contact. Q. * Which metals are the most rapid ~o'iductors o~heat? . 79 Q.~ONDUCTION OF HEAT. and draw off heat from our body much faster.Q. CONI)UCTION OF Il~AT. 271. such as metal and stone. If you take a poker out of the fire. and hold the hot end downwards. What are the best conductors of heat? A. Principally because they are better I OILluctors. SECTION II. How should a red hot poker be carried. Dense. and this hot air (in its ascent) scorches the poker and the han (1 whi~'II h~ds it. solid bodies. i. 275. ~ as not to burn our fingers? A. for then ~he air (heated by the poker) would not p~~s over our hand and scorch it. 272. 274 Q. Why do some things feel colder than others? A.

whenever it comes in contact with a body ~ than itself.' gold. What are the worst conductors of heat? A All light and porous bodies. 278. such as hair. platinum. Why does a piece of wood (blazing at one end) not feel hot at the other? A.~ Q. copper: The next best are 4. A. Lead is a very ioferior con ~ucter to any of the preceding metals. it becomes rapidly cold. and the influx of heat is. that heat does not traverse freeJy through it. Because wood is so bad a conductor. Two . Q. Q. which ji further off the fire? . Because metaT gives out a much greater quantity of heat in the same space of lime. more perceptible. ~io~gh one end of a stick be blaz~ the other end may be quite cold. iron. Q. 279. Bcca~LsC metal is an excellent conduc~or. charcoal. 280. tin.f the worse eondartrrs kuown are hare's fur asd elder down . The best conductors of heat ar~. and becomes rapidly heated. consequently. Why does hot metal feel more intensely icarm than hot wool? A. 2. 276.~then ehsreoa~. For the ~me reason.-ih~ two lIext Worst are heaver's fur ard raw silk -thee' wond esd iun~~ blaek .~tben cotton and fine lint . zinc. wood ashes. 5. and so on. fur. silver. 6. Why does a poker (resting on a fe~ der) feel colder than the hearth-rug. 7. wool. 81 A.I El 80 CHEMICAL ACTION. &C 277 Q. I Why does money in our pocket fe ~1 Very hot when we stand !')efore a fii~e? CONDUCTORS OF IJEAT. hence. 3.

A. Because the poker is an excellent conductor, and draws heat from the hand much more rapidly than the woolen hearth-rug. which is a very bad conductor: though bcth, therefore, are equally warm, the poker seems to be the colder. 281. Q. Why does an iron pump-handle feel in-tensely cold in winter? A. Because it is an excellent conductor, and draws off the heat of our hand so rapidly, that the sudden loss produces a sen~ation of intense coldness. I 282. Q. Is the iron handle of the pump really colder than the wooden pump itself? A. No; every inanimate substance (ex posed to the same temperature) possesse~ in re~ity the same degree of heat. I I 82 283. Q. Why does the iron handle seem bO in uch colder than the wooden pump? A. Merely because the iron is a better :o~ dactor; and, therefore, draws off the heat our hand more rapidly than wood loes 284. Q. Why does a stone or marble hearti? feel to the feet colder than a carpet or hearth-rug? A. Because stone and marble are good conductors; but woolen carpets and bearth~rugs are very bad conductors. 285. Q. How does the stone hearth make our feet cold? A. As soon as the hearth-stone has absorbed a portion of heat from onr foot, it instantly disposes of it, and calls for a fi ~upply; till the hearth-stone. has Uccome of the same temperature as the foot placcd ~pon ii 286. Q. Do not also the woo~n carpet and ~earth-rug conduct heat from the h~an body? A. Yes; but being very bad condnctors~ they convey the heat away so slowly, CHEMICAL ACTIO~.

that ~he loss is scarcely perceptible.

CONDUCTORS OF HEAT. 83 287. Q. Is the cold hearth-stone in reality of the same temperature as the warm carpet? A. Yes; every thing in the room is really of one temperature; but some things feel colder than others, because they are better conductors. 288. Q. ilow long will the hearth-stone feel cold to the feet resting on it? A. Till the fret and the hearth-stone are both of the same temperature; and then the sensation of cold in the hearth-stone will go off. 289. Q. Why would not the hearth-stone feel cold, when it is of the same temperature as our fret? A. Because the heat would no longer rush out of our feet into the hearth-stone, in ~wder to produce equilibrium. 290. Q ~Yliy does the hearth-stone (when the tn~ C- is lighted) feel hotter than the hearth A. Because the hearth-stone is an excellent conductor, and parts with its heat verj' reaJily; but ~ie woo1T~i ~hearth-rug (being I,

I 84 CHEMICAL ACTIO~.

a bad conductor) parts with its heat very reluctantly. 29t

Q. Why does partin~ with heat rapidl!1 make the hearth-stone feel warm? A. Because the rapid influx of heat raise~ ~e temperature of our body so suddenfy, ~at we cannot help perceiving the increase. 292. Q. Why does the non-conducting power of the hearth-rug prevent its feeling so hot as it really is? A. Because it parts with its heat so slowly and gradually, that we scarcely perceive its transmission into our feet. 293. Q. Why are cooking vessels often furnished with wooden handles? A. Because wood is not a good conductor, like metal; and, therefore, wooden handles prevent the heat of the vessel from rushing into our hands, to burn them. 294. ~Q. Why is the handle of a metal tea-pot made of wood? A. Because wood is a bad conductor; therefore, the heat of the boiling water is not so

CONDUCTORS OF HEAT. 85 quickly conveyed to our -hand~ by a wooden handle, as by one made of metal. 295. Q. Why would a metal handle burn the ~~md of the tea-maker? A Because metal is an excellent conductor; therefore, the heat of boiling water woubi rush so quickly into the metal handle, tbat it would burn our hand. 296. Q Prove that a metal handle would be hotter than a wooden one. A. If we touch that portion of the metal, into which the wooden handle is fixed,. we shall find that the wooden handle feels cold, bu~ the metal inL".'isely hot. 297. Q. When we plunge our hands into a basin of water, why does it produce a sensation of cold? A. Because water is a better conductor than air; and, as it draws off the heat

from our hands more rapidly, it feels colder. 298. Q. Why does the conducting power of water make it feel colder than air? A. Because it abstracts heat from our h and~ ~ rapidly, that we feel its loss; but the air 8

86

CIIEMICAL ACTION.

abstracts heat so very slowly, that 5 gradu~ los~ is hardly perceptible. 299. Q. Is water a good conductor of heat? A. No; no liquid is a good conductor f beat; but yet water is a much better c~n ductor than air. 300. Q. Why is water a better conductor of heat than air? A. Because it is less subtile; and the conducting power of any substance depends upon its solidit~ or the closeness of its par~icles. 301. Q. ilow do you know that water is not a good conductor of heat? A. Because it may be made to boil at it~ surface, without imparting sufficient lie at to m~lt ice a quarter of an inch below the surface. 302. Q. Why are not liquids good conductors of heat? A. Because the heat (which should be transmitted) produces evaporation, and flie~ ~ in the vapor. 303. Q. Why are hot bricks (wrappcd [n cloth)

CONDUCTORS Ol IIEAT

S-

employed in cold weather to keep the feLt warm? A Because bricks are bad conduc~rs of ~eat, and cloth or flannel still worse; in conseqnence of which, a hot brick (wrapped in ~ai~nel) will retain its heat a very long time. 304. Q. Is air a good conductor? A. No; air is a very bad conductor; and is heated (like water) by convection. 305. Q. How is a room warmed by a stove? ~. The air nearest the fire is made hot first and rises; cold air then descends, is heated, and ascends in like manner; and this interchange goes on till all the air of' the room is warmed. 306. Q. If air be a bad conducto~ of heat, why should we not feel as warm without clothing, as when we are wrapped in wool and fur? A. Because the air (which is cooler th~n our body) is never at rest; and ever~ fresh particle of air draws off a fresh portion of heat. 307. Q. Why are woolens and furs Ilse(1 foT clothing in cold weather?

88 B m CHEMICAL AC~ ION. A. Because they are very bad conduc(or~ of heat; and, therefore, prevent ~he warmth of the br dy from being drawn off by the ~ alr. 308. Q. Do not woolens and flIrs act~al1y i~;~ I~art heat to the body? A. No; they merely prevent the heat of the body from escaping. 309.

Q. Where would the heat escape to, if the body were not wrapped in wool or fur? A. The heat of the body wonld fly off into the air; for the cold air (coming in contact with our body) would gradually draw away its heat, till it was as cold as the air itself. 310 Q. What then is the principal use of cloth ·~g in winter time? A. lst.-To prevent the animal heat from escaping too freely; and 2nd.-To protect the body from the external air (or wind,) which would carry ~way its heat too rapidly. 311 Q Why ~re beasts covered with fur, hai? ~ wool?

CONDUCT~5 O~ nEAT.

89

A. Because fur, hair and wool, are very ~ conductors of heat; and (as dumb anim~ds cannot be clad, hke human beings) God has given them a robe of hair or wool, to keep them warm. 312. Q Why are ~irds covered with down or fratbers? A. Because down and feathers are very bad conductors of heat; and (as birds cannot be clad, like human beings) God has given them ~ robe of feathers, to keep them warm. 313 Q. Why are wool, fur, hair and feathers, s~ich slow conductors of heat? A. Because a great quantity of air lurks entangled between the fibres; and air is a very bad conductor of heat. The ~varmeet clothing is that which fits the hody rather losnezg; beean~ teore hot nc wit be confined by a moderately mess garment than by one which fiti the body tightly. 314. Q. A. Why is moderately loose clothing warm~ than that which fits tightly? Because air is a bad conductor; and tbe qn mtity of air confined between our

if it feels warm. the egg is stale . But if our cloth ing is sufficiently loose to admit of a free circulation of air. Does. 1. and 3n the contrary if it fits very tightly it impedes tiLe free circulation of the blood and we feel cold.-The external air from coming i~to contact with our bodie~..) when the egg is stale the white shrinks. and the confined air accordingly expands. Why will the shell of a stale egg fe~ warm to the tongue? A. Q. 317. Q. ii . Yes. Because the particles of air pass over tw more rapidly.. Q. and every fresh particle t~kes from us some portion of heat. and S* 1 U I 90 CIIEMICAL ACTION 2nd. if not. 316.iiot the bad conducting power of air enable persons to judge whether an egg be new or stale? A. we shall feel cold. 315. Why do we feel colder in windy wea~er than in a calm day? A. touch the larger end of the shell with your tongue. Because the thick end of an egg contains a small quantity of air (between the shell and the white.-The heat of our bodies from escap i??g.~. it is new-laid.bodies and ~othing-prevents.

thc atteactien ef a thread cc its ic. Show the wisdom of God in makin~ the air a bad conductor? A. A. and a ~ensation of coolness produced. and. 319. Capillary attesetiun. Similar evils \vould be felt ~so ~y all +he animal and vegetable world. tor than cotton. opposes both the escape of warm air out of the room. Q. in consequence of which. and of cold air into it. therefore. (as soon as it touches the bodv) it draws away the heat more rapidly. Q. and ~roduces a greater sensation of cold. Ths wick ~f a eandle is . the moisture and heat are abstracted from the face by the cam~ bric. If air were a good onductor '~like iroil ~nd stone) heat would be drawn S( rapidlj? fn m our body. Q." i. that we should be chilled ~o death. C. Because air is a bad conductor. Why does a linen shirt feel colder (han i cotton one? I 92 CIIEMICAL ACTION. Q. Because linen is a much better ~iidut. for })e~ ing furnished with double doors and t'~indows? A. and of cold aii into the room.I CONDUCTORS O~ flEAT. Because air is a bad conductor. Why is the face cooled by wiping the t~m~es with a flue cambric handkerchief? A Because the fine fibres of the cam~wic have a strong capillary attraction for moisture. Why are rooms much warmer. 322. 320. opposes both the escape of warm air out of the room. ~nd the air confined between the curtains or shutters and the window. Why is a room warmer when the window curtains are drawn or the shutters shut? A. And the air confined between the double d~)or~ and windows. 321. and are excellent conductors of heat~. 91 318. Q.

324. CONDUCTORS OF IIE~T.(below the surface) warmer in winter than the surface itself? A. and.) the springs would be dried up . because tite melted tallow runs up the Cotton from eapulary attraction. (although the ground be frozen. (although the sur face be scorched with the burning sun. Because the earth is a bad conductor of heat. Becan~e the coarse fibres of cotton have very little capillary attraction. If the heat and cold could penetrate the rarth (as freely as the heat of a fire p~ietrates iron. Why is the earth a bad conductor of beat? A. Q. Because the earth is a bad conductor of heat. and. Is the earth a good conductor of heat? A. 325. Q. Q. 323.) the intense heat cannot penetrate to the i of the plants and trees 328. 327.Wet with grease. Why would not a cotton handkerchief do as well? A. Q. Q. Why is the earth.) the frost never penetxates more than a few inches below the surface. Show the wisdom of God in making ~ earth a bad conductor? A. and are very bad conductors. and the power of conducting heat le pends upon the continuity of matter. the heat of the face would be in~reased (rather than diminished) by the u~ of a cotton handkerchief. No. therefore. therefore. the earth is a very bad coriduc ~or of heat. in consequence of which. Because ]'Ls particles are not continu ous. 326. Why is the earth (below the surface) cooler in summer than the surface itself? A. 93' Q.

and frozen in winter. Q. Because the earth is so bad a conductor. A. allow no heat to penetrate them 333. the heat of the kettle does not readily pass through them to the hand. 330. CONDUCTORS or hEAT. Why is water from a spring always cool. that the burning rays of the sun can penetrate only a few inches below the surface. Why do persons use paper or woolen ~ettle-holders? A. (j5 the rays of the sun are warded off. Q.-Because the overhanging foliage screens off the rays of the sun. the springs of wo ter are not affected by the heat of summer 332. the air (beneath the tree) is not heated by the reflection of the earth. Why does the Bible say. Q. and all vegetation would perish. . even in summer? A. 329. 331. Why is it cool under a shady tree in a tiot ~mmer's day? lst. that God giveth snow like wool?" A. Because paper and woolen are both very bad conductors of heat. and 3rd. 334. in summer.I 94 CHEMICAL ACTION. Because snow (beilig a very bad comductor of heat) protects vegetables and seeds from the frost and cold. in consequence of which.-The leaves of the trees. Q. in consequence of which. It prevents the heat of the earth from being drawn off by the cold air which rests upon it. How does the non-conducting power of snow protect vegetables from the frost and cold? A. Q. being no~ conductors.

Because it is a very bad conductor. but metal (being all excelle~~t c~'dlICtOr) disposes of its heat so qu~kly. but though the kettle-holder became as hot as the kettle itself.M NEW YORK 1859 IVSON & PHINNEY THIS IS BELIEVED TO BE THE FIRST RE PUBLISHING SINCE 1859 IN PART POOR BOOK SCAN 4 SCI]~NCi~ OF CO~~~ON TIIINGS. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ANOTHER EARLY SCIENCE ENECYLOPEDIA WORK THAT THOMAS EDISON MOST LIKELY READ ALSO WAS THE SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS ( 1859 ) BY DAVID WELLS A. Yes. Why would not the kettle-holder fe6l dO hot as the kettle. that the sudden intlllx is painful.Q. Q. 335. Does the heat of the boiling kettle never get through the woolen or paper kettle-holder? A. when both are of the s~ime temperature? A. it would never feel so hot. A . and disposes of its heat too slowly to be perfeptible.

NEW YORK: IVISON & PIIINNEY. NEWBONG: T. . S. PHThADIILPI[IA. C. NUFFALO: PHINNEY & Co. A. ~9 & 41 LAKE ST. CINCINNATI: NOORI. CHICAGO: S. GRIGCS & Co. lOUIS NNITII & WOODS. WIGITAC~ KRYI & GO. NARNIS & GO. AND YOUN~ &TUDENT8. IT. FA~~JLIE8. SOWER. WELLS. II 1 1.. N ~~uzttat~~ ~ n~m2r~~z ~ NY DAVID A.FAMILIAR EXPL~ATJO~ O~ THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF PhYSICAL SCIENCEe FON SCHCOL8. 48 & 50 WALKER ST. qUACEENBUSIL 1 85 9.M.

has been followed.4 of tbe United ctitee foc tile Southern I)~rict Of~eW Yoc~ F½ PREFACE. iD the yo~ ~ by J~TSON & P1JIN~~.I Ent~md ~CCoTdiDg to Aet Of CoDgrIIs. The advantages of this . an elementary text-book on the first principles of science. For this purpose.Y. the ~ system of question and answer. which for certain ~asses of pupils and for familiar instruction has proved e~nently popular. the (~eI~'8 Office of the listrict Cett. Tn~ design of the present volume is to furnish for the use of schools and young persons.

-tion -second. and by showing how consequents in scieuces are deduced from antecedents. the npplications of science to the Indnstrial Arts. crystallography. &C~~ are referred to a work by the author of the present volume. ~~ngravings have also been used -. . practical. in a logical sequence of cause and efect.system are -first. which serves to fix the subject~matter more strongly in the memory -and thirdly.to illustrate more clearly the most important topics t~eated of. organic and Inorgame Chemistry.-cinbracing the whole subjects of Natural Philosophy. and expressed in the plainest language that the subject allows. or briefly noticed. the polarization of light. unconsciously trains and familiarizes the pupil to think and -reason according to the true spirit of inductive philosophy. the more abstruse and difiic~u~epartments 9f J f 4 IC IC I i I vi PRHFACE. arranged in the form of quostion and alisNyer. As this work has been designed exciusivelyas an elementary book. ()cology. such as the theory and npplication ofilie nacehanical powers. the form of question and answer imparts truth t~ the mind. that it atfords a most simple mid easy--method of communicating useful and practical informa~ . -It is believed that the questions in the present volume -are simple." in both of which special reference is made to the application of the principles of physical science to the useful arts and necessities of every-day life. entitled " Wells's Familiar Science" and to "Wells's Natural Philosophy. the quesi~)n excites a feeling of c~urio~ty in the mind of the young studcnt. physical science have been passed over. &O Those who arc desirous of possessing a more complcte and claborate work.

and in strict conformity with the very latest results and reseaa'ches ofmod era science. III. PAQ~ L 'lhat we linow of MattorC and 'low we Know 8 Attraction Weight Motion 11 19 22 . Principles of Areliltecture 41 LAWS AEn puopaxrirs or ~ntrrait. Application of Materials for Arcbitecturai and Structural Purposes 38 IV. PART L ~~NN 4 It II. complete.In the preparation of the "Science of Common Things" especial care has been taken to render the facts and principles given. Nzw Yoaz. May. p e CC SC' CONTENTS. IV. 1857. L How we apply Power 31 IL Strength of Maten'~ls 36 III. PART IL APPLrCAaON or THE LAWS AND PROPEEHES or MATTER TO THE ARTS. and accurate. full.

The Atmosphere 69 VI. I. SOUND. ~rn Phenomena of Dew Vt Reflection. PART IV.PART IlL THE LAWS ANn PHENOMENA or FLULDa L Water in Motion and at Best 49 IL Specife Grarity 62 IlL Capillary Attraction 65 IV. Absorptiori. How Heat is Communicated V. Reflection of Sounds 124 lb PART V. · . Other Sources of Heat besides the ~un IV. Atmospherical Phenomena 74 VIL The Pump and Barometer 97 VIII. and Transmission of Heat VIL Effects of Heat PART Vt · · · · . HEAT. Nature and Origin of Heat IL The Sun a Source of Heat III. Origin and Transmission of Sound 114 IL Vocal and Musical Sounds 120 III. Pocubsxitios of Clienates 104 U i'br CONTENTS. The General Properties of Gaseous and Aeriforni Bodies 67 IV. I. · 129 133 136 143 162 171 .

1 302 a SCIENO1~ OF COMMON THINGS. I Nature and Laws of Light IL Structure of the Eye and tile Phenomena of Vision PART VIII. rAMILIAR CHEMISThY. 241 262 I. GALVANISM. Electro-Magnetism 299 PART IX. AND now WE SEE. HAGNETISH. .170 VENTILATION AND WARMING. S . Galvanism · 289 IlL Magnetism 295 IV. COMSUSTION. ELECTRI~TT. 275 II. AND ELECTE~ PIAGNETISM. RESPIRATION. L Warmilig and Ventilation 204 IL Combustiori 220 'IL Respiration and Nutrition 233 PART VIL LIGHT. AND NUTRITION. Electricity .

2 How do we kaow that eapth~g exists? Because our 8CCflSOS give us evidence of the fact8 Whet are the eeooOO? They are thc instruments. ~D 'lOW WE XNOW Ir. vey to the mind immediate notice of sorac peculiar action. This is the more noticeable. seeing. and is designed to con- 4 SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. when we consider that. and feeling. WHAT WE KNOW OF MATTEE. thus. Any distinct portion of zioi~er perceived by the senses. . he coaseisas of any oneteria~ existence S He Would ~ot. the eye is never affected by so~~d. LAWS AXD P~OPERTIES OF MATTER. by Which the mind is enabled to know that matter exists aud 1)05-sesses certain ~roperties. however delicate its structure~ each organ of sense is wholly insensible to every iniluence except that to which it is especially adapted.PART I. 1 Whet is ?flItt~? We apply the term matter to any substance Which affects our senscs. smelling. 8 Il the i~oreosioa treasmitted to the oniat hy each organ of seowation. for all knowledge of the material world is derived through the medium of the sen~es. hearing. nor the ear by lhg~~. Properties ot matter ImpenetralsOity. each organ of sense is ada1)ted to receive a particular influence of matter. Slifereat? It is. CHAPTER I. or means. 4 rnw onolay se~w aw there? fi~~e. 7 What is meant ~ the term hoty 5. 5 Woold a ~erooa deorivect of aP seolatiop. tasting.

~ What do we mean. if a needle he plunged into a vessel of water. or all. What is the surface of a tody? The e~ern~~ Z~m. Atom~. and the level of the water will rise in tile vessel to the samebeight as it ICIx~CE OF COMMON TnING~. iti. it is therefore meant.its of its magnitude. and MALLEABILITY. ~lien bodies are said to be impenetrable. of the component parts of tliat other. INEEFIA. when we rpeah of the ~ro~e"~es or qaahties of a hody 5. Divisibility 0£ mOtter. It is impossible to conceive of a portion of matter 50 minute as to have no magnitude. Thera arc many instancas of apparent ponetration. tho paSts of the body which seam to be penetrated are~nly displaced. DrvISIBILITY. POHOSITY. nil tha water which proVionsly illiad tha space into which the needlo enters. 15 Why will water. 11 What do we mean ~y the term size of a ~dp S The quantity of ~pace a body occupies. 14 What is impenetratibty? That quality of matter Which precludes the possibility of two bodies occupying the e~cie eptece ~ ate ewiac time. poured into a fuaae~ closely iaserted in the . 10 What is maguitade? The property of Occupying 8J)~ee. ELASTICITY. 18 What is the area of a tody? The quantity of 8it#~ce. Would by pouring in so m~th more water as would fill tbe spaco occupied by the needle. DUCTILITY. that one cannot pass through another without displacing some. 5 rartieles. Thus. but in all thcec. IMPE~ETRAIiILITY. The power8 belonging to the body. which are capable of exciting in our mmd certain sensations. will be displaced. 9 What ow the generat properties of matter? The principal qualities of matter nrc MAGNITUDE or EXTENSION. or asy other titaid. DENSITY.

al contact with each other. that ~ere is a point beyond which matter iS 110 longer divisible. or decanter. Xo two particles of matter are supposed to be in ~ctu. but is generaily applied to those whichare ~ot too rnsnute to be discovered by observation. the Water wfll then floW into the bottle in an uninterrupted stream. An onnee of gold may be divided into ibur hundred and thirty-two thousand million parts Each of these parts will retain all ibe obarsaters and qualities wbieh era found in tilo lsrgest wasses of metal. as expressed by its boundaries or terminating extremities. and color. but if the funnel be lifted from the neck of the bottle a little. 19 What then is an atom of ulater I A pdrtlWe so mi~te. as to admit of no division. are composed. Density. is wonderhil. diminishing at the same time the pores . 21 What are the pares of a toda? Compressibility. It rntaias its solidity. all matter is capable of being divided into separate portions Without limit. be made to ocesepit a swmtlor space than it did originatty 5 Because the particles of which the sponge. are calied por08. a piece of wood or metah can ~ preessere. yet the recent investigations of chemistry have proved beyond a doubt. it resists the same agentS.soteuth 0£ a lotte. it ~O What is a parhelo of matter I The tei'm partide Is also nsed to express elatell corn-eoneietpzrts of matter. and ent~ Si to eombination with the same suhstences. ran ewer the sides? Recause the air liliing the bottle. 17 What is meant by the divisibility of matter I Jt5 property. the piece of wood or metal. and having no means pf escape. or capability of being divided. Atoms are conceived to be the hrst principles or component parts of all bodies. are by pressure brought more closely together. and the openings. so as to afford the air an opportunity to escape. 1* S 6 ilC~NCE or COMMON TIIINGS. texture. 1~ WJtot is the figurs of a body? Itsfo~im or s~ape. Such a portion of matter as cannot be divided we call an atom. 22 What is the reason that a soon ge. ~he extent to wliiab matter eon ha divided and yet be perceived by tbe senses. 18 Is matter copahis of bring divided iato separate portiens infimlely or SOithoot hntit I So far as We are able to perceive With our senses. ?orss ofa body. prevents the fluid from entering the bottle. or interstitial spaces between these particles.

without aiminishing the nnmb~ of atoms or material particles of which it consists. 27 Wh~ do we call load heavy. and hence it is evident that the grett~er' the density the le8e' the porosity. 28 }mw is water or any other liqaid made pars ~y filteriag through paper. whatever may be their nature. '1 same space. 25 What is &~ity? The proportion of the quantity of matter in a body to its ma~nitude. 24 What reason hare toe for ~pposing that no two partictes of matter are in absolnte contact S Because all known bodies. 28 What then is compressibility S That quality of matter in virtue of which a body alloWs its volume or size to be dIminielAec'. of such a magnitude as to allow a~parsage to the liquid. 2~ What cennecion is there between the density of a hody and its porosit~ S A body will be more or kss dense according as its p articles are near to or remote from each other. its dimensions might not exceed a cubic inch. consist of~ore8. are capable of having their dimensions reduced ~ without diminishing the amount of matter contained in them. and feathers hght 7 Because the amount of matter contained in a quantity of lead occupying a given space is much greater than in a quantity of teathers capable of occupying the 5CnsNCE or COMMON TuINGS. it is said to be twice cii de~e. and in the lead are arranged in Inucil nearer connexion with each other tilan in tile feathers. before diminution. and the gre~~r the porosity the 1e88 the density. Soopping of wood. Tile original particles of matter which make up the composition of lead and feathers are also different. &C S The process of filtration depends on the presence of pores in the substance used as a filter. Neuton conjectured that if the aarth were so compressod as to be absolutely without pores. if of two substances one contains in a given space twice as much matter as the other. hence the space by which the volume may be diminished must. riltratlon. clot~ a layer of sand.and the space the body occupies. but to ~fise it to those . Thus. rock.

87 When is a ledy said to be elaslic I When. on being compressed by the agency of a mechanical power. wool. and rises to the surface as bubbles. Geses. Elasticity.impurities from which it is to be disengaged. 82 What are the searks of fire whtch larst from the weed? Yery small pieces of wood made re(1 ~ and separated from the log by the force # ~I~e air when it bursts from its confinement. but the pores of green or wet wood are filled with mo~8c'ure. Liqhidi. and bursts the covering in which it 15 confined. 80 Why do ls~ltes rise to the sarf~ when e piece of sugar. and the pores are fillcd with air instead. or chalk is pl~ ~nler water? Because the ~ previously existing in the pores be-comes displaced by the water. which extinguishes flaisie. 29 Why is not the suistauce suitaule for the filtration of one liguid sleePy adapted for the filtration of all liluids I Because the magnitude of tke pores in different sub-stances ~d of the impurities in liquids is different. it is capable of . 88 Why does light. 88 Why does dry wood larn more easily than green or wet evoed l Because the pores of dry wood are wi1~ air. except one whose particles are larger than those of the liquid. 84 Why does grece wood make less suappieg than dry? Because the pores. which supports combushon. 5~ids. 85 ih7~y does dry ~r~od make were sno])~~iog Gao greso I Because the sap is (7ief vp. 81 What occasions the snapping of wood or cool when held upon thefire? Because the air or liquid contained in the pores becories ex. and contain inoro air than wo~d of a clo8er grain.[)anded by heat. poroas wood make more snappiog thou any other ksnd? Because the pores are very large. contain very air. and no substance can be separated from a liquid by filtration. 8 scruiec~ or' COMMON THINGS. being filled with 8a~.

but quite sufflcieut. A liquid cannot be grasped between the fingers like a solid body.they resi's~ the impression or penetration of other bodies. however. which. 40 What is a liquidl A liquid is a substance which. and ](a8£ott8 or a(~~~O)~i)i bodies. affords no evidence of its presence to the sense ot touch. This property is called eias~oi~y. like tile air surroandin g us. from wiience they exclude scir~cE o~ co~nt6N THINGS. 43 Why is it defl cult to walk against a high wind S Because the particles of the ah. but a gas cannot. filihi. like water. viz. to indicate its presence. and also their t.. can be made to flow down an inclined plane. oil. 41 What is a gaseone or aeriform lodo I A gaseous or aeriform body is an elastic. lt~s4c's. neither can it be collected permanently in a heap. thus demonstrating their CXi8~ ence. 9 Plestic bodies. Gaseous or aeriform bodies may be confined in vessels. when in repose. though invisible.otpenetrtl~ilily. and generally an invisilile. 89 What is a solid I A solid is a body whose particles of matter arc so close or dense that. -44 When is a subetance send to he plastic S . or made to assnine any partic~ar figure except that of the vessel in wiuch it is inclosed. liquids or other bodies. spirit. 42 J0 what particular respect does a gas differ froen a liquid S A liquid. 807. itence the parts of solid bodies are not movaNe or easily displaced like those of liqulds. &c.resi~iag its former dimensions with a certain force when relieved from the operation of the ferce which has compressed it. even when in a state of repose. press against us violently in a direction Opposite to that in which we are proceeding. although invisible. like water.(7s. Ine~tia. manifests immcdiately to the touch but a very feeble resistance. I I 88 Into how many classes nocy all nataral lodies he divided I All the bodies we meet with on the earth may be divided into ~hree great classes.

~?i Ic Iho c. 50 Jf a corrio9e railroad-car. and are not deprived of that motion by tile same cause.l. why are th~ poosenyors. but will be found to be continually changing its form by the movement of its particles. when left free to move. when moving. procloitatel from thoir places ha the direnhan of the motion I Because. commence to move from a state of rest. neither can it. by reason of their ~lip?~~. arrest its own progress and become qrncscent. 47 What is icertia S ~Iatter is iticapable of spontaneous change. Si Why ~till a persoc. foll ha tOo dirsrhaa ha O.arc~oyo is ocahang at the atnotont his feet 'n~et the . we only c7i~l~ee the particles. mering with speed. Does the water really enter the solid j)nrticles of Ihe opoo~ S It does not. 45 When a sponge is placed in water. ence of power in matter to change its state. dra~rn ~ hor~co. 4ei When a carriage is in n~otioo. why uill sot a loll fired from a ceanou coutiane to enoce on for cuer S Ohiefly on account of tIle resistance of the ~ir or 1* 10~DSN~E O~ COMMO~ TttINO5 niontrationo of lnevtta. they perlc~ere hi the motion which they shared in common with tile body that transported them. or loot. uhy ic the same exertion of pwver io the horoes T((]Oir~d to Otuj) it. leaning front a carriage in rapid motion. and the term tner~~ (or ~iactivt~) signlties ~e total aba. that liquid appears to penetrate it. and the a~iYlciiott of ~ ett~/~. it only enters the ~)ores or vacant spaces between the particles. Pitdi is an ex~ple of a plastic body: it presents the appearance of a solid. do ne pn~etrate the sand S We do not. ef it were at reot I Because the force required to destroy motion in one direction is eq~al to that reqmred to produce as rn~cA qno~on in (he eo~o8t(e di~~ec(ton. 48 When we plunge the hand iota a mais of ouo.When it possesses intermediate properties between ~ solid and a fluid. }sardnees. A body endued with inertia cannot of itselt. and independent of all external influences. mediwn through which it passe~. as uould he arcessarg to lack it. 4~ If a lody is incaputh ly itself of choogiug its state. or the hagyage curriod. to oudd~oly slspped or rrtordLd from any cooso.

much more dense than the diamond.e har foil speed ha once I Because it requires a little time for the ttn11&7~ii~y fo~~e to overcome ~e rne~t% of the ~nciis of ~ie ~ip. and. behind its support. ~8 When is a hody said to be ductile ~ When it is capable of being dra~c~ tn~ 'Wire. 57 When is a lody said to be mallealle 5. when the boat stops. there-fore. the man is liable to fall forward. 55 Upon mOot does the hardness of a hotly depend? Not. does the vosool cootiuno to strove for a co'wkleeatle time t Became the tner~a of I~e tnaoe is opposed to a ~ange of state. Bodies that are malleable are not always ductile. relaint by its t~er~a the motion witich it has in common with it. on quitting the velijele. Jil ductile substances the atoms seem to have no more fixed relation of position than in a liquid. while the diamond is the hardest body in nature. Lead and tin may be hammered out iulo very thi~ . upon the ~ett8iIy of a body. whoa the liot legins to more? Bee~se hisfie~ are pulled forward while the tt~r~ia q~ li ii ~oJy keeps it in the same position. SS TVOy. as is often supposed.aroenha I Because his bo~y.c'o the force or in?pcdso of the whad. When it is capable of being hammered or rolled into thin plates. when the soils are takea ic. why does not the vowel ar~nic. When be reaches ~ie ground. but is retamed in the upper and heavier part of ~e body . but yet they cohere very strongly.Attesetion. yet the metol is soft. and the vessel will coatintie to move ~til the resistance of the water overcomes tile opposition. Ii noetility Malleability. or its dioposition to r~ain at rest. so that the same effect is produced ar tf ~tefec~ 1~aa b£~t~ 52 When tOo sali~ of a noyc mo fr~t spread to roroc. this motion is destroyed by the resistance of the ground to the feet. Gold is p F _ I SCIENCE OF COMMON TfllNG5. 54 ~hy is a man stonclin9 carelessly in the store of a loot hello to full into the water leO in d. For a sinillar reason. bitt upon the foree wi~} which the atoms hold their places in some particular arracgement.

ATTRACTION. as tlicy are tcrined. 59 Is odl matter su15ect to the power of attracttsn? All matter is under the influence of attraction in some of its forms. Examples of cohesbo. . and at distances which are hot measurable. that they ~ite to form one solid mass. to draw out these metals into fine wire. 81 What is cohesive attcactiou? It is the force which Ao~ toge~Aer the atoms of 1o~ 5CIEN~E OF ~OMMON THINGS. or. 82 Athut is adlensioc I Adlicsion is attraction between particles of matter of different kinds acting at immeasnrably small distances only. will move asunder. handkerchi~uch successively two feathers.plates. eo What is r~idsn? It is the force manifest in the movement of bodies from each other. and is in turn itself attracted. and uniting the dissimilar particles into ODe mass. 58 What is attraction? It is the force manifested by the mutual approeteA or cokesiosa of bodies. 83 Why he mortar mod to fastea Irneks together I ~ocanse the adlicsive attractioa between the particles of the brick and the particles of mortar is so strong. ~~senitbls (fA~rnce8. Thus. CIIAPTER II. bodies. or impossible. hut it is difficult. these feathers. Every particle of matter attracts every other particle. Adhesion. if brought togeflier. having been briskly nibbed with a silk . Cohesion acts only between particics of matter of the same kind. if a piece of glass.

Consequently. Attraction of gravitation. 88 Why ~rill a small ro~dh carefully laid aoeu the surface of water flout? ~ccause its weight is not sufficient~to overcome ~ie cohesion of 4ie particles of water constituting the stir-face.84 Why is a tar of iron stronger thac a Icr of wood of the same Size? ~ecanse the cohesion existing between the particles of iroa is ~rea~~ than that existing between the particles of wood. the fluid has a tendency to run down along the inclined outside of the vessel. 71 Ia what respect does the attractiou of goovitaliori differ from all ether ottructive forces I . 70 What is the attraction of gravitation I We apply the term ~c~gravity." to that tendency which every particle of matter in the universe has to approach all other matter.~~ or the "attraction ~f gravitation . and not at once to fall perpendicularly. and often of the same fluid from different ves y j I' SCIENCE OF COMMON T~G5. from different parts of the Tip of the same vessel. differ in size. 85 Why ore the particles of a ly aid osore easily separated thou those of a solid I ~ecanse tllc cohcsive attraction wlilch binds together the particles of a liquid is much less strong tliaa ~iat whi~i binds together the particles of a solid. 13 sels. 88 Why is the proscreptiou of quediclue hy droos mS ausafe method? Because not only do drops of fluid from the same vessel. 67 Jf you drop waler aud ioudaoum fl-am the same aessel why will sixty drops of the scaler fill the saeae measure as one hundred drops of Zaudauum I The cohesion between the particles of the two liquids is different. the number of particles which will adhere togetber to consti tate a drop of water is gi~cater than in the edrop of laudanuin. comequently. in consequence of the attraction between the water and the sides of the vesseT. 89 Why is it diffeult to pour water from a vered which has not a profreliny lip t Because. being greatest in the water. uu~rations of gravi~tion. it cannot pass t]irough th~n and sink. T~rrestr~al gra~t~a~iot~ is the attraction of a body towards the centre of the earth. but also drops of the same fluid. to the extent of a third.

and is pressed up and sustained by it in the sam~anner that the particles of smoke are sustaiaed by the particles of air. 6eco~rte heavi~r thiri~ the air. without displacing or thrusting downward portions of the atmosphere equal to its own bulk. 6uUe for ~ and floats upon it. bulk. when they descend in the form of small flakes of Soot. 72 Why does an apph hooseuedfrooo the tree foil to the yroond I Because the oar~~ atlraot8 or ~PolW8 ~ to itself. It is unable to advance. 14 SCIENCE OF COMMON ThTNG~ All bodies attract each other. does the feather attract or draw up the . 74 Why does a cork pressed beneath the water rise and float on the surface I Because the cor~ is ligAter ~Aan~ a~ e~ua~ 6~l~ of water. for bulk. than the air. 78 Why do all the little lulIles tend towards the large ones? Because the large bubbles (being the superior masses) attract them. 79 Why do the lollles of a cup of tea follow a tea-spoon? Because the tea-spoon attraete them. Feather and the earth. in the most minute degree. as all lodies attract each other. 78 ~iuce all hodles are attracted towards the ear~ how does it happen that all smoke and some other fornes of matter disolay the contraryphenonienen of ascending from it I Because the 8rnoka i8 ~qAlrr ~7t~n ~tle air. since everything to which we can attach the idea of materiality is aflected more or less by gravitation. 81 A frather falls to the ground ly the influence of the earth's attraction. 77 Why do luIlles in a cup of tea range round the sides of the cup? Because the cup atteocte them. however. uuitiu~. 80 Do all ladies attract each other equally? They attract each other with forces proportioned to their masses.Becans& it is the eommo~ ~roperty ~ edi 6ocl~8. 78 How long will smoke continue toftool clove the surface of the earth? lintil its ~ilrtic7e8. 75 Why does a lolloon rise in the air r Becanse it is filled with a ~as which is lighter.

and not be itself attracted. but as the mass of the earth is infinitely greater than the feather. onse~intA of tAo fosce at tA~ee rniles. it will attract with but onefoui~Aqf tAo force.15 Centre o~ ~aVity. the aris of the e~rth woul~ ~e immediatel~ ohasiged. involving an alteration of climate. 89 In what poe itise only can S lody rest~ . endeav~o fall? In a line drawn from its centre of gravity towards the centre of the earth. or upon which it is balanced. mne ti~8 tAo force ott on~tAiret of a mile. and the place of the ocean in its bed. at two miles.earth in any dsgree towards itself? It ~oes. and we ~e~unable ~ pereelve it 82 What would he the consequence f~ the feather seel seat attract the earth? If an~ portio~ of the earth. the influence of the feather is infinitely smaH. 83 Why is it moredaugerare to fall from a lofty eleratlan than from a law one? As the attraction of the earth varies inversely with the square of the distance. 88 When you hulauce a rod a stick or any oUter body upon Uteftuger. eshero is the centre of yraeity of the Stick or lody? It is the point upon which the body will remain at rest. ~7 What do we meau hy the centre of gravity? That foint in a body about which. when not supported. 85 Is the altraclion of the earth the same at all distenres front ils sue-face or centre? 7-- SCIENCE OF COMMON ~G5. On the contrary. however small. faild~ to attract another portion. if supported.t8 (1i8t~ccofeo)~ the centre. 84 In what direction does a lady. and so on in like prc~OrtiOn. the whole body will balance itself. 'With a force prcicortiooe~ to its mass. it will attract with fou~ times tAo force ot Act/f a mile. 88 How can this be illustrated? In the following manner :~if the earth attracts a body with a certain force at the distance of o~e rn~e. the attraction of the earth for a body varics 'Wt't~ tAo squ~~ of . r~~itiou In w~ich a bod~ cau mot ~T0. oaorsixteentA of tAo force at fo~~ miles. and so on as the distance increases. the force with which a falling body will strike the ground will increase in proportion to the height from which it has fallen.

Ouly when its centre of gi~aoity is ~pportcd. A I n 16 SCIENCE OF COMMON TIJIN6S. tn tAis ~osttion. and the animal would fall over. lip. the centre of gravity is stipported by tile fcet. lie assumes the position indicoted by B. lip. 91 Whea a ps~sea carries a load noons his head. therefore. 95 Why is it more diffcult to overthrete a lady having a lrourl lace than oce resting upon a nurrew lasis? . 94 Why is a turtle placed ou its lack uculle to move? Because the centre of gravity of the turtle is. if it did. and the animal is unable to change it.ecti~n of tire centre of gravity would foil beyond Ills beets. until it settles into a position in wijich the centre of gravity cannot sink lower. and until this is accomplished the body will move. the centre of gravity is supported by the scat. the centre of gravity would be unsupported. why is it necessary to stand perfectly upright I El order that the centre of gravity may be over feet. and by bending forward we transfer it from the chair to a point over the feet. 2. centre of gravity ja wan and animab. If ho carried tiro load in tire petition of A. be wonki foil back-wards. ~t tAt lots~t ~otnt. in an erect position. us the db. thorefore it is obliged to remain at rest. and continue to do so. to l)nng tho centre of gTavity over ~is feet. 98 l~y does a quadruped never raise leth feet en the same side simuh taneouslys Because. 1. 9~ Why does a person iu rising from a chair heriel forward I When a person is sitting. before rising it is necessary to change the centre of gravity. 90 Why do~ a person carr~ing a w~iyht upon his lack stoop forward? In order to ~bring the centre of gravity of his body and the load ~ver his feet.

the structure could no longer have supported itseif~ 97 What is the aelvautage of turning out the toes when we walk . falls within the base. thu line directed vertically from the centro of gruvity. a~e more secttre7y t~ 'WtU i(ancc. in Hg.Because a body cannot fall over. For iu~OnCO. Ilence. 4 a similar line falls without the base. Ceutre of gravity iu walking. II~ ~g 3 'ml Fg 4 SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. gravity vertically towards the surface upon which the body rests.. The celebrated leaning tower of Pis~ 315 feet high. falls within the figure formed by the base of the body in question. Stability efbuildiiigs. 5.ll 96 Hew long will a wall or toteer clued securely S So long as the perpendicular line drawn through its centre of gravity falis within its base. und it remains stonding. however. whiab inclines 12 feet from a perfectly upright position. so long as a line directed from the centre of. and pass-lug through the centre of gravity. the line in Hg. und the body consequently cannot be maintained in on uprigbt posnion. the broafer ~Ae 6am of cc boily. an attempt bad been maele to build the tower a li~ tie higher. and the tower stands securely. but in Hg. n. 8. falling from the top of the tower to the ground. falls within the base of the body. Thus. If. urid mnst ta. is an example of this principle. ao ~ the ~erpendictalar line pasetag through the cenfre of gravity would have ftdlen beyond the base.

It increases the brecc~~A of ~Ae baste supporting the body. therefore. without fatling 5 Because the wall prevents him from throwing part of his body backward. 101 Where would the centre of ga-avity be in a wheel made entirely of wood and of a umforus thickuess S El the centre. 5CIE~CE OF COMMON THINOS. 10~ Where would the centre of granity be ul a part of the rim of the same wheel were made of iron S It would be changed to some point a8itle from the centie of the wheel. and unless two persons walking together keep step. to counierb~itce tAs Aecc~ ast~ a~ that must project forward. 104 What is the lose upon which the huousa lody rests or is supported S The t~ofce~ and the se~ce included between them. . the waving motion of the two fails to coincide. aulens they make the mecements of their feet to cenrespouc. as sold~cs do in ~aacchi~g S Whcn we walk at a moderate rate. aope-dsuoiog How we ~es~u to walk. 99 ~rt canust a man. in a line. standing with his heela close to a perpenclisulur v~ Innel over sufficiently to pick up any oltect that lies hefore him on the iromel. the centre of gravity comes alternately over the right and over the left foot. 98 Why do very fat people throw hack their heed and shoulders when they walk~ In order that they may effectually keep the centre of gravity of the body over the base formed by the soles of the feet. The body advances. 103 In what does the art of lalancing or walkiny upon a rope consistS In keeping the centre of gravity in a line over the base upon which the body rests. 100 What is the reaaou that pecacor walkiny acn~in-arus shake aud jostle each other. and enables us to stand more securely.

CHAPTER III. wEmHr. El an ordinar~ sense it 1Aequanti~ of ~w~r cen~ine~ in oi ~ody. or to prevent ourselves from falling. and learns to walk but slowly because of this difficulty. (perhaps in ten or twelve months. 1~ach limb grows. in respect to all the others. when we place one foot before the other. Weight. it is constantly necessary to employ some exertion to keep our balance. ~re obliged to acquire this knowledge of preserving the balance by experience. .) while the young of quadrupeds. or. in such a manner as to preserve a due balance between the whole. after they acquire strength to stand. Children. ioe Why do young Quadrupedo learn to walk much sooner than children S Because a body is tottering in proportion to its great altit~. in Qther words. in respect to keeping the centre of gravity within the base. How trees grow. that the SCIENCE OF COMMON TfflN~5.105 Why is it a very eafficult thing for children to learn to walks LI consequence of the natural upright position of the human body. line directed from the centre of gravity is caused to fall within the luse of the iceel ~a~re cacses the various limbs to shoot out and grow from the sides with as much exactness. 107 Are all t~e limbe of a ~ tree acraugael in such a manner. When the art is once acquired. the necessary actions are performed involuntarily. it is the ineciiure of force with which a body is attracted by the earth. having a ~os(1 ~nppor~i~y are able to stand and move about almost immediately.1e and norrow ~ee. 108 ~~isweight? Weight ~ the measure of the attraction of gravitation. cii ciicer~iited~hl~Ae6alaiice. A child has a body thus constituted. as though they had bcQn all arranged artiflci~y.

body wetrb~ the u. accov~~ny to tAc sq~(£re8 of tAn (1Ata~cne. weighing n tienusand pounds at thu level of the sea. far exceeds the attractive force of ~te earth.ame size l Because the quantity of matter contained in the ball of lead is mnch greater than the quantity of matter contained in the ball of cotton. ~ill weigA ngore) than the ball of cotton.f ~ ~i~ereasin~ as the attracdecreases. 11~ Where will a hedy weigh the most on the surface of the earth I At the poles of the earth. ~ccnuse tite attractive force of the sun. 5y~stems ufweigbts. ourtb is not a perfoot sphere. on account of its greater magnitude. would ho percoived to have lost two pounds of its weight if taken to tho top of a mountain fien? miles high. 111 A man of moderate weight upon the surface of the earth would -gh two ions of tramelorted to the surface of the sun: why would he weigh more ~ 20ScIENCE OF COMMON THINOS. thu centre of the earth) than any other point on its surface.109 To what is the weight of a hocly proportional I The ~ of ~ ~ is always proportional to the q~ti~ of rna~r contained in it. for at these points the attractive power is greatest. A bail of iron. e. thu polos of tliu earth are nearer thu traction (i. It must ha remembered that thu. lltl Why icill a inuse of iron weigh lea~ oo the top of a high mounbia thon ul the bed of the ow I ~eeause tile attractiQil of gravitation is less at the top of the mountain than at the level surface of the t(~rntho. e. for there the attractive power is less. 114 Where will a lody weigh the leust oc the eoi~lh's sm/ace? At the eqv~tor. consequently. a spring balanca being ilsud. 110 Why will a hall of leod weigh more than a hall of cotton of the . The attraction of gravitation being proportioned to the quantity of matter. it follows that the lead ball will be drawn towards the earth with a greater force (i. but flattoeuuuatrd0at~u poles. the surface at this point being the .e~st.

or from Troyne. where it was first adopted in Europe.moist distant from the earth. no effect would be produced. 116 What two systems of weights are employed in the United htates aid Great Rritaiul Troy weight and ntVOir~H4Ojs wei~it. It has existed in England from the tiine of Edward the Confessor. and the body would be fixed as if sustained by a number of magnetic points. and from wheuce does it derive its name I Troy weight is used for weighing gold and silver. 115 What would le the weight of a lody carried to the centre of the earth I It would have 110 weight. Troy l'~ova itt. 117 What is T?'oy weight used/or. is motion . It derives its name from the ancient designation of London. in France. I ¼ I I. for the attraction of gravitation acting equally in every direction.

term to the ~n mo~&~. no~ ob~erver are the that in ~1d be~n~ r>~er or I d a Be~caunt to make ~ I I I flf + .

\\e. inotion of foot is a ~ich arrests the mo~ ~t'w do~ not i ~ 11011 I .

th~ · laed In ~ck i'i a IAJ ite~.$1I')rt 0118. ~e. I I Th· douot 1 of ~ t~ ~ .

In tn~~ C A the agency of the weiglit of tao wate r. Vt t'~~1 ~ the ~ or ~de.I .S ~1 + Llu'.

~ ~pph. ~ee t6 the appli~ ___ a~ I the I III- for the .ed to it.I. I 4-0 of the n~ateri21.

instaufly swells a . I _______________-~ -. is denoinrnateQ -- Why does suer ~ +~e ~ ELtioa tile.at Ie~gth falls Thi5. 4rive ~e obtainq it.~ich have the pro~er~ of ~ coAeri~ wi~ ~ lx)di~ to wA~ is principallY pt~?e Llilestone rock.d of ~arbonate of iiiii~.. V-- . ordinary I np.

-p was held to pieces wae~ I 1 I .

I which cont u~ toi~ ~ s~~ing ~ me .

tw. ~now I I N ..

use4 ent... ider ad a certain Or lome. Au's as +htt of at wet er. TL GtGothfc * 45 having to rise a steeper rolan arch? receive the fr8t SM. tiw Or&r olarchitectt&n originate? . &&. derived · to these the Romans added two tLo ~ and Con~po&ite. Said UOrsnMtan·.II 1 "moN fliNGs. also to some distance.: portico oi the *38 NU four thousand feet long. ki ecuw.

C~umne. and then the outside to cover it. It is out of taste to make a statue ot Apollo hold a cen~1~ lina painting stand as a fireboard. and t~rt is thatuforo one of the useful arts. Our houses are for use.~ of Enr~. anpthing to do nuth the ineention of Gothis ~rchitecture I No. 274 Ought acehitecture to be cons~eel as afins or a seefet art? As a uteful ~ It is dagradi~ng the fine &ts to make them entirely subservient ~ utaity. meeting at the top with inter-woven branches. to stigmatize the edifices of the Middle Ages. Capit~~ ~73 What is said to have heen the model of the aisle of a aothw ~ ctrel? A group of ~Z trce8. In building. not as a habitatioa~~ a placie of meeting.honse in the fi~ of Grecian tentple? Beeau~ a Grecian temple was intended for extoi'a~ W~i-8Aip. it was introduced to the Greek and Roman manner of seems particularly adapted to railbtierr-aoeo/thc Qbthwar~P '8.with greater h£gAt tAan I-A in witk prqftwe onaan. a continued base. After the noirtut empire. on wbic~ a range of c~umns is e~ected.~iMly dedtetion of the leavES and flowers of a A 46 80Th~C~ OF COMM~ON THINGS. which departed from the purity of the antique modelL 277 W~ 978 Whatisccp~~ The l~wer par~ or ~ase of the colum~. is called a ~ 979 Whatistiebese~~coitmn? . 276 Had the Colts. the name was introduced about two hundred years ago as a term of reproach. we should p150 the inside first. wha pts~d Rome. 275 Whp is it bad taste to construct a dtielling. ~ad taste In architecture.

The height of a column is measured in dianaeters of the column its~f. ' 47 1 1~ntab1atn?& Arcbitrsve. and under the base of columns. the will be termed the die. m of WaliR.. . ...Arcbltmye. 981 Whetisthe~£? Theypper or oraa~~to~ part resting on the shaft. 280 WhatIstheahafl~ The mi~d~ er longest part of the column. The ~art of the pedest~ being called the pliuth. where it is distinct from the shaft. 282 What is the plinth I I This term is applied to the lower part of tAepe~a~al U or to any square projecting basis. such as those at the' I J SoIENcE o~ co~o~~ THIN~. Fn~eze.The totteerpwrt. . always taken at the base.and the upper ~ (&ee~ 13.) · Cornice.

.&nibzeE or COMKON TH~~5... Corn1~ . Ba'. 13. . (For iZlhte~rarnio. hew mag we ~ el~ toferm an eeintoa r~ecting its cturabitit~ aatt oermaatate? By visiting the locellity from whence it was obtained. wemayjudge from the ~ which have been lon~ ~osedto~ke we~~er if the rock is liable to yield to anuo8pAertO ~fluences. . bu~brnty of building material& iet~t of the atm~bere on roc~. W~t ~ the arohi~ave ~ ~or p~~of the entablature.. t Die. The ~ of the entablature.Pun~ { ~g ~ e ~orizon~l co~~uou' ~ which rest& upon ~p of a row of columns. P.· .. and the couditions under which it does so..tor of~ase dt~re~~ ~ 8cs~. 28e Whet zs the co·atce? The ~pe prqjecting por~ of the entaUature.) ~87 In setechag a stoat for arehitecturetyu~osw. Wha* is thefrieze? I 48 ..

becoming dryer. ~l oynainental work upon the stone will be defaced or destroyed. it may be inferred that it is not very durshie. when ~eeed to the atmoseheree Because they contain clezy or alv~i~a in such a state as to readily abeorb qnoietetoe from the atmosphere. oil.tiost thaa the ~ which is another ingredient. arid into air. and . evoporates. and therefore that it is very tznsaitable for building purposea Moreover. in s~me species of stone. when fdrming part 6f the natural rock. if the rock be a grani~ ahd it he veiy oneven and rough. oxygen. the frswiiitg of the water in the wet surface ~o~~tinuaily~ ~ the ext~·na1 portions. and thi~~ugh the agency of the moisture the par~~e5 lo~ ~·bci~ oo~&~oa and fall apart.For example. that the tsldspa. dt odapted for the erternetportio~ Of ev~osed buiZd~ngs ~ Be~anse they moidily absorb ~ois~re. is more resdiiy decemposed by the action of moistura -i. arises from the fact that the ~ce~r contained in it. and in countries where frosts occur. if it possesses an iron-brown or rnsty appearance." ~ Wha are the ~cntstse~ ermed freestonen. etc. ~.n the quarvg and exposed to the at~~here? This quality. 49 Water ta m~Uon and at ~ In. ~A OF FLUIDS. causing the rock to increase in bulk. beeomesMr~r. in time. and so disinaegrate. molasses. owing to the attraction which this metsi baa for oxygen. carbonic acid gas. which formE one of its eon ponent parts. ~9O Wh~ eto seene atones. and thus. 2~9 Whe co some soecoes of reck become har~ when tethen fre. it may he set down as highiy perishable. and the stone. ~ hard when firet qtwrrte~ ~ceane ~ and/ertt topaecs.. I ~I~il~ns.

of aseos, w~h and phen~ and I - a, ~g ~ of ~isnos ~ of gisis, a~ other at£bs~nn, rasanbZing a to t~at dep~tment ~fr~ites those phen~ pressure, or motion gaseous oodies.

OHAPTER I. WA~ ~ K~O~ AND AT m~T. ~ or an~ other flusd is ~ isML oordd'ton as its water at rest is always perfectly leveL

50 SGfl~GE OF COMMON ~HINGS. Yelodtv of rivera How we make an aquednet ~95 Wh~ is the surface of afivit at rest aiways tovet? Because the particles are equally a~iraotetl teseas ~Ae eae~A by grav~ty, and are all equally and _ movable among themselves. ~96 How sbght a oeoirntp is sifflcimt to give a running motton to water? TAree ~v~e to a ~ile iri a smooth, straight gives a velocity of about three miles per hour. nver Ganges, at a distance of 1800 miles from its mouth, is only 800 feet above the level of the sea. ~97 om what eri?wipte are we euabkd to condurt water sinder grotm~ tlroigh isregvk~ tubes? that water¾#iii.always ries to d's or v~els oo~sta~ catl~ wi~ eack ~ 4 If we connect together a 'y series of vesse~ no matter

/7

bow various their shapes aid capacitie~ so that ~ that it wiil rise to the San _____rise ~om the main A B mto them, we shall Sr upon pouring water into or lev the vessel& Th~ed6pendence 6r ~ill ~rra~e ni ants fbr co g water in aquedv nndar ground upon the principle, that water m oiosed tubes or ye rises to a unitorni leve~ is deafly shown m Ag 15 ~ a, a, repri the water-level of a pond or reservoir upon elevatod ground. Iroxi~ pond a line of pipe is laid, passing over a bridge or viaduct at ~ ra

under a river at C. The fountains, at b, ~ show the stream ~ to it~ level in the pond, a, at two points of very different elevstio~ 296 In what ~art of a river dow the waterfow most r~? Li~the mie~ of the dVream, at the 8urfaoe. On the '4 I I I J I -

-

··ENC~ Ol GOMMON TKING8.

51 Row water coflec~ in w6[~IS.

velocity is diminished by the ~t the buik~, bars, etc. '~w~or~

~als, nnti~ an imper ~. Here the wat~r ~ some point where to t~e surf~ ace in 14) to end b rrocI; water p&oolating ~m~agh the gravel would re&~h the impervious ~ along whioh it would run im ~ ~ 5: first, on account of ~ and ~ ~ of rock, which act M natural drains; ~Ae IL le~~3~he water, as a country, into chann~ in an o-dina~ weU~ erdb weil consists of an emcavatiom continued or layer of elay or ~ ie reac~ that saturated with water. They are not by springs, but mere y by the ~ wa~r which exists within the circuit into a cavity. w~ and springs faa ofeetimee in d~ weather? y are supplied by ths ~~falli?~g ~ rcolates from the surface of the earth.

52

80~(~E OF ('OMMON T~GS. Artesian we~

808 What is an Artesian ws~? Water is sometimes obtained by bortng into ~ errtk with a species of auger, until a veih or sheet of water is found, which rises to the surface through the cylindrical excavation. Such excavations are called Artesian wells, because the method was first invented and employed at Artois, in France. 804 How do poe ~ for the water rising to the sarface in A~ sian, and sometimes in ordinarp wehs? Strata which are pe~viou~ frequently alternate with others which are ~ so; or may form a boidn, the area of which is partially filled with clay, through which water cannot pass; in such a case it is obvious that th~ bed of sand ~nesit the~y, fed by the rain which

descends o'i the uncovered margin of the basin, must form a reservoir where the water will gradually accumulate beneath the central layer of clay, through which it caunot escape. If the bed of clay be pen~ frated by natural or artificial means, the water must necessarlly rise to the surface, and may even be thrown up iu ajet to an altitude which will depend on the ~vel ofthe fluid in the sitbterranean reservoir. a & Thus, if a ssndy Stratum, aa (~. 17), acting as a Iliter, Oecopies an Inclined positiou. between two other strata impervious to w~t, Such as clay, the water being absorbed by the supericial parts ofthe strata, as at a a (which may he of very~t extent), will penetrate through its whole depth, and, tinding no ~ below on account of the basin.like form of the stratum, or from its testing at the lower termination upon a aompact roci', wlil accumulate. The porous strata, therethre, becomes a reservoir to a greater or less extent, and if; by boring through the super. incumbeDt mass, we form an opening into the stratum, as at b, the water I I

5CIE~E OF CO'fMO~ TII~G5. 58 Xffaot of desinaga opon ~rings. Pre~~ure of water. will rise in it, and flow over in a jet proportionat to the height o~ the water accumniated in the stratum from whence it flow~ 805 What generat effect does the cativatan. and drainage of a coent~~ have n~ the springs? In a well cultivated and improved conutry the springs are comparatively few in number and not constant. While the face of a country is rough, the rain-water remains long among its inequalities, slowly sinking into the earth to feed the springs, or slowly runfling away from bogs and marshes towards the rivere; but in a well drained, eountry the water ~ quickly, often producing dangerous floods. aoe How is the ~}ressare of water exerted? Fqnally in all directions. 807 Does water, centainet in a vesse', press with as great force against the sides and tap as against the botton 5 The pressure, in all directions, is the same

~08 What is the resnit f a corked e,ap~tottti be hevered into the oceanfor a considorabis ~th S The cork is g~~eral1y forced inwards at ~ given depth, no matter in what direction the mouth of the bottle may happen to point. 809 if the cork is fastened inemoeabZ~ into the botte, what wit be the effect? The bottle will be crnshed inwards by the pressure before it reaches a depth of sixty fee~ 810 When a sk~ fOen~s in shaiow water, the arec~ on breaking to pieces, generatig comesto the surfieco and is cast t£pon the shore; bat when asitpsinheiaver~dopwater, it never rises: whpisthis? The proasure of very ~ water forces the water into the pores 0/ ~ wood, and makes itso heavy that no part of the wreck is enabled to rise again. 811 ~ poe sink a cor~ so tep that it wit not rise to the surface again?* At a ~ ~ the water forced by p'esetttr~ into the pore~ of the cork rendera ~ heavy at it ot rise. 81~ What is the pressure of water enpressed in ~ibene? Th~ presanre of water at any depth, whether on the * I 8CTh:N·CE OF COMMON TH~~e. What ts water? What i~ hard water? sides ~of a vessel or on its bottom, or on any body immersed in it, is nearly one pound on the square inch for every two feet of depth. 818 Whattowater? Water is a ~ com~osed of ouyg~ and kyd~ogo~ in the proportion of cig t parts of oxygen to one part of hydrogen. 814 Whg is waterficid? Because its ~ar~cle8 are kept separate by latent heat; when a ce~ain qnantity of this latent heat is driven out, ~water becomes solid, and is called ice. By increasing its iniant hea~ the particles of water are again iubdi~ded into ~ sease. 815 ~hp is spring water g~ahg catted hard water?" Becanse it is laden with fo~ig~ m~atr8, and will not readily dissolve substances immersed in it. 81E What ~ spring or welt water genear~ hard? When it filters through tlie earth, it becomes impregnated with sul~iate of lime, carbonate of lime, carbonic acid, magnesia, and many other impurities, from the e~t~

oad ~i~rotls with which it comes in contact. 817 What is the cease qf mineral springs? When water trickles through the ground, it &e'80lvte' some of the substances with which it comes in contact; if these substances arc retained in solution, the water will partake of their mineral character. 818 When is a mineral water caled a c~~eni P When it contains t~, in some form, dissolved in it. 819 Mineral springs er~ in alt paris qf cor conn~r~~: what is the natare of the surstanres caaiained in them? The great majority of them are only e~preg~~e~ wi~ teon, 8alt, or ~ Some few, however, contain many different su~~ces, as the mineral waters of Saratoga. 820 Whp are springs containing iron in lwrg8 qnanteties teneficiatto ',.~ invalids? Because the iron contained in the water acts as a ~, , 85 SCIENCE or COMMON ~ ?nrity ot water,. Mr in water. Do mhes breatha air? to~~; that is, it strengthens and invigorates the system. 821 What qeantitp of mine-at matter is gene-~ rontairee? in e,,. parative~ pure natarat waters? Any water which contains Isas ~ of solid mineral matter in a gallon, is considered as ~m~arr~se' ely pt&re. Some natural waters are known so pure that they contain only ~th of a grain of mineral matter to the gallon, but such instances are very rare. Waters obtained from diff~rent snurees m&7 be -d ~ corn parative puntyas ~llows: Rain water must be considered M the purest narural water, o~eoisliy that which tails in districts remote from towns or habitations; then comes river water; nex~ the water of lakes and pends; next, spring waters; and then the waters of mineral springs. Succeeding these, ere the waters of great arms of the ocean into which immenSe rivers din aharge their volume~ as the water of the Black Sea, whicli is only brackish; then the waters of the ocean itself; then those of the Mediterranean and other inland seas; and last of all, the waters of those lakes which have uo outle~ as the Dead Se~ Caspian, Great Salt Lake of Utah, etc etc. 822 How maci ~ ~ w ~ oe~isst ~ ~ -water? From Vweat~two Asaaolre~ to tat'e~ty-eigAt Au~dred

830 When ~ are ~hwa from a~sp~ whp do thep' ascend? Because they are filled with the wa~ air of the lungs. espeeialt'y. 825 Wtnid ahsoiate~ pure water art as a poison to afish? The fish would dte of suffocation in such water. 829 W~ does soa~ water. and prevents the bubbles from bursting as sOofi as the are ormed. and ewr~omw ~ di~~~~iyed ji' them The ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ter. and not carhonic acid. 328 Where is the perest water to ~ foend as a nateratprodnrt? The purest natural water that can be procured is obtained by melting fresAlyf~~ ~ or by reeeiv~ ing rain in clean vessels at a distance from houses. as is often supposed and taugh~ The ~uantity of carhonie acid present in ordinary spring w~ters is generally inconsiderallea . 881 Wh~ is water fresh ~em the wel~ or fonniain more sparkling and refreshing than the same water after it hat leen for some time espased to the air? All spring and well waters contaiif~~ oar. depends upon its temper~ cold v~ diss~lving and retaining a larger quantity than ~rm Or tepM watere. When cold waters from springs or fountains are exposed to the air. The principal agent in imparting a sparkle and freshness to watar is atmo~ ~heric air. Spr~g ~ter saerklc& Rain wata. wliich is llghter than cold air.y ~ 8~9 What mates waler inh~ and sparile? The ote~ or g~ contained in it. they become elevated in temperature. wl.wII~ Because its cu~e~ts oor~ diti'ay 511 to Boa. 827 Whp isfiowing water not iab~ to ~erome S-. and the gasas eontained in them escape.823 How maci solid matter is oontaiaed in a galtin of ~from the Dead Sea? From elevea tAovsan~ to tweiaty~ t~a~ ~osa.s. or nearly one-fourth part of its weight. 824 Does air exist in alt natar~ waters? It does: ~sAes and otAer m~sne a~~mols are dependent on the air which water contains for their existence. 5ni1ie? Because soap makes water tenacious. a SCI]~(3~ 0? COMMON ThING8. rendering the water flat and insipid.

and rendering them soluble in water. The ~ why ~t? becomes decomposed. 889 Whg do wood ashes render hard water sofi? Because they contain a powerful alkal~potash. and the greasy matter effects by its hibricity an easy washing away of the dissolved matter from other substances. which removes or neutralizes those impurities in the water which rendered it hard and unfit for washing. 886 Wh~~rainwaterso~? Because it is ~ot ~ with e~tAg and ~ 887 Whi' is it more eaep to wash wah ~ water than with hard? Because soft water ~ites free1~~ with soap and dissolves it. The solvent power of water increases aiso with its purity or softness. 883 Whpisit d'~ttowash wilt soa~in salt water? Because soap is i'e80lii61e ~ soo'e 884 ~ does waier'aaan dirti' Jinen? Because it dissolves the 8t~isae as it woald dissolve salt. the alkali dissolves most of the organic sub-stances which constitute the dirt which we wish to remove. 5?! Acuon of~ap on water.882 ~ Because the ~ater eontaius 8al~ ~ter8. 888 When we wash with soap in water what chanic~ astton tohes The soap is resolved into a fa~y ~ and z~' al~i. 340 Whp does sngar ar sidt gice afanar to water? . in hard water the soap ]s either insoluble or w 5CIE~~CE O~ COMMON ThINGS. which deprive the water of a part of its solvent p(~wer. 885 Whi' does snap greaig increase the oh~singpoer of water? Because many stains are of a greasy nature and the alkali of the soap has the power of ~ ~ ~ ~xiatters.

The streams tbat have flowed into it for ages have been constantly adding to its quantity.. ~ and br~ mine.tpoieit of the water many degrees.Because the sugar or salt (being separated into ~ery ~ par~olee) ~ate about in t~ie water. certain cooabisia~ions of magnesia. water dinotee sogar and s~ more r~ than codwater? Because the heat of the water assists its ~ ~ ftoa. eeaparatio~. and the Great S~t Lake of Utah. and it is curious to observe that this condition disappears when an artificial outlet is provided for such waters.~~by diminishing the dai~gerous facility with which fields of ice are formed in the polar regions. 842 Wh~ is the sea set? The sea has undoubtedly derived all its salt and other soluble mineral substances byw~k~gs ~ ~Ae l~nd. then salts of lime. next. and mixes with it intimately. they all contain lm~6 Or ~8 of~. and from which there is no ontet erc~t b'. Mlner~ epriog& are continually changing and discharging themselves into the sea. Salt InkeL Effect of ~t in the ocean. but their contents --1 58 ~IENCE OF COMMON ThIN~. . with small proportions of potauk. and opens for the water a passage through the particles of the substance. the ealiness of all of which exceeds that of the ocean. riv~.resence of so maci sa~ in the ocean sabeerve? It~e?sts ~~fr~e. it also aids in preventing the c~~ptiosi of ~ water by the accumulation of animal and vegetable remains. its 8ul~ is left behind. until it has acquired its present condition. 848 Wh~ is not rain water sa~ atthtgh most of it is esapestied from thesea? Because 8al~ will ~ ev~on'ate. a satt take? It is. 844 Istheremoreortessofsattinesegspang. 845 Is everg take into which rivers fow. or~? The saline condition of sea water is ~ exaggeration of that of all ordinary lakes. and springs. 841 WAV does ~. 84~ What good on~oses does the i. and therefore when sea water is turned into vapor. 847 What are the satatances extracted from the earth whi~ we find in sea water? The most abundant substance is eom~on saU. therefore the salt does not accumulate. Such lakee are t~ Dead Se~ the Caspian. the Sea of Arad. ~on. ricer.

Water. 855 How many tides are there in a day? Two in every limar day-a period of 24 hours 49 minutes. 850 Does water form part 0! the oo. arrente. and are absorbed by them with the water. and then sinks. 854 Whatistheoauseoftides? The attraction of the san and moon upon the waters of the ocean.848 Are then substances found in most springeP With the exception of iodine and bromine. 852 Wifl water contaminated with am'ma~ and vegetabti ~ under same circwrnatawee. . The moon being nearest to the earth. losing its offensive odor and color. and the larger the qu{tntity of destructible matter suspended in it. is well known to undergo this process of purification by fermentation. and depositmg more or less sediment. undergoes a ~ontaneoua pttrift~cation. 856 Wait tides are the lagheet? . her attraction is six times greater than that of the sun. they may be fo~d in small quantities in almost all soriregs and rivers. High and low tides. end ~het wotetd be the ejfrct? SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. 849 Are those sahetasces ~tch we c~ impurities in water of ang service to animaZ or vegeta~~ egetems? They give to water its fres~ness and soarklingprt1)e~es. the more complete and rapid is its purification. for the su~ ply of ships.1 59 The water would become stagnant.wsJ%g" itself? Water contaminated with animal and vegetable matter. which is elevated to a certain height.npoeitton of most l)odies? It enters directly into the composition of nearly all ~stslliza~le bodies and most organi~ coo~oetnos. if kept for some time. these substances are also generally beneficial to the Systems of plants and animals. 856 Whatisatide? A tide is a waine of the whole ocean. after the manner of a common wave. This attraction of the moon raises the waters of the ocean as they come under her influence by the motion of the earth on its axis. 851 If the waters of the ocean were not agitated ~ winde. What are tides? Canse of tides. pure distilled water is very disegreeable to drink.

when it is nearly vertical over the place-the sea is elevated to the greatest extent. e~hty in~lssp~ ~ 881 Does the height of the same tide varp in el~ereet ~haes? The heigi~t of the tide in differeut places depends much on the co#y~cret~~ of the la~t~. 882 At what~~doring the eta~ is it high water? When the ritoon pesses tke nierid~n-that is.. ~de movemen~ Ebb and dow. the same tide may rise in one place three inches. so that we have the ebb and flow 6f the tide twice every day. As the moon passes the me]idian below the horizon. an~ with one hundred fathoms. 859 Why are map tides &n£'er than other wica? Because then the sun and moon have su~ ositions that their attractive influence is q~~o8ed to eac£ other. For every five feet of height in tide prod'#by the moon. 884 How mach later does the tital eh~ andfow oo6t£r each dog? The thue becomes later every day by about ~<ty helf ~rt~es. the influence of the sun adds one foot. or about six bours after high tide. Witha depth of one fathom. and in another place thirty feet. its rate is e~A~ ~slrs pe~ ~oter. ~ 858 What are map tides? Low tides. Sea wave& and for every six feet of the moon's tide. 888 When is it low water? When the moon is upon the itorzzon. 857 Why are they higher than at other -~&? Because ~e attn and moon are flien in such a position that they exert their influence together. 60 SCIE~~C~ OF COMMON T~G$. another elevation occurs. which is the excess of a Innar day . and it is~said to be high water. seo Dbw fast does the tide wave move? The rate of movement of the tide wave dependi~ upon the nature and depth of the sea bottom. the opposite attraction of the sun takes away one foot.The ~ng tides.

Awave is ~ and notathing. depresses one part more than another~. and these undulations are called u'a~es. the thread appears to move forward. why do they Beem to advance towarets the shore? This is an oonl~ deceptw~ When a corkscr~ is SCIFNCE OF COMMON TuJNGS. it does n6t otherwise ohange its place. 5p~y or waves. the/or. 885 What is the cause of ordinarV sea awees? The wioid. up nud down. aR a buoy. 871 With what vehuty is it estimated that saci ~ wanes as the atove descrihed travel? At the rate of about tki~y-vwo ia~p~ ~r. rnnning termak. which distance is passed bythe wave in about seventeen seconds of time. and only moee up and down. by which the outline or cnrve of the wave is broken. is merely elevated and depressed alternately. and the apparent onwar~ motion of the waves of the sea is a similar dehision. 888 If waves are stationa~i. the t6tal distance between the crests of two large waves being 559 feet.n adyanoas. 61 Breakem. the waves rise to a height of about fort~~ivefeat above the hollow occupied by the ship.e. ptessing unequally on the surface of the sea. Any substance. evety depression causes a eorresponding elevation. suIi~ turned round.above a solar one: 28~ minutes of the former being equal to ~ minutes of the latter. It must be remembered that waves have no other than a vertical mattesi~ i. floating on a wave. during a storm. the breakem are distingijished by the name of 870 What do we ~now concerning the magnitude and velscitp of ocean waves? On the Aflautic. why is a noise and shock ~ . 368 What comes the sprap of waves? The wv~ driving the eurfaoo of the water from the aito~~rfetchti?ong~wave~ and scattering the small particles in 869 What is the surf? When the shore nins out very shallow for a great extent. but not the 8n~stance of the wave~ 872 If aco~ at the erirenity of aptpe 1}e ~ cloeed while water as. 367 What is the cause of breakers? The interference of rock8 or rieieiis ban~ in the sea with the regul~ form of tlie wave.

being O~OOOO8. itfows: why is this? Becaune the i'e ~ Ae~ar than the alcohol. 8dIENc~ OF COMMO~ TH~GS. 881 Why will an egg float in strcng ~ and not infresh water? . Then. the water strikes the cock with as much force as if it were a bug bar of metal.Because the fo~w~ol nwlion of the whole body of the water contained in the pipe being eiitt~tly osrre8~. 876 What do we mean. taking egu~ bulke of each. and the momentnm of a Iiquid being as great as that of a solid. 878 Whp does icefloat upon water? Because it is ligAter than Water. a given bulk or volume is compared with an equal volume or bulk of water. platinum and bydroge~ P CRAPTEB II. ~ leaden pipe of great length may be widened. which is 22 times heavier than an equal bulk of water. and when we say that qm. in e~ual volurne8. SPECIFIC GRA~. we mean that. 879 What~hasthe~~~ht? Pura~d plati~. 878 ll~w does it dzfferfrom ordi~rp or atovItte weight? In ab~olute weigkt no re~~ is paid to the ~olume or bu~ of substances. 875 If we putapiece of ice in alcoho4 itainks. when we say that ice is Ighter than iron? We mean that. 877 W~ th ~ ~ graneti? It is the weigAt of a body compared with the weight of an equal bulk of water. or a rod of wood having the ~ame weig~~ and ~looivy as the water. 874 Why does iran sink in water? Because it is ke~vier than water. and the iroa it' light&r than the quicksilver. the quicksilver has a greater weight than the water. for instance. 880 What sn~tance has the smallest spec~ weight? Jfydroge~ g~. as a fluid presses equally in all directions. In sy ifie' weight. lighter than an equal bulk of water. t'to8pstG~oI iron upon qutaketeer. as a pint. the former weighs less than the latter. Or even burst in the experimen~ 62 Wby ~ floa~ and jion ~ in water.c~silver is heavier than water.

and consequentiyfi6at on the surface. This mny be ifiustrated thus:~ a picce of wood be of Such specific ~ravity that only two ~earo inther can float out of water. The body (in floating) resembles this piece of wood~ If two square inches of ourface float out of the water. Cf the brine ~ not strong eneagh j~rpic~ Zing? Because an egg will be the ke~~ser. 888 Wh~ will an egg sinh. and this is the greater part of them. The po~~ of a beast (when swimmiug) is ~ral one. 887 Why can qtad~pcds swim more easily than man? 1. 885 Why do ~ascns SiCh in water when they are ~Zilfd swimmers? Because they struggle to keep their ~ ~water. but if as much 8al~ be added as the water can dissolve. 888 Why is it more dC~jbr a man to -sn t?aa~ a heast? . the lower part of the r~: will be depressed beneath it. or its ~fto graviVy: the addition of salt ne SCIENCE OF COMMON ThINGS. we Oan breathe. therefore.an egg will be lighter than the strong brine. 884 Wh~ is it more e~ to swim in the sea than in a river? Because the ~ gravi~y of salt water is grea~ than that of fresh. the two fmmer inches must be plunged in. but when the head is kept above tAe ~rof the water. it is manifest. and 2. that if two other Inches are reised out. 882 How do coche sometimes ascertain f thair brine le salt enoagh for . renders the specific gravity of the brine greater than that of fresh water. if the egg ~ate. the chin and mouth sink b~~k it. dthe swimmer is suffocated. it ~. or of the egg. and. and we are able to breathe. but if part of the l}aci and crown of the head are raised above the water. 886 ~hinhowthisis? When otr head is thrown back boldly into the water. If the egg ~ the brine is ~ 8Vroag enosttgk. Because the frunk of quadrupeds is hgk~ than water. it bstoy8 up the swimmer better.Because the solution of a solid in any liquid increases its ~auy. 63 Swimming in fresh smd nit water UnstiW~I swimme~ to the water. our mouth is kept above ~e 8nrfaoe.ickling? They put an egg nato ~ b~ie.

.1. the lighter riem rises to take its place. and as the ~ ~ater falls ont of the bottl~ in~ the cask. 898 Hew are lsfe. in consequence of which their ~ is di~~isketl.~r~' (when swimming) differ greatly from his ordinary habits.fatty matter. fdll of water. and the fattes' a maii is. the fish increases in size and (being lighter) ascends through the water to its surface. 89~ Why does the iody of a drowned ~erson rise and foat u. Life boa~ Cream on mllk~ 2. and they sink instantly. throegh the leng. but beasts swim in their ordinary position. and rises and floats upon the surface. which are lighter than the ~ particles of the milk. the body becomes specifically lighter than water. How tshes ssoend Bnd de~end in water. Hen' er' they ~d in this manner to obtain the reem? The 1~~is very much lighter than ~e ~. 890 i7~as arefishes dIe to ascend to the surface of water? Fishes have an ai~blarlasr near the abdomen. 891 How arefshes ahIe to dive in a minute to the lottom Of a stream? They ~pel ~ir from~hcir a~b1adder. the more buoyant will he be. 894 The slaves of the West Indies have a ~lan of stealing reemfrom a cas~ It inserting the tong nech of ~ lo~te. 889 Whp can fat neen swim more easily than spare men? Because f~ is lig~ter than wate~. 895 Why does cream rise upon melk? Because it is composed of particles of ~ or. which escap~ . from the accumulation of gao within the body (caused by incipient putrefaction). The position and muscular action of a . Because his body is more he~vy in proportion thanthatofabea&t. when ~is blad~er is ~lled u'ith air. by keeping. and 64 SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. air is substituted for a portion of ~ of the egg.looispreventelfremsi~ng? They contain in their sides air-tight ~ or filled with air. 896 Why do stale eggsfoatt~po~~ water? Because. which by their buoyancy prer~t the boat from sinking even when it is filled widi water.on the surface several onys afier death S Because.

and sand so easily moved hy. graset. as the iron is much heavier than the water I Because the vessel is constructed in a coacave form. it sinks. 401 Why does water melt sugar? Because very minute particles of w~ter insinuate . and will float. displaces a greater weight of water than the weight of the iron of which it is composed in the air. and force the crystals apart from each other. weighing half sn ounce. and can be loaded with half an ounce weight before sinking entirely. regaires the strength of two men to hfi' it. 898 Why are stones. if more. ~ made twice as large. 400 Why does water melt salt? Because very Ihinute particles of water insinuate themselves into the ~orea of the salt by ~ a~ lraetion.'A~ of the stone. sinking just to the brim. and is thus rendered buoyant. twice its own weight. it floats. on land. consequently. Every substance becomes h~hter in water. The ship. he lgisd and cerreed in water ly one man? Because the water Aol~e t£p ~e atone with a force equal to the weight of the volume of water it displaces. waves and eurrente? Because the moving water has only to overcome about kalf ~ wei. Capillary sttr~tjen. hut if it is haenmered cut into a plate or vessel.Ir SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. 65 Iron ~blp& ~evemeat Of Stones in Water. it then loses its whole weight in water. it will then sink to the middle. C~ILLARY ATInACTION. being concave. in Pr~Or~onto~e amosen~ of water d~laceol'. of such a size that it occupies eight times as much space as before. it will displace one ounce of water. A thick piece of iron. loees in water nearly one-eighth of its weight. This is a law of nature: if it displaces less water than its weight in air. OXAPTEB III. 899 Why can a sione whach. 897 Why does not a vessel constructed of iron sink.

being a species of glue into whi cli writing papers are dipped. 404 Why do persons who water plants very often pour the water into the saucer. N. 18 illustrates the manner in whioh water will n~ in tubes of diffemELt dietena 408 Why is vegetateon on the margin of a river more lururiant than in an ooenfiell? Because the porous earth on the bank deawe up wate'r to the roots of the plants by eas'illary a~raction. and not over the plants S Because the water in the saucer is drawn up by the inould (thro~gh the hole at the bottom of the flower-pot). 405 Why is cotton lest adopted for lamp-wicks? Because the arrangement of the fibres of the cotton-wick is such. ~. in which the oil ascends and supplies the flame by carn~ attraction. The smaller the tube. the higher will the liquid~he attracted by it. that the whole forins a ~undle of minute tu6es. Water ascends thro~gh a lump of sugar or piece of sponge. 407 Why will not writing or sized paper ahearI ink? Because the eizing." from the Latin word. Waterlog p~t& Getton Iamp-wie~ Blotting paper ab8orba ink.and in this way prevents all capillary attraction. & 402 What is copillary attractian 5 The power which very minute tubes possess of causing liquid to riee in them above it8 level. by capillary attraction. and is transferred to the stem and leaves of the i)Tant by capillary attraction. 408 Hew does a sponge absorb water? F . themselves into the pores of the sugar by capillary a~~ac~on. "Capillary. 408 Wh~ does llottingpapsr alserl ink? The ink is drawn up between the minute ~/~bree of the paper by caoillary attraction. B.66 5CTh~~CE OF COMMON THINGS. "cnpillaris" (like a hair). the tubes referred to are almost as fine and delicate as a hair. ~d force the crystals apart from eacli o~ier.~up the litae intereticee or epaces between t~~oe.

ice. water is converted into steam at 212 degrees. gas. as a liquid. 412 What is the osiference hetween a ligmd and a gas? The distinction between liquids and those~more elastic fluids which we term air. Fahrenheit's thermometer. 67 Dre wood swele In water. 411 Why does hot water dissolve sugar and sale more readely than cold water? Because the heat of the water assists its solvent action. may exist as a solid. Thus. depends principally on heat an(1 pressurs. CHAPTEIR Iv.. and openel for the water a passage through the particles of the substance. w~ ter. it requires F- . and with it intimately. steam. 409 Why does dry wced. immersed in water. swell? Because the water enters ~heporas of wood by capillary attraction. if thia pressure is increased. 410 Whp does sugar or salt give a favor to water? Because the sugar or salt (beiug separated into ve~ ~ minute particles) ~ats about the water. water. steam. etc. vapor. The pores of the sponge constitute ~ litebes in which the water rises by capillary attract~n. THE GENERAL PROPERTIES OF AERIEORM OR GASEOUS RODIES. and ~orces the parti~ ft~rther ~par~ from each other. Solntioo of Bnb8taflooL LiquidBand gwes. according to the addition or subtraction of heat. 41~ Under what pressare of the atmosohere is water converted into stecon? Under the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere.SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. or as a vapor.

are ~ways in a gaseous state. 419 Hee'dowe i. steam than ordinary air? Steam has but little more than heelf the wei. Oompesiuon of tbe atmosphere. 421 How m'ch bghter as'. but the greater number are colorless and invisible.i'reo. 420 Is air also impenetrable? Yes. one volume of oxygen to four of nitrogen.n. and hence it rises and floats in the air as a cork rises and floats in water. Air porous. and those which become gases okiefty a~ ki. carlonic aci~ and ammonia. but also to expand and rise upwards. in a v~ ks. 415 Are 011 gases invneh''le or colarhess ~ atmospheric air? Some gases possess color. Varieties of ~eous bodies. appear to have any cohesion ~etween themeelves? The ultimate particles of which air and other gases are composed appear to be destitute of cohesion. 416 Of what is atmospheric air consposed 7 Principally of two gases. or vapor of water. It must not be forgotten tnat the air contains small quantities of otlier gaseous substances also.68 SC~NCa OF COMMON THINGS. the amount of heat required is propor tionably less. 414 How manv ~nis of aereferm or gaseous ~odies ecbt in nature? Those whic19 under oommou oir~mstonce8 of tonend pres~re.'k do.'~t of aimo~heric ai~. mixed together in the following proportion: viz. hence air has a disposition not only to sink down and spread out laterally. 417 Do the particlas of which atmospheric air and ether gaseous bodies are composed. if this pressure is diminished. a proportionably higher temperature. as vapor qf water. as common air. like liquids when unconfined. and a great bulk of it may be forced to occupy a very small space. beyond ~ ogrtaia limi~ it cannot be compressed. . 418 Istheairperous? Yes.w' this fact? Because air readily yields to pressure. o~g'~ and ~trogaa.'~ ~ as steam.

427 Hotv can this ~ renlt7y proved? By weighing a vessel filled with air. the space appears of a~ az~re or clear OOlor. and which. 42~ Has air weight? J~ ~ov. 423 Is the atmosphere inenThie? It is generally. supports animal life by respiration. This color beIon~ not to anjething which occupies the space in which the stars or other c~estiil objects nre placed. as well as lead. and the same vessel after the air has been exhausted from it. but to the mass of air through which tbe bodies are seen. 424 How can you prove that the atenosphere is not invinhie? Because when we look upwards into the firmament on a clear day. 428 Can the eristence of air he known hy the sense of touch or feeling~ . so regardci T~ a~moip~ere iv yto~ i~vivible. 425 Why do distant mou~eens appear hiete? Xot because it is tiieir color. stone. 69 ~Vhat is the atmosphere? CIIAPTE~ why meiletains appear hine.5CIENCLC OF CO~MOX TUINGS. and is also necessary for the due exercise of the vegetable f~nctions. by its peculiar constitution. 422 What do we anderaland hy the atenesphere? The thin transparent fluid which surrounds the earth to a Considerable height above its surface. AT~O5PIIE~~. but because it is ~ color of t4e air ~Aroug~ wMcA ~ are veest. but erroneously. or any other material substance.

expanding by its e]astic property. expands into another zone or belt Qf the thickness of 41 or 42 miles. 429 Why do we always feet a hreeze on the deck of a ettaisloat in notion. niways fills flie dimunsions of the vessel us complotokv as hofore. 488 When is air said to he rarefied? When a given quantity of air is caused to expand and occupy a greater space. and the remaining half being relieved of this superincumbent pressure. even upon the catenest day 5 Because our bodies forcibl~ displace the air ~ we are carried tArou~A ~t. as the bird rises simply by the resie~ ance of the particles of air to the beating of its wings.It can. ~f nine4unths were withdrawn.etien9 It could ~o~. 482 How do we know that air is elastic? Because a volume of compressed air. 484 What is the height of the atniosphere alare the surface of the earth? It is supposed to be about 45 milee. immediately restores itself to its original biilk. the pressure being removed. ~ome authorities suppose this last zone to havo a much greater area. contains one-half of the atmosphere. since it opposes reeieta~ee wAen aoie~ ~ and strikes with a fo~ce proportionate to the speed of its motion. titat which remains. Heig~t of the atmo~phere~ weight of the atinosphere. 481 Could a hird fly in a space devoid of air. 480 How are waves of the ocean produced By the force of ~ke air i~ mo~io~. or wind strIking upon the surface of the water. it is said to be rarefied. When a part of the air inclosed in any vessel is withdrawn. even s! it could ertet without repO. 4 SCIE~CR O~ COMMO~ THINGS. thu remaining one-tenth would occupy the same space that the whole did formerly. 485 What is the weight of air compared with that of water? . the zone or shell of air which surrounds the earth to the height of nearly 2~ miles from its surface.

439 Iu what direction is the pressure of the atmaphere erertet I Jt is the nature of a fluid to transmit pressure in eve~y direction e~ually. 445 Are Ciere any issstances of a vacuum in nature I There is no reason for supposing that the spaces which exist between the van~s planets . and Uie auimal wouid burst. therefore the air presses ~pward8. 440 How greet a pressure is e~erted hy the air ispen the ~ody of a wan or animal having a surface of 2000 square inches? ~ot less than 30.000 po~n1si. 48~ As air has weight. to how great au elevatina clove the earth would it ectesel ~ To an elevation of tltietyfourfee~. vacuum. '71 438 Jf the cir were condeosed. scurxcu or COMMON 'THINGS. and as the mess of it eatenos at least 45 miles ahove the earth's surface. so that the erternal pressure is met and counteracted by the internal resistance. or with air of the 8ame density as the external air. laterally. 48G What is the estimated weight of the whole atmosphere enveloping the glohe? To the weight of a ~obe of lead aixty milee i~ dietme~er.Water is about 840 ~mee the weight of air. with the same force. whet amount of pressure does it ezert 5 At the level 0/ tile ocean the atmosphere exerts a pressure of about 15 pounds for' every e~uare incil of eeies-faoi. taken ~ulkfor bulk. we mean by a vacuum. 448 What do ice wean ly a vecaumi A space de~oid of all matter. 449 Whet seould lv the effect upon a man or animal if at once relieved of all atmeipheric pressure? All the blood and ~ids of the body would be fo~ed ly e~ansion to the suface. 444 Can a perfect vacuum ~ produced eriwicially? ~o. Presure of air. and otir boelie8 are ~lled with liqtiid8 capable of sustaining pressure. in general. and obli~uely. so Os to occopy no wore space then the sane weight of water. or abut 15 ton& 441 Why is not the individuel creshed heneath so enormous a lend I Because the atmoepliere ~C88~8 c~ztally in all direetion8. downword~. but confined spaces may be deprived of air sufficiently for all experimental or practical purposes. a space devoid of air.

with a string by which it may be suspended with any weight attached to it. a person. 449 How is a tog enahled to left a stone lii means of the common sucker? The sucker consists of a di8k of moi8tefleol lea~Jier. where the air is greatly rarefied. and the atmospheric pressure keeps the animal in position. but by use weight of the atmosphere forcing it into an empty space. that a stone of weight proportioned to the extent of the disk of leather may be raised by lifting the string.and other heavenly bodies. although expanding his chest as much as usual. Os it is ter~wed? Because by so doing we make an enlargeol enace in t~e eAe8~. and the treath drawn in so as to produce a partial vacuum in the mouth. excluding the air between them and the surface with which they are in contact. 450 How are flies end other small insecto enatled to walk on ceilings and surfaces presented downwards. 446 Is the eristence of air necessory te the production of sound I It is. How we breathe. If its smooth moist surface be pressed so closely against flie flat side of a stone or other body that the air cannot enter between them. are occupied with any material substance. 44~ If the lips te applied to the hack of the hand. why will the skin he drawn or sucked in 5 ~ot from any force resident in the lips or the mouth drawing the skin in. and that the presisurefeosa u. in a vacuum there can be no sound. but from the fact that the usual external pressure of air is removed. How flies walk on the ceiling. 45~ How is the air caused to escape from the lungs? . 447 Why 55 ii often paiofsl and dcffico~ to treathe on a mountain-too? Because. the report of a pistol can hardly be heard. 5cIENC~ or COMMON THINOS. or upon smooth panes of glass in an upright position? Their feet are formed in such a manner that they ad ots email air-pumpe or euckero. owing to the ex~eme rari~ of the air on the top of the mountain. The air entors the lungs. 451 Why in treathing do we first draw in the treath. and on the top of high mountains. as on Mont Blanc. not because they draw it in. the weight of the atmosphere pressing upoa ~ie upper surface of the leather makes it adhere so strongiy.it~i~ die 8kiTh is suffered to prevail. really takes in only half as much air as he does when at the foot of the mountain. and the pree8ure of tke ex~rnttl ot~moeoAere forces the air in to fill it.

and. FrothIng of ale. ill colnbination with tile liquor.Simply by means of its elaedci~. and cider froth. 455 Does air erist in woter? Water. Meteorology. and escapes by the mouth and nose. while a stream passes out throngh the lower half of the neck. the lungs by SOTEXCE Op coMMo~ TIIINGS. air or gas wilicli. so as to stop the admission of air. 5CIENCF OF COMMON THINOS. and champagne sparkle when uncurked and poured into an open vessel? When these liquors are bottled. Sparkling of champagne. This has thc effect of llOl(lin g.~ On account of the pr~88ure of t/~ a(mo8pheroforo~ng air into the interior of the bottle. 457 Coold fishes and other marine onimale live in water deprived of Oir? T~y ooul~ no~ as they breathe the air contained in the water. If any air or gas rise fi~om the liquor after . The flow being now continued and uninterrnpted. When a part has flowed out. no sound takes place. and exerts upon the surface a preteure greater than that of the atmosphere. 73 Wliy jug gurgles. by rushing suddenly hito the interior of the bottle. 453 Why do~ a toitle or jag gurgle srhne houjet is freely poured from it. which. the liquid. 458 Why do ale. produces the sound. hi 4ie first instance. Air in water5 mnscnlar action compress the air contained in them and give to it by compression a greater elasticity than the air without. would escape. in flowing out. By the excess of the elasticity it is propelled. and most liquids exposed to the air. and an empty space is formed within the bottle. only partially fills the neck. which is maintained in them by the pressure of the atmosphere acting on the surface. the neck of the bottle is tilled with liquid. the atmospheric pressure forces in a bubble oj air through the liquid in the neck. porter. 454 How long wilt a ~ottle continue to gargle? So lony a8 ~ke neck cOfl~flUC8 ~ be o~oke~ wi~~ liyui~ But as the contents of the bottle are discharged. the air confined under the cork io oonclen8eo'. abeorb ~ greater ar 1e88 q~an~ty. under tile atmosphene pressure only. a stream of air passes in thr~igh the upper part. 458 Why is holled woterfiot and insipid? Because the ayene~ of tt~e iteat e~e7t tI~ air which the water previously contained.

while a thin liquor. it causes a still greater condensation.c~ sometimes becomes greater than the cohesive strength of the particles of matter composing the bottle. and the ear~k heats the air ~istsng upO~ ~t. and an increased pressure above its surface. and. wiucli then necessarily gives way. bow boated ond cooled. and is succeeded by otker air. the air thus heated rises. beilig released fi~m the pressure of the air which was condensed under ~ie cork. and another kind only soackle? Those uquors only whi~i are vtsc. because they retain the little bubbles of air as they rise.being bottled. frotA. the air fixed in the liquid. . ATMOSPIIFRIICAL PHENOMENA. CHAPTER VI. instantly makes its escape. 451 What designotion do coo gice to that deportment of scioucs which treats of the various phenomena of the alcnosphere? ~Ieteorology. either by the rays of the sun passing through it. &c. or by the heat communicated to it by the earth. porter. 450 Why does one kind of lionoc froa. produces effervescence and froth. Origin of wiod~ 483 In what manner is the air heated hy the earth? The sun heats the ear~. suffers the bubbles to escape readily. till the whole volume is warmed. like champagne.. rising in bubbles. or tkicic. frequcutly l)arol ~ It is the nature of these liquids to produce giel or atr in considerable quantities. which is heated in a similar way.cl. When the cork is drawn from a bottle containing liquor of this kind. 462 rnco is the oir heated? In two ways . 459 Why do hottin coutah~ing ale. tke diestto force of wh. cittec. SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. ~l~t~ntotie. or bursts. 75 Air.

470 How can winds originate through variations of temperature? When through the agency of the sun a particular portion of the earth's surface is heated to a greater degree than the remainder. the air resting upon it becomes rarefied dud ascends. movements of the atmosphere we apply the designation of wtietl. while a current of cold air rushes in to supply the vacancy. and descends towards the ground. there is always soma wo~o~ in the ah-. 488 Prove rhar rho air is condensed ~y cohd. Effect of nOUntainS ~ wiods. Lay a bladder half full of air before a fire. if it be now removed f~m the fire. 487 What effects has hear upon air? 'lent rareftes or makes it tighter. till it has become inflated. the bladder will colloose again. and to these SCIENCE OF Co~Th~ON THINGS. 489 Whar occasions those mocensents of the air which We ca~ wind? The principal ca'ise is the variation of temperaturo produced by the alternation of day and night and the succession of the seasons. 485 Whar effect is produced upon air hy coid? It is 00nde~sed or compacted into a smaller compass. in consequence of which i~ becomes Aeavier. because the air condenses into its former bulk. 47~ Does the rotation of the earth upon ite axis o~ect the motitn of the air I Yes. that is. Two currents. in ~wo ways: 1. a quantity of air heated will occupy more space than the same ~uantity which has been cooled. Wind alWSys blows. and the other of cold ah flowing in. As the earth moves round its axis. until all becomes of one temperature. but the violence of the motion is pei~etually varying. this c6ld air makes the air above i~ cold.on. 471 ~oes the wind always Ilow I Yes. the one of warm air flowing out. and cold cur-rents (or winds) cause the whole to mix together.484 How is the air made coid? The air resting on the earth is made cold by eoa~o~. the thin movable air is left . are thus continually produced. 488 What is wind I Wind is air pu~ in mo~s.

476 Why tees uct the wind always tlow one way. 474 When the sun is vertical or nearly over head at any place. blowing from a particular direction. what time of day is it at thai place I Noon. 475 How does a change in the heat of air produce wind? The air always seeks to oreser~e ala eguil~uia. the winds would always fol~w ~8 8U~.somewhat bcAintl. and must either oscend the mountain. 47~ Why are those winds which ~low over large ctntinents or tracts Of land generally dry I SCFENCE OF COMMON TH'N~S. Because in their passage they ~1)8or~ very litac waler. 480 W~~ud the wind Ilow regulorly from east to west cf all olatructions were resnoced 5. and tiierefore seems (to a stationary object) to be blowing in the opposi~ direction to the earth's motion. following the direction of the sun? Because the direction of the wind is subject to perpetual interruption from Aills and valleys. strike against the side of a mountain. it will necessanly be de~ctedfroin a straigAt line. and t~i8 ae~on of u'sntl or fro8t proolnoes ec k~tl of ~ft~m~c£1~on Ol~ t~C skin. It' the whole earth were covered with water. Force ci winds. as they do not blow over large oceans. Without doubt. and blow uniformly in one fzreetiom. As the earth revolves. turn lack. velocity ci wiod~. diffe~n~ portions of its surface are continually passing under the vertical rays of tAo sun. &C 477 How can hille or mountains aifret or change the direction and course of the wind? If a current of air. . 479 Why do our handc and t~s chop inf~ty and windy weather I Because the wind or frost absorbs the rnoA~nre from the surface of the skin. or assume a lateral direction. 478 When are the rays of the sun called vertical rays I When the sun is in a direct Zinc above any place. so ~ld air rushes into the void made by the ~ward curvent of warin air. and ~. deserts. seas. his ~ays are said to be "vertical" to that place.

upon dooconding to the nititudo of 12. be root with a contrary wind.000 foot. 488 Why do we sometimes see clonds ot one elevation moving in one direction.* 485 In a very Irish wind. 484 Iv a gentle wind. in those parts of the world which present a l~rge suiface of water. with a pressure of7 to 12' lbs. ond at another elecation. In 1839. an English soronant. 487 Jo a hurricane. witli different velocities. blowing witis a velocity of eighty miles per hour. whot is the velocity ond pressnre I From ~wen~y ~ ~wenty-}~ec ti~1es per itour. 4* m SOIENOE OF COMMON THINGE.481 ~o winds ever ~low regolorly I Yes. 48ta With whot velocity do win do move I £cer~ graIuat~n exists in the speed of winds. Trade winds and tileir location. at the some time. avoirdupois. ~d with a perpendicular force on one s(1liare foot of 005 lbs. * jil tlioso ostimatos tlie prossura is computed per squnre foot in pounds uvoirdupois. from the mildest zephyr to tlie most violent hurricane. encountorod a curront that born him along at tho rate of five miles por hour. 486 Whet is the velocity ondprwcnre of the wind in a storm? From ftf~y ~ t~ir~ tmt7es per hour. at tbo boigbt of 14. 489 How is the force of the soind ascertained S By observing the arnonn~ of pre8sure ~at it exerts ~pon a given plane surface pe~pendiczilcir ~ jt8 own diree~ion. others awnog in a contrary direction 5 Because tltfferen~ eltrrents of r1~ exist at dtj{erent ele~a~on8. 483 With what velocity does a wind which is hardly perceptihle move? With a velocity of about oi?C ritile per /tottr. with a vary~g force of 31 to 50 lbs. and a force of 079 to 1~3 lbs. If the pressure plate acts fre~y upon spiral springs. Movements of clonds. hut. moving in different directions. what is the velocity and estiniated pressure? Fromfour toftve m~esper ~our. ibe power of the wind is denoted by . force 1~9 to 3~07 lbs.000 feet. as in tite Atlantic and PacIfic Oceans. who~ is the estinioted velocity and pressure I From et~h~ ~o one httndre~ miles per hour.

and that weight will be a measnre of thair force. 494 Do trade-winds Ilow from the north-east end south-east all the veer round S Yes. 497 Why is there generally a fresh Ireeze from the sea during ~ summer and autumn mornings I Because lard is igore hea~d by ~e 8UH than the 8~ is. 499 Why is the north wind generally cold? . 491 Whet ore tlte constant winds whirls 110w over the Atlentic and Pacuic Oceans called S They are called "~atle-w~~tl8. a vessel may 8~il for ot week without ~~ring t~e po~ltton of ci scii~ or rope. therefoFe the air wiuch blows from the sea is cooler ~ ~ air of ~e lard. SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. and being thirsty. that is in the Atlantic and Pact~c oceans. and the land air becomes hotter than that over the sea. in consequence of which the cooler sea air glides inland to restore the equilibrium. Cause of sea breezes North and south wiod~ 490 Why does a sea Ireeze feel cool I Because tile sun cannot make the surface of the 8d~ so hot as the laitd. the same as in weighing by tho ordinary sprhig. 495 Where olo the trade-winds liow with unsform force and constancy? Jn matiy parts of ~ie Pacitic embraced within the region of tiie trade-winds. and therefore absorb very ls~le water. tm ~ open 8e~." 492 Why ore they called trade-winds? Because they are very cotivenient to nttv'1~~~r8 who have to cross the ocean. they Feadily imbibe moisture from the air and clouds and therefore bring dry w~at~er. 498 In what direction do the toads-winds lhw S That in the northern hemisphere blows from the north-east . 498 Why are the west winds in the Atlantic States generally dry? Because they come over large ~ac~ of land.the extent of thoir compresslolt. for about 250 each side of the equator. itiasmucil as they always blow in one ~irectton. that ill tile southern h~nisphere from the south-east. 490 Whet is en instromeni for mensaring the force of the wind called I An Anetmome~r.halance.

they are much 1 80 SCIENCE Ov COMMON mrl~~G5. ab8orb inoistl£r~ from everything they touch. 501 Why are south winds generally warm? Because they come over countries warmer than our own. 507 Why is afine clear dan sometimes overcast in afew minutes? Because some sudde~ oha~ge of ~~era~ura has condensed the vapor of the air ~ clouds. 508 Why are cloods somctio?es dissinated very suddenly? Because some ~ wird (blowing over the clouds) it~b.Because it comes from the polar regions. 50~ Why are winds which Ilote over a vnst lody ofwater generally rainy P Because they come laden with racer. in consequence of which they are generally dry. asid carries it off in invisible vapor. 500 Why are norih winds generally dry I Because they come from colder regions. 509 Why does wind su~etimes iring rain. Effect of tbe winds on am Weather. and being warined by the heat of our climate. over mountains of snow and seas of ice. and absorb ~'a~r very plents~illy as they pass over the ocean. 505 Ilew does this account for the rainy character of south winds? As soon as they reach a cold climate they are aoi~ deitsed. called the evening breeze. where they are much heated. 503 Why is the. and the air is rapidly cooled down by contact.-e oftess an evening Ireeze during the summer months? Because the earth radiates ~eat a~ sunset. HurricaneL hea~ed. in consequence of which some of it is deposited as rain. and sonnetijoes fins sceather? If the wind be colder ~ ~e clouds. 508 Why are dry winds in the spring monthe desiralle and advanlageons for agricultural operations? They dry t~e soti saturated with the moisture of winter. break ~ ~e keavy clods. it will condense their vapor into rasm. and can no lo~gQr hold all their vapor in smpension. coming from the torrid zone. 504 Why do south winds ofen Iring rain? Because. this condensation causes a motion in tAc air.bes Micir tnoistu<i'e. but if the wind . ii. some of the vapor is deposited as rain. therefore. they meet with the least c~ill. and fit the land for the osed committed to it.

The great gale of August. having trave]led more than ~kree ~Aou8und ~au~e~l m~e8 'Th 8C~Cfl day~.rectson of the wind. in SCIENCE OE COMMON ThI~G5. ~rress. 512 Do any particular portions of the tropies appear to la especially Visited witil hurricanes I In the northern hemisphere. peculiar to certain portions of the world. and it is the only storm to dread within the region of the trade-winds. she would in turn find the wind blowing from every po~~ of ~e Comoad8. while at the same time the body of the storm has a progredsvve smo~on over the surface of the ocean. 1830. which revolve roun~ a~ cieje either upright or inclined to the horizon. reached the Banks of Xewtoundland on the 19th. 517 What is known concerning the distance travelled hy hurricanes? The distance traversed by these terrible tempests is immense. 513 flu the hurricanes occur at particular seasons? The West Indian occur from Aug~e~ ~ Odober. the southern hemisphere. mu~ as a corkscrew travels through a cork. Thomas on the 12th.nd.ts warsaer ~ the douds. 511 How are hurricanes especially distingunshed from other kinds of tempests? By their extent. 515 Ilinstrate wore clearly the wanner in which a hurricone woves? It is the nature of a hurricane to travel ro~~fl(l ~rd ~ound as well as forwar(l. the Mauritian from i~bru~ry ~o Aprzl. 81 what are burncaues~ Breadth and ve~ocity efhurrieaues. and the ~dden changes that occur in the ds. 513 In what direction would a ship revolving in the circles of a hurricane find the wind? As the ship revolved. it will dtssdve them and cause them to disappear. 514 What have recent investigntiois shown the hurricanes to he? ~x~dn8~d slorme of wird. and described by a rotatory wind upon the surface of the water. which occurred at St. the hurricane most freq~entiy occurs in the regions of the TWest Indies. It ras-cly takes its rise beyond the tropics.sttlle power. the track of the Cuba hurricane of 1814 was but little infenor in length. it occurs in the neighborhood of the ~ctur~~u8. 510 What is a hurricane? The hurricane is a re~narkalle storin w. . only the circles are all ftyt.

518 What is known of their progressive and rotary velocity? Their progressive velocity is from 8eve~ton to forty ~iles per hour. . described as the lull of the tempest. Toniadoes~esuse ci Eddies in water~ 520 How great is the surface over which they prevail I Mr. but distinct from the progre~e~ve velocity is the rotary. and the length of their coui~se rarely exceeds twenty miles. differing chiefly in respect to their eon~nuanoe and eaten~ 523 How long do they usuagy inst I From ffton ~ seventy secords. 522 Iv what respect does a tornado dsff'er from a hurricane I Tornadoes may be regarded as hurricanes. and the area over which it prevailed during its whole length was corn-puted to be ~wo militonfour Aun~red ~Aousard v~uare iniles-an extent of surface equal to two-thirds of that of all Furope.the wind sometimes blowing at the rate of o~e Aun~red mi7es per hour. 519 How great is the trenclth of t~ hurricane? The surface simultaneously swept by these tremendous whirlwinds is a vast circle varying from one hundre~ to five huntlre~ ~ilee in diameter. has estimated the great Cuba hurricane of 1844 to have been not less than eig~~ ~undred mz7e8 in breadth. or the influence of a brisk gale upon a portion of the atmosphere in repose. 524 What is their extent? Their breadth varies from afew rods ~ several ~undred yards. 521 What curious fact have mariners noticed when in the centre or vortex of the horricmse I An awful ca7o~ prevails. 525 What phenomena generally attend them? The tornado is generally preceded by a calm and sultry state qf tAe atmo~~ere. in which it seems to have rested only to gather strength for greater efforts. Tornadoes are usually accompanied with thunder and lightning. of New York. 82 SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS.. when suddenly the whirlwind appears. near which pohit the force of the tempest is greatest. which increases from the exterior boundary to the centre of the storm. prostratiny everything before it. I~edfleld. 526 What is supposed to he the origin of tornadoes? They are supposed to be generally produced by the lateral action of an Opoossng wind. and sometimes showers of hail.

the severity of the cold becomes too grea~ for Auma~ endurance. iustead of objects on the surface of the earth. 588 What are clouds? Moisture evocorateci f~m ~ eart/~. 5c~NcE or COMMON TI-lINGS. the cold of the external air is easily endurable. 581 What are the epicts of wind noticed in Ce Arctic regions 5 Arctic explorers inform us that in those regions.527 How are the eddies or whiripoole produced sohich occur in water. They may be seen at the junction of two brooks or rivers. and sweeping from it the seeds of pestilence and contagion. 582 If the winds shonki cease to hiow over the ocean. 580 Why choes wind generally fee~ co~ 5 Because a oonstona~e4an~~q surface comes in contact with our body to draw off its heat. when the thermometer ranges from 400 to 600 below zero. but if a wind arises at this temperature. and again partially cordenseil in the upper regions of the air. watersponts. and striking the calm air beyond it. 83 what are clouds I 528 How are toe whirlwinds which we ~egasntly see at the corners of streets in citios produced 5 They are caused by a gui~ of u'iittl sweeping round a corner of a building. what woold he the effect The water would undoubtedly become s~gnan~ Tempests and hurricanes also exercise a beneficial effect by agitating and purifying the atmosphere. and which in Oseir formation resemble some tornadoes? Fddies or whirlpools are most fre~iently formed in water when two streams flowing unequally meet.nel over ~e ciurface of water. provided the air is calm and the irdivilual exercises freely. 585 Why are clouds higher on a fine days Because they are ligkler and more buoganl. 588 Why are clouds ii~hter on afine day? . and differs from a whirlwind on land in the fact that water ts subjec~ed to the action of the wind. ~by winds teel cool. but fogs come in contac~ witk Ike surface of Ike earlk. 584 What is the dfference hetween a fog and a cloud S Clouds and fogs differ only in one respect. ~lords are elevated above our Acads. 529 What is a waterspont S A waterspout is a u'~irlw.

and even the earth. and color. warm. in union with the colder air. 540 rnw do changes in the wind produce elomis I If a cold curren~ of wind blows suddenly over any region.· but if a ~(lrin eurren~ of wind blows over any region. 542 What is the size of the clouds I Some clouds are many sqsiare miles in surface. 5851 Are all clouds alike I Xo. 548 How can persons ascertain the thickness of a cloud I As the tops of high mountains are generally above the clouds. Streaky. a point will at length be attained where. they vary greatly in denisty. and above a wile in ~iliekness. 541 What distance are the clouds f~~om the cm'th I Some ~Itin. ~. liko hair. The air ~8elf (on a line day) retains much of its vapor in an ~nv~~6le form. nnd 84 SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. travellers may pass ~uits . which increases in bnU~ with the upward progress of the current into colder regions. the higher they ascend. their original humidity can no longer be retained: a cloud will then appear. ileigiat of cloude. trees. it condenses the invisible vapor of the air into cloud or r&n.1. Wby cioude Seat in tbe air. but the average height is between one and ~wo miles. 537 Why do clouds flout so readily in the air I Pecanse they are composed of very viinu~ glo~ulei (called vesicles). and. Ae~k~. the colder is the atmosphere into which they enter.· while others are only afew yards or inches. which (being lighter than air) float like 8o~p-bu~ble8. Because the vapor of the clouds is less condensed. 589 What is Ihe chil cause of fog and clouds I Dnring the daily process of evaporation from the surface of the earth. some heavy ones touch the stee})les. Size of douSe. ligh~ clouds are elevated above the highest mountain4op . it dis})erses the clouds by a~orbing ~eir vapor. are often fivo or six unilot high. curling clouds. A~mi7 eurren~i of air are continu~y ascending. as they continue to rise.

rough. so that sometunes OflO color is reflected and sometimes afio(her. the heat also which is liberated from below in the process of condensation. and ~ i~ ~ ~e olou~s with which they come m contact. falling upon different ~rfaces at different angles. and ere(t~ another set of depressions. upheaval. Undei their various influences the masses of vapor coulposiug the ~ouds are caused to assume all manner of grotesque and fanciful sli apes. For ~ same reaso~ ~riey are ~Ae frsl to aepear i~ 5 Tm . when the clouds will be seen le~~ecfMt (k~~rfce~ 544 Why do clonds when not continuous over the whole susfoce of the sig apoeoriagg~d. 548 imw can winds alsorh clouds altogether? Tarm. the currents of warm air escaping from the earth. 548 Why is not the color ofclonds always atd~ S Because their size. 549 Why do the clouds after sunset abut the western harizon often eshitit a leant fat cri~naon oppeora~we 5 Because the red rays. aod noerea 5. they are not bent out of their course so much as the blue and yellow rays. and sometimes o~~flye ~ of ~keirparie. mell ~ one set of elevations. 85 Cause of tbe appearance ef clouda. all tend to keep the clouds in a state of agitation. a clear blue firmament. 545 What effect have winds on the sha~e of clonds 5 They sometimes ab8orb t~e~ en~irety. deusity.through them into q 5CIL~NCE OF cOMMON TIJLNG5. Color of clouds. of which the sun's light is in part composed. are less refrangiNe ~an any of the other colors. The ray8 of ~/tC s~ln. and si(~~a1ion in i~egard to the sun are perpetually varying. In consequence of this. and are the last to disappear. 547 How can winds increase the lath and density of clouds? Col~ currents of wind will condense the invvsibla vapor of the air. which they will carry away in their own cui'rent. and depression. dry winds will convert the substance of clouds into i~visible vapor. sometimes ~erease Micir vol~rne an~ deu8zty. and of cold air descending from above.

ns in fig. will reach the eye of a spectator at the point A. 551 What is the cense of a red sunset S The vapor of the air not being ae~ally condeneed ~nto clouds.86 SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. will reach the surface of the earth at the intermediate points B and a. but red rays are not so much len~ down. a my of light. 'They will. t -&½¼¼~~ ~ig. it assumes a deep orange or red color. if light be transmitted throngh steam mingled with air. consequently. which compose in part tho solar beam. while the yellow and blue rays. The red rays. or the least doviated from their course. let us aupposo. ~ke mornIng w~en ~d 8Ilfl rI8e8. 550 What is nteant ly leing lass refrangi~e 5" Being less a6le ~ le len~. and impar~ to mornIng clouds red or crImson colors. 19. boing the best refrangible. S. and titerefore we see them later in the evening. 552 Why is a red and lowering sky at sunrise an indication of a wet day S . Ead ~eud~ at sunrise ~d sunset. Itefrangibility of light. and therefore on the verge of condensation. In the same manner. 19. to outer the enrth's etmoophore at the point P. being refracted to a greater degree. but only on the poin~ of' beIng condensed. proceeding from the sun. be quite invisible from the point A. Blue and yellow rays are more easily bent below ~he horIzon through the action of the atmosphere.

ascertained within a few years. But it is also a fact. u~hsn vapor tarsus clouds and togs. (2 re](i0218.The red and lowering appearance of the morning sky. for thu sky is rod nod lowonog. the vapor of the earth (being condensed by the chill air) becomes misl orfog. It will be foul woatlior to~dsy. 554 What is tne cause of tl~c ha~~ness of the atmosphere daring that portion of t/~e outorna known (m the Indian Suasmer 5 It is undoubtedly due to several causes. and appears as a cloud. to ~c fret'ol(nce o~ 52210ke in the air arising frorn burning forests. that the constitution of the atmosphere is changed in the autumn. the vapor rises lkrougk Ike aIr. probably depends upon such an excess of' vapor being present in the whole atmosphere that clouds are actually forming in ~he V tlCIFN~E OF COMMON TIIINGS. When the surface of 1/te earlk is warmer Ikan Ike lower air. xvi. and ~iat solar light at that season has less chemical influence than at any other portion of the year. partially to an exce88lve drj~ne88 of the atmosphere. in some degree. 557 Why do clouds often horer around nsonntaia praks. and becomes cloud. or upon the point 0£ condensation. which indicates foul weather. San ness at tbe Indian nu~mer. sse Why does ropor someti?ocs farna iota clouds. when the atmosphere eloewhere is cloar anefreefroos clouds S It is caused by the wind impelling up the sides of the mountains the warm kumid aIr of Ike valleys. ole~8e a~~no8p/tere than any of the other colored rays. 3. But ~len the lower aIr is warmer Ikan Ike carlA. T{oneo our Lard's o1)sacvstimi-~ Jo ~o irloriling ya say. which in its ascent gradually becomes condensed by the cold. and its excess of moisture becomes visible. dry or moist air S Air ~2w(7era(ety 22wI8~ is more transparent than very dry air.) 558 Which is tl~e most transparent. and somedmes rest upon the earOs as mist orf)gr This depends on the ~soperel~ure of the air. which the rising sun cannot disperse. 555 Why dors the sun seen through afog appear reds Because the red rays of light have a greater power to pass througii a ~~ick." (Malt. and. 558 Why are windosra at night often cowered with thick mis4 and the frames wet with standing wator? Because the temperature of the exlernal air always .

8~ and the mist (collecting into drops) rolls dow~ tile window~rame in little streams of water. and therefore covers it with dew.88 SCIENCE or COMMON THINGS. Mi~ on wiodowi In. not only in the hot weather of summer. and changes its invisible and gaseous form into tliat of dew. 565 Why does Ireathing on a glass make it quite dull I Because the hot breath is eordeneetl by the cold glass. 564 Why is a tam Iler of cotd water made quite doll with mis~ when hrought mis a warns roona S Because the Ao~ vacor of the room is con&nsetl upon the cold tumbler. because the air is ~ warm l}~ f~ed and by the anIo~al ~ea~ of the people in the room. from cookiag and the evaporation of water.~sibIe per~piratioo~ ~alls at sunset. 560 Does the glass of a window cool dwaa more rapidly than the air of the roaw isoif I Yea. tlry glass t~e. 568 If the persoiration he lath insensille and invidhle~ how is it known ihat there is any such perspi~ation I If you put your naked arm into a clean. vapor also arises fr~n the breath and insensible perspiration of the inmates. 566 Why are the walle of a house covered with damp iu a sudden thaw? Because the walls (being thick) cannot c~ange their . with which it comes in contact. 562 What is meant hy "the inse~illo perspiration r' From every part of the human body an lIlSenSIble and InvIsIble perspiration issues all night and day. in consequence of which the ~r of a room suffers ~'ery lI~~e diminution of heat from the setting of the sun. 561 Whence arises the vapor of a room? The air of the room always contains vapor. but also in the coldest days of winter. and c~ll[8 the wi~(1ow-~(a88 with which it comes in contact 559 How does this account for the mist and water on a window? As the warm vapor of the room ~Yelteg tile col~ gla8d it is e~lYle(1 and confen8e(1 into m. the perspiration will contlense on the glass like mist.

nod lakes. while fog is vapor not sufficiently condensed to allow of its precipitation in drops. ~~hi1a ~sa anmo fog is afton nppliod to vapors candensod on land. Tho term mist is' ~ea gonor~1y nynliod to vapors oan(1oo sod on nsarshes rirers. 570 What are fogs? Fogs are ~vAi~7e V~}2OT8 that float in the atmosj4ierc near the surfice of the earth.5CIEN~E OF coMuoN TJIINGS. 571 What is the cause offogs? They originate in the eIIiO eott. which either ctieks to the walls or trickles down in little streams. 587 How does 'retaining their cad" account for their heing so wet? As the vapor of the warm air touches the cold walls.lle vapo~ but in iumme~ the air is not cold enough to do so. ospocially if ttiaoo vapors nro ladon ~~itii eniako. and covenn~ the earth in a fog) prevents any further raJia~o~ ~ea~ from the earth.ieg iti iot~thc union of a cool body of air wi~ one ~at is warm and Immid when ~te precipitation of nioistui-e is slight. Breath visible in cold weather Difference between mist and to as fast as ~ie air. it is cbIY~d and confen8e(l into ~ater. in consequence of whi~i they re1aI~ their col~ after the thaw has set in. rains are the result. 572 What distinction is to ~e tnade hetween a snist and a fog? ~fli~ is generally cousidei-ed to be aftt~e tatti. and not in summer? Because the inteuse cold condenses our breatlt into rit. fogs arc produced . and hangs ~iere in little dew-drops. 569 Why are am' hair and the hrim of oor hat ofton covered with litIlo drops of p~a4a deto itt winter-time I Because our hrcath is condensed ilS soon as it comes in contact wi~i ~ir cohi hair or hat. 578 Why does not the fog tecosne dew? Because the chill of the air is so ra~i(1 that vapor is condensed faiter than it cavi be d&poit(e(J. 568 Why is our ~reath visule io winter. . ~ien it is copious.

when foga occur. When vapor forrn5 clouds and whoa fogs. Because less vapor is formed on a frosty day. 578 Why is there very ofien a fog over marshes and rivers at nighttime S Because the air of marthes is almost always near sa~ura~on. and therefore ~ie least depression of (etapera(ure will compel it to relinquish some of its moist~rc in the form of dew or fog. about equal in tonperaI~tre with tl~ surface of the ear~i itseU~. 579 Why does vapor sometimes form into clouds. When the sutf~ee of (he ear(h is warmer than (he air. and becomes cloud.574 When Ow earilt cats no loog~r radiate hestt upwards. 580 If cold air produces fog. the vapor of the earth (being condensed by the chill air) becomes qnA( or fog. and. the air which touches this new layer of fog being alto condensed. for which reason the fog is not con deJl8ed into dew. 575 This fog seems to rise higher and higher. it deposits seine of its superabundant moisture in the form of dew or fog as soon as its capacity for holding vapor is lessened by the cold nIgA~. When this is the case. when the air is not eaturated. and thus the fog seems to be rliting. and net remains quite as dsnse helow as at first: e~ploin the canoe of this 5 The ah resting on the ear~~ is ~rst chilled. when the aIr is warmer (ham (he earth. 57e Why are there not fogs every night? Because the air will always hold in so~tion a certain quantity of vapor (which varies according to its temperature). but remains fto~1ing above the ear~A as a thick cloud. when (iii fact) it is only deepea't~g. and sometimes rest upon the earth as suist or fogs ~s depends on the (etttpera(tit~ of the air. does it con tinue to condense the vapor of the air? Xo. . and e1~i7~ the air resting on I~ . But. it may be cooled without parting with its vapor. the vapor rI8e8 through the air. why is it not foggy on a frostg morning? 1. 577 When do fogs occur at n~ht5 When the air is saturated wi4i vapor during the (lay. the air (in contact with the earth) becomes 90 5C~NCE OF COMMON THINGS. layer is added to layer.

587 Can the air a~orh nnoisture at all tensperatures. and 2. and those which are sufficiently near UUIld and form into drops. 58~ Why does a pessing cloud often drop rain? Because the cloud (travelling about on the wind) comes into contact with gosne~hin~ ~Aa~ cAilli I~. if very great. and becomes ~oarfro8~ 581 Whatisrainl 11am is the vapor of the clouds or air aondense~ and precipitated to the earth. 585 Why does not the void of night always canse rain? Because the air is not always near saturation. 588 Upon what law does this condensation of vapor and formation of rain depends Upon the law that the oap~cIty of the air for moI8~ ~re deorea8es in a greater ratio than the temperatiire. and this power of the air is termed its c~a~ty of ab8~tion. even after it is condensed by the chilly niglit. ~all8 ~ ~e ear~ as raIn. and retain it in an invisille state? It can. The size of the rain-drop is increased according to the rapidity with which tho vapors are condensed. What is snow? Canoe of ~eet 588 How much moisture can a volume of air at 320 iv aSsort? . it will be able to hold its vapor in solution.ScIEN~E OF ~OMMON THINGS. The excess of moisture. 92 SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS. The vapor is frozen upon the gro?~nol before it can rise from tlie earth. 582 In what manner is the vapor of the air condsnsed so as to form rain S When ~wo or more volume8 of humid air differing considerabTy in temperature uni~. the several portions in union are incapable of absorbing the same amount of moisture that each could retain if they had not united. fogs. 91 Wbat S rain? ~iy ~1s in dropS. and its vapor being condensed. it appears as clouds. 584 Why does rain fail in drops S Because the vapory particles in their descent ~((rae~ eacA o~her. is precipitated as rain . or mists. if in slight amount. and unless this be the case.

~ome of the vapor is condensed. the 40th. instantly condensed the air of the hut. protects vegetation to a considerable extent from the cold. 594 What is the canse of sleet? When flakes of snow (in their descent) pass through a bed of air above ~Ae freezlny polut. the capacity is accelerated in geometrical series. 590 In whatsituations is the air eheogs saturated? Over the ocean and upon the adjacen~ eoa8te. and acts as afer~lizer. Thus a body of air at 320 F. A few years ago. at 1130 F. and fall to the earth as halfmeltcd snow. ~d is acted on by a current of aiy below 1~e feeezlugpolnt. opened the window and the cold external air rushing in. at 590 F. after they had been shut up in a hut for several days. 592 Whatissnow? The condensed vapor of the air fi~zen and precipitated to the earth. while the temperature advances in an arithmetical series. 93 ivow sno. or sleet. the 80th. at 860 F. 591 Where is the alsolate liomidity of the afiaosphere the greatest? In the trop~e. and its vnpor fell on the floor in a shower of snow. absorbs the 160th part of its own weight. is the greatest.v keeI~~ Che earth warm. some fisherman (who ~iu~ered at Nova Zembla). they partially melt. 5OIFNCE OF CO~fliON TUTNOS. and its conseq~ent Capacity for moisture. 598 What is the cause of snow? When the air is n earTy saturated with vapor. the 20th part of its own moisture. It follows from this that. where the temperature of the air. and frozen into snow. 595 How does snow prove teneficiad to the earth in the cold season? It keeps the surface of the earth warin. the quantity of moisture it can absorb at 320 is doubled. 589 How does the capacity of air for rnotsture incrense with the ternperature? For every 27 additional degrees of heat.An amount equal to the Aunolre~ anol 8IX~d~ par~ of I~ OWn welgAt. 59E loes snow keep the earth warm? .

Yes. in consequence of which. therefore. 598 Why is there no sowe in sammer-tirne? Because tlie /eea~ of 1/ce ~ adjacent to the earth melts it in its descent. 602 1)o we see the same crystalo in ice I They exist in ice. and aI~ is a very bad conductor. un'1In~ before tiley meet tlie eye. when. . because it is a very bad eondue~r. and when in small? Th~ largest flakes are formed wlien the air abounds wilA va~o~ and the temperature is about 320 F. 597 Why is snow a lad conductor of heat and cold? Because air is confined among ~e crystals. eoi What is the snowflake composed of? ~egItlar and 8yt~ine1PI'cal cry81a18. and prevents it from reaching the surface of tlie earth. having a great diversity of forms. . wliea the earth is covered with snow. but are so bletided together that 'their s~v~me1ry 18 lotI in the compact mass. whieli reflect all the colors of the rays of light from different points. and the cold increases. its temperature very rarely descends below ~kefree~~ ~Ol'I~ even when the air is fifteen or twenty degrees colder. loaf-sugur.-' 5 94 ~CIENCE OF cOMMON THINGS. eoo Undsr what cireconstanses does snowfall iu harge flakes. cause snow to appear white. ~03 How muck more lulky is snow than water I The bulk of recently-fallen snow is ton ot' twelve ~me~ ~~aler than that of the water obtaiued by melting it. ~ow is White. the earth is covered with snow. it cannot throw off its heat by radiation. 599 Why is snow white? Because it is formed of an infinite number of very minute crystals and prisms. etc. and these colors. but as tlie moisture diminishes. the snow becomes finer. TIto samo answer npphos to salt.

808 How can electricity make air roW? Air. and has been frozen into drops of ice. 808 What is hail? Raiu. which from time to time visit the earth. and the vapors in summer and autumn (being rarefied) ascond to more elevated regions. . whe~ elec~tfted.eity ii~eq~ally distri~~d in the air. Eed aud green snow. 807 What makes ons led of air colder than another It is frequently caused by e7ee~r. and expotnelon produces cold. They consist of little giobuics from ~ of an inch to ~ of an inch. 811 What are meteorites? Meteorites are solId.. 809 Why does hail fall generally in summer and autumn? Because the air is more ~sg~ly dec~ifted in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. which germinate and live in the snow. which are colder than those nearer the earth. much information exists uj~on the sub~ect. moving with immense velocity. which has passed in its descent ~rong~ some cold bed of air. 619 What is an aerolite? The term aerolite is given to those stony masses of 94 ~CIENCE OF cOMMON THINGS. 810 Is the occurrence and formation of hail clearly understood? It is ito~. They are generally accompanied by a luminous train. wbat is bail i Meteorite. wbat is bail i Meteorite.o ever occur of any othcr appearance than white I Ye8. and is sometimes green and sometimes red. and remaining visible but for a few moments. and occasionally 805 What is the canse of these appearances I These singular hues are occasioned by little m~ro scoplo plan~. in the Arctic regions and on some mountains it is red. is expanded. which gives a color to the snow. but no ~eo~ has yet been formed which sa~8fac~rIly accoeents for all the facts which have been observed. Each globule is divided into seven or eight c~ls filled with a liquid. lumIli 0118 bodles.Eed aud green snow. and during their progress explosions are often heard. 804 Does sno..

810 Is the occurrence and formation of hail clearly understood? It is ito~. which germinate and live in the snow. 807 What makes ons led of air colder than another It is frequently caused by e7ee~r.o ever occur of any othcr appearance than white I Ye8. which from time to time visit the earth. 808 What is hail? Raiu. Each globule is divided into seven or eight c~ls filled with a liquid. and is sometimes green and sometimes red. is expanded. They consist of little giobuics from ~ of an inch to ~ of an inch. and expotnelon produces cold. They are generally accompanied by a luminous train. and remaining visible but for a few moments. 619 What is an aerolite? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------YOU MAY HAVE THOUGHT I WAS CRAZY WHEN I WROTE ABOUT SINKING THE US DEBT . which has passed in its descent ~rong~ some cold bed of air. whe~ elec~tfted. 808 How can electricity make air roW? Air.804 Does sno. but no ~eo~ has yet been formed which sa~8fac~rIly accoeents for all the facts which have been observed.eity ii~eq~ally distri~~d in the air. which gives a color to the snow. and during their progress explosions are often heard. and has been frozen into drops of ice. 811 What are meteorites? Meteorites are solId. which are colder than those nearer the earth. 809 Why does hail fall generally in summer and autumn? Because the air is more ~sg~ly dec~ifted in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. and occasionally 805 What is the canse of these appearances I These singular hues are occasioned by little m~ro scoplo plan~. lumIli 0118 bodles. and the vapors in summer and autumn (being rarefied) ascond to more elevated regions. moving with immense velocity. much information exists uj~on the sub~ect. in the Arctic regions and on some mountains it is red.

ROBOTIC MINERS NEEDED HERE.AND YES THERE ARE TONS AND TONS OF UNMINED SILVER MINES.4 PLUS MILES UNDERGROUND...... IT IS WHERE YOU FIND IT A UNITED STATES MOUNTAIN WITH A UNDERGROUND SILVER ORE MINE WITH TONS AND TONS OF SILVER...WITH THE $19 TRILLION DTC SEC GOV TRUST AS SIMPLE COLLATERAL UNDER USC TITLE 12 SEC 412 YES THERE IS A REAL SEC GOV $19 TRILLION DOLLAR TRUST ( I THINK IT IS NOW $22 TRILLION ) THAT IS A SOUND SAFE PLAN IF NOT FUNDS ARE CIRCULATED OTHER THAN DEBT PAYMENTS THE $19 TRILLION TREASURY DEBT TRUST WOULD BE FROZEN MONEY AND VALUE ARE ABSOLUTELY NOT LIMITED TO GOLD OR SILVER THAT IS DUMB THINKING GOING BACK TO THE LIMITED GOLD STANDARD VALUE IS LIKE GOLD.COULD HAVE JUST AS MUCH VALUE AS FORT KNOX I WAS RESEARCHING THIS GROUP WHILE RESEARCHING ONE OF MY IDEA PLANS TO LEGALLY SINKING THE UNITED STATES DEBT WITH THE $19 TRILLION DOLLAR DTC SEC GOV TRUST AS SIMPLE COLLATERAL DRAWING RIGHTS UNDER USC TITLE 12 SEC 412 THE IDEA OPPOSED TO NESARA IS BELOW: ---------------------------------------------------------------------The Unknown $19 Trillion Depository Trust Company Part of the SEC US Gov Trust Simple Formula to Secure and Sink the National Debt: USE ..

BUT IN TRUST . ( NOTE NOT TO BE CIRCULATED ) WITH THE UNITED STATES TREASURY THEN (5) REMOVE THE UNITED STATES DEBT OBLIGATIONS FROM THE GENERAL FUND OBLIGATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES AND SEPARATE THESE DEBT PAYMENTS FROM THE GENERAL FUND THEN (6) MAKE A PAYMENT PLAN TO SLOWLY PAY THE UNITED STATES DEBT OBLIGATION FROM THE $19 TRILLION DOLLAR TREASURY TRUST FROM NUMBER 3 ABOVE WHEREAS THE ENTIRE UNITED STATES DEBT IS NOW SUNK. 342. charges THEN (3) DEPOSIT THE $19 TRILLION DOLLAR NOTE FROM USC TITLE 12 SEC 412. member and nonmember banks or other depository institutions. exchange and collection.(1) USC Title 12 sec 412. SECURED BY THE $19 TRILLION DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY AS SIMPLE COLLATERAL THEN (4) DEPOSIT SAID $19 TRILLION DOLLAR NOTE. SECURED AND IN THE PROCESS OF PAYMENT THRU TREASURY TRUST FUND OF PART 3 WHEREAS FURTHER MONEY IS CREATED FROM THE TRANSMUATION OF SILVER METAL INTO CREATED 10KT GOLD COIN ( SPECIE ) AND SILVER ORE MINES ARE TREATED AS UNDER GROUND FORT KNOX SILVER HOLDING MINES AND UNITED STATES SILVER CERTIFICATES ARE ALSO ISSUED . Apllication for Notes Collateral Required: Then (2) USC TITLE 12 SEC § 342. Deposits.

PEOPLE DO NOT WANT GOLD OR SILVER SPECIE OTHERWISE WE WOULD CARRY POUNDS OF THIS HEAVY METAL ON OUR BEINGS BY BR DAN IZZO PS I COULD USE SOME CHECKS TO BUY GOODS AND SERVICES.PLEASE ASK MAYBE THE NIGRERIAN BANKERS IF THEY'LL EXCHANGE GOLD ORE FOR MY US LAWFUL MONEY GOLD NOTES ( NOT ) BUT I STILL NEED A CLEARABLE CHECK TO LOBBY CONGRESS. Apllication for Notes Collateral Required: .MY LAWFUL MONEY GOLD NOTES CAN'T BUY GOODS AND SERVICES.. WILL DEPOSIT US LAWFUL MONEY FOR THE SAME PAR FOR PAR ---------------------------------------------------------------------AMERICA HAS EXTRA TRILLIONS OF CAPITAL UNUSED I SAY MORE THAN $50 TRILLION IN 2004 DOLLARS THIS EMAIL MAYBE THE MAP TO LEGALLY SINK THE UNITED STATES DEBT WITHOUT CIRCULATING EXTRA MONEY AND ALSO SECURING US GVERNMENT BONDS BUT IN TRUST HOW TO LEGALLY SELF FUND THE US MILITARY AND MAYBE SINK THE NATIONAL DEBT The Unknown $19 Trillion Depository Trust Company Part of the SEC US Gov Trust Simple Formula to Secure and Sink the National Debt: USE (1) USC Title 12 sec 412..THEREFORE MONEY IS PSYCHOLOGICAL...

PEOPLE DO NOT WANT GOLD OR SILVER SPECIE OTHERWISE WE WOULD CARRY POUNDS OF THIS HEAVY . 342.Then (2) USC TITLE 12 SEC § 342. Deposits. charges THEN (3) DEPOSIT THE $19 TRILLION DOLLAR NOTE FROM USC TITLE 12 SEC 412. SECURED BY THE $19 TRILLION DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY AS SIMPLE COLLATERAL THEN (4) DEPOSIT SAID $19 TRILLION DOLLAR NOTE. member and nonmember banks or other depository institutions. SECURED AND IN THE PROCESS OF PAYMENT THRU TREASURY TRUST FUND OF PART 3 WHEREAS FURTHER MONEY IS CREATED FROM THE TRANSMUATION OF SILVER METAL INTO CREATED 10KT GOLD COIN ( SPECIE ) AND SILVER ORE MINES ARE TREATED AS UNDER GROUND FORT KNOX SILVER HOLDING MINES AND UNITED STATES SILVER CERTIFICATES ARE ALSO ISSUED THEREFORE MONEY IS PSYCHOLOGICAL. exchange and collection. ( NOTE NOT TO BE CIRCULATED ) WITH THE UNITED STATES TREASURY THEN (5) REMOVE THE UNITED STATES DEBT OBLIGATIONS FROM THE GENERAL FUND OBLIGATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES AND SEPARATE THESE DEBT PAYMENTS FROM THE GENERAL FUND THEN (6) MAKE A PAYMENT PLAN TO SLOWLY PAY THE UNITED STATES DEBT OBLIGATION FROM THE $19 TRILLION DOLLAR TREASURY TRUST FROM NUMBER 3 ABOVE WHEREAS THE ENTIRE UNITED STATES DEBT IS NOW SUNK. BUT IN TRUST .

and money. it is all created by man. IDEA: (100s of good silver ore mine exist in the US. there is nothing natural about civilizations. If Congress wants to sink the US Debt. would you ? This Country's Debt is Artificial. ) If you could legally sink the national debt and have an extra $10 Trillion on deposit in the US Treasury. 2 DAY PRIORITY PLEASE WAIT TILL FRIDAY NOV 19TH 2004 TO CONTACT PENTAGON TREASURY FOR THE PAPERS OF THIS PLAN BROTHER DANIEL IZZO IF THE US MILITARY HOLDS A SILVER ORE MINE AS COLLATERAL. and Deposit Money Notes into the US Treasury. but are abandoned because of the cost of operations.METAL ON OUR BEINGS PEOPLE WANT PAPER MONEY WITH VALUE BELOW IS A LETTER I MAILED TODAY TO THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE. perhaps those in prison are willing to volunteer to mine them in exchange of early release from prison. . BILLIONS IN NATIONAL BANK US SILVER CERTIFICATES CAN BE ISSUED AND SECURED BY THE SAME.

providing @ $20 a week to school children. If Congress used and exploited : US Title 12 section 412 " Application for notes. as a reward and compensation. Our Country is super rich. Money ends suffering.Congress has the legal power to make : Application for Notes thru a Federal Reserve Agent. we haven't been on the gold standard since 1934. Money is psychological. into the US Treasury. America needs to exploit its true wealth and not exploit its people thru taxes and let the Government make its own tax money and let the people keep there money and use it to . then it will sink the US Debt. required under the 5th amendment of the Constitution and Just Compensation for Kids. collateral required " it can use the $19 Trillion Depository Trust Company ( a gov trust ) as simple collateral and then Deposited @$19 Trillion in Money Notes. Hopefully then a Kids School Allowance program can be funded by Congress.

or assets that Federal Reserve banks may purchase or hold under sections 348a and 353 to 359 of this title. or any obligations which are direct obligations of. Such application shall be accompanied with a tender to the local Federal Reserve agent of collateral in amount equal to the sum of the Federal Reserve notes thus applied for and issued pursuant to such application. or gold certificates. Application for notes. 361. or bankers’ acceptances purchased under the provisions of said sections 348a and 353 to 359 of this title. collateral required Release date: 2004-03-18 Any Federal Reserve bank may make application to the local Federal Reserve agent for such amount of the Federal Reserve notes hereinbefore provided for as it may require. NY 13207 ---------------------------------------------------------------------PART 1 US CODE COLLECTION Collection home Search Donate TITLE 12 > CHAPTER 3 > SUBCHAPTER XII > § 412 Prev | Next § 412. 342 to 348. drafts.benefit our Families and Lives. or Special Drawing Right certificates. or acceptances acquired under section 92. or 373 of this title. The Federal Reserve agent shall each day notify the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System of all issues and withdrawals of Federal Reserve notes to and by the Federal Reserve bank to which he is accredited. 372. or are fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by. In no event shall such collateral security be less than the amount of Federal Reserve notes applied for. bills of exchange. The collateral security thus offered shall be notes. the United States or any agency thereof. May cosmic magnetic force & God Bless You Yours Faithfully The Cryonic Life Insurance Company Dept of General Resurrection Br Daniel Izzo 512 Onondaga Ave Syracuse. The said Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may at any time call upon a Federal Reserve bank for additional security to protect the Federal Reserve notes issued . 349 to 352. or bills of exchange endorsed by a member bank of any Federal Reserve district and purchased under the provisions of sections 348a and 353 to 359 of this title.

may receive from any nonmember bank or trust company or other depository institution deposits of current funds in lawful money. or. solely for purposes of exchange or of collection may receive from other Federal reserve banks deposits of current funds in lawful money. and checks and drafts. Federal reserve notes. for collection. Collateral shall not be required for Federal Reserve notes which are held in the vaults of Federal Reserve banks. payable upon presentation or other items. or other depository institutions. national-bank notes. Federal reserve notes.to it. charges Release date: 2004-03-18 Any Federal Reserve bank may receive from any of its member banks. Such nonmember bank or trust company or other depository institution maintains with the Federal Reserve bank of its district a balance in such amount as the Board determines taking into account items in . member and nonmember banks or other depository institutions. Search this title: Notes Updates Parallel authorities (CFR) Your comments Prev | Next Credits About us Send email --------------------------------------------------------------------PART 2 US CODE COLLECTION Collection home Search Donate TITLE 12 > CHAPTER 3 > SUBCHAPTER IX > § 342 Prev | Next § 342. or. payable upon presentation within its district or other items. national-bank notes. Deposits. and maturing notes and bills payable within its district. and also. and from the Unites States. or maturing notes and bills: Provided. or checks. solely for the purposes of exchange or of collection. checks and drafts payable upon presentation or other items. national-bank notes. exchange and collection. and drafts. maturing notes and bills. or checks upon other Federal reserve banks. deposits of current funds in lawful money.

but no such charges shall be made against the Federal reserve banks. for collection or payment of checks and drafts and remission therefor by exchange or otherwise. That nothing in this or any other section of this chapter shall be construed as prohibiting a member or nonmember bank or other depository institution from making reasonable charges. to be determined and regulated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Search this title: Notes Updates Parallel authorities (CFR) Your comments Prev | Next Credits About us Send email ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------rexresearch.transit.com Table of Contents ~ Home ~ Catalog ~ Links ~ Order -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Adept Alchemy by Robert A. but in no case to exceed 10 cents per $100 or fraction thereof. based on the total of checks and drafts presented at any one time. services provided by the Federal Reserve bank. Nelson Part II ~ Chapter 1 Transmutations of Silver -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . and other factors as the Board may deem appropriate: Provided further.

Lea (8) References -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(1) Theodore Tiffereau ~ Between 1854-55. The transmutation of silver to gold is perhaps the easiest -. (1) T. the attempt may serve to enlighten aspiring souffleurs ("Puffers". profitable. Dr. but I choose to include these factoids in this collection. Tiffereau (2) R. Hunter (3) A. Emmens (7) C. and less dangerous. treatment with "modified nitric acid".Gold can be manufactured from other elements by several methods. and do something more worthwhile.).or least difficult -. Mayhap so. get a life. It has been argued by some purists that transmutations such as these are not alchemy at all. Stephen Emmens used high-pressure hammering (500 tons/sq. If nothing else. an old French alchemical label for deluded fools who pump their bellows in vain) to wise up. more hammering. or "dry" transmutations with alloys in the furnace. in.) of silver at low temperature. Waite (4) Fulcanelli (5) F. The penultimate means of transmutation is the Philosophers' Stone of any degree.of such experiments. Jollivet-Castelot (6) S. etc. He published a compilation of the papers ( Les Metaux sont des Corps Composes ) in 1855. however. but rather "hyper-chemistry" or "archymy". Most of the 19th and 20th century experimenters in this genre used a variety of "wet" techniques (refluxing with nitric acid. albeit at great risk due to the use of arsenic.(25-27) Tiffereau conducted his experiments at considerable expense while supporting himself . there is every chance of success. granulation. and refining. Employing the methods developed by Francois Jollivet-Castelot. but that is another matter altogether. Theodore Tiffereau submitted six memoirs to the French Academie des Sciences concerning transmutations of silver to gold. followed by fluxing.

iron. Tiffereau attempted many modifications of his techniques. accompanied with a very abundant deposit of intact filings agglomerated in a mass. new vapors unceasingly disengaged. sometimes mixed with pure copper filings (Ag 9:1 Cu) and traces of zinc. and again abandoned the liquid to rest five days. . Emmens also used Mexican silver in his work). alumina and silica. This was confirmed in the 1980s by the discovery that placer gold nuggets form around a nucleus of bacillus cereus. A lively reaction manifested. 4) Concentrated sulfuric acid was used at times. and I left the liquid as is over twelve days. pure nitric acid to the action of solar rays. 2) Trace amounts of gold catalyze the reaction. 5) The acids were exposed to sunlight to "solarize" them. Tiffereau complained that the French sun was not so effective as the Mexican. 3) The silver was refluxed with concentrated nitric acid. I noted that the aggregate deposit was augmented sensibly in volume. "The disengagement of nitrous gas continued without interruption. he made no capital gains. Tiffereau demonstrated his process at the French Mint in Paris before the assayer M. During this time. and so did ozone. 6) Halides and sulfur in the presence of oxides of nitrogen improved the reaction. 7) Prolonged reaction time increased yields. Levol. and claimed that certain experimental conditions influence the transmutation of silver to gold: 1) Pure silver filings were used. but the results were unsatisfactory. While he claimed success in principle. over two days. hyponitrous acid. Tiffereau claimed that Mexican silver possesses peculiar qualities that lend to its augmentation as gold (Dr. The following experiment is typical of Tiffereau's general methods: "After having exposed. and nitrogen protozide or deuteroxide. Tiffereau attributed the production of gold in the earth to the action of the "microbe of gold".making daguerotypes in Mexico. I then added a little water to the dissolution in which the product had precipitated. I added pure silver filings with pure copper filings in the proportions of the alloy of money (9:1).

. I realize that the public and most scientific men are adverse to the belief in the possibility of such an enterprise. blackish-green. after which I evaporated it to dryness. it did not offer an appearance of crystallization. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(2) R. Hunter."The five days having passed. "Enclosed with the letter was an affirmative affadavit. based on my actual experience. [The third test in this series] "presented an extraordinary phenomenon to be noted: the quantity of the alloy that I used experienced a transformation entirely to pure gold.M. it is then that I finally saw the disaggregated matter take the brilliance of natural gold. Hunter ~ In 1908. Hunter promptly forwarded me samples of silver in which the gold is 'growing' and some 'grown-up' gold. one is of more than passing interest.." Carey Lea suggested that Tiffereau and other experimenters had merely prepared a goldcolored form of allotropic silver. dull. Mr. "Placing the matter again in pure nitric acid and boiling six hours. but I know what I am doing and can afford to allow public sentiment to follow its own course. I added a new quantity of pure concentrated nitric acid and boiled it anew. "The matter obtained from the dessication is dry. and to this end I have designed a plant to be erected in Philadelphia and am at this moment negotiating for $500.. I have not made analyses of the samples. gold may be manufactured at enormous profit. said to have been produced by his secret process.. which I maintained until the nitrous vapors ceased disengagement. On request. Mr. R. of Philadelphia. I saw the matter become clear green without ceasing to aggregate in small masses. I raised the liquid just to ebullition. M. Sir Henry Baskerville made mention of a contemporary claim to the production of artificial gold: "Among the many communications reaching the writer." (5) .000 capital for its erection. has written concerning 'synthetic gold' as follows: "I have so perfected the process that in my judgment.

In this manner. the effect will then be equal to a continuous midday sun of some 72 hours. but its reflection is not like that of silver. The Metal becomes disengaged very well. the interior parts undergoing no change: This difficulty. and disengaging a metal on the other. the object being to cause the Chloride of Silver to form a minutely divided state. on the one hand. starting from a metal . like that of Gold." ( 28) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(4) Fulcanelli ~ The renowned master Fulcanelli published this transmutation of silver in Les Demeures Philosophales: "The simplest alchemic procedure consists in utilizing the effect of violent reactions --those of acids on the bases --. Chlorine. and the currents generated in the Flask by the Heat may so drift all the Chloride through the Light. their new arrangement being irreducible. The Burning-Glass promptly brings on a decomposition of the salt. It burnishes in an Agate Mortar. if otherwise exposed to the Sun. Waite wrote A Collection of Alchymical Processes which includes a segment entitled "Silver Transmuted Into Gold By The Action Of Light": "In the focus of a Burning-Glass. But what is it? It cannot be silver.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------(3) Arthur E. has to be avoided. 2 inches in diameter. 12 inches in diameter. alternately. Waite ~ The eminent occultist Arthur E. evolving. diluted with its own volume of water: "Pour into the Nitric Acid. merely blackens on the surface. for it is yellowish. Supposing the experiment to last two or three entire hours. place a glass Flask. "The Light must therefore have so transmuted the original silver as to enable it to exist in the presence of Nitric Acid. so as to produce a milky fluid. small quantities of a Solution of Nitrate of Silver and of Muriatic acid.to provoke in the midst of the effervesence the reunion of pure parts. since Nitric acid has no action on it. into the interior of which the brilliant convergent cone may pass. containing Nitric Acid. "The Chloride. therefore.

" (14) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(5) Francois Jollivet-Castelot ~ Francois Jollivet-Castelot was the Secretary General (and later President) of the Alchemical Society of France (founded in 1896). Here is. free from gold traces. with no hurry. Decant this silver into a powder and use it for your second dissolution. By compression on a sheet of glass or marble. Wash this with lukewarm water. "Empty into a glass retort. Use distilled water to dilute this liquor. very fine. green by transparence. Wash well and dessicate this pulvurent precipitate. in this order of research. one-third of its capacity in pure nitric acid. reduce the metal with zinc or copper. An amorphous powder will be obtained. When the emission of peroxide of azote has stopped and when the effervesence has quieted. You will find a thin deposit in the form of black sand.it is possible to produce a small quantity of the precious metal. of reddish brown coloration. then cautiously decant your clear solution into a beaker while it is still warm. He authored several books and articles on alchemy and "hyperchemistry". Adapt to the receiver an escape tube and arrange the apparatus in a sand bath. and introduce a small portion of virgin silver. until the boiling and issuing of red vapors manifest little energy. Repeat introducing metal. or of cupel. (17-20) . "Gently heat the apparatus short of reaching the boiling point for the acid (83o C). an elementary operation whose success we guarantee.close to gold --. open the tube. tall and tubular. He also edited the Society's journal L'Hyperchemie. having the look and superficial characteristics of the purest gold.preferably silver --. You will recognize by making the assays that the precipitate is insoluble in hydrochloric acid. Aqua regia will dissolve it and yields a magnificent yellow solution. Add nothing more. it will give you a brilliant. matte. Turn off the fire. coherent lamina with a beautiful yellow sheen by reflection. just as it also is in nitric acid. Let it rest for half an hour. precipitate from a zinc blade. and served as a special delegate of the Supreme Council of Martinists. which is indicative of the property of saturation. and let it fall into a small porcelain capsule. exactly like gold trichloride. take up again the clear solution of silver nitrate diluted from the first washing water. let drop into the liquor a second portion of pure silver. "To increase with a new quantity this miniscule deposit. identical to that given by natural gold reduced in the same manner. a system of non-occult chemical methods of transmutation. you may repeat the operation as many times as you please. In this case. providing the instructions are carefully followed.

. and on 3. in particular by Mr... [December 1925] "I acted on 22 gr of chemically pure silver . After hammering it became slightly golden. gave an abundant pulvurent deposit. A small quantity of the material became detached at this moment and formed a pulvurent black deposit.... small quantities of orpiment being thrown in every five minutes.5 gr of chemically pure orpiment. After having hammered for half an hour and remelted with the addition of small quantities of orpiment every ten minutes. "I made a mixture composed of 3 gr of chemically pure silver and 1 gr of chemically pure orpiment and placed it in 36o nitric acid for several months cold and then brought it to ebullition. had thought that in accordance with the law of the evolution of matter.. When no further action took place... and Mr. Outon.. he published La Fabrication Chimique de L'Or to report his successes using both "wet" and "dry" methods of transmutation: "By means of catalytic action I have succeeded in manufacturing gold chemically by acting on silver with arsenic and antimony sulfides. it was withdrawn. The liquor then being chlorinated and filtered was subjected to the reagents of platinum and gold. it was again put back into the furnace. The liquid was kept at the boiling point for several days. . Mr. "The object of the present leaflet is to enable chemists to repeat and check my experiments in their turn. Ballandras. tellurium. the liquor when decanted and filtered was analyzed and gave all the characteristic reactions for gold. "This process gives a very high yield which has already been confirmed by several chemists.. In 1920.. This deposit after being washed and treated with ammonia to dissolve the arsenic and antimony salts was completely dissolved in aqua regia.Jollivet-Castelot began experimenting with transmutations of silver in 1908. The residue obtained was again melted with the addition of orpiment. Chemical Engineer of Buenos Aires. "The residue dissolved in chemically pure 36o nitric acid first cold and then hot. I decanted off the solution and collected the insoluble residue. the transmutation of bodies into gold should be preceded or accompanied by their transmutation into platinum. Andre Vandenberghe who was acting as preparator for this experiment. The mixture was heated to about 1600o C In a metal smelting furnace for about three quarters of an hour. This residue was attacked by aqua regia at the boiling point until it was almost completely dissolved. and tin. Chemical Engineer of Lyons.. The residue obtained had a dark metallic tint. "After cooling and the addition of chemically pure antimony sulfide.

twice adding a small quantity of SbS. and one gr of tin. i.. France).e. 1 gr of orpiment. for my only object is the search for pure scientific truth." In a correspondence to Jollivet-Castelot. a profit could be obtained if the process were worked industrially. Ballandras reported on "How I Succeeded .. treated with ammonia. I have introduced tin into these new tests as it is also often associated with gold in Nature. "As a sequel to my previous work on the artificial synthesis of gold. "The liquor when filtered and subjected to the reagents of gold showed the presence of this metal in the form of abundant deposits which may be estimated at 0.. The following is a description of this new process. the reactions of platinum also seemed to reveal its presence. "The residue obtained was treated for a long time in 36o nitric acid. "I submit the hypothesis that the arsenic acts as a catalyst and the sulfur as a ferment in this transmutation. "I made an intimate mixture of 6 gr of chemically pure silver."The reactions of gold were quite characteristic.." (December 1925. "I believe I now hold the key to the regular and even industrial manufacture of gold. The deposits when collected and dried had a yellow green metallic color and possessed all the characteristics of gold.05 gr in all.. "But the industrial question is voluntarily put aside from my thoughts. given the respective prices of gold and of the other substances that are used in my process to produce it. the insoluble residue was next washed with distilled water. thanks to which the percentage of gold obtained destroys all the objections that are raised with regard to impurities. "The quantity of gold obtained in this experiment was about one gramme. which is very high considering the 6 gr of silver employed. Douai. 2 gr of antimony sulfide... washed again and finally treated for a long time with boiling aqua regia. first cold and then at the boiling point. I then added the usual fluxes and then heated the whole in a crucible in the furnace to about 1100o C for about one hour. by synthesis and in measurable quantities.. "The addition of tin to the other bodies has certainly facilitated the reactions of the gold and increased the yield of this metal which can be manufactured artificially by my process.. "It would be very easy to show that. Mr.. all the more so as the greater part of the silver employed can be recovered at each test.

This mixture was heated in the furnace in the usual way for one hour at about 1100o C. the residue which had been obtained was crushed as much as possible and subjected to a treatment of pure chloric acid like in the first method.. then once more washed with distilled water.42 grams. However. Then.All my research work on transmutation since 1908 has started from the fact that gold is found in nature associated with antimony and arsenic sulfides as well as with tellurium. "It must be noted that this thing happened during the ebullition.0476 gr of gold per gram of silver... "After 18 hours of digestion at about 25o. 3 gr of tin. then washed with distilled water. 1 gr of antimony sulfide and 2 gr of tellurium. "I prepared a mixture composed of 6 gr of silver. or 0. 3 gr of arsenic sulfide. 1 gr of native orpiment free of gold. I therefore considered that it was logical to introduce tellurium into the artificial combination of silver and arsenic and antimony sulfides that I make.476 gr for 10 gr of silver employed..In Making Gold According To The Process of Mr. "The quantity of gold which was obtained was 0. which is considered as a mineralizer of gold. It weighed 6. The solution was then decanted and a . 1926: "A Recent Experiment In Transmutation --.. that is as much to say that the powder which was obtained having been subdued first to the action of azotic acid... I added pure silica to the usual fluxes. Jollivet-Castelot: Dosage of gold obtained by the second method": "From a mixture of 10 gr silver. then subdued to the action of chloric acid. The insoluble residue was subdued to the prolonged action of aqua regia." Jollivet-Castelot read this memorandum to the Academie Royal des Sciences (Belgium) on June 6. The washed residue contained the slighter part of gold.. the residue was attacked with difficulty and greenish metallic particles become detached. The residue obtained was of a blackish-grey color with violet reflections. I found nothing. I subdued the mixture to ebullition during 3 hours. this thing would be found dissolved in the last liquor which I obtained. I decided to proceed to a circumstantial analysis of the liquor which I obtained. then washed with distilled water.. in order to completely eliminate the silver and the tin employed. and 3 gr of antimony sulfide.. After refrigeration. "When subjected to the action of nitric acid. and these different operations were begun once again with another portion of pure chloric acid. I filtered on glass wool and I looked if parts were not drawn along in suspense. I scrupled to begin again the indicated treatments.

"I consider it certain that if the vapors were allowed to bubble through the melted silver. For the moment. a much higher yield of gold would be obtained than that I have obtained hitherto by an imperfect and too rapid contact of the bodies in presence." Mr. in my laboratory and am amazed at the results. At this moment the mass was fairly liquid.. The reddish-brown residue obtained weighed exactly 23.. antimony.greenish-yellow residue remained which was kept at the boiling point of nitric acid for several hours. A.. "I allowed this residue to cool in pure nitric acid in which the greater part was dissolved fairly easily. The crucible was heated at a temperature of 500o C and then for one hour and a half at 1100o C. the residue." Mr.258 grams. "[The solution was chlorinated and subjected to the reagents of gold with positive results. Louis Outon. since the cost of the gold obtained is often greater than the value of the metal.. I had thought of making the vapors of arsenic acid and antimony sulfides and of tellurium act on the silver in fusion in a closed vessel by means of a special device. 6 gr arsenic sulfide.. while it is undoubtedly necessary to make them react on one another in the vapor state in a closed vessel. after 18 hours . for it is known that arsenic. reported to JollivetCastelot in a letter (July 26. and tellurium entrain gold in their fusion and their volatilization. which had not changed. although] a certain amount of gold was certainly lost in this test just as in all my previous tests.742 gr. treated with ammonia and then subjected to the action of boiling aqua regia in which it was entirely dissolved after boiling for several hours.. After prolonged boiling the liquor was filtered on a new glass wool. I have repeated the experiments. or a loss of 3... The crucible was then allowed to cool down. I determined to check his tests with the greatest possible accuracy... I placed 15 gr silver. "The glass wool was then macerated in aqua regia rich in hydrochloric. 6 gr antimony sulfide. The resultant liquor was very clear and absolutely free of any particles. it is only the scientific side which interests me. "In a new quartz crucible. 1927): "Dear Sir. After decanting off the liquor once again. a pharmaceutical chemist in Buenos Aires. "In order to obviate this disadvantage. was washed. Ballandras also replicated the experiments and reported the results: "I will not conceal the fact that I have often heard ironical remarks aboutprocesses by which he succeeded in manufacturing gold...

announced the discovery of a new element which fills the "vacant space existing in the sub-group of Group I". then residing in New York. It was of importance to prove its existence qualitatively at least. the British chemist Stephen H. I tried the various standard reagents. 2) Iron sulfate: glossy metallic black. must nevertheless be placed very close to the latter.maceration. and antimony sulfide (3 gr): "After having operated as previously. Dr. I obtained a quantity of gold corresponding to 0. Stephen Emmens ~ Early in 1897. Ballandras used silver (10 gr). This I consider to be a highly interesting result.. 6) Sodium hydroxide. 3) Tin chloride: peach pink precipitate. I again filtered on glass wool in order to separate any traces of the filter from the liquor.. even if it is not gold. and which he thought to be the intermediate matter from which silver and gold are formed. "These reactions are sufficiently characteristic and clearly prove the existence in the last liquor of a metal which. 5) Sodium carbonate... potassium hydroxide: yellowish coloration. Any gold that might have been obtained would necessarily be found in the last liquor. the whole was boiled for 3 hours.. some of the tests were absolutely sterile and I inferred that this was due to some defect in the mounting. tin (3 gr). A crucible that is closed as tightly as possible gives better results. 2) That it is also a function of the degree of tightness of the crucible. Emmens. orpiment (3 gr)." In another experiment.. 4) Formol: rather light bluish coloration. but which ." -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(6) Dr. Emmens said: "Our claim is that the element in question is therefore neither silver nor gold.. the metal obtained and gold must be perfectly isotopic.05 gr per gram of silver employed. "I think there must be a certain temperature that should not be exceeded and that the external conditions of pressure and electricity must be of considerable importance. the results being the following: 1) Oxalic acid: flakey precipitate.. cloudy. "For this purpose. potassium carbonate: light coloration after boiling. "I have repeated this test several times and I have observed: 1) That the production of gold is a function of the rapidity with which the necessary heat is obtained. 3) That the amount of gold obtained was not always uniform.

Assay Office.S.. electricity. what we use is mainly energy in some of its various forms. "The next step was to ascertain whether this substance could be so treated as to be grouped into molecules of greater density than those of silver. Argentaurum can be aggregated into molecules having a density considerably superior to that of ordinary gold molecules.." (14) In 1897. was afforded by the remarkable discoveries of Mr... "We do not consume any chemicals and other costly materials in our process... the condensed Argentaurum presents the appearance and is endowed with the properties of ordinary metallic gold.. . so far as silver and gold were concerned. It was found that.. had its origin in the course of certain investigations which I undertook for the purpose of preparing chemically pure nickel.. Argentaurum Papers #1: Some Remarks Concerning Gravitation: "Our work. therefore. He revealed a few historical and technical details of his transmutation process in his book.. Whether we are right as to this or not. "And as Group I of the classification contains the precious metals --. magnetism. such as heat.gold and silver ~ it was obvious that our time and attention should be directed to these metals rather than to any other.. as our theory was that this substance was common to both gold and silver.may. Dr. be converted into gold..... and in reality was the raw material out of which both gold and silver were constructed by the hand of nature. in 1892. Emmens' Argentaurum Laboratory on Staten Island produced over 660 ounces of gold from silver and sold it to the U. The same product was subsequently found when the investigation was extended to the case of metallic cobalt.. this subdivision of metallic silver was attended by very considerable changes in the physical properties of the substance... the same would hold good for each group.. The phenomena observed afforded indications of the existence of some substance common to the whole of the elements in what is known as Series 4 of Group 8 of the classification of Chemical Elements. In attempting to prepare these pure metals [nickel and iron].By certain physical methods and by the aid of a certain apparatus. we named the substance Argentaurum.. by our new physical methods. we succeeded in bringing about a further subdivision of the silver. which converts silver into gold. We were not surprised to find that the substance obtained differed so far from ordinary silver that it could no longer be regarded as the same elementary substance.. "Our starting point. a certain product was obtained which seemed to differ from anything recorded in the textbooks. It seemed to require a new name and a new chemical symbol. Inasmuch.. It appeared to us almost self-evident that if we were right in supposing a common substance to be present in any single series of elements. We found that. Carey Lea with regard to [colloidal silver].

Emmens' process comprised five stages: 1) mechanical treatment." (6) Herbert Fyfe reported that Dr. contradicts the statement made elsewhere. Emmens said: "I regard the mechanical treatment as the causa causans. 4) treatment with a "modified nitric acid". Dr. cohesion. merely to render the molecular aggregate susceptible of displacement and rearrangement. Emmens noted: "I have received a letter from a very eminent Fellow of the Royal Society informing me that he has performed the crucial experiment suggested in my letter of May 21. I think. chemical affinity. Step 4... He reported: "A specimen of Argentaurum sent me by Dr. that "we do not consume any chemicals. Emmens' "Force Engine". to Sir William Crookes.. It consists of gold with a fair proportion of silver and a little copper. In a rejoinder.. 23) Dr... in our process. 16. One ounce of silver will produce three-quarters of an ounce of gold. rapid. and no unknown lines. No lines belonging to any other known elements. 15. x-rays and the like. 7-12. Then subject it to heavy. Emmens included a sample of Argentaurum and these instructions in a letter (21 May 1897) to Sir William Crookes: "Take a Mexican dollar and dispose it in an apparatus which will prevent expansion or flow. were detected. The fluxing and granulation serve. 3) mechanical treatment." .9% more than the quantity of gold contained in the same dollar before the test. Dr. 1897. and continuous beating under conditions of cold such as to prevent even a temporary rise of temperature when the blows are struck.. Emmens has been examined with the spectrograph.000) of gold which the dollar originally contained." Sir Crookes was unable to replicate the experiment to his satisfaction. Test the material from hour to hour. 2) fluxing and granulation. and 5) refining." (4. The gold contained in the Mexican dollar after 40 hours of intense cold and continuous hammering was found to be 20. and at length you will find more than the trace (less than one part in 10. which exerted pressures in excess of 500 tons/in2 at very low temperatures. Our chief source of expense is the time required for bringing about the desired molecular changes." This analysis resembles that of ordinary bullion gold." (15) The mechanical treatment was accomplished by means of Dr.. which contains silver and copper to make it harder and more fusible than pure gold.gravity. using "modified nitric acid".

(24. not another isotope. Electrolytic bath. perfect mirrors. 22) There is also a very stable "intermediate form" of silver (i-Ag) which is easy to prepare. (21. "intermediate". 30) Dr. and give perfectly clear solutions. Dr. There are three forms of a-Ag. Argentaurum refers to a new element.50 per ounce for conversion costs. so production never began.997 (25 July 1893). however. at least two of them may be related to his process: #501. Apparatus for Electrolytic Extraction of Metals. 29. Lea determined that silver occurs in "allotropic". Strong acids and pressure will convert a-Ag to the normal form. The several forms of "allotropic" silver (a-Ag) dry with their particles in optical contact with each other. and ordinary forms. Ordinary silver is protean in nature. since he would not have been able to protect his methods from unscrupulous competitors. It occurs as bright gold-yellow or green crystals with a metallic luster. . These effects can be achieved by a variety of modern methods. and all are unstable. "Allotropic" is a misnomer. thus forming continuous films that are beautifully colored. Richard Zsigmondy. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(7) Carey Lea ~ Carey Lea discovered the preparation of so-called "allotropic" and "intermediate" silver in 1889 while he was studying reductions of silver nitrate. or to the gold produced from it. Emmens floated the Argentaurum Company.In 1898. At times. In 1925. Emmens was issued several U.996 (25 July 1893). however. Semantic ambiguities in Dr. Professor of Chemistry at the University of Göttingen. Zsigmondy found that such silver actually was a monoatomic colloid of ordinary silver. Emmens' Force Engine produced hammering pressures in excess of 500 tons/in2 at very low temperatures. the investor would be repaid with 3/5 ounce of gold (then worth about $11). or to Lea's intermediate allotropic silver. or fine acicular crystals up to 1 inch long. interpenetrating with plant-like ramifications. Dr. a syndicate which promised that for one ounce of silver (then worth about 50 cents) entrusted with payment of $4. Patents for inventions. Emmens' application for a patent on his process was refused. Emmens' writings confuse the understanding of the process. and #501. The aqueous solutions are colloidal monoatoms.S. Treatment with a very dilute solution of ferric chloride will enhance the appearance of its foliar structure. received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his study of Lea's "allotropic" silver under the ultramicrosope. Dr. Dr.

"If we coat a chemically clean glass plate with a film of gold-colored allotropic silver. The simplest preparation is as follows: "It has long been known that golden-yellow specks would occasionally show themselves in silver solutions. however. somewhat lighter and brighter than the portion of the plate that has not been changed by heat. 2.. to normal silver.. falls. the following proportions give good results: "Two mixtures are required: No.. first in the air. we shall obtain with sufficient heat a circle of whitish gray with a bright. It dries into lumps exactly resembling highly polished gold. however. No. This ring consists of what I propose to call the "intermediate form".. then changing back to black. containing 107 cc of a 30% solution of ferrous sulfate. at first glittering red. tough. but in a few months the specimens preserved changed spontaneously. This yellow product. which on the filter has a beautiful bronze appearance. let it dry. an . I found. but it has all the color and brilliancy of gold. or chemical action.. this is essential.. "It is a little curious that its permanency seems to depend entirely on details in the mode of preparation. After washing it should be removed whilst in a pasty condition and spread over watch glasses or flat basins and allowed to dry spontaneously. is only an allotropic form of silver. In washing. then for an hour or two in a stove at 100o C. it is less so when wet.. lustrous golden ring round it. It has a pure and perfect white color like the finest frosted jewelers' silver. but could not be obtained at will and the quantity thus appearing was infinitesimal. It is nearly as indifferent to oxidizing and chlorizing agents as is normal silver. a fact which was apparent even in the minute specks hitherto obtained.. heat. almost in fact exceeding the jeweler's best products. one process by which a quite permanent result could be obtained. Intermediate silver can be formed from the allotropic varieties by light. "Although the gold-colored silver (into which the nitrate used is wholly converted) is very permanent when dry. and unaffected by pressure.. and then heat the middle of the plate carefully over a spirit lamp. Probably this phenomenon has often led to a supposition that silver might be transmuted into gold. The second solution (which must be mixed immediately before using only) is poured into the first with constant stirring.. "With sulfuric acid diluted with four times its bulk of water and allowed to cool. The normal silver produced in this way is exquisitely beautiful. 200 cc of a 20% solution of Rochelle salt and 800 cc of distilled water... I have found many ways of obtaining it. 200 cc of 20% solution of Rochelle Salt [Sodium potassium tartrate] and 800 cc of distilled water. A powder. It will be seen that this is a reduction of silver nitrate by ferrous sulfate.Intermediate silver is hard. the filter must be kept always full of water. 1 containing 200 cc of a 10% solution of silver nitrate.

: Popular Science Monthly 72 (1): 46-51 (1908). 3. Emmens. changing only by a slight deepening of color. Ind. any friction. Henry C. 222 (5 September 1896). C. 1928) 2. as is readily perceived in burnishing it. "A. "The ..: Chemical News 76: 117-118 (3 September 1897).. 18/19 (4).E. effects the conversion." -------------------------------------------------------------------------------(8) References ~ 1. 3rd. Anonymous: Rev. 62 (11): 243. "A. "The Revival of Alchemy" 7. Ridpath. 2nd. 316 (3 Oct. Baskerville. Stephen H. 62 (14): 315. Suppl. one end of which is heated over a spirit lamp to a temperature just below that at which paper scorches. The change is sudden and passes over the heated portion of the surface like a flash. "Of these characteristic changes the second is the most remarkable. Dr. It no longer shows the color reaction with potassium ferricyanide and ferric chloride.": Chimie et Industrie. Bolton.: Chemical News 76: 61-62 (6 August 1897). The Engineering & Mining Journal 62 (10): 221. (1927).C. The gold-colored silver in its original condition changes with singular facility to white silver. "The Age of Gold" 5. That it has changed from a deep gold to a bright yellow gold color.C.: The Arena (Boston) 19(1): 139-140 (1898). ibid. When subjected to a shearing stress it does not whiten or change color in the slightest degree.": Nature 121 (# 3060). "Its properties are better seen by using a film formed on pure paper. 1896).. 981 (June 23. we find: 1st. The intermediate form is distinguished from normal silver almost solely by its bright yellow color and its higher luster. ibid. "The Transmutation of Silver into Gold". Examining the changed part. 4th. 244 (12 Sept.. almost any touch. p.A. J. "Some Recent Transmutations" 6. It is much harder. “ Emmens’ Transmutation of Ag into Au”.immersion of one or two seconds converts a film on glass or on pure paper wholly to the intermediate form. Chimie Industrielle 37: 63 (1928) 4.. 1896)..

Ord. Fulcanelli: Les Demeures Philosophales. ibid. H.: La Fabrication Chimique de L'Or (Douai. Du Boistel (Bristol. Francois: Chimie et Alchimie.: Spokane Mines & Electrician (17 February 1897) 24. Arthur E. "The Age of Gold -. ibid. 1987) 29. Noury (Paris 1928) 18. 1896-1901) 20. 7: 340-341 (1894) 23. H. (New York. ibid.: L'Hyperchimie (Paris.: Zeit. Dr.: Science 7 (168): 9.Transmutation of Ag into Au" 8. Fyfe. Daragon (Paris. Ibid. Some Remarks Concerning Gravitation" 9. A. Pauvert (Paris. Fletcher. H.. V. ibid. Dr. 10..: Frank Leslie's Popular Magazine (March 1898) 14.. C. ibid.. Emmens.. 39: 374. Theodore: Les Metaux Sont Des Corps Composes. 942 (854). 38 (224): 129 (August 1889). Emmens. 5 (113): 343-344 (26 February 1897). Allgem. 792.. C. Emmens. 1964) 15.A Rejoinder" 11.: Arcanae Naturae (Paris. Tiffereau.. R. 1909) 21. vol. 1. 51 (246): 282-289 (April 1891)..: Comptes Rendu Acad. 1.: Argentaurum Papers #1: Some Remarks Concerning Gravitation. A. 123: 1097 (1896) 28. 40: 1317 (1855).. 1899). E. W. H. S. MacKenzie. Tiffereau. S.: Science 5 (113): 343-344 (26 February 1897) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Top ~ Table of Contents ~ Home ~ Catalog ~ Links ~ Order . Vaugirard (Paris.. Sci.: Science 5 (112): 343-344 (19 February 1897) 30. E. 41 (243): 179-190 (March 1891). H. 642-644. Anorg.: Pearson's Magazine (March 1898) 16. T.: American Mercury 86: 65-69 (January 1958) 17. 41: 647 (1855). E. Paris 38: 383. 743. ibid. Tiffereau.: Knowledge 20: 285 (1 December 1897) 25. Jollivet-Castelot. 51 (24): 259-267 (April 1891). (Series 3) 37 (222): 476-491 (June 1889). Co. ibid. Lea. 1928) 19. Dr. 1897) 12. 189-200. 1897).: A Collection of Alchymical Processes..48 (148): 343 (October 1894). H. 184-185. Young. 22. Dr. J. Chem. ibid. S. ibid. Sci. 386-389 (18 March 1898). ibid. Fr. Waite. "The Argentaurum Papers No. Dr. 315 (19 Feb. Fr. 1205 (1854). S. Jollivet-Castelot. Lea. 38 (223): 47-50 (July 1889). H. T.: Argentaurana . Jollivet-Castelot. 1896) 13. S. Gaddis. C. G. Weiser (New York.. 42 (250): 312-317 (October 1891). 1855) 26. ibid. J. p. Fr.: La Synthese de L'Or. H. S. Emmens.: L'Or et le Transmutation des Metaux 27. J. Emmens. Carey: Amer.. S. ibid. Plain Citizen Publ. 38 (225): 237-241 (September 1889). Jollivet-Castelot. Woodward.: Science 5 (112): 314. Dr.

P. to transfer original trust assets comprising of common stocks and bonds to a new trust set up in another jurisdiction.com/detrco/ 9-15-99 Part I of IIThis exclusive report is a compilation of interviews and background research from October 1995 through April 1999.P. the Depository Trust Company stated: The Depository Trust Company (DTC) is the world's largest securities depository.. N. How can a private banking trust company hold assets of over $19 trillion and be unknown? In a recent press release dated April 19..]. 1999.monster. at their request. 1995. N. the average American has no clue that this financial institution is the most powerful banking corporation in the world. Also.. in New Jersey [now PNC Bank. This same Midlantic Bank Assistant V.A. An Assistant Vice President from the Trust & Financial Management Office of Midlantic Bank said to me "it will take at least 6 weeks to do this as the majority of the stocks and bonds are not held in the name of the trust".com ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PART 4 The Unknown $19 Trillion Depository Trust Company The Unknown $19 Trillion Depository Trust Company Rumor Mill News <Rayelan@aol. Last year." (* these are not the actual figures quoted in the letter in order to protect the privacy of the account holder. The Depository Trust Company (DTC) is the best kept secret in America. Headquartered at 55 Water Street in New York City. in order to . 8 are held in book entry only.A. this writer was authorized.com> http://company. as trustee and power of attorney. This means they cannot be physically re-registered with a certificate sent to the new trustees. also stated in a letter dated November 17. In dealing with the trust department of Midlantic Bank. DTC processed over 164 million book-entry deliveries valued at more than $77 trillion. we were asked not to name the Midlantic Assistant V.rexresearch. The general public has no knowledge of what the DTC is or what they do. holding nearly $19 trillion in assets for its Participants and their customers. "Of the 11 municipal bonds.

. In July 1998. Alan Greenspan. I brought this matter to the attention of our research assistants at the Christian Common Law Institute [formerly the North Bridge News] and we began our lengthy investigation into the matter.. Why did anyone feel it was necessary to illegally record our conversation without advising us? Was some federal alphabet agency monitoring DTC calls to safeguard National Security? That in itself is suspicious enough to warrant a big red warning flag. I spoke with Ms. so your assets are secure with DTC". McNeff had also stated "the DTC is a brokerage clearing firm and transfer center. now the Mortgage-Backed Securities Division of the DTC) is owned by the same stockholders as the Federal Reserve System. but they are not the owners. We respect these requests with full moral compliance). is also a private company and is not an agency or department of our federal government. The Federal Reserve Board of Governors is listed. banks and brokerage houses. mandates that the DTC process every securities transaction in the US. Jim McNeff said "There's no need for the public to know about us. Every bank and brokerage firm must secure their membership with us in case they become insolvent. the Depository Trust Company is really just a 'front' or a division of the Federal Reserve System. Yes. Rose Barnabic of the DTC Finance Department who said that "DTC assets are currently estimated at around $11 trillion". after encountering numerous "no comments" and a myriad of "that's not my department" excuses via telephone. During my initial telephone interview. "DTC is 35. I eventually spoke with Mr. 1999.S. every person who has a stock or bond in their portfolio had better read this report and act on the information we are disclosing here. as they are more commonly called. After 3 years. either Jim's employer or some other unknown person or persons were illegally listening or taping our telephone conversation according to the electronic eavesdropping equipment we have installed on our end. the can of worms we've opened up should frighten every American.1 trillion". The big question is this. Jim McNeff who told me his position was Director of Training for the DTC. He said he'd been employed there for 19 years and was "very proud" of his employer. is nothing more than a liaison advisory panel between the owners and the Federal Government. In disbelief. you read that correctly. As of April 19. a/k/a The Federal Reserve System. The DTC is a private bank that processes every stock and bond (paper securities) for all U. We handle the book entry transactions for all banks and brokers.protect her privacy Rights. They process all of their book entry settlement transactions. In other words. according to the 1998 Federal Registry. We're a private bank for securities. headed by Mr. The Federal Reserve Corporation. It's no wonder that the DTC (including the Participants Trust Company. With the advent of reported Y2K computer glitches and the possible collapse of our 'paper asset' economy. The FED. Jim informed me back then (1995) that "the DTC is the largest limited trust company in the world with assets of $ 9. Mr. it's required by the Federal Reserve that DTC handle all transactions". Just who gave this private bank and trust company such a broad range of financial power and clout? The reason the public doesn't know about DTC is that they're a privately owned depository bank for institutional and brokerage firms only. The Federal Reserve Board. the DTC itself has stated that their assets total "nearly $19 trillion" (see above). In November 1995.1% owned by the New York Stock Exchange on .

and the payment of the redemption price will be made to Cede & Co.March 16. first initiated by Lincoln's debt bonds of 1864? . If you're not aware how the system works. CEDE & Co. they cannot hold any assets in the customer's name. The broker or bank must then send the transaction to the DTC for ledger posting or book entry settlement under mandate by the Federal Reserve System. McNeff. We have now found the following proof that CEDE is real from the Bear Stearns internet site: NEW YORK. Ridgefield Park. so the DTC transfers the certificates to our own private holding company or nominee name.00 per Series A Share. upon your buy or sell instructions. McNeff gave us was correct when he confirmed that Cede Company was a controlled private holding company of the DTC. is shown as either "CEDE and Company"." -New York Stock Exchange. It is a limited purpose trust company and is a unit of the Federal Reserve.000. let's see how this effects the average working American family." states Mr. or is it really in "trust" if the private Federal Reserve System is technically holding it in their "unknown" entity's name? Obviously. no bank or broker can place any stock or bond into their firm's own name due to Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulations. Inc. Is Cede Company fictitious or is their identity perhaps a larger secret than DTC? We must presume that the information Mr. "Since the DTC is a banking trust company. CUSIP number G09198105. The assets must be held in the name of DTC's holding company. you should visit or call a stock broker or bank and instruct them you want to purchase some shares of common stock or a small municipal bond. as shown on certificates we have personally examined from numerous certificate holders. They will set up a brokerage account for you and act as your agent with full durable power of attorney (which you must legally sign over to them) to conduct business on your behalf. Series A ("EPICS") of Bear Stearns Finance LLC. they use a fictitious street name. since your bank or broker can't use their name on the certificate. but have been unable to get any background information on them. 1999 . We have searched every source known to learn who CEDE really is. for example. Is this the collateral being held by the private Federal Reserve System to pay off the national debt owed to them by our federal government. By federal law (SEC). That's how DTC has more than $19 trillion dollars of assets in trust. as paying agent. as nominee of The Depository Trust Company. New Jersey 07660. we can't hold the certificates in our name. Remember. Now. whose address is: 85 Challenger Road.. New York .000 outstanding 8. if stock and bond certificates you've purchased aren't in your name. "Cede Company" or "Cede & Co". It is operated by a separate management and has an independent board of directors. The banks and brokers are merely custodians for their clients. The broker will place your stock or bond purchase into their safekeeping under a "street name"..00% Exchangeable Preferred Income Cumulative Shares. McNeff of the DTC. by ChaseMellon Shareholder Services.behalf of the Exchange's members. liquidation preference of $25. All of the Series A Shares are held by Cede & Co. LLC. then the "holder" (the Federal Reserve System) could theoretically refuse to surrender them back to you under a "national emergency" according to the Trading with the Enemy Act (as amended).. According to Mr. The DTC's private holding company or street name.Bear Stearns Finance LLC today announced that it will redeem all of the 6.

We all asked ourselves how computers could have done this by themselves without someone knowing about it. Faith. this enhances the portability of shares between transfer agents and brokerage accounts. issuers know little about the role of the Depository Trust Company (DTC). Otherwise. 1987 -. The DTC was created in 1973 as a user-owned cooperative for post-trade settlement. it might be very wise to cancel your brokerage account and power of attorney status. Most of us remember a few years back the purported computerized selling of stocks that resulted in Wall Street's "Black Monday": Dow Dives 508. or even when to do or not do it.1% of the "ownership" of the DTC on behalf of their NYSE members. The Dow's 1987 fall also triggered panic selling and similar drops in stock markets worldwide" -Source: Facts on File World News CD ROM The stock exchanges had dramatic record losses. However. including 51. someone has to program a computer to tell it what to do.October 19. If you have stock or bond certificates in your name buried in your back yard or under your mattress.32 points..000 equity issues and 170. McNeff. The Depository Trust Company (1996) Now we're about to reveal to you the most shocking discovery we came across during our research into this matter. and "Our sister company is the National Securities Clearing Corporation. In the 1980s. whom we refer to as participants. If not. Corporate Trust Services. losing 22. you have absolutely no control over them (see Part II of our exclusive research report on the DTC for more information on beneficial ownership status). and a record volume of shares were traded on that infamous Monday in October 1987.32 Points in Panic on Wall Street "The largest stock-market drop in Wall Street history occurred on "Black Monday" -. We handle listed and unlisted equities. equating to more than 78% of shares outstanding on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).. and keep them hidden where only you know their location. and they now physically hold (as of April 1999) 99% of all stock and bond book-entrys in their street name. the NSCC" (they have since merged).9% that began the great stock market crash of 1929 and foreshadowed the Great Depression. Simply put.. McNeff was trying to assure me that they [the DTC] have . so shares can be delivered electronically. Mr. re-register the stocks and bonds in your name (if you still can). not the actual owner's names. brokers transmit instructions to purchase through DTC. we suggest you keep them there.. providing optional direct registration on the books of the issuer instead of a certificate. During my telephone conversation.when the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 508.According to Mr. the Depository Trust Company absolutely controls every paper asset transaction in the United States as well as the majority of overseas transactions. We also have more than 95% of all municipals on deposit.6% of its total value. the DTC was a former member of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).000 corporate debt issues. With the direct registration system. He was correct since we now know that the NYSE holds 35." -John D.. The Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) issued a concept release in 1994 to gradually decrease certificates. That fall far surpassed the one-day loss of 12. the "Group of 30" [business leaders] recommended that stock certificates be eliminated. Our members are banks and broker/dealers. what not to do. because physical certificates create risk. After all. which the issuer or transfer agent then registers. Manager. getting a stock or bond certificate these days is not so easy if possible at all: "For the most part.

In attempting to give me an example of how trustworthy the DTC is when I asked him how he could back up such a statement. "Instead. on the brink of the Mother of all economic Depressions. the federal government issued a new regulation requiring stock and bond certificate transfers to be cleared in three days instead of the previous five day time period. It coincided with the infamous Regulation CC that purportedly gave us faster three day availability of funds from deposited checks. only Fed Funds will be accepted".com page that will help you begin to understand. This article was written in late 1991 or early 1992. without a doubt.) of the DTC within 3 working days. and it will be as deliberate and manipulated as the first one that began with the stock market crash of 1929. and record profits. This is the manifestation of the new international god. just as Mr. Fed Funds. 1995. No checks or drafts have been allowed from that day. But.rumormillnews. just like the scenario we are experiencing today. Will Y2K be a manipulated and deliberate a financial meltdown? Too many facts already support this probability. there is an article on the www. are electronic computer ledger debit transfers between Federal Reserve System member banks. This means that brokers and banks must get your stock or bond transaction into the street name (Cede & Co. there's a reason for this new regulation and it coincides with the introduction of the new FRS "dollars".. 1999. the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) went above a record 11. he replied "DTC's first controlled test was 4 or 5 years ago. and 400 million transactions on Tuesday". McNeff accurately stated. It's quite obvious that the stock markets are going to 'crash and burn' at some future date and for some 'unknown' reason since the controlled test was so successful. Just prior to the 1929 stock market crash. That's hard to do considering banks claim it takes 3 or more days to clear a check that you've submitted to pay for a stock purchase. It is found by clicking the Gunther Russbacher button and then clicking on the headline that reads: An Expose of the Federal Reserve. "the DTC will flip the switch" according to Mr. Do you remember Black Monday? There were 535 million transactions on Monday. Black Monday was a deliberately manipulated disaster for many Americans at the whim of a controlled test by the DTC.."never lost a certificate or made a mistake in a book ledger transaction". Was this just one of the planned tests for a Y2K internationally planned worldwide economic meltdown? The Great Depression is about to be repeated. "What switch?". I call it the reality of the mark of the beast. We are. "This is the day that clearing house funds will no longer be accepted for stock or bond transactions" was my reply from Jim. 1996. or a Fedwire. [RMNews: In case you are new to all of this and you don't understand that the Federal Reserve Banking System is a privately owned bank. Read these quotes again: He stated that Black Monday was a controlled test. Wall Street was posting record prices. I asked. This is more commonly called a 'cashless transaction'. What was the purpose of this test? Common sense tells you that you test something before you intend to use it. On June 7. As of May 3. McNeff. the New World Order [I prefer the term 'New World DISorder' as a more accurate description]. It was the first introduction the American people had to the "new money" that is referenced in this . At the time is was published in many diferent newspapers and newsletters.000 points. record earnings. On February 22. He was very proud to inform me that "DTC cleared every transaction without a single glitch!"..

It was declared due to the deliberately calculated stock market crash that preceded the Great Depression. This is what happened to those Americans holding gold and gold coins after 1933.. Now.. $100 FRB notes issued by the Federal Reserve Bank are being exchanged for new $100 FRS issued by the Federal Reserve System. and for a reason. In 1995. President Roosevelt declared a national emergency touted as a "Banking Holiday". our entire nation is still under the Executive Order declaration of the War Powers Act and in a continual state of national emergency (See Clinton's 1994 Executive Order 12919). CEDE and Company. Since the Federal Reserve System already holds our stocks and bonds in their fictitious DTC "street name". Heck.. The President can enforce any new emergency at any time under Executive Order or Presidential Directive. the older FRB notes will no longer be 'legal' and there will be a penalty for hoarding them. On March 6. they have now blamed it on the purported drug dealers who are allegedly destroying our currency by money laundering schemes. CEDE. we [the former North Bridge News] published that we expected a new national "dollar" emergency to be declared within a year or two. and mutual funds. what happens to the people counting on those pension fund investments in order to feed themselves in their retirement? Too bad for them. Just like we thought at the time. The majority is stored in the impervious rock vaults they own beneath New York City. old U. a machine-readable .. For the first time. What people don't realize is that very soon. on no less than two occasions since 1995.S. But. they're out of luck because for the 'good of the nation'.article. Since late 1996. they may be forced to share or relinquish their lifetime of hard-earned wealth. Consider this my fellow Christian Americans: All pension funds and other institutional 'managed funds' are comprised of paper asset investments such as stocks. Congress has attempted. bonds. new $20 and $50 FRS's are replacing the older notes as well. These certificates are technically in the name of DTC's private holding company. These new notes have scanable magnetic platinum encryption on the plastic strips embedded inside the bills. 1933. Where did this gold end up? Into the hands of the Federal Reserve System owners. Under the War Powers Act. All the Federal Reserve System has to do is hand it over. then perhaps they'll cash them in for the federal government's failure to repay the loans that have become way overdue. to pass legislation allowing pension funds to be used by the government as purported 'loans'. "We are most gratified with the successful introduction of the new $100 and $50 notes and look forward to the same success with the new $20s. This can be done without the consent of Congress under an Executive Order based on the War and Emergency Powers Act and a state of National Emergency. Is it any surprise that the DTC physically holds all the remaining non-book entry issued stock and bond certificates in the same place? Technically.. all bullion gold and gold coins were forcibly taken from the hands of private citizens (see New York Times).S. Treasury claims this is for "the blind". The DTC is owned by the private Federal Reserve System owners (Click for a complete list of names)." Chairman Greenspan said. The U. some of Lincoln's gold backed bonds from 1864 have not been repaid yet.. just like we are already under (See further Executive Orders).

S. then he said "Good.S. Miami and Los Angeles airports.. No noise. This writer knows firsthand of at least one machine.S.. but much more sophisticated. Treasury. manufactured by Diebold. they want to know if someone is carrying more than $10. When supply is low. To me. Atlanta. Will the President call for the confiscation of all gold bullion and bullion coins as Roosevelt did? Who will end up with it? The Federal Reserve System owners. for a reason. -U.capability has been incorporated for the blind.000 into the U. RR-2449 released May 20. wallet or purse no different in theory than a credit card scanner. I tried to ask him how the machine knew that.S. I looked in my wallet and saw I had one new $100 FRS note. just like before. international gold supplies have been so low that some private Swiss Banks have been paying a premium above the market wholesale value for gold bullion. Who ends up being the only winner? The Federal Reserve System stockholders. I was asked (by who I believe was a U. but don't tell me how much". precious metal prices increase. I took a good look at the scanning system and believe I have now spotted them at Kennedy.S. international airport in 1998. when supply is high the price decreases. Since June 1998. who supplies raw gold to a major Swiss Banking company smelter and processor The spot gold market has been manipulated to keep the price low so that the Federal Reserve System owners can purchase all that is available through their various trusts and corporations. The odd part about this is that these machines seem to all be located in the customs areas where you enter the U. Obviously. A new feature in the $20 will facilitate the development of convenient scanning devices that could identify the note as a $20. it looks much like the standard metal detector scanners you walk through at all airports. (a/k/a InterBold) that scans the money in your pockets. I told him "yes". 1998.S. The older FRB notes are not encoded to do this. he thanked me and told me to please move on. he asked me to walk through what looked like a typical airport scanner. They control the circulation amounts of paper money in the U. What happened to 'supply and demand' with gold and silver? Normally. After saying he would "really appreciate it" if I would help them with a test.S. He looked at a computer screen and said "Do you have a new $100 bill?". No beeps. I participated in a 'test' of this machine at a U. so to speak. This was confirmed to us by a gold and diamond mining Chief Executive from Rex Mining in Guinea. Common sense dictates that they should be more concerned about people leaving with more than $10. as many experts have already speculated. Inc. West Africa. What will stocks and bonds purchased with old dollars be worth then? Pennies to the dollar. World gold availability on the open market is now at a record low and mining production of gold is also at a record low output. Why new paper 'money' and for what purpose? Because the new FRS notes in your pocket can be scanned and whoever scans them can know exactly how much money you have on you. Perhaps the private FED will peg the new dollar to gold prices. but he ignored my question. Office of Public Affairs. as he introduced himself and flashed his ID quickly in my face so I couldn't read it) if I had any of the new $100 or $50 bills in my pockets. When I confirmed that was true. until you begin to realize that there must be some other hidden agenda: They are apparently going to stop money from entering the U. from a foreign country. No sound at all.. Combine that with the new scanner . Treasury Agent.000 if they're really trying to thwart the drug dealers.

into the US Treasury National Debt Sinking Fund as " collateral notes " the national debt can be easily sunk. Checks are soon to be totally phased out." . Part Two -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Home | Understanding Scarce-Rare Coins | FAQ | Coin Collecting and Investing | Model Portfolios | Scarce-Rare Coin Grading | Price Charts | Special Coins For Sale | Request Buy Quotes | Request Sell Quotes | About Us | Special Reports | Precious Metal IRA's | Join Our Email List | Guarantees and Disclaimer | Numismatic Affiliations -------------------------------------------------------------------Dear Congressman: How the United States can easily Sink the National Debt. People will be at the mercy of the federal government for daily food and for jobs. The switch is being turned on.to stop large amounts from entering into the U. Banks issue ATM debit cards and tell you they must charge more for your account if you use a real live human teller instead of the machine.. re: Turning Lead into 10kt Gold Coins If the United States. Just ask Jim McNeff of the DTC. This is the truth of reality. transmutated lead metal into $100 US Created 10KT Gold Coins ( oreo cookie style ) and issued $100 Created " Gold Certificates" . and the soon to be astronomical price of gold which most Americans will be forbidden to have or hoard. The day has come when you must decide to accept or reject the beast and the New World Disorder. and their new system works. while keeping series E US Savings Bonds. once again. and the scenario amounts to a planned shortage of paper FRS notes. The facts we've presented in this report all point to this. for economic stability. This is not speculation.S. and then Deposited them under US title 12 section 412. thus removing a big encomonic stress on the US ecomony because " money ends suffering . the banning of the older FRB notes. It's already been tested.

(4) Certain compounds when added to lead metal . the wealth of the United States needs to be reassessed at least 10 x. (3) It is alleged that Lead naturally transmutes into Gold over millions of years within a vein of quartz chrystals and the piezo electric effect interaction. will turn lead into golden color." (5) Being the only metal suitable as the Standard . " Vanadinite . like coal into diamonds. ( this Country is SUPER RICH .Based on the following. see " yellow lead " " naples yellow " ( a gold color ) and see the golden lead chrystal.) Facts on Lead Metal and its Transmutation into Gold (1) Lead metal has 82 protons & electrons and contains Gold in it already and Lead is the ONLY METAL that can be the STANDARD WEIGHT as 10kt Gold ( that is semi safe to use ) (2) Lead metal does transmutate into Gold when bombarded with a source of neutrons.why have a needless debt.

Postal Savings Bank . It was created by the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970 and went into operation on July 1. The Postal Service is managed by a board of governors. Because Money Ends May God Bless You Yours Faithfully Rev Daniel Izzo BA/ MS science researcher inventor 512 Onondaga Ave Syracuse. it will be safe for people to handle. " Therefore buy of me gold refined in the fire " God rev 3:18 Suffering. which selects a postmaster general and deputy postmaster general as chief executive officers. and the postmaster general who headed it was a member of the president's Cabinet. There are five regional postmasters general. If the Federal Reserve. each of whom manages all postal activities within a .Weight as 10kt gold. 1971. discontinued in 1970 Note: The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the executive branch of the federal government. lead can be easily transmuted into $100 US Created Gold Coins for the US Mint and its $100 Created Gold certificates and if a layer of real 10kt gold covers the created gold coin. (6) Lead is decayed uranium. US Mint and Treasury needs a Modern Alchemist please let me know. Prior to that date it was named the Post Office Department.S. I would like to work on this project for the US government because money ends suffering. NY 13207 1-315-472-5088 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The U.

The successful party at the last election declared in favor of postal savings banks. most civilized countries of the world had a Postal Savings Bank. or 1. 40. and am sure that when the banks are furnished they will be productive of the utmost good. and although the proposition finds opponents in many parts of the country. for depositing savings with the security of the Government behind them. By that time.S. or 98.402.308. the U. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The U. The result is that money is kept in hiding and unemployed. "I believe them to be necessary in order to offer a proper inducement to thrift and saving to a great many people of small means who do not now have banking facilities. Postal Savings Bank was born and it was one of the best ideas in the Republic's history. I am convinced that the people desire such banks. In 14 States the deposits in savings banks as reported to the Comptroller of the Currency amount to $3.543. based on sound principle and actual successful trial .6 per cent. showing conclusively that there are many localities in the United States where sufficient opportunity is not given to the people to deposit their savings. while in the remaining 32 States there are only $70. Postal Savings Bank In 1910.453 savings banks reporting to the Comptroller there are more than 61. It is believed that in the aggregate vast sums of money would be brought into circulation through the instrumentality of the postal savings banks.000 post-offices. and to whom such a system would offer an opportunity for the accumulation of capital. The postal savings banks are not constituted for the purpose of creating competition with other banks. The object is to encourage thrift and economy in the wage-earner and person of moderate means.S. during the Administration of President William Howard Taft: "The second subject worthy of mention in the Post-Office Department is the real necessity and entire practicability of establishing postal savings banks. by an Act of Congress.4 per cent of the entire deposits.245. They will furnish a satisfactory substitute.590. President Theodore Roosevelt's speech on the necessity for a Postal Savings Bank in 1908: "I again renew my recommendation for postal savings banks." The Postal Savings Bank was officially inaugurated in 1910.000 of which are money order offices. While there are only 1. Postal savings banks are now in operation in practically all of the great civilized countries with the exception of the United States. The rate of interest upon deposits to which they would be limited would be so small as to prevent their drawing deposits away from other banks.region.

and finance of St. At such time the circulating money is not sufficient to carry on the business of the world. but I believe that a satisfactory provision for this purpose was inserted as an amendment to the bill considered by the Senate at its last session. cause of the necessity for careful deliberation and close investigation.650 mail carriers in the city. Feb. "The postal savings bank. It is designed merely to protect and take care of the earnings of the working class. more than half the money of the world is out of circulation and in the pockets of the people. 6. has grown so rapidly that it is at present one of the largest. postal savings banks exist and are not thought to be inconsistent with a proper financial and banking system. It has been proposed to delay the consideration of legislation establishing a postal savings bank until after the report of the Monetary Commission. Cincinnati. although a new department of the Mail Service. which with deference to those who advocate it seems to me to have in it the seeds of demoralization to conservative banking and certain financial disaster. I do not see why the one should be tied up with the other. Monfort delivered an interesting address on "The Postal Savings Bank" last night.000. At times. The people put more trust in the postal bankthan they do in the ordinary banks. There are 2.000. It is not apparent that a system of postal savings banks would in any way interfere with a change to such a system here. Certainly in most of the countries of Europe where control is thus exercised by a central authority. before the department of commerce. 1913: Monfort Explains Postal Savings.000 changed hands in handling the mails. it is said. Xavier's College. Few people realize the magnitude of the Postal Department. Here is an article from The Commercial Tribune." By 1913. It is understood that the Monetary Commission have looked into the systems of banking which now prevail abroad. and properly so. The question of how the money deposited in postal savings banks shall be invested is not free from difficulty. and have found that by a control there exercised in respect to reserves and the rates of exchange by some central authority panics are avoided.000. for the system of government guaranty of deposits now being adopted in several western States.in nearly all the countries of the world. In Cincinnati alone last year over $17. and the salaries of the deliverers and the railway mail clerks with headquarters in Cincinnati amounted to over $1. accounts. Xavier's Students Listen to Exposition of Uncle Sam's Bank Postmaster E. and a panic . Under this system the money that is placed in the care of the Government can be withdrawn at any time.St. R. "The postal savings bank" [he said] "is a new department of the greatest business on earth-the banking business. This report is likely to be delayed. the Postal Savings Bank was another great American success story.

follows. President Woodrow Wilson (another tool of Rome) vetoed the legislation that would have made the Postal Saving Bank another great American success story. Most of the depositors were poor and recent immigrants who did not trust the commercial banks and were very familiar with postal savings' banks in their home countries. there was in the bank $11. will greatly lessen the hardships of such panics. . . In 1913. . _____ imposed slavish INCOME TAX system on the land of the FREE. The Income Tax versus the Postal Savings Bank. so 30 million dollars would be about 600 million dollars at today's exchange rate. It was called the Moon Act. invests this money so that the department is self-supporting and so far has paid all its own expenses This staggering sum was reached so quickly even though the maximum deposit was 500 dollars. he let the figures speak for themselves. The great financiers of the world have been unable to account for these conditions. On this money the depositors receive 2 percent interest.000. President Wilson acting under advice of the Roman hierarchy vetoed it because some of the banks receiving deposits were not part of the newly created Federal Reserve System!! President Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921).000. but many think that this system. 1912. The Government. Visit the Postal Savings Bank of Hibernia .the birthplace of our great Irish-American . On January 11. The minimum age for opening an account was 10.000. A bill was introduced in Congress in 1914 to repeal this ceiling.This was a direct competitor to the Postal Savings Bank. however. The income tax was an exact duplicate of the feudal Dark Ages Papal income tax: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Editor's Notes One dollar in 1913 was the equivalent to about 30 dollars today.000. by placing cash at the disposal of the poorer people. The people loved their savings bank and pressure quickly grew to increase the maximum amount. This was the increase in just 2 years even though the maximum deposit was 500 dollars.now there is $30. "In speaking of the rapid growth of the postal savings bank and its favor with the people.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------William H. August 5. Virginia. Postal Savings Bank was discontinued in 1970 during the Presidency of Richard Nixon. No one can foresee the burden which under this system would be imposed upon the sound and the conservative bankers of the country by this obligation to make good for the losses caused by the reckless. in the nature of enforced insurance. Because in its present shape. China also discovered the Postal Savings Bank 10 years ago. while the risk would have to be assumed by his honest and hardworking fellow. The system of postal savings bank has been tried in so many countries successfully that it cannot be regarded longer as a new and untried experiment. The U. The government guarantee will bring out of hoarding places much money which may be turned into wealth producing capital and will be a great incentive for thrift in the many small places in the country having now no savings bank facilities which are reached by the post office. The proposition is to tax the honest and prudent banker to make up for the dishonesty and imprudence of others. it was founded in 1861. speculative and dishonest men who would be unable to secure deposits under such a system on the faith of the proposed insurance. Republican Party "Postal Savings Bank" Hot Springs. It is one of the largest banks in the world right now with deposits of $10 TRILLION. This answers the criticism contained in the Democratic platform that under the system the money gathered in the country will be deposited in Wall Street banks. the proposal . probably the only benefit would accrue to the speculator who would be delighted to enter the banking business when it was certain that he could enjoy any profits that would accrue.hero Father Crowley. to raise the guarantee funds to pay the depositors of any bank which fails.S. 1908 SPEECH TEXT The Republican platform recommends the adoption of a postal savings bank system. the proposal would remove all safeguards against recklessness in banking… and in the end. The pending bill for such banks provides for the investment of the money deposited in national banks and the various places in which we’ve gathered or as near thereto as may be practicable. The British Post Office Savings Bank is the world's oldest. It will bring to everyone however remote from financial centers a place of perfect safety for deposit with the interest returned. In short. Taft. Presidential Candidate. Japan financed their industrial revolution through her Postal Savings Bank. The Democratic platform recommends a tax upon the national banks and upon such state banks as may come in.

which will commit itself to a scheme of this nature without the slightest sense of responsibility for the practical operation of the law proposed. how is it Independent from Debt ? LEGALLY SINK THE UNITED STATES DEBT WITHOUT CIRCULATING . without banking facilities. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DEAR MEMBER OF CONGRESS: AMERICA HAS MORE THAN $50 TRILLION OF UNUSED CAPITAL ? IF YOU COULD. $100 US NOTES in1966 AS CUSTODIANS OF MONEY USC TITLE 31 SEC 3302 What is a United States Note. than the new system proposed. If the proposal were adopted exactly as the Democratic platform suggests. that produces AMTRAK NOTE FUNDING ? _________________________________________ IDEA TO PROVIDE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TRILLIONS OF EXTRA DOLLARS IN REVENUE AND TAX SAVINGS. & issue USPSB NOTES. WOULD YOU SUPPORT: (A) CREATING: CRYONIC BURIAL RESURRECTION CHAPELS FOR DECEASED AMERICANS ? (B) LEGALLY SINK THE NATIONAL DEBT ? (C)ISSUE: UNITED STATES MONEY NOTES? (D) RE-OPEN THE UNITED STATES POSTAL SAVINGS BANK.is wholly impracticable unless it is to be accompanied by a complete revolution in our banking system with a supervision so close as practically to create a government bank. The Democratic party announces its adhesion to this plan and only recommends the tried system of postal savings bank as an alternative if the new experimental panacea is not available. it will bring the whole banking system of the country down in ruin. And this proposal is itself an excellent illustration of the fitness for national control of a party. WHY NOT ISSUE United States Notes ? as $1US NOTES in 1928 $2 US NOTES in 1928 1953 1963. The Republican party prefers the postal savings bank as one tried safe and known to be effective and as reaching many more people now. $5 US NOTES in 1928 1953 1963.

EXTRA MONEY AND ALSO SECURING US GOVERNMENT BONDS BUT IN INTEREST BEARING TRUST HOW TO LEGALLY SINK NATIONAL DEBT The Unknown $19 Trillion Depository Trust Company Part of the SEC US Gov Trust to Secure and Sink the National Debt: USE (1) USC Title 12 sec 412. 342. (2) the United States Postal Savings Bank can create money notes and load money to Amtrak -Railroad bonds in exchange for US Postal Savings Bank money notes. SECURED BY THE $19 TRILLION DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY AS SIMPLE COLLATERAL THEN (4) DEPOSIT SAID $19 TRILLION DOLLAR NOTE. Apllication for Notes Collateral Required: Then (2) USC TITLE 12 SEC § 342. exchange and collection. SECURED AND IN THE PROCESS OF PAYMENT THRU TREASURY TRUST FUND OF PART 3 United States Postal Savings Bank can create money notes and FUND AMTRAK AND ABANONED RAILROADS. ( NOTE NOT TO BE CIRCULATED ) WITH THE UNITED STATES TREASURY THEN (5) REMOVE THE UNITED STATES DEBT OBLIGATIONS FROM THE GENERAL FUND OBLIGATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES AND SEPARATE THESE DEBT PAYMENTS FROM THE GENERAL FUND THEN (6) MAKE A PAYMENT PLAN TO SLOWLY PAY THE UNITED STATES DEBT OBLIGATION FROM THE $19 TRILLION DOLLAR TREASURY TRUST FROM NUMBER 3 ABOVE WHEREAS THE ENTIRE UNITED STATES DEBT IS NOW SUNK. AS CUSTODIANS OF MONEY USC TITLE 31 SEC 3302 THEN (3) DEPOSIT THE $19 TRILLION DOLLAR NOTE FROM USC TITLE 12 SEC 412. member and nonmember banks or other depository institutions. Deposits. THE $19 TRILLION DOLLAR DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY a SEC GOV TRUST. as collateral under USC Title 12 sec 412 (1) Reissue: UNITED STATES Notes as Legal tender. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CRYONIC PRESERVATION PROVIDES A SENSE OF A REAL SCIENTIFIC SECURITY FROM DEATH AND HOPE IN A RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD BODY Many of the security from death issues people have can be addressed through . BUT IN TRUST .

Rev Dan Izzo said. life that was once frozen in the winter months. At 10:49 PM. suddenly blooms to life again. Our childhoods are the best time of our lives .science and general medical resurrection. When Human Beings die. In the future stem cells can be cultured and the deceased body can be revived with these cells. using just food and oxygen from the mother. NY 13207 ------------------------------------Concerning the Idea to ask Congress to reissue UNITED STATES NOTES as a Legal Tender again.. Daniel Robert February 3. " Could this Bible prophesy be Cryonics ? BROTHER DANIEL IZZO 512 Onondaga Ave Syracuse. 2005 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Resurrection burial tomb . and more people would want to be brought back from temporary death. Every spring. once robotic parents are created for tough labor our lives could be like children again. just the brain stem stops to function. Please remember that mammals start out the size of a period dot and grow into a baby in 9 months.. not all of the body is dead. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------United States Patent Application 20050027316 Kind Code A1 Izzo. Many plants and animals replace their body water with a natural sugar anti-freeze to prevent the cell DNA from shattering when frozen. dormant since 1966. Reviving to life already after freezing already happens naturally. the resumption of life. " Resurrection is the rising again from the dead. like filling a dry sponge with fresh water.

hereby claim the. Current Class: 607/1 U. and a means to produce energy. wherein a nuclear device is used to generate electric energy and heat energy. producing a less savage empowered child culture and machine parents. Class at Publication: 607/001 Intern'l Class: A61N 001/00 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Claims -------------------------------------------------------------------------------1) I the Reverend Daniel Robert Izzo. wherein the deceased person is prevented from decay within said container and where energy is obtained from the radio crown that oscillates into the deceased person's nerves and brain and the entire container is within a building and tomb that is weather tight. "A Resurrection Burial Tomb" that is a novel means to revive a dead person's body from the grave. comprising of a container of preservation means. wherein part of the dead person's bone is . Daniel Robert. will preserve and prevent the human body from decay and will prolong the human life and tissue and return it into a conscious state. 2002 U. together with the means do do the same. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inventors: Izzo. to do the same. NY) Correspondence Name and Address: Reverend Daniel Robert Izzo 512 Onondaga Ave Syracuse NY 13207 US Serial No.: 161974 Series Code: 10 Filed: June 4. comprising of: an artificial womb and a container with fluid having a crystal radio crown and antenna that connects to a radio and energy devices. and providing a 1 little more security from an impending death.Abstract A Resurrection Burial Tomb includes a means to preserve and revive Human Beings and provide power and power systems for the same. holding the suspended dead person's body and connected to electrical and energy apparatus systems contained in the Resurrection tomb and robotic machine workers that help maintain and work to revive the suspended Human Being.S. wherein the process provides power and security from death to living Human Beings being useful and novel.S. (Syracuse.

co version to a computer consciousness. will be painted and printed. crystals and boron mixed in the paint. together and consisting of artificial and organically grown muscle.converted into a microprocessor and computer. by inputing the desired pattern stored in its memory. wherein the microprocessor will oscillate of the dead person. in a pattern for type-N areas. such as imputing radio. wherein the computer and energy sources. drive a heart lung machine that keeps the dead person's remaining cell tissue alive. wherein the deceased person's bone will regain consciousness. when a voltage of energy is applied. germanium. artificial nerves that will allow the dead person's skeleton remains. using collagen. wherein said microprocessor comprises of: a sheet of flexible insulating plastic paper that contains an enlargement of specially painted and printed computer microchips. wherein then. comprising of silicon and compounds to cause silicon and material mean to expand and contract with energy and force. will be revived to consciousness. wherein said microprocessor will receive and transmit input data and electric pulses. and will contain information. artificial muscle that expands and contracts with energy and force. together with an artificial heart assister pump. wherein the said microprocessor contains elements of human bone materials that will be able to convert itself into other electric circuit patterns. then an area contain the devices negatively charged electric areas. nerves a muscles. artificially grown body parts. negatively charged electric current conduction. together with artificially grown nerves and olfactory nerves that grow. to independently communicate new consciousness and thoughts. comprising of a means to receive and transmit data and electric pulses. wherein the sheet of plastic paper is coated with a complete layer of positively doped silicon substrate that is printed and painted in an electric circuit pattern of an insulating coat of silicon dioxide paint. and organic material. with a paint that contains silicon and germanium crystals and phosphorus with in the type-N semiconductor paint. capacitors and resistors. imputing oscilloscope for oscilloscope circuit. type-N. using the material of their bone and artificial and organic means consisting of human bone material. for radio circuit. reconstructed nerve patterns of the deceased person. being used will oscillated of the person's life frequency. record data and monitor the burial tomb. record data and monitor. and contain information. organically grown body parts. positively charged electric semiconductor regions with a polysilicon paint that contains silicon. wherein the results of the paint leave gaps in the germanium crystal structure because there is not enough electrons to fill all of the spaces in the crystal and produces a P-type semiconductor patterned region for the device's positive electric current conduction. a microprocessor. that is convertible into a computer and microprocessor. wherein then another layer of silicon dioxide is printed . wherein the deceased person's skeleton remains. from the said bone material. that was applied and formed with applied layers of paint. wherein then the device's negatively charged electric areas will have extra free electrons and produces N-type. another electric circuit pattern is then printed and painted that will conduct the P-type. integrated electric circuits and having thousands of field effect transistors.

wherein when a person's heart fails to pump properly. a Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator. microprocessor-microchip. wherein a photoelectric effect takes place. and electric energy. polysilicon. integrated electric circuits. silicon dioxide. interact in new and improved functions that preserve the deceased person's and offer a little more security from our deaths. wherein the microprocessor's input of data will be able to store the data in the device's central processing unit. a Hydraulic Leverage Engine. applied on it in a circuit pattern and shall provide electric contacts that will receive electric data pulses of either digital inputs or analog-todigital converter inputs and the electric contacts will provide the device's digital output or the device's digital-to-analog data output. silicon. the Zinc-Carbon Pill and Transistorized Plastic Paper Computer. the device's random access memory. circuits in and enlarged pattern. the Artificial Heart Assister Pump. and power systems. the automatic device will sense this dysfunction. capacitors. that is attached to the person's arteries and veins. or of the layer printing methods that print the materials without shorting the electric circuit. wherein the power source to circulate and pump blood fluid is connected to the device. capacitors and resistors. having interactions therein wherein. boron. data bus. resistors. crystals. if any. also by lithographic printing or offset cylinders containing the material of paint and the circuit designs. wherein a small pump will circulate blood and fluid. producing electricity. metal.and painted in an electric circuit insulating pattern and shall have some holes for electric conduction and shall have a printed and painted aluminum or other electric conducting metal paint. are used as a means to provide the process. . and the device's read only memory and are connected together within the device's address bus. on an altered xerography process using the aforementioned materials of plastic. and will begin to pump and circulate oxygenated blood and fluid properly throughout the person's body tissues. wherein the enlarging of the pattern of the computer microchip electric circuit. 100+thousand transistors. wherein the pumping system is powered electrically or nuclear energy. wherein the device can store the data for processing and the device turns data into processed results. and control bus and the device's bus system connects to the device's input and output connection. phosphorous. 100+thousands of field effect transistors. and Conscious Revival System. and the Thermionic Electron Electric Generator and Artificial Liver Ammonia Diffuser. germanium. and then applying the materials to create the same electric systems. wherein processes in the Resurrection Burial Tomb. or painting the electric circuit patterns of the I/C. and can be a photoelectric cell on top of the microprocessor and can be altered and have a parallel along the circuits with arsenic. into actions and dip lays. capacitors and resistors. the Artificial Muscle Robot. wherein the device is connected to a person's blood circulatory system and will maintain a fresh supply of oxygen to a deceased person's brain and body. cosmic radio wave crown. wherein the microprocessor can be altered and produce electric energy. a Microwave Hot Water Boiler Heating System. painting and printing upon plastic paper. 100+thousand transistors. prior domestic priorities of the inventor's.

wherein the effort multiplied by the distance from the fulcrum. like an overloaded electric light bulb. turns a work wheel with much more force that was initially acted upon it from the energy source or heat source but at less distance. Magnesium. wherein the Hydraulic Leverage Engine is used comprising of. Carbon. and ION engine having gas therein. carboxyl and its group. and wherein the output of the energy or heat source shall cause and move the effort pistons to apply a small pressure upon the hydraulic jack piston pump that in turn will apply a larger force of pressure upon the lever bar. fungi. barium and its sulfides. arsenic.carbolated campor. carbolic acid. and electrocution and electrostatic activity. a heat source within said housings which interacts with gas or fuel. a gasoline combustion chamber having gas therein. fungi and other microbes. wherein the Zinc-Carbon Pill will prevent decay of the human person. zinc and its zinc oxides. . Electrophoresis materials. wherein an engine is used to provide the Resurrection Burial Tomb. magnesium and its compounds and group. carbamazephine. bacteria. wherein the Resurrection Burial Tomb has a workable engine for the interaction process. and protect the deceased person's tissues infection. (effort pistons-lever bar ) equal the weight multiplied by its distance from the fulcrum (weight load pistons). elements of. or an energy source to provide output. so that the crankshaft. antineoplastic.wherein. carbon and carbon elements and can be in the form of carbonyl and its group. fungus and other microbes and parasites that cause diseases and cell death of a Human Being. Zinc. a diesel compression chamber having diesel gas fuel therein. wherein. wherein the lever bar rests upon a fulcrum point and bar. under applied pressure of the effort pistons acting upon the hydraulic jack piston pump and lever bar acting upon the weight load pistons. adramycin. a hydraulic pneumatic engine having gas therein. benzyl. bacteria and viral infection and clove leaf oil topical paste for herpes virus. zinc sulfides and zinc acetates and other zinc elements. without destroying many human cells. with a power source. wherein the lever bar acts upon a set of weight load pistons that connect to a crankshaft and the crankshaft is connected to a load bearing work wheel. with the ability to increase the natural electric current and voltage of a human being. wherein the process will electrocute viruses and other microbes within a human host and will explode viruses. carboxyl and its group and other carbon based elements. medication and process of the Zinc-Carbon Pill electrophoresis compounds are used in the process for destroying microbes. the piston will act upon a hydraulic jack piston pump and is connected to a lever bar and the lever bar rests upon a fulcrum point and bar. comprising of. that in turn will apply an even larger force of pressure upon the weight load pistons that connects to the crankcase and crankshaft and work wheel. benzoly peroxide. and can be applied also externally to a Human Host with the same effect together with these elements. wherein the combining of these elements increases the electrical energy of a Human Being with chemical energy and can shatter and explode viruses. a piston connected to the output of the energy or heat source. bacteria. benzoic acid. with electro-chemical compounds and a process of electrophoresis. antipan.

a data input and computer storage data unit. to a safe level. a programmed radio frequency to signal number display.cerumenolytic. a source of communication antennas for a radio wave receiver and transmit or and propagated radio waves. ultra-violet rays. phenyl carbinol. as a means for monitoring communication. solids. radio frequency amplifier. wherein the robot is powered by a . wherein. a frequency programmer number pad to frequency crystal oscillator. sodium. wherein the invention uses artificial muscles and produces electric current that is stored in the electric storage unit being maintained/operated by the "Artificial Muscle Robot" and its artificial hands having. phenol red. penicillin. a speaker. a video monitor. radio frequency amplifier. pyrethrin. magnesium. telephone line for wire service. a keyboard to computer input. transmit and receive antennas. cable input/output wire. suger. intermediate frequency amplifier. modulated amplifier or Frequency amplifier master oscillator. antenna. pheny ethyl alchohol. bacteria. low frequency amplifier speaker. hydrochloride. a fax machine/printer. phenylactetic acid carboxy. electric jolts. ozone. carben carbenicillin. modulated amplifier or frequency amplifier. pastes. radio chemicals. TV monitor. permathrin. crystal oscillator that is programmable. phenylactetic acid carboxy. artificial muscle that is connected to a frame with movable joints and the artificial hand is covered and protected with a material that permits movement. radio frequency amplifier. but will explode with electric energy. powders. sodium perborate. negative ions. electric plug input/output. wherein the artificial muscle will expand and contract with force. entertainment fun and data. pre-selection circuit. wherein combining these elements increases and amplify the electrical energy of a host human inside the tomb chambers. daunomycn. piperonyl butoxide. sulfamide. will interact and function within the Resurrection Burial Tomb processes and radio crown. phenyl meruric nitrate. radio frequency amplifier. dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate. sulfa. local oscillator. that has a computer brain with optical sensors and an input/output communication and receives transmits radio communication and the robot has arms with artificial hands. frequency detector. using electric current by way of spring wires that is within the artificial muscle that is weaved and patterned and layered like a real human hand having sensors for input/output signals through a central joint palm. pill gas and electric energy forms as light radiation energy and electro-static energy absorption means to prevent decay of the deceased person's Human cell life. hydrogen peroxide. viruses. the invention's Citizen Band Free Public Radio wave Telephone system's. mithramycn. audio input with cable wires. sodium hydrogen-carbonate. piperdine. video/audio camera that is removable. funguses and other microbes and parasites without damaging many Human cells and is obtained ny chemical energy and other energy forms and the process and treatment with chemicals can be in the form of liquids. a frequency changer. microphone. positive ions and water. keratolic acid. and wherein the means for a communication device is used from the Citizen Band Free Public Radio wave Telephone System comprising an audio input. phenyl carbinol. input amplifier. antenna for receiver. pheny ethyl alcohol.

uses the same means of cryogenic preservation. awaiting the day of resurrection. thorium. wherein the Hydraulic Pneumatic Engine and the "Microwave Hot Water Boiler Heating System with a thorium plated magnetron (2) energy systems. in the U. and the invention's Hydraulic Pneumatic Engine used for work functions and comprising of the Portable Nuclear Powered Engine that mitts less radiation than 3 TV sets and is used for work functions and electric power generation. and a means for a Human person inside a container that is filled with a preservative medium that prevents decay and who is wearing a Crystal radio crown to hear the living.Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator other electric input means that move and perform work of Human hands tasks can perform to maintain and work for the Resurrection Burial Tomb work functions. South Pole. the invention's rebuilding and preserving Human persons who are deceased or suspended or are being revived into normal function. container with magnetic force inside. and depicts radioactive cobalt 60 magnets that cause electrons to move . cathode. for energy creation. wherein the input of 10 watts of electric power is amplified to about 100 watts of electric power output. cesium. for an "Artificial Muscle Robot" consciousness and for some normal function. using steam from the microwave hot water boiler to drive and help turn the hydraulic pneumatic engine and electric generator wherein the Artificial Muscle Robot assists in the operation of the tomb's hydraulic pneumatic engine and microwave hot water boiler heating energy system. wherein the electrons join other electrons emitted from the anode at the negative electrode as the radiation and high voltage causes an electric current within the device and sends it to the increased electric output to the invention's electric current supply wherein the invention comprises of an electric generator having radioactive cobalt 60 magnets. wherein a thoriated platinum cathode obtains emitted electrons and emits more electrons inside a magnetic field having cobalt magnets. wherein. having a power source. wherein an anode collects the electrons and sends them to a argon gas ionizer chamber having argon gas therein wherein high voltage electric is present that ionizes the radiation of the argon gas and causes electrons to rush to one electron and positively charged ions to the other electrode and positively charged ions to the other electrode. Antarctica territory and the invention comprises of an "Artificial Womb" converted from an oxygen petrofusion machine. wherein a means of a Human bone being crystallized and converted into a computer microprocessor. that comprises of. wherein the Lever Engine c covert 1 ton of torque into 4 tons without gear/transmission for the invention's work functions and other electric systems comprising of the Thermionic Electron Electric Generator. and a high voltage anode chamber with argon gas inside for output. wherein the Hyman's cells are preserved/protected and can grown into normal function. wherein the invention comprises of the Thermionic Electron-Electric Generator that is used to generate the invention's electric power.S. containment inside a sealed tube contain a source of input power that heats a thorium tungsten nichrome wire that is inside another sealed tube that contains cesium gas that generate electrons.

Thermionic Electron-Electric Generator. wherein radioactive cobalt field structure magnets create a magnetic field. . the anode is of magnetizable metal. wherein coils of wire are mounted so that they can be spun around in a magnetic field with mechanical energy input. said microwave magnetron and a klystron thats cathodes and anodes are plated with thorium and uranium and whose magnets are of radioactive cobalt. wherein this triggers an electric current from one electrode to the other. converting thorium/uranium electrons into microwave energy said magnetron microwave device. magnetic metal anode of cobalt and plated with radioactive metal. cesium tungsten. and argon gas atoms interacting and generating electron emissions into electric energy. while the mechanical energy input turns the wire coil electrode and creates electrical output between the cobalt 60 magnetic field magnets wherein magnetic force and ionized gas of radioactive cobalt 60 magnets make electrons move in the wire coil generating an electric current output. the positive ions rush to one electrode and the electrons rush to the other electrode wire. wherein the Thermionic Electron Electric Generator are a source of amplified electric power to the invention's wiring wherein the invention comprises of devices that convert heat energy into electric current wherein the invention comprises of a Microwave Boiler. the invention's devices converting heat energy and electro magnetic energy into a larger electric energy output. a high D-C potential is applied between cathode and anode. wherein the operation of the invention's magnetron. the invention's. wherein the combined forces cause electrons to take a spiral path and when the magnetron. and using mechanical energy input and obtain a greater energy output of electric energy. nichrome. comprises of electric devices converting thorium uranium. in the magnetron sets up an increase in spiraling reactions when an electric current is applied and causes the magnetron output current to be many times the electric input of the invention's magnetron.faster than iron magnets and produces more electric output per calorie than iron magnets and its output is increased by high voltage argon gas ionization inside the electric generator. and the invention. wherein the thorium and uranium metal cathode. wherein the invention's devices converting thermionic emissions into a larger radiant energy output. wherein the invention's microwave emitting device shall be improved by plating the magnetron's electric cathode with thorium and uranium that is radioactive. wherein the invention's devices converting a smaller electric energy input into a larger heating calorie output for room tomb air radiant heat. radioactive cobalt.. and a means for the invention's electric systems connected to the invention's electric wiring that provides amplified electricity. the electric oscillations of the magnetron resonators set up an A-C electric field across the resonator gaps. that coverts a smaller energy power input into a larger electric energy output wherein. wherein the entire device is inside a vacuum tube that is filled with a gas and charged to a very high voltage wherein the radioactive cobalt 60 ionizes the gas spading the electrically neutral gas into positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons wherein. nickel or iron and the anode is plated with radioactive metal. setting up a radial electric field.

into another tank wherein the blood is again filtered (2) and slightly heated in the unit tank where the blood is again filtered and slightly heated in the unit tank. comprising of a container having an input tube containing Human Blood with toxins that is filtered with a calcium filter (2) that circulates and moves the blood/fluid with an electric pump and mixes plasma fluid input and connects into and restores blood clotting. and said processes interact within the invention for an outcome.100 degrees F.200 degrees F. where this very hot helium expands rapidly.. a settling tank that connects into another calcium filter tank that then sends the filtered blood that has its clottability restored. to provide an electric source for the invention. and will push this force against the crankcase that will turn and urn the load bearing work wheel and the invention's oil pan is filled with oil and the work wheel will turn an electric generator and the entire device is contained inside of a magnetic bottle that has a coil of a magnetic field metal and the magnetic bottle is contained in a ceramic box that is covered with lead plates an a battery is used to hold the electric current in storage for use of the electric systems of the invention. wherein the invention's devices using rare earth elements to increase the power output. before being used to the person in need. wherein the invention comprises of a "Portable Nuclear Powered and Electric Generator" that comprises of a Stirling type engine. wherein the slight heating and calcium mixes with the Human blood and causes ammonia toxins to diffuse into a vent and the blood is sent through a connecting pipe into a cooling unit and filters down to remove any extra calcium and cools the blood and fluid and sends the cleaned of toxins blood/fluid into a storage tank and a output tube for use if a Human Being and final testing to insure toxin material removal. wherein.. wherein. contain a signal computer that is an electromagnet (29) that is activated to attract another magnet . wherein the invention's devices converting electric input into mechanical output. then forcefully drives down the piston to the bottom of the cylinder where the temperature is almost 1.wherein. the invention's devices using cobalt 60 magnets. lower and as the piston moves down it forces some of the gas out through a valve in the cylinder floor near the spring bellow and the floating piston acts and pushes against the upper hydraulic jack piston and the upper hydraulic jack piston will push against the helium reservoir and will compress the helium gas and pushes against the helium reservoir and will compress the hydraulic fluid reservoir tat will force the hydraulic jack plumps lower hydraulic pistons that will force and act upon a larger load than was or b acted upon it. wherein the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" shall also comprise of and consisting of a Tidal regenerate engine that has a double walled capsule cylinder. wherein the invention's "Artificial Liver and Ammonia Diffuser" for cirrhosis treatments with blood clotting restorability. the invention's devices using cobalt magnets and mechanical energy together with high voltage ionized argon gas to provide an output of electric energy. wherein the invention's engine having a doubled walled capsule cylinder that is filled with helium gas and contains a floating piston at the top of the floating piston is a pellet of radioactive material that heats the helium to about 1.

wherein the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" cylindrically shaped housing having water and a source of electric power to be amplified and converted into microwave energy and a source of generating microwave energy having its magnetron cathode tubes plated with radioactive nuclear materials as a source of amplifying the cathode rays that will be coveted into microwave energy to provide an output and a computer that uses either cable wire and or transmits data by radio waves and television KHZ-MHZ-GHZ waves to a radio and television receiver that is connected to a computer that is connected to a magnetic video/audio tape recorder for recording computer data inexpensively. 3) Microwave Hot Water Boiler Heating System as defined in claim 1 and in the specification. in which very low energy input creates a higher energy output. comprises of a :cylinder housing operating inside of a magnetic bottle that is contained in a ceramic box that is covered with lead plates and barium plated and is located within a cement premolded building that contains the barium radiation absorbers and powder extinguishers. in which low energy input creates a higher energy output. wherein 1 VHS magnetic tape can hold 1. cylindrically shaped housing and thorium plated magnetron that emits microwave energy and a magnet receiving cosmic radio waves and converting the energy into usable electric current by using a crystal radio set with an antenna sensitive at collecting radio wave energy and using and storing it inside of a battery and the cosmic radio waves shall also be received and recorded on magnetic tape and stored for analysis of fluctuations and data pulses inside of the unit's audio-video recorder and accessed by the computer key code 2) A Thermionic Electron Electric Generator and Artificial Ammonia Diffuser as defined in claim 1 and in the specification. the invention's. in turn. sends a pulse of hydraulic fluid through the hydraulic jack piston pump and will compress the hydraulic piston that will force and act upon a larger load than was originally acted upon it.and the movement expands a bellows (22a) that forces a little water up a tube into a water boiler where heat from a radioactive source and a thorium plated magnetron maser protected by a window of quartz will vaporize water into steam and the steam is heated further inside of a super heater tube and the steam then pushes another bellows that. wherein.5 gigabytes of computer data. and also force a lever and together will push this force ageist the crankshaft that will turn and turn the load bearing work wheel and the engine's oil pan is filled with oil and the work wheel will turn an electric generator and the entire engine is contained in a ceramic box that is covered with lead plates and barium plates and the ceramic box is located within a cement molded building and shall contain barium radiation absorbers and power extinguishers that shall discharge and absorb radiation when the extinguishers sense radiation leakage. wherein electric and power is produced for the invention. 4) A Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator as defined in claim 1 and in the specification. wherein the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator". in which low level nuclear energy input creates a steady .

1998 and "The Zinc-Carbon Pill and Transistorized Plastic Paper Computer" application Ser. 1997 and "The Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" application Ser. No. 1997 and application No. Pat. 1999 (being a CIP of application No. 8) The Artificial Heart Assister Pump as defined in claim 1 and the specification wherein a energy source is used to provide an output. 10) A Resurrection Machine and Consciousness Revival System as defined in claim 1 and the specification is incorporated with the Resurrection Burial Tomb. 1999 Pat. and information data is stored. 08/798.624 filed on Jan. 60/148.means of power. No.356.825 filed on Aug. filed Jan. 2000. for charging batteries and providing electric current.189 filed . 08/813. 1998 (being a CIP of application Ser. 09/205. 10.316 filed on Feb. 04. 60/128.415 filed Dec. 1999 and a CIP of "The Thermionic Electron Electric Generator and Artifical Liver Ammonia Diffuser" application No. 1997 and application No. the transistorized plastic paper computer is used a the CPU and the power source is a portable nuclear powered engine and electric generator. 13.747 filed on Apr. No. 60/072. 1998 (being a CIP of application Ser. 9) The Citizen's Band Free Public Radio wave Telephone as defined in claim 1 and the specification. 1997) and "The Hydraulic Leverage Engine" application Ser. bacteria and fungi are electrocuted without much human cell destruction. 21. 5) A Hydraulic Leverage Engine as defined in claim 1 and the specification.068 filed on Oct. No. No. 16. 60/063.654 filed on Aug. which is a CIP of "A Resurrection Machine and Consciousness Revival System" application No.047 with Discloser Document #412019 priority.974 [0002] A RESURRECTION BURIAL TOMB in this application is a CIP of application Ser. 60/144. 02. 26. No. 26.245 filed Jul.064.698 filed Jul. to provide output. filed on Jun. No. No. 7) The Artificial Muscle Robot as defined in claim 1 and the specification wherein. 60/072. wherein microbes. 1998) and "The Artificial Muscle Robot" application No. wherein the transistorized plastic paper computer is used for radio propagation. 09/177. 19.579 filed on Jan. No. 10/161. wherein 1 unit of input work is converted into 4 units of output work using a lever and hydraulic jacks.130 filed Dec. viruses. 27. 1999 "Free Citizen's Band Public Radio wave Telephone System and Computer" Together with priority "conception of invention claims " of "The Artificial Heart Assister Pump" application No. 6. 26. 2001 and "The Microwave Hot Water Boiler Heating System" application Ser. 09/619. 08/766.760 filed on Oct. 24. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Description -------------------------------------------------------------------------------[0001] Application Ser.269 filed on Jan. 09/239. 10. 19. 1996 U. 60/122. 12.S. 60/295. 6) The Zinc-Carbon Pill and Transistorized Plastic Paper Computer as defined in claim 1 and the specification. App No.

wherein government makes its own tax es from gold coins trans mutated from neutron bombarded lead and engineers a sort of made-made heaven. (religion tales anxiety relief.on Mar. wherein the work is play and fun. the inventor believes that this is the next progression in Human development. inapt. 2001. Psychoanalysis shows that the 3 main issues that human beings deal with are issues of 1) Power. 1 [0010] 1) Is a drawing of the Resurrection Tomb holding the container of preservative. death and taxes. to provide the present Human Community. together with devices to empower people who lack independent power sources.) because they have survival value. obviously. [0006] 2. Field of the Invention [0005] This invention pertains to processes and devices that provide power and security from death. 03. reference may be made to a number of prior art patent and applications of the inventor as follows. . Discloser Document #452294. Discloser Document #494846. of the applicant. 10. etc. Discloser Document #493. Background Information [0007] In order to provide background information so that the invention maybe completely understood and appreciated in its proper context. (re. with a more fun and better. a noble branch or field thereof. cruel world. cop-robber. master-slave. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0008] It is another principle object of the invention. (food. who has not abandoned any of his science inventions.) 2) Sex Gratification. (1) Power. heat. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0009] FIG. man and machine). and a little more of issue (3) Security from Death. (re. but views them as a form of his children. 1999 Together with priority "conception of invention claims" of: Disclosure Document #412019 filed on Jan. [0011] 2) Sealed entrance to building/tomb. Discloser Document #486705. 2001. 1999 and Disclosure Document #452294 filed on Mar.. Syracuse New Your 13207 citizen of the United States of America. [0003] The above references are held the priority and inventions. schoolmaster-pupil.675 filed May 17. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0004] 1. holding the dead person's body and connected to electrical and energy apparatus contained in the Resurrection Tomb consisting of concrete/cement molded manhole building/tomb with power source for the dead/dying human beings. the Reverend Daniel Robert Izzo of 512 Onondaga Ave. 01. boss-worker etc. known in psychoanalysis as an empowerment means that relieves some fears of eternal death and the anxiety about the same. Discloser Document #494219 filed May 21. (creation of children) 3) Security from Death. peace etc. Discloser Document #493701. and more particularly.). landlord-tenant. This invention attempt provide human beings with issues. 1997. being sadomasocistic by nature. self supporting prolonged Child Culture having Robot Parents and energy sources to empower the same.

.) [0030] 9) With a human skeleton frame [0031] 10) With a few bones missing waiting to have artificial muscles and intelligence restored to it's material. [0014] 5) Depicts a radio and communication system with antenna connected to power source. vacuum sealed container with preservative medium that prevents decay of human tissue and a means for tissue nutrition and oxygen. that can collect and store radio wave energy that all 1-4 fits inside of a piece molded man hole/building burial tomb. [0035] FIG. [0027] 6) A human being's bone containing silicon. 2 [0022] 1) Depicts a dead human being inside of a container containing tissue preservative fluid. with an antenna that connects to a radio. [0028] 7) Grounded up elements and are used to produce a computer electric circuit that is placed inside of a computer. [0020] 11) Depicts electrical apparatuses for monitoring communication and entertainment of the burial/chambers. when we die. [0016] 7) Depicts intelligent robot maintenance worker. mannerism and memories. [0023] 2) Connected to the head of the person. [0034] 1) Awaiting the day that new nerves regenerate in their bodies to regain consciousness once again. phosphorus and boron that is ground up. [0018] 9) Depicts an engine/pumping system [0019] 10) Depicts a means and apparatus that provides oxygen/nutrition t the surviving/growing human tissue. that has a radio wave crown. [0017] 8) Depicts a heating source. [0025] 4) Radio waves [0026] 5) Building/tomb. [0013] 4) Depicts a power source. The rest of our body is OK for several days. 3 [0033] Depicts two human beings (in fetal form) being kept alive in a jar of fluid. 4 [0036] Depicts a human skeleton that will be filtered with new artificial nerves. [0032] FIG. [0029] 8) (Harry Quartz and Silicon crystals that oscillate at the frequency of the dead person's life/energy force. " not all of our body is "dead" mainly our nerves and brain has "burned out" and "died". [0015] 6) Turbine system that converts water and or wind power into electric/energy for the burial tomb.[0012] 3) Double walled. Please note: When we die. To become conscious again with it's old stored thoughts. of a portable nuclear powered engine and electric generator and batteries for storage of electric power. [0021] FIG. [0024] 3) That is either electric powered or a crystal radio.

preparing for a conscious resurrection.999999 MHz. see CIP Application Ser.974 [0054] FIG.000010 MHz Thur 9. 11 & 12 [0048] Depicts the Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator obtaining cosmic radio wave energy and is connected to the human material computer (30E.999999 MHz. 9 & 10 [0046] Depicts the Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator that produces energy for the unconscious human being's home and the dead human being's tomb. 10/181.muscle and conscious together with organic compounds and nutrition.760.37) See the CIP specification for Ser. 14 & 15 [0052] Depicts the Microwave Hot water (40) Powered Heating System with Thorium plated Magnetron maser that provides heat for the building and tomb. The artificial muscle used is silicon with elements and minerals used to expand and contract silicon and artificially grown organic muscles.047. 09/177. 0. See U. 09/205. muscle and eyes. No. [0057] 3) Programmed radio frequency to signal number display showing 4. 8 [0044] Depicts a human skeletal being fitted with artificial muscle that expands and contracts with data inputs. [0051] FIGS. and CIP specification for Ser. (with public radio stations frequencies reserved). 0. 6 [0040] Depicts the preserved brain and nerves 1 that was from FIG (1).S. 6. The preserved brain and nerves have been treated with nerve growth hormone that was cultured from olfactory nerves and other nerve hormones. 30F. No. 19) Depicts the invention's Citizen Band Free Public Radio wave Telephone System's unit A and B [0055] 1) Audio input. [0053] Ser. usable in the U. [0045] FIGS. [0047] FIGS. No.5088 kHz.415 and CIP application Ser. when the government (FCC)allows common carrier use of radio frequency numbers similar to a person's telephone number.725088 MHz. [0037] FIG. 09/205415. [0056] 2) Frequency programmer number pad to frequency crystal oscillator.760.25088 MHz and 472. No. 5 [0038] Depicts a human skeleton being filled with artificial nerves. [0039] FIG. 7 [0042] Depicts arteries and veins far carries blood 1 or energy far artificial muscles. see CIP for specifications. [0041] FIG. .S. No. [0049] FIG.0000010 MHz Thur 99. from 200 kHz Thur 999 kHz. No. Pat. 47. microphone. [0043] FIG. 09/177. 13 [0050] Depicts the Cement Molded Building and Tomb (19B) being powered by the Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator.064.

[0081] (10) Antenna. [0067] 13) Video/Audio camera that is removable. [0080] (9) Crystal oscillator that is programmable. [0082] (11) Pre-selected circuit. [0070] 16) Radio receiver speaker. [0075] (4) modulated amplifier or a frequency modulator. [0084] (13) Intermediate Frequency amplifier. [0062] 8) Fax machine/printer. [0063] 9) Data input and computer storage data unit. [0066] 12) Cable input/output wire. [0072] (1) audio input with cable wires [0073] (2) input amplifier. [0090] FIG. 19B) Depicts the invention's. [0087] (17) Antenna [0088] (18) local oscillate.[0058] 4) Transmit and receive antennas. [0065] 11) Telephone line for wire service. [0074] (3) radio frequency amplifier. [0071] FIG. [0076] (5) modulated amplifier or a frequency modulator-master oscillator [0077] (6) Radio frequency amplifier. 20) Describes the invention's stream paddle wheel and electric generator. [0061] 7) Video Monitor/TV monitor. [0083] (12) Frequency changer. [0085] (14) Frequency detector. [0079] (8) Radio Frequency amplifier. wherein the wind/river water flow (2) causes multiple paddle wheels (3) to turn a shaft (4) that turns and drives an electric generator (5) and the unit (1) produces electric current that is stored in the electric storage unit (6) being maintained/operated by the "Artificial Muscle Robot" of figure (2) part (10). [0068] 14) Source of communication antenna for (a) and (b) Radio wave receiver and transmit or [0069] 15) Propagated Radio wave from devices A and B. [0078] (7) Radio Frequency amplifier. [0060] 6) Speaker. 21) Describes the invention's "Artificial Muscle Robots" artificial hand and the invention's artificial muscle hand having (1) one with artificial muscle (2) that is connected to a (bone) frame (8) with movable joints (4) and the artificial hand (1) is covered and protected with a material (3) that permits movement. The invention's artificial muscle (2) will expand and contract with force. [0089] FIG. using electric current by way of spring wires (6) that is within the artificial muscle (2) that is . [0086] (15) Low Frequency amplifier. [0064] 10) Electric plug input/output. [0059] 5) Keyboard to computer input.

"Artificial Muscle Robot" (10) that has a computer brain (9) with optical sensors (11) and an input/output communication device (12) and receives transmits radio communication (17) and the device (10) has arms (13) with artificial hands (1). The invention's oil pan (15) is filed with oil. The floating piston (3) acts and pushes against the upper hydraulic jack (8) piston (7). A battery (21) is used to hold the electric current in storage for use of the electric systems of the invention. lower. "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine (15) and (16) and other electric inputs (18) and can move and perform handwork (1) (7) (6) of many tasks Human hands can perform to make Human life easier.. [0094] FIGS. This very hot helium (2) expands rapidly. 3) A Human Heart. then forcefully drives down the piston (3) to the bottom of the cylinder (1) where the temperature is almost 1. (27) (28) (29) Describe the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" consisting of a Tidal regenerator engine that has a double walled capsule cylinder (1) contain a signal computer (30) that signals an electromagnet (29) that is activated to attract another magnet (29b). The work wheel (14) will turn an electric generator (16). 22) Describes the invention's. The movement expands a bellows (22a) that forces a little water (26) up a tube (31) into a water boiler (24) where heat from a radioactive source (23) and or a thorium plated magnetron maser (33) protected by a window of quartz (34) will vaporize water (26) into steam (32). 4) The Zinc-Clove leaf oil paste on a [0093] FIGS.100 degrees F.200 degrees F.weaved and patterned and layered like a real human hand having sensors (7) for input/output signals through a central joint palm (5). sends a pulse . wherein the robot (10) is powered by one of the invention's. At the top of the floating piston (3) is a pellet of radioactive material (4) that heats the helium (2) to about 1. As the piston (3) moves down it forces some of the gas out through a value (5) in the cylinder floor near the spring bellow (6). The upper hydraulic jack (8) piston (7) will push against the helium reservoir (9) and will compress the helium gas and pushes against the helium reservoir (9) and will compress the hydraulic fluid reservoir (11) that will force the hydraulic jack pumps (8) lower hydraulic pistons(12) that will force and act upon a larger load than was originated upon it. (23) (24) (25) Describe the invention's. The steam (32) is heated further inside of a super heater tube (21). [0092] FIG. in turn. and will push this force against the crankcase (13) that will turn and turn the load bearing work wheel (14).. 39) Describes the invention's "Artificial Heart Assister Pump" and the "Zinc-Clove Leaf Oil Paste" 1) A Human Person 2) An Artificial Heart Assister Pump that is electric or nuclear powered. [0091] FIG. "Portable Nuclear Powered and Electric Generator" that comprises of a Stirling type engine having a doubled walled capsule cylinder (1) that is filled with helium gas (2) and contains a floating piston (3). The steam (32) then pushes another bellows (22b) that. The magnetic bottle (17) is contained in a ceramic box (19) that is covered with lead plates (20). The entire device is contained inside of a magnetic bottle (17) that has a coil of a magnetic field metal (18).

such as Herpes virus. [0100] Human Person's mouth that destroys microbes.of hydraulic fluid (28b) through the hydraulic jack piston pump (28) and will compress the hydraulic piston (28c) that will force and act upon a larger load than was originally acted upon it. The entire engine is contained in a ceramic box (19) that is covered with lead plates (20) and barium plates (20b) and the ceramic box (19) is located within a cement molded building (19b) and shall contain barium radiation absorbers and power extinguishers (20c) that shall discharge and absorb radiation when the extinguishers (20c) sense radiation leakage. [0096] FIG. 32 Describes the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator". The cosmic radio waves (38) shall also be received (30c) and recorded on magnetic tape (30f) and stored for analysis of fluctuations and data pulses inside of the unit's (1-15) audio-video recorder (30f) and accessed by the computer key code (37) [0098] FIG. 33) Describes the invention's Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator usage of lever bars (35) that will convert 1 ton of torque force into 4 tons of force. cylindrically shaped housing (1) and thorium plated magnetron that emits microwave energy (33) and a magnet (29) receiving zzzzz930c) (39) cosmic radio waves (38) and converting the energy into usable electric current (40) by using a crystal radio set (39) with an antenna (40) sensitive at collecting radio wave energy (38) and using and storing it (41) inside of a battery. 30) Describes the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator". cylinder housing (1) operating inside of a magnetic bottle (17) that is contained in a ceramic box (19) that is covered with lead plates (20) and barium plated (20b) and is located within a cement premolded building (19b) that contains the barium radiation absorbers and powder extinguishers (20c). [0095] FIG. [0099] FIG. wherein 1 VHS magnetic tube (30f) can hold 1. A computer (30) that uses either cable wire (30b) and or transmits data by radio waves and television KHZ-MHZ-GHZ waves (30b) to a radio and television receiver (30c) that is connected to a computer (30e) that is connected to a magnetic video/audio tape recorder (30f) for recording computer data inexpensively.5 gigabytes of computer data. The work wheel (14) will turn an electric generator (16). [0097] FIG. The engine's oil pan (15) is filled with oil. and also force a lever (35) and together will push this force ageist the crankshaft (13) that will turn and turn the load bearing work wheel (14). 23) Details the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" that emits less radiation than 3 television sets. [0101] FIG. but a less distance. 40) Describes the invention's "Hydraulic Pneumatic Engine" (1) and the "Microwave Hot Water Boiler Heating System" with a thorium plated . 31) Describes the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" cylindrically shaped housing (1) having water (26) and a source of electric power to be amplified and converted into microwave energy (36) and a source of generating microwave energy (33) having its magnetron cathode (33a) tubes plated with radioactive nuclear materials as a source of amplifying the cathode rays that will be coveted into microwave energy to provide an output (33b).

2) depicts the "Thermionic Electron Electric Generator" having a power source. South Pole.1) depicts a Human person inside a container that is filled with a preservative medium that prevents decay and who is wearing a Crystal radio crown to hear the living. for energy creation. using steam (3) from the microwave hot water boiler (2) to drive and help turn the hydraulic pneumatic engine (1) and electric generator (4) wherein the Artificial Muscle Robot of FIG. wherein the Hyman's cells are preserved/protected and can grown into normal function. wherein a thoriated platinum cathode (6)f obtains emitted electrons (1)a and emits more electrons inside a magnetic field (7)g having cobalt magnets (12)l. "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine" that emits less radiation than 3 TV sets and is used for work functions and electric power generation [0103] FIG. 1) depicts the "Lever Engine" that can covert 1 ton of torque into 4 tons without gears/transmission.magnetron (2) energy systems.3. as the radiation and high voltage causes an electric current within the device (30) and sends it to the increased electric output to the invention's electric current supply (13)m [0105] FIG.). wherein the input of 10 watts of electric power is amplified to about 10 watts of electric power output. 42) Describes the invention's rebuilding and preserving Human persons who are deceased or suspended or are being revived into normal function. container with magnetic force inside. and depicts radioactive cobalt60 magnets that cause electrons to move . (when we die. if there is ear drum function. 4. for an "Artificial Muscle Robot" consciousness and for some normal function. in the U.6. (10) assists in the operation of the invention's hydraulic pneumatic engine and microwave hot water boiler heating (5) energy system. cesium. S. and a high voltage anode chamber with argon gas inside for output.7. cathode.8. wherein an anode (11)k collects the electrons and sends them to a argon gas ionizer chamber (25) having argon gas therein(8)h wherein high voltage electric is present (26) that ionizes the radiation of the argon gas (8)h and causes electrons to rush to one electron (27) and positively charged ions to the other electrode (27) and positively charged ions to the other electrode (28). [0102] FIG.2. wherein the electrons join other electrons emitted from the anode (11)k at the negative electrode (27). [0104] FIG.) depicts a Human bone being crystallized and coveted into a computer microprocessor. 4) depicts the invention's. that is contained inside a sealed tube (10)5 contain a source of input power (4)d that heats a thorium tungsten nichrome wire (3)c that is inside another sealed tube (20) that contains cesium gas (5)e that generate electrons. we can still hear. awaiting the day of resurrection. 10) depicts a means of cryogenic preservation. 44) Depicts the invention's electric generator having radioactive cobalt 60 magnets. 9. Antarctica territory 11) depicts a Human person in an "Artificial Womb" coveted from an oxygen petrofusion machine. 3)depicts the invention's "Hydraulic Pneumatic Engine" used for work functions. thorium. 43) Describes the invention's "Thermionic Electron-Electric Generator" (30) that is used to generate the invention's electric power. 41) Describes the invention's energy devices.

wherein the combined forces cause electrons to take a spiral path and when the magnetron oscillates. magnetic metal anode of cobalt and plated with radioactive metal in the magnetron sets up an increase in spiraling reactions when an electric current is applied and causes the magnetron output current to be many times the electric input of the invention's magnetron. the anode is of magnetizable metal. wherein the operation of the invention's magnetron. (6a) while the mechanical energy input (10) turns the wire coil electrode (2) and creates electrical output (11) between the cobalt60 magnetic field magnets (1) wherein magnetic force and ionized gas of radioactive cobalt60 (1) magnets make electrons move in the wire coil (2) generating an electric current output. (11). [0107] FIG. 47) Describes the invention's Microwave Boiler. [0106] FIG. a high D-C potent is applied between cathode and anode. 49) Describes the invention's devices using mechanical energy input and obtain a greater energy output of electric energy. nichrome and argon gas atoms interacting and generating electron emissions into electric energy. uranium. wherein (1) radioactive cobalt fuel structure magnets create a magnetic field. 46) Describes the invention's devices that convert heat energy into electric current (1) (2) (3) (4) (5). [0109] (1) depicts said magnetron microwave device. wherein the entire device is inside a vacuum tube (6) that is filled with a gas (4) and charged to a very high voltage (4a) wherein the radioactive cobalt 60(1) ionizes the gas (4) splitting the electrically neutral gas (4) into positively charged ions (13) and negatively charged electrons (3) wherein the positive ions (13) rush to one electrode (6a) and the electrons (3) rush to the other electrode wire (2) wherein this triggers an electric current from one electrode (2) to the other. [0110] FIG. wherein the thorium and uranium metal cathode. converting thorium/uranium electrons into microwave energy (1) (2) (3). nickel or iron and the anode is plated with radioactive metal. wherein the "Thermionic Electron Electric Generator" (3) (4) are a source of amplified electric power to the invention's wiring (2). wherein (2) coils of wire are mounted so that they can be spun around in a magnetic field with mechanical energy (10) input. the electric oscillations of the magnetron resonators set up an A-C electric fuel across the resonator gaps.. 45) Describes the invention's electric systems (1) connected to the invention's electric wiring (2) that provides amplified electricity. setting up a radial electric field. radioactive cobalt. 48) Describes the invention's electric devices converting thorium. [0108] FIG. . [0111] FIG.faster than iron magnets and produces more electric output per calorie than iron magnets and its output is increased by high voltage argon gas ionization inside the electric generator. wherein the invention's microwave emitting device shall be improved by plating the magnetron's electric cathode with thorium and uranium that is radioactive. cesium tungsten. (2) (3) depicts said microwave magnetron and a klystron thats cathodes and anodes are plated with thorium and uranium and whose magnets are of radioactive cobalt.

[0118] FIG.ASC. This file was inspired by a newspaper article in the local Dallas Morning News. [0115] FIG. [0113] FIG. [0114] FIG. [0120] FIG.[0112] FIG. 50) Describes the invention's Thermionic Electron-Electric Generator. 55) Describes the inventions devices using cobalt 60 magnets. 51) Describes the invention's devices converting heat energy and electro magnetic energy into a larger electric energy output. It was in . a settling tank (5) that connects (13) into another calcium filter (2) tank (6) that then send the filtered blood (13) that has its clottability restored. 56) Describes the invention's devices using rare earth elements to increase the power output. that coverts a smaller energy power input into a larger electric energy output. 52) Describes the invention's devices converting a smaller electric energy input into a larger heating calorie output for room tomb air radiant heat. before being used to the person in need. ***** ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Tesla's Electric Car #1 . [0116] FIG. wherein the slight heating and calcium mixes with the Human blood and causes ammonia toxins (9) to diffuse into a vent (9) and the blood is sent through a connecting pipe (13) into a cooling unit (10) and filters (10a) down to remove any extra calcium and cools the blood and fluid and sends (13) the cleaned of toxins blood/fluid into a storage tank (11) and a output tube (12) for use if a Human Being and final testing to insure toxin material removal. 57) Describes the invention's devices converting electrical input into mechanical output. 53) Describes the invention's devices converting thermionic emissions into a larger radiant energy output. 58) Describes the invention's "Artificial Liver and Ammonia Diffuser" for cirrhosis treatments with blood clotting restorability. into another tank (8) wherein the blood is again filtered (2) and slightly heated (7) in the unit (8) tank where the blood is again filtered (2) and slightly heated (7) in the unit (8) tank.01/09/98 This file was originally posted on the KeelyNet BBS on January 30. 54) Describes the invention's devices using cobalt magnets and mechanical energy together with high voltage ionized argon gas to provide an output of electric energy. comprising of a (1) container having an input tube (14) containing Human (14) Blood with toxins that is filtered with a calcium filter (2) that circulates and moves the blood/fluid with an electric pump (13) and mixes plasma fluid input (3) and connects (13) into and restores blood clotting. [0119] FIG. 1993 as TESLAFE1. [0117] FIG.

Dallas Morning News Texas Sketches column The Electric Auto that almost triumphed Power Source of '31 car still a mystery by A. no oil just some grease fittings . Texas Sketches told the story of Henry "Dad" Garrett and his son C. Many electric delivery vehicles were used in big cities into the 1960s. Eugene Langkop of Dallas (a Packard lover. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------from January 24th. that file is listed on KeelyNet as TESLAFE2. no muffler to replace and gives off no pollutants. Dallas had electric delivery trucks in the 1920s and 30s. some wires and assorted resistors. The problem with electrics was slow speed and short range.a column called "Texas Sketches" written by A. and .ASC.C. But it is a mystery car once demonstrated by Nikola Tesla. At a local radio shop he bought 12 vacuum tubes. which was successfully demonstrated in 1935 at White Rock Lake in Dallas. I called Mr.H. that might have made electrics triumphant. we are sending them material in return. Both also expressed an interest in more Tesla information as well as Texas experimenters. Supported by the Pierce-Arrow Co. Rauch & Lang and Detroit Electric.has no radiator to fill or freeze. There is also a second file with my thoughts on the Tesla power box. Greene Not long ago. Greene. no carburetor problems. like so many of us) notes that the "wonder car" of the future may be a resurrection of the electric car. George Thiess and Jack Hooker.C. Sunday . Within the past decade two Richardson men. Famous former electrics include Columbia. developer of alternating current. claimed to have used batteries operating on magnesium from seawater to increase the range of their electric automobile from 100 miles to 400 or 500 miles. he took the gasoline engine from a new Pierce-Arrow and replaced it with an 80-horsepower alternatingcurrent electric motor with no external power source. Langkop who both courteously sent the additional source material. and General Electric in 1931. It uses no gasoline.'s water-fueled automobile. Green and Mr.

Greene gleaned the above info was from a Packard Newsletter. with a pair of 3-inch rods sticking out. Getting into the car with the circuit box in the front seat beside him. As it was an alternating-current motor and there were no batteries involved. 12 inches wide and 6 inches high. Edison was the first to start to market systems (i. This man. Nikola Tesla became frustrated and very much annoyed at the procedures Edison followed. electric system. mathematical investigation) than the hit and miss technique of constant experimentation.C. Mr. Thomas A. he pushed the rods in. . One such man was a foreigner named Nikola Tesla. Ships were equipped with D. Edison was a great experimenter. Gene Langkopf kindly sent us a copy of that article which now follows. Thomas Edison hired men who knew of the new scientific gift to the world and were capable of new applications for electricity.and the secret of his power source died with him.e.C. The development of electricity as a workable source of power for mankind has been studded with great controversy. New Jersey. (At that time) Edison was the sole source of electricity! While in the process of commercializing electricity. where did the power come from? Popular responses included charges of "black magic. He removed his mysterious box. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------The original article from which Mr.Powered Automobiles by Arthur Abrom Electric powered automobiles were one of the earliest considerations and this mode of propulsion enjoyed a brief but short reign. although not known to many of us today. Tesla would rather calculate the possibility of something working (i." and the sensitive genius didn't like the skeptical comments of the press.assembled them in a circuit box 24 inches long. Tesla was a great theoretician. systems and municipalities began lighting their streets with this revolutionary D.C. often at speeds of up to 90 mph. A. Greene is an author and Texas historian who lives in Salado. His accomplishments dwarfed even Thomas Edison's! Whereas Mr. returned to his laboratory in New York . "We now have power. Mr. electric generators) of any commercial value. he quit one day and stormed out of Edison's laboratory in West Orange." and proceeded to test drive the car for a week.e. So in the heat of an argument. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Forgotten Art of Electric . announced. was without a doubt the greatest scientific mind that has ever lived. His research and developmental skills were utilized to market a "direct current" system of electricity.

It is not difficult to understand why these vehicles were so very popular around the turn of the century and until 1912 or so. is a sense of power. Tesla sold his new patents to George Westinghouse for 15 million dollars in the very early 1900's. The batteries require recharging every night and the range of travel was restricted to about 100 miles. generators over the less efficient D.C. All of these electric vehicles used a series of batteries and a D. Today. Westinghouse prevailed because of the greater superiority of the A. electric propulsion was considered and used. Doctors began making house calls with electric cars (do you remember doctors making house calls?) because he no longer needed to tend to the horse at night time .there is never any hesitation. cantankerous.C.C. no pumping of the accelerator.you are always in complete control.the vehicle moves instantly! No cranking from the start. no crank to turn (this was before electric starters). One simply turned the ignition switch to on! Second. If one wants to increase speed.just plug the car into an electric socket! No feeding.C. The big disadvantage to these cars was their range and need for re-charging every single night. Now specifically dealing with automobiles in the infant days of their development. no rub-down and no mess to clean up! Many of the large department stores in metropolitan areas began purchasing delivery . electric power. And. Releasing the accelerator causes the vehicle to slow down immediately . please remember. First and foremost is the absolute silence one experiences when riding in an electrically powered vehicle. power is the only source of electricity the world uses. There is not even a hint of noise. One simply turns a key and steps on the accelerator . Angered by Edison. smoke-belching gasoline cars could not offer. A. Nikola Tesla is the man who developed it. power supplies of Thomas Edison. Tesla conceived and built the first working alternating current generator.Working on his own.C. no spark control to advance and no throttle linkage to pre-set before starting. you simply depress the accelerator further . An electric powered automobile possessed many advantages that the noisy. He. is responsible for all of the advantages we enjoy today because of A. Tesla became totally independent and proceeded to carry on his investigative research in his laboratory on 5th Avenue in New York City. Understand that this restriction was not a serious one in the early part of this century. and he alone. George Westinghouse began to market this new system of electric generators and was in competition with Edison. motor to move itself about.

e. They were silent and emitted no pollutants.C.C.C. signal). but the size of the . power supply systems as a commercial means of generating and distributing electric power. was utterly impossible! Actually. current.C. Remember. for this would have destroyed the batteries in moments. Westinghouse's A.p. True. There were few mechanics and garages in operation in the early 1900's. And. another giant corporation was formed and entered the A. generators would have worked and helped the electric car cause. powerhouse . One was the subconscious craving for speed that gripped all auto enthusisasts of this era. this was an acceptable speed limit to obtain from your electric vehicle. So city life and travel appeared to be willing to embrace the electric automobile. generators installed in its 14th St. the transcontinental races) and what was its top speed! Col. generator. signal from the battery to an A. the automobile manufacturers were quick to capitalize on the advertising effect of these new peaks of speed. could be maintained for a moment or so.C. This would have put a small charge back into the batteries as the car moved about and would have thereby increased its operating range. The electric automobile could not be adapted to accomodate and utilize a polyphase motor (i.e. Mr.h. Each manufacturer was eager to show how far his car could travel (i. generating equipment field .C. Normal driving speed-depending upon traffic conditions. power). A. equipment was being retired and disregarded.h. their extinction was sealed. a converter could be utilized (i. signal. And. Two things happened to dampen the popularity of the electric automobile.C.General Electric. Bursts of speeds of 25 to 35 m.trucks that were electrically powered.C.C.h. Consolidated Edison Power Company of New York City still has one of Thomas Edison's D. Please note that none of the manufacturers of electric cars ever installed a D.C. Since they used batteries as a source of power. maintenance was a minimum on electrically powered vehicles.C. As mentioned earlier. This spelled the absolute end for Edison's D. The earlier D. Electric vehicles could not reach speeds of 45 or 50 m. No battery can put out an A. Newspapers constantly record new records of speed achieved by so-in-so. current generating equipment was being sold and installed about the country. As a side note. by 1900 to 1910 standards. D. This was considered by some to be approaching perpetual motion .C. Both of these events made the electrically powered vehicles appear to only belong to the "little old lady" down the street or the old retired gentleman who talked about the "good old days". of course. convert the D.p. of course.and that. Vanderbilt constructed the first all concrete race track in Long Island and racing became the passion for the well-to-do.p. was 15 to 20 m.e. these masterfully built vehicles all ran on D.it still works! About this time.

even one with the generous dimensions of this era. motor measured 40 inches long and 30 inches in diameter and the power leads were left standing in the air . the distant past and the not so distant! Stop! Re-read the last sentence again. a 1931 Pierce-Arrow was selected to be tested at the factory grounds in Buffalo. let us stop a moment and consider the advantages of utilizing electric power as a means of propelling vehicles. With today's technology this does not seem to be insurmountable. There is no oil to change. N. The A. He put the car into gear and it moved forward! This vehicle. back to our electric automobiles . Several times earlier in this article. Tesla got into the driver's seat. True. So. the two problems facing us become top speed and range of driving providing. the entire problem has already been solved . Nikola Tesla and stated that he was the greatest mind that ever lived. He then went to a local radio store and purchased a handful of tubes (12).C. the electrically powered automobile is dead . under the financing of Pierce-Arrow and George Westinghouse. the electric automobile became a memory.C.000 or so from memory! But. In fact. "We now have power".P. no fuel pump. no transmission to foul up. problems could be worked out. powered by an .Y. The box was placed on the front seat and had its wires connected to the air-cooled. no muffler to rot out or replace and no pollutants emitted into the atmosphere. The standard internal combustion engine was removed and an 80-H.in 1931. The U.m electric motor installed to the clutch and transmission. pushed the two rods in and stated.S. It appears as though it might be the answer we have been searching for! Therefore. 12 inches wide and 6 inches high was assembled housing the circuit. A box measuring 24 inches long.equipment at this time was too large to fit in an automobile . the A. Two rods 1/4" in diameter stuck out of the box about 3" in length. Nikola Tesla arrived from New York City and inspected the Pierce-Arrow automobile.C.200 patents registered in the name of Nikola Tesla and it is estimated that he could have patented an additional 1. somewhere around 1915 or so.p. Patent Office has 1. Mr. and D. 1800 r.in the past. no water pump. of course.no external power source! At the appointed time. Maintenance is absolutely minimal for the only oil required is for the two bearings in the motor and the necessary grease fittings. brushless motor. I mentioned the man. For all intensive purposes. no carburetion problems. But. United Parcel Service still utilizes several electric trucks in New York City today but the bulk of their fleet of vehicles utilizes gasoline or diesel fuel.they are considered dinosaurs of the past. wires and assorted resistors. no radiator to clean and fill. Ponder it for a few moments before going on.

Patent Office issued him a patent No.C.. By allowing the motor to charge separate batteries as the device ran. Although admitting Dr. 4.R. is a permanent . phenomenally tiny currents were needed. Dr. Keith E. his unique system is still not on the market.p. When asked where the power came from. he somehow was able to draw tremendous amounts of power by cutting these lines of force or causing them to be multiplied together. His unique wiring system cuts the energy drain at starting to 75% of normal and doubles the electrical efficiency of the electric motor when it is operating! The U. and performed better than any internal combustion engine of its day! One week was spent testing the vehicle.809. Dr. Kenyon. 3.h. The inventors estimated that a 50-horsepower electric motor could traverse 300 miles at 50 m. His secret died with him! It is speculated that Nikola Tesla was able to somehow harness the earth's magnetic field that encompasses our planet. the voltage being induced to the field coils by a simple programmer (sequencer). The exact nature of his device remains a mystery but it did actually function by powering the 80 h. In the 1970's. Sounds impossible because it violates all scientific thought! But it has been invented and H. 1979 on such a device! This new design although originally suggested by Nikola Tesla in 1905. Kenyon's device worked. motor. no one really seemed to be interested. A. Although he approached many concerns for marketing. which intensified battery current. they saw little or no practical application for it! So the ultimate source for our electrically powered automobile would be to have an electric motor that required no outside source of power. Johnson has been issued a patent No.p. Several newspapers in Buffalo reported this test. Kenyon demonstrated his invention for many scientists and engineers in 1976 but their reaction was astounding. Tesla replied. a 10-horepower EMA motor ran for over a week (9 days) on four standard automobile batteries. And. and no recharging was ever necessary! In 1969. an inventor used an Ev-Gray generator. removed his mysterious box from the vehicle and returned to his laboratory in New York City. Several people suggested that Tesla was mad and somehow in league with sinister forces of the universe. the inventor of Van Nuys. "From the ethers all around us".h. California discovered a discrepancy in the normal and long accepted laws relating to electric motor magnets. He became incensed. Zubris took his 1961 Mercury and pulled out the Detroit internal combustion engine. before needing a re-charge. was driven to speeds of 90 m.p. He then installed an electric motor as a source of power.431 on April 24. motor in the Pierce-Arrow at speeds up to 90 m. Joseph R.S. The device was tested at the Crosby Research Institute of Beverly Hills.151.978. Ca.h. And.A.p.C.

In a book entitled.magnet motor. "The invention is directed to the method of utilizing the unpaired electron spins in ferro magnetic and other materials as a source of magnetic fields for producing power without any electron flow as occurs in normal conductors and to permanent magnet motors for utilization of this method to produce a power source. Howard Johnson Permanent Magnet Motor His patent states.a free energy source. "The magnet that lifts a pound today if the load is gradually increased day by day will lift double that amount in time. Moore published in 1893.on the stator. Now before you dismiss the idea of a magnetically run motor . Whence comes this energy? Keely teaches that it comes from sympathetic association with one of the currents of the polar stream and that its energy increases as long as the sympathetic flow lasts.with different spacing . we find the following statemtents. the unpaired electron spins occurring within permanent magnets are utilized to produce a motive power source solely through the superconducting characteristics of a permanent magnet and the magnetic flux created by the magnets are controlled and concentrated to orient the magnetic forces generated in such a manner to do useful continuous work such as the displacement of a rotor with respect to a stator. Now consider some basic observations concerning magnets: 1) Two permanent magnets can either attract or repel depending on the arrangement of . consider the following : Engineers of Hitachi Magnetics Corp. The timing and orientation of magnetic forces at the rotor and stator components produced by permanent magnets to produce a motor is accomplished with the proper geometrical relationship of these components". of California have stated that a motor run solely by magnets is feasible and logical but the politics of the matter make it impossible for them to pursue developing a magnet motor or any device that would compete with the energy cartels. One simply has to move the stator into position and rotation of the rotor begins immediately. In the practice of this invention. Mr. "Keely and His Discoveries" by Clara B. which is through eternity". Johnson has arranged a series of permanent magnets on the rotor and a corresponding series .

Attraction is an inverse square force. "When will we be able to buy one?" At present there are several companies offering interim solutions. This becomes the limit.use no fuel . And. 7) Magnetic energy can be shielded. the lifting power of the magnet can be increased until all the magnetic domains in the magnet are aligned in the same direction. photosynthesis and watercycle of ocean to water vapor to rain or snow to ocean. 4) Magnetic energy "travels" between poles at the speed of light.the magnetic poles. 2) Two magnets repel further than they attract because of friction and inertia forces. while others offer a hybrid combination of batteries and small gasoline engines. They do not. brakes or windows or air. Since they are small aerodynamically shaped packages holding only two people. 9) Most of the magnetic energy is concentrated at the poles of the magnet. "Where do you buy one?" or perhaps. the shock of the crash could jar the magnets and cause them to lose power! But this seems to be a small price to pay for an automobile that could run all day at 60 m.h. . 11) If a weight lifted by a permanet magnet is slowly increased.p. or cannot offer power steering. 12) Using magnets to repel tends to weaken them as it causes more misalignment of the domains.if the vehicle gets involved in an accident. 3) Most of our energy comes directly or indirectly from electromagnetic energy of the sun. There is only one drawback to an automobile powered by a permanent magnet motor . etc. our ultimate motor becomes a permanent magnet motor of proper size with speed being controlled through the automobiles transmission. e. 8) The sliding or perpendicular force of a keeper is much less than the force in the direction of the field to remove the keeper. Heating misaligns the magnetic elements within the magnet.but this is strictly batteries. Some offer electric powered designs . 6) Permanent magnets are ferrous metals and are attractive only. here is the biggest plus. All of these so-called "modern alternatives" suffer from the same lack of accessories we've become accustomed to. So. 10) A permanent magnet loses little strength unless dropped or heated. 13) A magnetic material placed between two magnets will always be attracted to the stronger magnet. their . permanent magnets keep their strength for a minimum of 95 years! So here we have a fuel-less automobile that would last us our lifetime.and never need a recharge! Now the only question left to be answered is. 5) Permanent magnets on both sides of an iron shield are attracted to the shield and only weakly to each other at close proximity to the shield.g.conditioning.

August 21. Thiess/Hooker Advanced Storage Battery The magnesium is used to charge the battery while in an electrolene solution and the range of their auto is increased by replacing the magnesium rods every 400 to 500 miles. we here at KeelyNet would greatly appreciate your sharing with us. the world will beat a path to his door providing the energy cartel doesn't find him first! In Richardson.HTM . Their new batteries will operate on magnesium made from seawater.appeal is distinctly limited. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------This subject is intensely interesting to many researchers so if you have any suggestions or comments. Perhaps an all new era of electrically powered automobiles may be on its way to reality.commentary TESLCAR.HTM . . Their studies are being officially watched by the Department of Energy. When The Universe Started To Fall by Reverend Daniel Izzo Saturday. 2004 The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory on the Formation of the Universe WHEN DID MOTION FIRST START ? The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory on the Formation of the Universe.another viewpoint -------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory of the Formation of the Universe . Texas last year. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------TESLAFE2. When someone constructs an automobile run by a permanent magnet motor attached to the differential thus eliminating the transmission.George Thiess and Jack Hooker have advanced the storage battery to a new level. two men .

When did motion first start ? Science knows the formation of matter in our universe was caused by the forces of the universe. at this time. without moving in its present space-time ? The Gravitational Cosmological Theory was developed from an is rooted in the Einstein Steady State Theory and the Bondi-GoldHoyle Steady State Theory. wherein. The paradox would be. motion within the universe. contains more protons than electrons that . being void of E=MC^2 could create E=MC^2. wherein. what force could cause motion to begin. causing gravitational instability and the motion. Wherein the Steady State Theory the universe. Therefore. and the matter of the Universe. (3) The microwave electro magnetic-nuclear energy was formed as a result of the interaction of two different static gravitational vacuum fields. These forces are: (1) The Force of Gravity (2) The Force of Electro Magnetism (3) The Strong Nuclear Force (4) The Weak Nuclear Force At some point in time. static gravitational field (1) began to go into "motion". (2) The source of the " heat " is the cosmic microwave radiation backround at 3 kelvin.When the Universe started to fall (1) The expansion of the universe is a result of the " heat ' contained therein. had to begin. only (2) static gravitational vacuum fields alone. void of matter.

and the matter of the Universe. Q: When did this motion start? A: If a neutral particle is able to resist the universal motion. being void of E=MC^2 could create E=MC^2. wherein. at this time. Theory by Rev Daniel Izzo July 2002 512 Onondaga Ave Syracuse.Rufus Young . Q: What causes a gravitational static vacuum field in the first place ? A: Pressure force is used to create a vacuum on Earth. wherein. static gravitational field (1) began to go into "motion".create dust particles and galaxies formed in their current locations and the cosmic matter is recycled therein at the center of the galaxy furnace. in theory. void of matter. Therefore. NY 13207 Subj: The Steady State Theory verses The Big Bang Theory / Cosmological alternatives Alternative Theory (2) The Steady State Galaxy Theory by R. (2) The source of the " heat " is the cosmic microwave radiation backround at 3 kelvin. (3) The microwave electro magnetic-nuclear energy was formed as a result of the interaction of two different static gravitational vacuum fields. and cause an unbalance and gravitational instability and this interaction would create motion and energy particles. Going back in time the neutral particle would then enter into (1) of the (2) motionless-static gravity vacuum fields void of motion. perhaps an exotic something 100. only (2) static gravitational vacuum fields alone. -----------When the Universe started to fall: The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory on the Formation of the Universe. The Theory: (1) The expansion of the universe is a result of the " heat ' contained therein. causing a static-motionless gravity vacuum field.000 times weaker than the force of gravity decays. that particle would go back in time. causing gravitational instability and the motion.

This material moves out from the neutroid at essentially constant velocity until it reaches a point where the magnetic field is no longer strong enough to control it. This results in a column of material composed of hydrogen. In the areas of the neutroid's magnetic poles. helium and other light elements being ejected at each of the neutroid's two magnetic poles. It also explains the Shape of Galaxies.nb. This neutroid is similar to a neutron star but is very much larger and has reached a size where the pressure and temperature at its surface are great enough to generate a nuclear fusion process. . Microwave Background Radiation.galaxy@nbnet. Entropy and the Hydrogen-Helium Ratio. INDEX Introduction Basic Operation of Galaxies Mass and Energy Shape of Galaxies Red Shift Microwave Background Radiation Entropy Hydrogen-Helium Ratio Quasars Summary Introduction The purpose of this Web Page is to show that the Steady State Galaxy Theory can provide an alternative to the Big Bang Theory in explaining the universe around us.1996 An Alternative To The Big Bang Theory Go to Text only version.ca Last revised Dec 30. it will. Red Shift. If the reader takes an open-minded approach and looks at all aspects of the material presented here before reaching any conclusions. provide them with some food for thought. Basic Operation of Galaxies At the center of each galaxy is a neutroid which acts to constantly recycle all the matter and energy in the galaxy. It covers the operation of Galaxies and shows that they recycle both Matter and Energy and are able to carry on indefinitely. at least. the products of fusion are trapped by the magnetic field and are pushed out along the magnetic field by the pressure of the nuclear fusion process going on below.

000 light years distance from the center. as shown in figure 1. In the case of our own galaxy (The Milky Way) these jets have sufficient momentum to carry the material out to 100. These stars eventually burn up their Hydrogen fuel and in the process create the other heavier elements we find in the universe. thus limiting the total mass the system can accumulate. As the jets of gas stream out from the Neutroid. The result.Once free of the magnetic field the material then continues under it's own momentum to travel to the outer edge of the galaxy before starting to fall back toward the neutroid. large clouds of it condense and form the stars which are predominately located in the spiral arms of the Galaxies. To help visualize this process. the greater the size and velocity of its jets. This becomes a stable and self-limiting process where the amount of material attracted to the neutroid will be equal to the amount of material expelled at its magnetic poles. all the while continuing to travel to the outer edge of the galaxy. IF we continue the experiment for another 3 hours and draw a new plot. fire a projectile from each cannon every hour for 12 hours and plot the position of each projectile at the end of the 12 hours. The size and shape of galaxies are determined by the size of the neutroid at their center and its rate and plane of rotation. each on opposite sides of the earth at the equator and each pointing straight up and each capable of firing a projectile with sufficient velocity that it will take 12 hours to reach the top of its projectory. will be two spiral arms much like the Galactic arms are shaped. The larger the neutroid becomes. This process enables the neutroid to eject matter from itself and results in jets of hydrogen and helium ions being produced at each of the neutroid's two magnetic poles. we find that the first projectiles that were fired have now passed the peak of their altitude and have started to fall back to earth and the whole spiral pattern appears to have . It is now located about 2/3rds the distance to the edge of the galaxy. imagine setting up two super cannons. Although the material ejected by the neutroid appears to travel in a spiral arc. but since it is constantly decelerating it will take it another 20 billion years to reach its maximun distance from the neutroid. Eventually if too much material is added to the system. figure 2. It has probably been at least 10 Billion years since the material of which our solar system is composed was initially ejected from the neutroid. The total transit time from when material is ejected from the neutroid at the center of the Milky Way to when it returns to the neutroid will be about 60 Billion years. in actual fact it is travelling in a straight radial line out from the neutroid and will eventually travel back along the same radial path to the neutroid. the velocity of the material being ejected from the magnetic poles will be sufficient for it to escape from the system altogether. Now. This process forms the basis of operation of all galaxies.

The heavier elements which we find in our solar system are the remnants from these dead stars. (return to index) Mass and Energy Einstein showed that mass and energy are related by the formula E=MC^2. (b) 2 Jets of material being ejected from the core (Areas 1 to 2). Star formation occurs in these areas. All this material will travel to the outer edge of the galaxy and will then start falling back in toward the neutroid. . At point 3 the hydrogen fuel has been consumed and although the remains of the burned out stars are still there they become invisible dark matter as they continue to travel to the top of their projectory and then fall back to the Neutroid. (a) a Central Core (Area 1). Thus. Hydrogen. What this famous formula says is that what we call the mass of a particle is really nothing more than a measure of the sum total of all forms of energy associated with that particle. the force of the impact will be great enough that the atoms of heavier elements will be split apart and the temperature and pressure will be great enough that this incoming matter will be converted to neutrons. a nuclear fusion reaction will take place that forces a streams of material to be expelled thus completing the cycle. Upon hitting the neutroid. the only changes in the positions of projectiles No. However. and (c) Spiral Arms (Areas 2 to 3). the galaxies form huge recycling systems which will carry on indefinitely. They do not themselves travel in a spiral path around the earth although the loci of their instantaneous positions forms a spiral which appears to be rotating. At point 2 the magnetic field of the Neutroid weakens to the extent that it no longer constrains the material within it and as the material continues to move outward it will now trace a spiral arc as per the previous illustrations in Figs.1 have been to move slightly closer to the earth along a radial line and they will continue falling back to earth along the same radial path and will impact the earth 24 hours after being fired. Clouds of this material condense to forms stars which emit energy and in the process form heavier elements. The areas from 1 to 2 are gigantic jets of gas which are being ejected by the Neutroid and are contained within its magnetic field. Figure 3 represents a typical small galaxy which is composed of 3 parts. helium and other light elements are ejected ejected from the Neutroid. 1 & 2. The Central Core consists of a neutroid at the center and an obscuring mass of material trapped in the Neutroid's magnetic field. In the areas of the neutroid's magnetic poles. In the process many of these stars will explode as supernovas. These stars eventually exhaust their fuel and die.rotated counterclockwise 45 degrees.

As they are pushed out from the neutroid their potential energy and hence their rest mass is increased dramatically. they have very little potential energy. This combination also makes it relatively easy for a nuclear fussion process to push material out from the neutroid in the area of the neutroid's magnetic poles. the spiral is the basic shape of galaxies. When these particles eventually fall back into the neutroid. a thicker galaxy would result. Our Milky-Way is typical of large mature galaxies in which it takes many billions of years for the magnetic poles to make one revolution. kinetic energy. very little rest mass. Of these various forms of energy.and hence. Many galaxies such as M104(NGC4594) exhibit a very prominent dust lane about their edge. This combination of low rest mass and high kinetic energy prevent the neutroid from collapsing into a black hole as has been speculated by many scientists. When a particle is in a deep gravational well. As well.000 light-years from the Neutroid and it takes it tens of billions of years to reach that distance. chemical energy. This is a feature that is difficult to explain using presently accepted . potential energy is the most important and accounts for the largest part of the mass of particles which constitute our immediate enviroment. the tilt of its magnetic axis with respect to its axis of rotation and its rate of rotation . As explained above. such as in the case of particles that make up the neutroid at the center of galaxies. (return to index) Shape of Galaxies The Concept of the Steady State Galaxy as put forth above can account for the shape of all galaxies we see in the universe. The exact shape will be determined by the size of the neutroid.The various forms of energy include potential energy. the hydrogen ejected at the magnetic poles has sufficient velocity to reach a distance of 100. If the rate of rotation of the magnetic poles of the Neutroid were much greater in relation to the velocity of the hydrogen jets. nuclear binding energy. this potential energy is converted to kinetic energy and results in the particles making up the neutroid having very little rest mass but a tremendous amount of kinetic energy. BAR Galaxies are small galaxies in which the hydrogen fueling the Stars is all consumed before the Stars can escape the magnetic field of the Neutroid's magnetic poles. the spiral arms would overlap and become nondistinct thus forming an ELIPICAL Galaxy. etc. If the magnetic axis were slightly less than 90 degrees with respect to the axis of rotation.

Based on current knowledge. let alone what happens to to it over a period of a billion years. there is no way scientists can state with absolute certainty that photons do not lose energy over time. It is well known that photons do exert 'radiation pressure' on particles they encounter and if pressure is exerted. its frequency will decrease in accordance with this equation. The so called Red Shift is caused by other factors. this is by no means certain. (return to index) Red Shift The Big Bang Theory was originally proposed in order to explain the 'RED Shift' of light received by us from distant galaxies. or some combination of both. the sound of its whistle appears to drop in frequency. The mechanism for the lose of energy by photons over time is still unclear.8 degrees K. In reality the universe we live in is not expanding and is in a steady state where its matter and energy are being constantly recycled.theories but is to be expected in some types of galaxies under the steady state galaxy theory. Scientists have interpreted the cause of this effect to be due to a doppler shift. meaning that it is caused by the distant galaxies moving away from us. We know from a branch of Physics known as Quantum Mechanics that the Energy of a photon of light is defined by the equation E=hv where E is the energy of the photon. This doppler shift is the same as one gets standing near a railway track when a train passes blowing its whistle. Another possibility is that there is indeed an aether which absorbs some energy over time and reradiates it as a black body radiator having a temperature of 2. Light received from distant stars can be broken down and analyzed as to its spectral content. h is plancks' constant and v is its frequency. Although experiments done by Michhelson and Morley and others have been interpreted to rule out the existence of an universal aether. then energy must be transferred. If for any reason energy is lost from a photon. This fact is probably more . Scientists do not as yet have a good understanding of the nature of a photon as to whether it is a particle or a wave. One thing that is clear is that the radiation density of the starlight photons which leave own galaxy is equal to the radiation density of the Microwave Background radiation which is received by our galaxy.-i. the expanding universe.e. It has been found that stars of a similar size and age produce identical spectral patterns which are related to their atomic composition. as the train passes by. However. It could be by interaction of the photon with the stray atoms of hydrogen which are dispersed throughout intergalactic space. it was also found that the wavelength of the light from distant galaxies was increased in proportion to their distance from us. Scientists can't measure what happens to a photon over a period of a minute.

Since the intensity of the microwave background radiation will be relatively constant throughout the universe (assuming an infinite steady state universe). The actual universe will be far larger than we can imagine or detect and will probably be infinite in size. indicating that the earth is moving about 300Km/s relative to the shell of matter that emitted the radiation. at the peak of the spectrum radiation curve. Since the rate of loss of energy by photons will be inversely proportional to the wavelength of those photons. there is a limit to how far it is possible to image distant galaxies. It has also shown that this radiation has a Redshift/Blueshift to it. the percentage loss of energy by the MBR photons will be at a rate of over one thousand times less than that of a visible photon.8 degrees K. will be about 1mm.000 billion years to lose 3/4's of it's energy). they are also a thousand times more likely to encounter a galaxy and be absorbed by the matter of that galaxy then a visible light photon would. Thus. These MBR photons are eventually absorbed by some other galaxy. (return to index) MicroWave Background Radiation A second argument which has been made to support the Big Bang Theory is the microwave background radiation. the amount of . it indicates that the source is outside our galaxy and that our galaxy is moving in relation to that source. energy is radiated by galaxies in the form of starlight photons. The wavelength of the photons of the MBR. As indicated in the previous section dealing with redshift. Because of the downshifting in the frequency of light for whatever reason.than a coincidence and is an indication that the starlight radiation is being converted by some unknown process to the Microwave Background radiation. and since the MBR photons have a wavelength of more than a thousand times that of visible light. the starlight photons radiated by galaxies gradually lose energy through some unknown process which then reradiates this energy as the Microwave Background Radiation. (If it takes a visible photon 15 billion years to lose 3/4's of it's energy. It follows that since MBR photons have a range of travel of more than one thousand times that of visible light photons. then it would take a MBR photon 15. Since this speed is too great for the earth's movement within the milky-way galaxy. Energy from these photons is gradually converted to MBR photons. COBE has shown that the spectrum of the Microwave Background Radiation (MBR) is that of an ideal Black Body Radiator having a temperature of about 2. It is every bit as reasonable to assume that the Red Shift is caused by loss of energy of the photon over time as it is to assume that it is caused by a doppler effect.

There is a perception that energy only flows from hot bodies to cooler ones. since all matter in a Galaxy is recycled through the Neutroid on a regular basis. the MBR radiation has an energy density equal to the starlight radiation energy density emitted by the galaxies. all of which are associated with matter. The amount of helium present (24%) cannot be accounted for by star production and according to Gamow it was generated by the Big Bang. in that. etc.energy a galaxy will absorb from it will be proportional to the size of that galaxy. The MBR photons which exhibit the characteristics of a 2. Under the Steady State Galaxy Theory as put forth above. (return to index) Entropy A third argument that has been put forward in support of the Big Bang Theory is entropy. it is argued that the universe must eventually run down into a state of thermal equilibrium. Thus. .. Under the Steady State Galaxy theory. This is not true for radiant energy.8 degree black body radiator do get absorbed by the much hotter material which makes up the galaxies. (return to index) Hydrogen-Helium A fourth arguement which has been used to support the Big Bang theory is that it would account for the abundance of helium we find in the universe. The critical factor which determines the direction of net flow of radiant energy is not the relative temperatures of the bodies but the energy densities they produce. the nuclear fusion process which is expelling the material from the neutroid would generate large amounts of helium as well as other light elements and is the source of the excess helium found in the universe. or it exists in photons which have been radiated by matter and will eventually be reabsorbed by matter. thus. all energy contained by that matter is also recycled at the same time and. Energy exists in various forms such as atomic binding energies. In the case of our universe. thermal energy. potential and kinetic energy. the universe does not run down into a state of thermal equilibrium. thus an equilibrium will be reached where a galaxy will receive as much energy in the form of MBR photons as it itself radiates in the form of starlight photons. The amount of energy a galaxy radiates is also proportional to it's size. there is an equilibrium condition where galaxies receive as much energy in the form of MBR Radiation as they radiate in the form of Starlight Radiation and there will be no net flow of energy from the galaxies to the material in intergalactic space.

Stable Universe" by Grote Reber -a pioneer in the field of Radio Astronomy. In normal galaxies. this halo of material has been temporarily destroyed by the collision with another galaxy and we are seeing the bare neutroid which is. the neutroid at their center is obscured by a halo of material trapped in the neutroid's magnetic field. "Dark Matter" and "Hubble's Constant in Terms of the Compton Effect" by John Kierein Please E-mail me your comments and suggestions. Boundless. It can not only account for the shape of all galaxies we see in the universe which is something no other theory as proposed so far can accomplish but it can also explain the existence of quasars.ca . (return to index) (return to top of page) Other Interesting Papers For a historical perspective of the Big Bang Theory see Keith Stein's Essay "The Big Bang Myth" "Endless. as expected. As more data is gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope and other sources. (return to index) Summary The Steady State Galaxy Theory as put forth above can provide the basis for the operation of the Universe as it is seen to exist. extremely energetic.nb. galaxy@nbnet. it is becoming increasingly clear that the Big Bang theory cannot account for the universe around us. I believe the the Steady State Galaxy Theory as presented here can provide the basis of an alternative to the Big Bang Theory. In the case of quasars.(return to index) Quasars The latest Hubble pictures of quasars show that they are associated with galaxies and in most cases there is evidence that these galaxies have recently collided with other galaxies.

creating an inverted cone of flow toward the discharge. The static pressure in the liquid surrounding the vortex becomes realized into the circular motion of the vortex. The circular motion within a vortex redirects the strictly centripetal horizontal pressure component in the liquid side railing it off the vertical axis of the vortex. (fig 1) The circular motion component is triggered by external influences. gravitational acceleration at the surface hollow tends to outrun the discharge rate and any slightest impetus causes the liquid sliding down the slope of the depression to spin. There are many more units (lets say mm^2) of the surface of the water column then in the cross section of the discharge hole.Last revised Dec 30. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VORTEX Liquid . In plain terms. The Pascal’s rule of pressure in fluids says that the static pressure within the whole volume exerted sideways around this dropping column will attempt to fill into the dropping water column. Therefore.Gravity Induced Vortex A plug is pulled under a contained volume of liquid. because it is the surface hollow where the gravitational acceleration causes the liquid to slide into the falling liquid column. such as rotation of earth. accelerating the vortex circular motion. reprinted Copyright R. If the liquid column is in a sufficient ratio to the opening diameter.Rufus Young 1996 all rights reserved. . and the would not be realized as spin motion. Vortex develops easier in a conical vessel than in any other vessel. Vortex spin translates this pressure into accelerating "orbital" speed of the column.1996. The liquid above the discharge opening starts dropping down through the opening creating a lower pressure column of liquid. the horizontal component of static pressure would act on the vortex axis symmetrically. the horizontal vector of static pressure acts as a vortex spin accelerator. If the liquid did not spin. while the orthogonal vector of static pressure from the surrounding volume acts on the column along the "surface" area of the whole column. The surface plane of the liquid develops a hollow due to the pressure drop above the discharge. it accelerates the spin of the column with total force equal to the static pressure drop per unit of area at the particular depth and at all these units. or by general liquid flow. than can be accounted for by strictly downward static pressure calculations. The static pressure orthogonal to the vortex vertical axis acts on the column as the total static pressure (area x force). The dynamic relations within a vortex cause a greater transfer of gravitational energy into liquid circular motion. if any.

but a shape mimicking the structure of natural turbulence. In other words. (Planetary gear or a bearing ball in a bearing . we would be milking total static pressure exerted by gravitation on liquid volume from a much greater area than discharge hole area without having to pay the cost of returning that volume back to the height across that same area. Regular does not mean a perfect cone. spin themselves counter to the spin of the vortex. Vortex phenomenon is the proof that field “static potential” can be utilized for energy extraction. the area across the static pressure acting on a vortex accelerating its liquid (or fluid) into spin is substantially greater than the cross sectional area of the discharge hole. including the liquid molecules. If the circular component of the vortex speed at the bottom of a discharge were used for energy production along with the falling column kinetic energy. This does not violate any laws of physics. it is clear that the farther a molecule is from this axis. Therefore. otherwise more and chaotic turbulences within the fluid accelerating through the discharge break the vortex symmetry and hinder its progress. The acceleration on the falling column comes from vertical acceleration of the column. The vertical gravitational acceleration (drop) of water within the column is caused by vertical attraction on that column only. it is a law of physics. can be translated into circular motion of a medium. Any object within such vortex. the "horizontal" rotational component of gravitational acceleration of the liquid surrounding the vortex speeds up the circular component of water flow around the vortex. these two components combined would supply greater total energy output than needed for lifting of the same liquid volume (per unit of time) to the original height. as their outer orbital speed is slower than their inner speed relative to the axis of the vortex. or tension of a field. The vertical component of static pressure within the vortex is not lessened by all that much.In the most simple terms. as can be seen from the depth and size of the depression of the vortex at the surface. the lesser is its orbital speed. Vortex phenomenon also proves that the so-called "static potential" energy of fields is caused by dynamic energy flows. the energy of vortex circular speed is also progressively translated into the energy of vertical speed of the column. VORTICES The circumferential speed of liquid molecules within a vortex increases as the molecules approach the central axis of the vortex. This shape is somewhat ropy walled parabolic cone. In other words. The discharge and the surrounding containment have to be regular in shape. As the column progresses in its vertical motion down. It seems obvious from the above that static pressure.

Crap. Since not all of them do. The acceleration gain in a vortex is a utilizable phenomenon.K. It is one of the phenomena. but are readily observable in nature. It is readily observable phenomenon on rivers. which counteracts thermal entropy in the universe. 2000 INDEXFIELD FORCES We have a few principles of the induction of attractive and repulsive force. any small vortice within a major vortex counter spins. Any larger vortex in a cove of a river bend has these counter spinning satellite vortices present. They are usually transient. It does not matter whether that flow is liquid. Any and every energy flow through a restriction under an orthogonal pressure of a field tends to develop a vortex structure. Any and every so-called massive particle contains a few geometries of vortexes (Nucleon). November 18. passing each other. vortex on their common side. but the friction between these two flows creates vortexes between them slowing their common side . but not a chaotic aether of the past and not exactly liquid like in a sense of water in the sea. gaseous or what we consider to be a field. rather than being a remainder of gas cloud vortice motion within the solar system general vortex. It concentrates the rate of flow through a restriction utilizing a dispersed energy of a general field. It’s liquid is comparable to water flow in rivers. Their mutual propagation along the long axis is caused by the primary principle. actually the majority does not. It is obvious that planets should spin counter to planetary system. S. The two flows. Electric field components qualify for a sort of aether. dense flows can be considered to be magnetic field compounds of the dispersed electric field components. it is obvious that the spin of planets and stars has its casualty in the behavior of magnetic and electric fields. The primary (snake propagation) has been described in my original Tour the Force The secondary attractive force acts between two reciprocating counter flows of positive and negative components of primary as well as secondary gravitational field. The main. This principle has a severe impact on the coalescing theory of planetary systems as well as galactic systems. Some claim that such a phenomenon has never been observed in nature.D.represents such a counter spin) Unless other forces are present.

Now we should learn how to convert gravitational energy to thermal. If you care for a graphic description. It is this slowing down of the near side fringe. while accelerating a fluid vortex spin and free fall. of what we call particulate. That curvature is discriminate and it may resonate. We have learned how to convert thermal energy to mechanical energy and to electric dipole energy and back to some degree. or better said converted. Why the strings rubbing against each other by their fringes do not stop like any other frictional system? The energy of the path has nowhere to dissipate. so it does not dissipate anywhere. a wire. although you would not see it. from which all higher forms of energy arise and to which all higher forms of energy return. that they pass energy one to another. Such a resonance is behind the effect of Young double slit experiment. Its atmosphere moves in strips of counter flowing gas streams and these photos will do better than anything I can draw.fringe down as opposed to their far sides fringe. April 2001 FIELDS 6 MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE Spacing of magnetic lines of force depends on at least two criteria.K. That energy can and is used once a gravitational field accelerates a solid body relative to the wavy pattern of the universe. created by the proximity of other paths. but the explanation of Young double slit experiment is not a proof of it. Autumn leaves on maple trees will do rather well. Its soliton turbulences are stable in that sense. we get a general field strength gradient toward the mother body wherever a mother body is present in space. the finer is the line of force structure. mechanical or electric dipole energy. look up some photos of Jupiter atmosphere. The finer is the size of the particulate. Yes. It gets transformed into higher orders of energy.D. light is a sort of wave. a star. It is used. It was a partly lucky and partly unlucky mistake. 14. it has nowhere to go. Why wire? Look through a fly screen at some really colorful background. You will find out what I am talking about when you realize that the blurry effect you can see is caused by the “curvature of space” around the wires. a planet. but other than that. The universal gravitational field is the ultimate storehouse of energy. The first one is the size of the iron shaving particulate. which attracts parallel paths together. be it thermal or kinetic. . S. Once we have fringes on two or more sides of a single thread of a path.

When we line up magnets in attractive orientation with spaces in between or steel objects between two magnets in attractive orientation. when we steadily decrease the Amp value in a DC conductor. When are in the process of placing a steel object between two magnets. because the electromagnets will again tie geomagnetic lines of force (actually create them) and concentrate the geomagnetic field into lines of force. As pointed out in TTF. On the other hand. which are in attractive orientation and lets say 3” apart. we create at least a partial gap in the magnetic field of earth within the isle between the rows of steel posts. The above (and much more) points out that iron.The second one is the intensity of the magnetic field. The post distance in the row should be less than the distance of posts across the isle. When we stick two parallel rows of steel posts into the ground in even an approximate NS orientation. The same working arrangement can be created with help of electromagnets. all lines of force join into the circle of the poles and the external lines of force (the donut) disappears. Then the stone was struck with a metal rod that caused the stone to levitate and move along a . RELEVANCY The relevancy of this comes out when we dig into the stone levitation story form Middle East which states: “First. with all their poles oriented in one general geographic orientation and complying with geomagnetic field polarity orientation. when we steadily increase the amp value in a DC conductor. the lines of force spread and the margin around the conductor collects the iron dust. again arranged into a double row. The lines of force are created by iron particulate of any size. the lines of force join all the poles of the magnets or all the steel pieces between the magnets. the original lines of force between the two magnets distort so that they concentrate on the steel object. When we curve a set of magnets in attractive orientation with some spacing in between them so that the magnets create a circle. as well as magnets are able to attract and concentrate and lead magnetic field along any steel or iron or any ferromagnetic structure or permanent magnet structure. the lined of force around the conductor contract and new lines are being added from the iron dust at the margin around the conductor. but the size of the particulate decides how far apart the lines can be before the space between the lines begins to fill with magnetic field again. a 'magic papyrus' (paper) was placed under the stone to be moved.

" The same relevancy comes up when we dig into stories about Edward Leedskalnin and the artifacts left by him on his death at Coral Castle. especially when we learn that his work gloves and boots had sheet metal pieces attached to them. The permanent induction of such a path may join countless quarks of alternate electric polarity in countless bodies and the path is an integral part of those quarks. Polarity of each path of the primary field is steady and looped on the quark. Ed was the only man in the West who had been able to handle monoliths without the use of heavy machinery in modern times. yet he had electrical installations on his property. galactic and eventually universal scale. on the other hand. planetary. just about all the references needed can be found on KeelyNet. there are possibly other ways in which magnetic field gaps can be created. This two-way communication of flows with the quark knots on them can be compared to beads strung on a double thread string. for a distance of about 50 meters and then settle to the ground. The stone would travel along the path. Unfortunately. is always reported as a factor. He has also been reported to “sing” to his stones while working with them. never the less. we can get the hang of what his idea behind his stone levitation was. atom. He was able to handle blocks of coral stone up to 29 tons in weight as evidenced by his work for anyone to see.path paved with stones and fenced on either side by metal poles. I will assign red color to the positive “charge” quark and blue color to . The process would then be repeated until the builders had the stone where they wanted it. (See Links) SDK 7 August 2001 FIELDS 7 INDEXTHE PRIMARY FIELD NETWORK The “free” space of the universe is interwoven with uncountable paths of electric communication among the celestial bodies of the primary field. wrote Al-Masudi. because other modern time report from Tibet does not include any steel or electric apparatus. When we read through Leadskalnin’s articles on magnetism. Each quark and antiquark along a single path is strung on this path like a bead on a string. It appears that steel or magnet or electromagnet induced geomagnetic field gap is not exactly necessary in order to achieve stone levitation. Note. He seems to have used grids of copper wires and other electrical devices to help him with his work. Sound. Leedskalnin had no outside source of hydropower. molecule. nucleon. he has not left an instruction manual and what he never revealed has to be found out.

The important condition is that any orthogonal paths intersect at their null axis points tying orthogonal paths together into network. It is caused by the directionality of the quark orientation at the point of exit and entry. the turbulence will be stable. Figure one shows only one quark of a pair for simplicity. Fig 2 The paths of electric communication intersect in free space either actively at null axis points or passively at any other points on the paths.the negative “charge” quark. Fig 1 The paths polarity directions between more than two bodies are not unidirectional even for a single circle path. The sinusoids themselves will be distorted as paths standing waves compound at some places to some degree. . Figure three shows idealized planar arrangement. and alternately fall apart and reestablish at the worst. The whole loop can be perceived as separate strings as well as a single string. If the intersecting paths have harmonic relationship. The term is null axis point. like the riverbed of Mississippi river. Fig 3 Once we understand that the path is a flow of something and that the wave of this flow is static or standing. the turbulence will oscillate at best. I have to create a term for the intersection related to the wave function of a path. we do not have to count in any frequencies of the paths when crossing each other as yet. Stability of this turbulence is conditioned by the spatial frequency of the wave components of the paths. If the two intersecting paths have disharmonic spatial frequencies. Every two-path null point intersection generates turbulence between their four flows. The curvature of the path is not caused by inertia. which fits into the curved length of the turbulence (cloverleaf loop). somewhat similar to the cloverleaf intersection on a freeway. See TTF2/FIELDS 5 for the cause of mutual adherence of the two directions of a single path of electric force exchange.

When the primary gravitational field network gets disturbed at any point. i. some in a transient manner and some in a stable manner. The outer sphere would have to be perfectly isolated from the rest of the universe. The speed of light and the speed of gravitation and the speed of radio wave are interdependent because the wavelengths are interdependent. The directions of the paths within the network are just about as numerous as the paths themselves. otherwise it would induce its induced polarity toward the outside becoming a charged body to the outside and the ideal theoretical scalar field would become the practical crooked field. scalar.There are stable and unstable turbulences around the null axis point intersections of the field network holding the network together. but it is not valid for the structure of emitted electron thermal phase. or better said their component quarks all around the so called charged body. In practice. It only means that the space is filled through out with this network. there is no scalar field. it changes quite drastically. The experimentation of Nicola Tesla in Colorado has clearly shown that repeated manipulation of the geometry of the general field causes a general wave disturbance through out the network of gravitational field. Scalar field is a theoretical idealization of crooked natural geometry. It is a bit confusing to recognize what is a longitudinal wave within the whole network and what is a transverse wave in it.e. you can realize that the transverse wave of single net string and the longitudinal wave of the whole net depend on each other in some ratio. The same is valid for the structure of nucleon. light is progressive unification of electric paths flows into a local magnetic flow. When we consider the field of a single charged spherical body. The cause of the scalar field of a single charged body lies in the induction taking place between the body and air molecules and water vapor molecules and earth molecules and whatever molecules. within which the charged sphere would be placed in dead center. its geometry seems purely radial. (Courtesy Joe Hiding) Anyway. It does not mean that its structure follows three axes in Euclidian cubic axis arrangement. the network can be obviously shaped and disturbed and induced and manipulated as long as we know what we are dealing with and what we are doing with it. When we consider geometry of the field of two reciprocating (opposite polarity) bodies. it behaves as a three dimensional net. . A disturbance. In reality. The notion that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon equivalent to radio waves and microwaves is incorrect. whatever that ratio may be. This disturbance is a real longitudinal wave generated within the gravitational network. the inner charged body actually becomes electrically neutral. Perfect scalar field would require a perfect charged sphere within another perfect sphere (including perfect material). On the other hand. The geometry of the network structure itself is multidirectional and constantly shifting. When you look back to the volleyball net analogy.

D. Then we grossly err applying the newly derived (experimentally as well as mentally confirmed within artificially imposed limits) concepts to the general behavior of the limitless universe. Any and all of the information on this site is as is.K. Some are mine. current etc. April 2001 FIELDS 5 INDEX FORCES This site is dedicated to ideas. It argues with the concepts of why things behave the way they do and with their causality and geometrical as well as functional relationships. It does not argue with the established mathematical processes (so called mathematical theories). We tear phenomena out of their context and study them out of their context. as most are reasonably valid generalizations of functions of particular natural forces. If you dissagree with anything here.D. which limits our perception to the behavior of the string or the spring. The particulate . some belong to others.which propagates in one direction as a longitudinal wave. TOUR THE FORCE Is a series of closely interrelated documents outlining the problems with the currently established interpretations of behavior of the most fundamental physical phenomena like heat. Our concept of the transverse and longitudinal is derived from our string and spring experimenting. BY S. el. causes transverse wave in orthogonal directions and vice versa. Tour the Force contains a somewhat outdated line of deduction of what force phenomena really are all about and what are their mutual relations. S. be aware that I also disagree with a lot of things. not with how much they behave.K. 14. light.

You have to do your own research and sorting out. TOUR THE FORCE 2 Contains updates to the original Tour the Force. Lots of interesting stuff. PATENTS First of my patenting experiences concerns a simple brushless alternator.causality of gravitational force and other force fields as such had to give way to simpler concept of wave relationship of energy flows along waves. My original Tour the Force is a prerequisite to understanding of Tour the Force 2. lots of garbage. this original Tour the Force has its relevancy in paving the road to understanding of Tour the Force 2 GISMOS Contains assortment of descriptions and comments on a few man made contraptions. GREBENNIKOV English translation of the original Russian text. Some of the ideas have the potential to eventually move to experiments once conclusively performed. not as exhaustive sources of information. VICTOR S. LINKS Scientific as well as not so scientific references. This . EXPERIMENTS Contains assorted bits and pieces of little known knowledge about anomalous experiments done by "less" learned folks. This part is in development and I am uploading new documents as I manage to solve the different parts of the over all puzzle and put its documents into a reasonable form. Yet. Good luck. They should be understood as pointers in directions of possible research. IDEAS Contains assorted ideas and experiences. which were or are claimed to work as intended. as undependable as some may be. Some may have my explanations and all of them stress the need of humanity as such to resist the dogma of the established authority on truth.

the fundamental laws governing the . In Figure 2. the vacuum is not empty. This would be the situation if the universe had an average temperature of 1 trillion degrees so that the existing particles collided at energies of 100 Gev. I have applied for a patent registration and filed an application (Canadian) according to Canada Patent Office instructions myself. Although at low energy the way in which the forces behave is asymmetric. The corresponding forces would be indistinguishable. You can view the patent application here. consider Figures 1 and 2 representing the average energy of the vacuum state. that unifies the electromagnetic and weak forces. I have not quite revealed the whole patent here.00 plus registered mail. The patent has fallen into public domain due to insufficient funds. The application has been accepted and had cost C$150. Reprinted -------------------------------------------------------------------------------In the recently developed theory by Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam. as it was submitted to US patent office by my ex-patent agents. representing the vacuum state energy for collision energies below 100 Gev. On a somewhat more abstract level. Above this energy they are quite massless just like the photon and it is this characteristic that makes the weak and electromagnetic forces so similar at high energy. My second patent experience concerns a very simple and very effective air (gas) dryer so far applied only on compressed air systems. called the Higgs field. INDEX The Decay of the False Vacuum Written by Sten Odenwald Copyright (C) 1983 Kalmbach Publishing. W and Z particles (the carriers of the weak force) causes them to gain mass at energies below 100 billion electron volts (100 Gev).attempt had gone to hell due to bottomless pockets of my former patent lawyers (for a translation of the English description into legalese worth close to C$ 5 500. If the universe were based on the vacuum state in Figure 1. The Higgs field has an important physical consequence since its interaction with the W. it is predicted that the symmetry between the electromagnetic and weak interactions would be quite obvious. This peculiar situation comes about because of the existence of a new type of field. the vacuum state now contains the Higgs field and the symmetry between the forces is suddenly lost or 'broken'. but you can find its general description and experience with its performance here. submission fees extra). The particles mediating the forces would all be massless and behave in the same way.

(pronounced 'ess you five'). The GUT Era To see how these theories relate to the history of the universe. neutrinos and photons. tells us this happened about 10(-37) seconds after . The 'Standard Model' of the Big Bang. During the last 10 years physicists have developed even more powerful theories that attempt to unify not only the electromagnetic and weak forces but the strong nuclear force as well. through the Hyperweak interaction. W and Z particles heavy. In addition to proton decay. we will see the affects of a new family of particles called supermassive Higgs bosons whose masses are expected to be approximately 1 thousand trillion GeV! These particles interact with the 12 Leptoquarks and make them massive just as the Higgs bosons at 100 GeV made the W. This is a very remarkable and profound prediction since it implies that certain symmetries in Nature can be hidden from us but are there nonetheless. SU(5) predicts that protons are no longer the stable particles we have always imagined them to be. a new fifth force in the universe! Currently. Armed with this knowledge.electromagnetic and weak interactions remain inherently symmetric. SU(5) predicts that at the energy characteristic of the GUT transition. the 3 massless intermediate vector bosons of the weak force and the single massless photon of the electromagnetic force are 12. The Era of Matter. The remaining 12 represent a totally new class of particles called Leptoquark bosons that have the remarkable property that they can transform quarks into electrons. all of the matter present would catastrophically decay into electrons. These are called the Grand Unification Theories (GUTs) and the simplist one known was developed by Howard Georgi. An immediate consequence of this is that even if the universe were destined to expand for all eternity.and Steven Weinberg and is called SU(5). after 'only' 10(32) years or so. this force is 10 thousand trillion trillion times weaker than the weak force but is nevertheless 100 million times stronger than gravity. Crude calculations suggest that they may have half-lives between 10(29) to 10(33) years. What would this new force do? Since protons are constructed from 3 quarks and since quarks can now decay into electrons. having represented but a fleeting episode in the history of the universe. Helen Quinn. would be swept away forever. This theory predicts that the nuclear and 'electroweak' forces will eventually have the same strength but only when particles collide at energies above 1 thousand trillion GeV corresponding to the unimaginable temperature of 10 thousand trillion trillion degrees! SU(5) requires exactly 24 particles to mediate forces of which the 8 massless gluons of the nuclear force. let's explore some of the remarkable cosmological consequences of these exciting theories. with its living organisms. SU(5) therefore predicts the existence of a 'hyperweak' interaction. stars and galaxies. imagine if you can a time when the average temperature of the universe was not the frigid 3 K that it is today but an incredable 10 thousand trillion trillion degrees (10(15) GeV).

weak and electromagnetic forces are indistinguishable. muons and tau leptons. when the GUT transition occured. this symmetry would have been directly observable and furthermore. The remaining evenly matched pairs of particles and anti-particles then annihilated to produce the radiation that we now see as the 'cosmic fireball'. Since we are living within the new phase with its four distinguishable forces. Every particle-anti particle pair that was annihilated was balanced by the resurrection of a new pair somewhere else in the universe. fewer types of particles would exist for the inhabitants to keep track of. the forces remain indistinguishable which is certainly not the situation that we find ourselves in today! Cosmic Inflation An exciting prediction of Guth's model is that the universe may have gone through at least one period in its history when the expansion was far more rapid than predicted by the 'standard' Big Bang model. In this analogy. it occured in a way not unlike the formation of vapor bubbles in a pot of boiling water. Exactly what happened to the universe as it underwent the transitions at 10(15) and 100 GeV when the forces of Nature suddenly became distinguishable is still under investigation. but certain tantalizing descriptions have recently been offered by various groups of theoriticians working on this problem. They were literally a new form of radiation. electrons. were also massless and traveled about at essentially light-speed. The protons and neutrons that we are familiar with today hadn't yet formed since their constituent quarks interacted much too weakly to permit them to bind together into 'packages' like neutrons and protons. The universe would actually have beed much simpler then! As the universe continued to expand. The remaining constituents of matter.Creation. An inhabitant of that age would not have had to theorize about the existence of a symmetry between the strong. embedded in the old symmetric phase where the nuclear. where the forces are distinguishable. Steven Weinberg and Frank Wilczyk between 1979 and 1981. Inside these bubbles. the particles that mediated the strong. the temperature continued to plummet. In the false vacuum state. During this period. It has been suggested by Demetres Nanopoulis and Steven Weinberg in 1979 that one of the supermassive Higgs particles may have decayed in such a way that slightly more matter was produced than anti-matter. the vacuum energy is of the type illustrated by Figure 2 while outside it is represented by Figure 1. The reason for this is that the vacuum itself also . the interior of the bubbles represent the vacuum state in the new phase. weak and electromagnetic forces were completely massless so that these forces were no longer distinguishable. this has been called the 'true' vacuum state. weak and electromagnetic interactions. According to studies by Alan Guth. much like light is today! The 12 supermassive Leptoquarks as well as the supermassivs Higgs bosons existed side-by-side with their anti-particles.

only 120 doublings are required to inflate a hydrogen atom to the size of the entire visible universe! According to the inflationary model. As Figures 1 and 2 show. the positive pressure due to the vacuum energy would have been enormously greater than the restraining pressure produced by the gravitational influence of matter and radiation. The universe would have inflated at a tremendous rate. Einstein's cosmological constant takes on a whole new meaning since it now represents a definite physical concept . just as in de Sitter's model. the vacuum of space produces a force that is repulsive.) at a particular time in the history of the universe. Recent modifications to the original 'inflationary universe' model have resulted in what is now called the 'new' inflationary universe model. Although gravity is an attractive force. This would be somewhat analogous to water refusing to freeze even though its temperature has dropped well below 0 Centigrade. this inflationary period could have continued for as 'long' as 10(-24) seconds during which time the universe would have undergone 10 billion doublings of its size! This is a number that is truely beyond comprehension. a universe where the vacuum contributes in this way must expand exponentially in time and not linearly as predicted by the Big Bang model. Conceivably. A radius of some 15-20 billion light years. It is simply a measure of the energy difference between the true and false vacuum states ('B' and 'A' in Figures 1 and 2. Many of these had to collide when the universe was very young in order that the visible universe appear so uniform today. As a comparison. It also tells us that.contributes to the energy content of the universe just as matter and radiation do however. We don't really know how exactly long the inflationary phase may have lasted but the time required for the universe to double its size may have been only 10(-34) seconds. The universe becomes trapped in the cul-de-sac of the false vacuum state and the exponential expansion never ceases. On the other hand. In this model. the universe does manage to escape from the false vacuum state and evolves in a short time to the familiar true vacuum state. symmetric phase. the new inflationary model states that even the bubbles expanded in size exponentially just as . Guth's scenario for the expansion of the universe is generally called the 'inflationary universe' due to the rapidity of the expansion and represents a phase that will end only after the true vacuum has supplanted the false vacuum of the old. During the GUT transition period. the bubbles of the true vacuum phase expanded at the speed of light. A major problem with Guth's original model was that the inflationary phase would have lasted for a very long time because the false vacuum state is such a stable one. A single bubble would not have grown large enough to encompass our entire visible universe at this time. This energy difference is what contributes to the vacuum energy. the minimum energy state of the false vacuum at 'A' before the GUT transition is at a higher energy than in the true vacuum state in 'B' after the transition. the contribution is in the opposite sense. the inflation driven by the pressure of the vacuum! In this picture of the universe.

Calculations based on the old inflationary model suggest that the these GUMs (Grand Unification Monopoles) may easily have been as much as 100 trillion times more abundant than the upper limit! Such a universe would definitly be 'closed' and moreover would have run through its entire history between expansion and recollapse within a few thousand years. very few. has not yet made it across the intervening distance to the other. GUMs in GUTs A potential problem for cosmologies that have phase transitions during the GUT Era is that a curious zoo of objects could be spawned if frequent bubble mergers occured as required by Guth's inflationary model. The new inflationary universe model solves this 'GUM' overproduction problem since we are living within only one of these bubbles.000. Upper limits to their abundance can be set by requiring that they do not contribute to 'closing' the universe which means that for particles of their predicted mass (about 10(16) GeV). they must be 1 trillion trillion times less abundant than the photons in the 3 K cosmic background. traveling at the velocity of light. each bubble may now be 10(3000) cm in size. According to Gerhard t'Hooft and Alexander Polyakov. One long-standing problem in modern cosmology has been that all directions in the sky have the same temperature to an astonishing 1 part in 10. it is the non-material vacuum of space that is expanding. Since bubble collisions are no longer required to homogenize the matter and radiation in the universe. We should not be too concerned about these bubbles expanding at many times the speed of light since their boundaries do not represent a physical entity. each bubble of the true vacuum phase contains its own Higgs field having a unique orientation in space. these knots in the Higgs field are the magnetic monopoles originally proposed 40 years ago by Paul Dirac and there ought to be about as many of these as there were bubble mergers during the transition period. Horizons A prolonged period of inflation would have had an important influence on the cosmic fireball radiation. There are no electrons or quarks riding some expandind shock wave. The bubbles themselves grew to enormous sizes much greater than the size of our observable universe. The expansion velocity of the bubbles is not limited by any physical speed limit like the velocity of light. even though the radiation may have started on its . now almost infinitly larger than our visible universe. According to Albrecht and Steinhardt of the University of Pennsylvania. The radiation from one of these regions. if any. Instead.their separations did. knots will form. It seems likely that no two bubbles will have their Higgs fields oriented in quite the same way so that when bubbles merge. When we consider that regions separated by only a few degrees in the sky have only recently been in communication with one another. it is hard to understand how regions farther apart than this could be so similar in temperature. First of all. monopoles would exist within our visible universe.

if the universe is essentially infinite this raises the ghastly spectre of the eventual annihilation of all organic and inorganic matter some 10(32) years from now because of proton decay. become disconnected so temperature differences are free to develope. Estimates by Albrecht and Steinhardt suggest that each bubble region may have grown to a size of 10(3000) cm by the end of the inflationary period. this contradiction is eliminated because the separation between widely scattered points in space becomes almost infinitly small compared to the size of the horizons as we look back to the epoc of inflation. some agency would have to set-up these finely-tuned initial conditions by violating causality. even the new inflationary universe model is not without its problems. observable universe. In the inflationary models. Consequently. Imagine a universe where you occupy all of the available space! Prior to the development of the inflationary models. its size may well be essentially infinite for all 'practical' purposes .way since the universe first came into existence. de Sitter phase in the universe's early history we now have a means for resolving the horizon problem. This 'communication gap' would prevent these regions from ironing-out their temperature differences. for all conceivable observations. The contradiction is that no force may operate by transmitting its influence faster than the speed of light. this suggests that 10 times as much matter exists in our universe than is currently detectable. With this exponentially-growing. Unfortunately. as we look back to very ancient times. Although it does seem to provide explainations for several . Eventually. the horizons are so small that every particle existing then literally fills the entire volume of its own. In spite of its many apparent successes. exactly Euclidean (infinite and flat in geometry) and destined to expand for all eternity to come. Neighboring regions of space at the present time. The universe is. the separations between particles decrease more slowly than their horizons are shrinking. Since we have only detected at most 10 percent of the critical mass in the form of luminous matter. Since these points are now within each others light horizons. any temperature difference would have been eliminated immediatly since hotter regions would now be in radiative contact with colder ones. cosmologists were forced to imagine an incredably well-ordered initial state where each of these disconnected domains (some 10(86) in number) had nearly identical properties such as temperature. Instant Flat Space Because of the exponential growth of the universe during the GUT Era. Big Bang model. Any departure from this situation at that time would have grown to sizable temperature differences in widely separated parts of the sky at the present time. Of course. the new inflationary model predicts that the content of the universe must be almost exactly the 'critical mass' since the sizes of each of these bubble regions are almost infinite in extent. as we look back to earlier epochs from the present time. With the standard.

stars. There is even some speculation that the photinos may fill the entire universe and account for the unseen 'missing' matter that is necessary to give the universe the critical mass required to make it exactly Euclidean. .. so too was it infinite even at its moment of birth! It is even conceivable that the universe is 'percolating' with new bubble universes continually coming into existence. even the supermassive Higgs and Leptoquark bosons become massless and at long last we arrive at a time when the gravitational interaction is united with the weak. This last step promises to be not only the most difficult one to take on the long road to unification but also appears to hold the greatest promise for shedding light on some of the most profound mysteries of the physical world. Yet. these calculations did not include the affects of the gravitinos. all of these bubble universes having been brought into existence at the same instant of creation. our quest for an understanding of the origins of the universe remains incomplete since gravity has yet to be brought into unity with the remaining forces on a theoretical basis. as J. it does not provide a convincing way to create galaxies. Our entire visible universe. electromagnetic and strong forces. born of the same paroxicism of Creation as our own. would be but one infinitessimal patch within one of these bubble regions. electrons etc). coexist in the same 4-dimensional spacetime. if our universe is actually infinite as the available data suggests. out to the most distant quasar. gravitons and the weak interaction bosons) with the particles that they act on (quarks. This is less troublesome than one might suspect since. Do these other universes have galaxies. Richard Gott III has suggested. prevent calculations involving the exchange of gravitons from giving infinite answers for problems where the answers are known to be perfectly finite. Hitherto. Supergravity theory also predicts the existence of new particles called photinos and gravitinos.cosmological enigmas. a most remarkable model of the universe where an almost infinite number of 'bubble universes' each having nearly infinite size. planets and living creatures statistically similar to those in our universe? We may never know. on the other hand. The gravitinos.. a handful of theorists around the world are hard at work on a theory called Supergravity which unites the force carriers (photons. Even now. gluons. These other universes. what of the period before Grand Unification? We may surmise that at higher temperatures than the GUT Era. are forever beyond our scrutiny but obviously not our imaginations! Beyond The Beginning. Finally. If the inflationary cosmologies can be made to answer each of these issues satisfactorily we may have. Those fluctuations in the density of matter that do survive the inflationary period are so dense that they eventually collapse into galaxy-sized blackholes! Neither the precise way in which the transition to ordinary Hubbel expansion occurs nor the duration of the inflationary period are well determined.

an exciting time to be living through in human history. Of the infinite number of possible Julia sets that exists. This is. and I think that no one would have been sufficiently bright or ingenious to 'invent' this rich and complicated theme and variations. is there any organizing principle that classifies these Julia sets. its harmonies are richer. to have witnessed in our lifetimes the unfolding of the first comprehensive theory of Existence? In the Mandelbrot set. because familiar things come back time and time again. The result states that for any choice of the complex parameter c the associated Julia set Jc and the trapping set Tc are either topologically connected (severely deformed circles) or totally disconnected (generalized Cantor dust like). nature (or is it mathematics) provides us with a powerful visual counterpart of the musical idea of 'theme and variation': the shapes are repeated everywhere.Perhaps during the next decade. in 1979. no matter what the value of the complex parameter c is. and no way to become lost. The Julia set (Jc) is the boundary between the set Tc and the set Ec. It leaves us no way to become bored. more of the details of the last stage of Unification will be hammered out at which time the entire story of the birth of our universe can be told. This was indeed the key result that clued Mandelbrot. Because this constant novelty. The key results for this classification of Julia sets were already there in the works of Julia and Fatou who knew about the topological dichotomy in the Julia set. this set is not truly fractal by most definitions. yet each repetition is somewhat different. and its unexpectedness is more unexpected Benoit Mandelbrot MANDELBROT SET As mentioned earlier. indeed. we may call it a borderline fractal. in the iteration of the complex quadratic map there is a unique trapping set Tc and a corresponding escape set Ec. It would have been impossible to discover this property of iteration if we had been reduced to hand calculation. to visualize a set in . because new things appear all the time. its structurs are more numerous. Compared to actual fractals. The Mandelbrot set is an answer to the following kind of enquiry. a limit fractal that contains many fractals. Will future generations forever envy us our good fortune.

N. A note about why we start from Z0 = 0. in the complex parameter space. start with Z = 0.25 along the imaginary axis. Picking value of c that is outside the Mandelbrot set. The maximum number of iterations.25 to the tip of the tail at Re c = -2 along the real axis and from Im c = -1. This definition makes it possible to draw a portrait of the Mandelbrot set. If you exit. for which the Julia set is connected. in the parameter space. The Mandelbrot set consists of all values of c that have connected Julia sets. If you finish the loop.The trapping set Tc is connected if and only if the critical orbit is bounded. You can exit if |Z| > 2. Monochrome Mandelbrot Set Portrait The basic algorithm to generate the Mandelbrot set is as follows. It extends from the cusp of the cardoid at Re c = 0. The figure shown below is the Mandelbrot set (in black). Zero is the critical point of Mandelbrot equation given by 2. Iterate the above equation up to N times. can be selected as desired. For each complex number c. since if Z gets this big it will go to infinity. a point where d/dz (Z2 + c) = 0. The genius is in the realization of the interrelation between the above mentioned dichotomy and in the long term behavior of the critical point.25 to Im c = 1. and iterating the equation to obtain the Jc for this particular choice of c gives a disconnected Julia set. The complex number c is a member of the Mandelbrot set if and only if |Zn| is finite for all values of n. for instance 200. exiting if |Z| gets large. The point. The computer graphical renderings of Mandelbrot set is made possible by this important fact which states -. a sequence of iterates Zn is defined by 3.the complex parameter space c which is called the Mandelbrot set. That is. the point is outside and can be colored according to how many iterations were completed. For each pixel c. Critical points are important because by a result of Fatou: every attracting cycle (Tc) for a polynomial . as it is. Note important . The bars indicate the magnitude of Zn given by Zn = Ö(Xn2 + Yn2) where Xn is the real component and Yn the imaginary component of Zn. Larger values of N will give sharper detail but take longer. is colored white if the orbit is unbounded for that particular value of c and is colored black if the orbits are bounded. this still doesn't allow one to visualize the shape of the set of points. the classification of Julia set in terms of disconnected sets. the point is probably inside the Mandelbrot set.

25 and Âc = -0. If z is the fixed point of complex quadratic map. Thus. For the case of equation with multiple critical points. Extending the stability analysis criteria discussed for the case logistic equation. The main body of the Mandelbrot set intersects the real axis at Âc = 0. The largest bud that is attached to the main body (along the real axis) will be called the M2 bud (bud labeled 2 in figure(3) below). all the critical points must be tested.75. we obtain c=1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 r eif .1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 r2 e2if (1) Note. testing the critical point shows if there is any stable attractive cycle. The boundary of the main body defines the locus of points (in the parameter space) for which the fixed point is indifferent. Using this fact one can determine the explicit expression for the outline of the M-set's main body. Combining these two equations. for the value of r < 1 the above equation determines the points inside the main . the modulus of the derivative of the map about the fixed point is exactly equal to 1.or rational function attracts at least one critical point.z + c = 0. The determination of the boundary of the main body of the Mandelbrot set relies on the realization that any value of the complex parameter picked from within the main body of the Mandelbrot set the corresponding Julia set is a boundary between the Escape set and the trapping set of the stable fixed point of the quadratic map. it is easy to see that the fixed point of the complex quadratic iterator is stable along the real axis for precisely the interval mentioned above. The derivative of the map about the fixed point z is given by 2z which in polar coordinates can be expressed as 2z = reif. and solving for c. that is. DETAILS For the sake of clarity the largest cardoid (heart) shaped central region of the Mandelbrot set will be referred to as the main body of the Mandelbrot set (M1 -. it follows that z satisfies the equation z2 . All other pieces that are attached to the main body will be referred to as the buds.the region labeled 1 in the figure(3) below).

body of the Mandelbrot set and r = 1 gives the bondary of M1. The above equation is the parametrization of the curve in the complex plane for 0 £ f < 2p. Thus, is explicitly seen as an equation of cardoid when expressed as Âc = cos(f)/2 - cos(2f)/4 Ác = sin(f)/2 - sin(2f)/4 (2) by equating the real and imaginary parts of the equation. It turns out, that at the parameter values, f = 2p/k, where k = 2, 3, 4, 5 ¼, one of the main buds of the Mandelbrot set is attached to M1 set. Moreover, the period of the attractive cycles that belong to these buds is given by the number k in 2p/k. Also, there is another amazing fact about the arrangement of the buds. Two given buds of periods p and q at the cardoid detemine the period of the largest bud in between them as p+q. (This is illustrated for the case of p = 2 and q = 3 in figure(3) below). Similar rules are true for buds on buds.

Figure 3: The buds of the Mandelbrot set corresponding to Julia sets that bound the basins of attraction (trapping sets) of periodic orbits. The numbers in the figure indicate the periods of these orbits. Figure 4: The plot of equation (2) which defines the boundary of the main body (M1) of the Mandelbrot set and the numbers indicate the periodicity of the buds that attach to the main body of the Mandelbrot set and the point where they attach to the main body of the Mandelbrot set.

The above two remarkable property corresponding to the periodicity of the bud was the reason for indexing the buds attached to the main body of the M-set as Mn. Thus, from the above argument the period 2 bud is attached at an angle p (setting k = 2 in f = 2p/k), similarly period 3 is the attached at f = 120 and so on. Figure(4) above shows the buds of the Mandelbrot set corresponding to Julia sets that bound basins of attraction of periodic orbits. The numbers in the figure indicate the periods of these orbits.

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF CHOLESTEROL BIOSYNTHESIS REGULATION IN THE CELL *Ratushny A.V., Ignatieva E.V., Matushkin Yu.G., Likhoshvai V.A. Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Russia e-mail:ratushny@bionet.nsc.ru *Corresponding author, Keywords: gene network, cholesterol, regulation, mathematical model, computer analysis Resume Motivation: An adequate mathematical model of the complex nonlinear gene network regulating cholesterol synthesis in the cell is necessary for investigating its possible function modes and determining optimal strategies of its correction, therapeutic included. Results: Dynamic model of function of the gene network regulating cholesterol synthesis in the cell is constructed. The model is described in terms of elementary processesbiochemical reactions. The optimal set of parameters of the model is determined. Patterns of the system behavior under different conditions are simulated numerically. Introduction Cholesterol, an amphipathic lipid, is an essential structural component of cell membranes and outer lipoprotein layer of blood serum. In addition, cholesterol is a precursor of several other steroids, namely, corticosteroids, sex hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. Cholesterol is synthesized in many tissues from acetyl-CoA and its main fraction in blood serum resides with low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Free cholesterol is removed from the tissues with involvement of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and transported to the liver to be transformed into bile acids. Its major pathological role is in serving as a factor causing atherosclerosis of vital cerebral arteries, heart muscle, and other organs. Typical of coronary atherosclerosis is a high ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol [Marry R. et al., 1993]. Haploid and diploid versions of the dynamic model of function of the gene network regulating cholesterol synthesis in the cell are constructed in the work. The models are described in terms of

elementary processes-biochemical reactions. The optimal set of parameters of the model allowing the calculations to comply with the published experimental data is determined through numerical experiments. Patterns of the system dynamic behavior under different conditions are simulated numerically. The results obtained are compared with the available experimental data. Cholesterol biosynthesis and its regulation Approximately half of the cholesterol amount present in the organism is formed through biosynthesis (about 500 mg/day) [Marry R. et al., 1993], while the other half is consumed with food. The main part of cholesterol is synthesized in the liver (~ 80% of the total cholesterol produced), intestines (~ 10%), and skin (~ 5%) [Klimov & Nikul’cheva, 1999]. Acetyl-CoA is the source of all the carbon atoms composing the cholesterol molecule. The main stages of cholesterol biosynthesis are described in the GeneNet database. Cholesterol regulates its own synthesis and the synthesis of LDL receptors at the level of transcription through a negative feedback mechanism [Wang et al., 1994]. A decrease in the cell cholesterol content stimulates SRP (sterol regulated protease)catalyzed proteolysis of the N-terminal fragment of SREBP (sterol regulatory element- binding protein), bound to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. On leaving the ER membrane, SREBP migrates to the cell nucleus to bind the so-called sterol regulatory element (SRE), residing in the promoter of the receptor gene, thereby switching on the receptor synthesis. In addition, SREBP activates the gene of synthase of hydroxymethyl glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase [Klimov & Nikul’cheva, 1999] as well as farnesyl diphosphate synthase and squalene synthase syntheses. Several studies have demonstrated rather fast effect of cholesterol on the reductase activity, unexplainable by the mere effect on the rate of enzyme synthesis. HMGCoA reductase may be either active or inactive. Phosphorylation- dephosphorylation reactions provide for the transitions from one state into the other [Marry R. et al., 1993]. The main factors affecting the cholesterol balance at the cell level [Marry R. et al., 1993] are shown in Fig. 1.

Figure 1. Factors affecting the cholesterol balance at the cell level: C, cholesterol; CE, cholesterol esters; ACAT, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase; LCAT, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase; A1, apoprotein A1; LDL, low density lipoproteins; VLDL, very low density lipoproteins, HDL, high density lipoproteins; (-

), inhibition of cholesterol synthesis; and (+) ACAT activation [Marry R. et al., 1993]. Cell cholesterol content increases if (1) specific LDL receptors bind cholesterolcontaining lipoproteins; (2) cholesterol-containing lipoproteins are bound without receptors; (3) free cholesterol, contained in cholesterol-rich lipoproteins is bound by cell membranes; (4) cholesterol is synthesized; and (5) cholesterol ester hydrolasecatalyzed hydrolysis of cholesterol esters takes place. Cell cholesterol content decreases if (1) cholesterol passes from membranes into cholesterol-poor lipoproteins, in particular LDL3 or LDL synthesized de novo (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase promotes this transition); (2) ACAT-catalyzed cholesterol esterification takes place; and (3) cholesterol is used for synthesizing other steroids, in particular, hormones or bile acids in the liver [Marry R. et al., 1993]. Methods and algorithms A generalized chemical kinetic approach [Bazhan et al., 1995] was used for the simulation. A blockwise formalization was used, that is, each process is separated in an individual block and described independently of the other processes. A block is a simulation quantum, and its formal structure is completely described with the following three vector components: (1) X, the list of dynamic variables; (2) P, the list of constants; and (3) F, type of the right part of the system dX/dt = F(X, P) determining the rule these dynamic variables change with time. Four types of blocks are used to describe the processes in the model, namely:

Successive application of the blockwise approach to description of biological systems is based on the law of summation of the rates of elementary processes while uniting them in a general scheme of the simulated object development. The method of Gear [Gear, 1971] was used for numerical integration of the set of differential equations. Results Mathematical model The mathematical model of intracellular cholesterol biosynthesis regulation comprises 65 kinetic blocks, 40 dynamic variables, and 93 reaction constants. The diploid model comprises 72 kinetic blocks, 44 dynamic variables, and 130 reaction constants. Experimental data, partially listed in table below, were used for the initial evaluation of certain parameters of enzymatic reactions with the system.

Table. Some constants of enzyme reactions Enzyme Substrate Organism Organ Kc, sec- 1 Km, mM HMG-CoA reductase HMG-CoA Rattus norvegicus [Gil et al., 1981] Liver 980 (-) HMG-CoA reductase HMG-CoA Rattus norvegicus [Kleinsek & Porter, 1979] Liver (-) 0.0169 HMG-CoA reductase HMG-CoA Rattus norvegicus [Sugano et al., 1978] Intestine (-) 0.0417 HMG-CoA synthase Acetyl-CoA Acetoacetyl-CoA Gallus gallus (hen) [Reed et al., 1975] Liver (-) (-) 0.1? 0.7 <0.005 HMG-CoA synthase Acetyl-CoA Homo sapiens [Rokosz et al., 1994] Adrenal (-) 0.029 Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase Acetoacetyl-CoA CoA Bos taurus (calf) [Huth et al., 1975] Liver (-) (-) 0.01 0.025 Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase Acetoacetyl-CoA CoA Gram-negative bacteria [Kim & Copeland 1997] 2.38e+4

2.38e+4 0.042 0.056 Presqualene synthase Farnesyl diphosphate Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) [Sasiak & Rilling, 1988] (-) 0.03 Geranyltransferase Geranyl PP Isopentyl PP Homo sapiens [Barnard & Popjak 1981] Liver 40.7 40.7 4.4e-4 9.4e-4 Lanosterol synthase (R,S)-squalene-2,3-oxide Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Balliano et al., 1992] (-) 0.035 ACAT-1 Oleoyl-CoA Cholesterol Homo sapiens (Cricetulus griseus)[Chang et al., 1998] Ovary (-) 7.4?-3 Bile acid hydrolase Taurocholate Lactobacillus sp. (bacteria) [Lundeen & Savage, 1990] 1900 0.76 Other published data were used for evaluating parameters of the model, in particular [Klimov & Nikul’cheva, 1999]: Fasting LDL concentration in adult human blood serum CLDL = 200- 300 mg/dl. The average number of unesterified and esterified cholesterol molecules per one LDL particle QUEC = 475 and QEC = 1310. LDL half-life in blood of healthy humans t 1/2 = 2.5 days; therefore, kLDLutil. = ln(2)/t 1/2 =3.21*10-6 sec-1.

Total number of LDL receptors per one cell at 37° C QLDLR = 15,000- 70,000. Lifespan of LDL receptors t = 1- 2 days; therefore, kLDLRutil. = 1/t ~ 7.72e - 6 sec1. LDL receptor recyclization span t ~ 20 min. The values of the rest parameters of the model were determined through numerical experiments.

Figure 2. Kinetics of main components of the system regulating cholesterol biosynthesis in the cell. Results of calculations The results obtained while simulating the cell response to a twofold increase in LDL particle content in blood serum (Fig. 2, b) illustrate the model performance. The number of receptors bound to LDL increases (d); unbound, decreases (e). Intracellular concentrations of free cholesterol (a) and its esters (c) increase. Free cholesterol binds the protease (SRP), preventing SREBP-1 formation (f). Productions of enzymes involved in the internal cellular cholesterol synthesis (HMG-CoA reductase; g), LDL receptors, and intermediate low-molecular-weight components (mevalonic acid, h; squalene, i) are stopped. Cholesterol concentration in the cell is decreasing. No further influence on the system provided, it returns to the initial state. A complete recovering requires about 15 h. In future, we plan to perform computer stimulation of recombination process in diploid cell, by modelling interactions between alleles of genes responsible for cholesterol biosynthesis. Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to Galina Chirikova for translation of the manuscript into English and to N.A. Kolchanov for fruitful discussions. The work was supported by National Russian Program "Human Genome" (No 106), Integrational Science Project of SB RAS "Modelling of basic genetical processes and systems". References R. Marry, D. Grenner, P. Meies, V. Roduell, "Human Biochemistry", Moscow,

"Mir", (1993). A.N. Klimov and N.G. Nikul’cheva, "Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Its Disturbances" St. Petersburg: Piter Kom. (1999). X. Wang, R. Seto, M. S. Brown et al., "SREBP-1, a membrane-bound transcription factor released by sterol regulated proteolises" Cell, 77, 53 (1994).UI: 94208061 S.I. Bazhan, V.A. Likhoshvai and O.E. Belova, "Theoretical Analysis of the Regulation of Interferon Expression during Priming and Blocking" J. Theor. Biol., 175, 149 (1995).UI: 96007769 C. W. Gear, "The automatic integration of ordinary differential equations", Communs ACM, 14, 176 (1971). G. Gil, M. Sitges, and F.G. Hegardt, "Purification and properties of rat liver hydrohymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase phosphatases" Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 663, No. 1, 211 (1981).UI: 82044857 D.A. Kleinsek, J.W. Porter, "An alternate method of purification and properties of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase" J. Biol. Chem., 254, No. 16, 7591 (1979).UI: 79239331 M. Sugano, H. Okamatsu, and T. Ide, "Properties of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase in villous and crypt cells of the rat small intestine" Agr. Biol. Chem., 42, No. 11, 2009 (1978). W.D. Reed, K.D. Clinkenbeard, and M.D. Lane, "Molecular and catalytic properties of mitochondrial (ketogenic) 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase of liver" J. Biol. Chem., 250, No. 8, 3117 (1975).UI: 75133544 L.L. Rokosz, D.A. Boulton, E.A. Butkiewicz, G. Sanyal, M.A. Cueto, P.A. Lachance, and J.D. Hermes, "Human cytoplasmic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase: expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant wild-type and Cys129 mutant enzymes" Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 312, No. 1, 1 (1994).UI: 94304197 W. Huth, R. Jonas, I. Wunderlich, and W. Seubert, "On the mechanism of ketogenesis and its control. Purification, kinetic mechanism and regulation of different forms of mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolases from ox liver" Eur. J. Biochem., 59, No. 2, 475 (1975).UI: 76091931 S.A. Kim and L. Copeland, "Acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase of Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) strain CC 1192" Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 63, No. 9, 3432 (1997). K. Sasiak and H.C. Rilling "Purification to homogeneity and some properties of squalene synthetase" Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 260, No. 2, 622 (1988).UI: 88132877 G.F. Barnard and G. Popjak, "Human liver prenyltransferase and its characterization" Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 661, No. 1, 87 (1981).UI: 82046705 G. Balliano, F. Viola, M. Ceruti, L. Cattel, "Characterization and partial purification of squalene-2,3-oxide cyclase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae" Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 293, No. 1, 122 (1992).UI: 92117685 C.C.Y. Chang, C.-Y.G. Lee, E.T. Chang, C.J. C.ruz, M.C. Levesque, T.-Y. Chang "Recombinant acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) purified to essential

UI: 99074294 S. Why does the cosmological constant behave this way? This term acts like a vacuum energy density. Bacteriol. 4171 (1990). the vacuum within the cylinder then has more energy which must have been supplied by a force pulling on the piston. 273(52).UI: 90330517 Vacuum Energy Density. and rho is the equivalent mass density using E = m*c2. homogeneous model with spherical geometry.C. The gravitational effect of matter caused an acceleration in this model which Einstein did not want. it must have a negative pressure. pressure has weight. If the vacuum is trying to pull the piston back into the cylinder.. This term acts to counteract the gravitational pull of matter. or How Can Nothing Weigh Something? Recently two different groups have measured the apparent brightness of supernovae with redshifts near z = 1. and so it has been described as an anti-gravity effect. 172 No. 35132 1998. Thus Einstein introduced a cosmological constant into his equations for General Relativity.G. the inflationary scenario for the first picosecond after the Big Bang proposes that a fairly large vacuum energy density existed during the inflationary epoch. The magnitude of the negative pressure needed for energy conservation is easily found to be P = -u = -rho*c2 where P is the pressure. producing more vacuum. which means that the gravitational acceleration at the edge of a uniform density sphere is not given by . But in General Relativity. since a positive pressure would tend to push the piston out. "Characterization and purification of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus sp. u is the vacuum energy density. since at the time the Universe was not known to be expanding. Indeed. If a piston capping a cylinder of vacuum is pulled out. The vacuum energy density must be associated with a negative pressure because: The vacuum energy density must be constant because there is nothing for it to depend on. 8. an idea which has become quite fashionable in high energy particle physics models since a vacuum energy density of a specific kind is used in the Higgs mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. Based on this data the old idea of a cosmological constant is making a comeback.homogeneity utilizes cholesterol in mixed micelles or in vesicles in a highly cooperative manner" Journal of Biological Chemistry. strain 100-100" J. Lundeen and D. Savage. Einstein Static Cosmology Einstein's original cosmological model was a static.

which gives a vacuum density of rho(vacuum) = M4c3/h3 = 1013 [M/proton mass]4 gm/cc For the highest reasonable elementary particle mass. This gives a net negative gravitational acceleration. Thus rho+3P/c2 = 0 and the gravitational acceleration was zero. the static model's premise of a static Universe was shown by Hubble to be incorrect. But there is no obvious reason why the energy of this ground state should be zero. which makes the Universe grow even more! If instead the Universe shrank slightly. by setting rho(vacuum) = 0. one gets a net positive gravitational acceleration.like a pencil balanced on its point.5*rho(matter)*c2 since the pressure from ordinary matter is essentially zero (compared to rho*c2). In addition to this flaw of instability.g = GM/R2 = (4*pi/3)*G*rho*R but is rather given by g = (4*pi/3)*G*(rho+3P/c2)*R Now Einstein wanted a static model. which means that g = 0. but he also wanted to have some matter. Einstein's Greatest Blunder However. which makes it shrink more! Any small deviation gets magnified. For imagine that the Universe grew slightly: say by 1 part per million in size.5*rho(matter) and a total pressure of -0. Then the vacuum energy density stays the same. With a large amount of mathematical work it is possible to prove that the ground state of this system has an energy that is less than infinity. g = (4*pi/3)*G*(rho(matter)-2*rho(vacuum))*R = 0 allowing a static Universe. there is a basic flaw in this Einstein static model: it is unstable . and thus he needed P < 0. But it still exists as a possibility -. and to drop it from his equations. the Planck mass of 20 .a coefficient that should be determined from observations or fundamental theory. so rho > 0. One expects roughly one particle in every volume equal to the Compton wavelength of the particle cubed. This led Einstein to refer to the cosmological constant as his greatest blunder. and the model is fundamentally flawed. In fact. The Quantum Expectation The equations of quantum field theory describing interacting particles and antiparticles of mass M are very hard to solve exactly.5*rho(matter) he had a total density of 1. but the matter energy density goes down by 3 parts per million.

114. orders of magnitude are ruled out by the data. So non-zero vacuum energy densities are certainly possible. And 124. 124. which occurred 11 Gyr ago for this model if Ho = 65. which would make the effect of the vacuum energy density on the Universe negligible. The centripetal acceleration of a particle moving around a circle of radius R with period P is a = R*(2*pi/P)2 which has to be equal to the gravitational acceleration worked out above: . the vacuum energy density is zero. on the other hand. Why are we alive coincidentally at the time when the vacuum density is in the middle of its fairly rapid transition from a negligible fraction to the dominant fraction of the total density? If. On the other hand suppressions by 118. What about Inflation? During the inflationary epoch. then the vacuum density is about 75% of the total density now. etc. The Dicke Coincidence Argument If the supernova data and the CMB data are correct. orders of magnitude should all be just as probable as well. the vacuum energy density was only 10% of the total density.micrograms. its effect will be greater in a large volume system. But at redshift z=2. A Bayesian Argument We don't know what this mechanism is. Unless there are data to rule out suppression factors of 122. And 11 Gyr in the future the vacuum density will be 96% of the total density. orders of magnitude then the most probable value of the vacuum energy density is zero. then it is always 0% of the total density and the current epoch is not special. this density is more than 1091 gm/cc. but it seems reasonable that suppression by 122 orders of magnitude. Observational Limits Solar System One way to look for a vacuum energy density is to study the orbits of particles moving in the gravitational field of known masses. So in the inflationary scenario the vacuum energy density was once large. the vacuum energy density was large: around 1071 gm/cc. So there must be a suppression mechanism at work now that reduces the vacuum energy density by at least 120 orders of magnitude. 128 etc. and then was suppressed by a large factor. and all give a negligible effect on the Universe. and we can check for the presence of a vacuum energy density by a careful test of Kepler's Third Law: that the period squared is proportional to the distance from the Sun cubed. etc. is just as probable as suppression by 120 orders of magnitude. 126. Since we are looking for a constant density. 116. The Solar System is the largest system where we really know what the masses are.

493. so to be conservative I will drop the "half" and just say rho(vacuum) < (3/(4*pi*G))(v/R)2 = 3*10-24 gm/cc for a circular velocity v = 220 km/sec and a distance R = 8. The Voyager spacecraft allowed very precise distances to Uranus and Neptune to be determined. then one gets a fractional change in period of dP/P = (4*pi/3)*R3*rho(vacuum)/M(sun) = rho(vacuum)/rho(bar) where the average density inside radius R is rho(bar) = M/((4*pi/3)*R3). 448. there would be no centripetal acceleration of the Sun toward the Galactic Center. This can only be checked for planets where we have an independent measurement of the distance from the Sun. and Anderson et al. but their calculation appears to be off by a factor of 3 trillion.a = R*(2*pi/P)2 = g = GM(Sun)/R2 .5 kpc. 52) claimed that this effect could set limits on the vacuum density only ten or so times higher than the critical density. But we compute the average matter density assuming that the vacuum energy density is zero. 885) found that dP/P = (1+/-1) parts per million at Neptune's distance from the Sun. In the case of the Sun's orbit around the Milky Way. But if the vacuum density is not zero. . Cardona and Tejeiro (1998.(8*pi/3)*G*rho(vacuum))*R If rho(vacuum) = 0 then we get (4*pi2/GM)*R3 = P2 which is Kepler's Third Law. we only say that the vacuum energy density is less than half of the average matter density in a sphere centered at the Galactic Center that extends out to the Sun's distance from the center. This gives us a Solar System limit of rho(vacuum) = (5+/-5)*10-18 < 2*10-17 gm/cc The cosmological constant will also cause a precession of the perihelion of a planet. The correct advance of the perihelion is 3*rho(vacuum)/rho(bar) cycles per orbit. If the vacuum energy density were more than this. Because the ranging data to the Viking landers on Mars is so precise. ApJ. a very good limit on the vacuum density is obtained: rho(vacuum) < 2*10-19 gm/cc Milky Way Galaxy In larger systems we cannot make part per million verifications of the standard model. (1995. ApJ.

The figure above shows the scale factor as a function of time for several different models. Because the time to reach a given redshift is larger in the OmegaM = 0. The figure above shows the regions in the (OmegaM.25. lambda = . leaving the CMB spectrum unexplained. even a closed Universe can expand forever. The colors of the curves are keyed to the colors of the circular dots in the (OmegaM. The green region in the upper left is ruled out because there would not be a Big Bang in this region.Large Scale Geometry of the Universe The best limit on the vacuum energy density comes from the largest possible system: the Universe as a whole. then the Universe is open if OmegaM + lambda is less than one. For lambda greater than zero. This expresses the vacuum energy density on the same scale used by the density parameter Omega. then the Universe will expand forever unless the matter density OmegaM is much larger than current observations suggest. lambda = 0. If the vacuum energy density is greater than the critical density. The vacuum energy density leads to an accelerating expansion of the Universe. The big pink ellipse shows the possible systematic errors in the supernova data.25. lambda) plane that are suggested by the current data. We know the Universe went through a hot dense phase because of the light element abundances and the properties of the cosmic microwave background. closed if it is greater than one.75. The purple curve is for the favored OmegaM = 0. The ratio of rho(vacuum) to rho(critical) is called lambda. which has lambda = 1 but no Big Bang. lambda) plane Figure.75 model. The red and green ellipses with yellow overlap region show the LBL team's allowed parameters (red) and the Hi-Z SN Team's allowed parameters (green). These require that the Universe was at least a billion times smaller in the past than it is now. If we use OmegaM to denote the ratio of ordinary matter density to critical density. and this limits the vacuum energy density to rho(vacuum) < rho(critical) = 8*10-30 gm/cc The recent supernova results suggest that the vacuum energy density is close to this limit: rho(vacuum) = 0. If lambda is greater than zero. The blue wedge shows the parameter space region that gives the observed Doppler peak position in the angular power spectrum of the CMB. then the Universe will not have gone through a very hot dense phase when the scale factor was zero (the Big Bang). and flat if it is exactly one.75*rho(critical) = 6*10-30 gm/cc. Thus the supernova data suggest that lambda = 0. The blue curve is the Steady State model. The purple region is consistent with the CMB Doppler peak position and the supernova data.

May 30. Monday.66 magnitudes fainter).75 model than in the OmegaM = 1 model. such as the MAP satellite which will observe the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background with angular resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to measure the vacuum energy density. volcanos and the ozone lay hole. This result is very important if true. 2005 Gum Nebula exploded star may have melted last ice age @12. lambda = 0. Last modified 2-Nov-2002 ----------------------------------------------------The Gum Nebula : giant plasma blob headed to Earth by the year 5500 AD ? The gum nebula may have melted the last ice age about 12.000-15.000 years ago . Conclusion In the past.000 to 15. Wright.84 times fainter (0.000-15. the OmegaM = 0. 12.0. Ned Wright's Home Page FAQ | Tutorial : Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Age | Distances | Bibliography | Relativity © 1998-2002 Edward L. which corresponds to approximately to the most distant of the supernovae observed to date. Using a ruler you can see that the angular size distance to z = 1 is 1. brighter than the moon. as shown in the space-time diagram below: The OmegaM = 1 model is on the left. the angular size distance and luminosity distance are larger in the lambda model. causes earth quakes.000 years ago. is only 300-1000 light years away and now covers 40-60% of the Earth's southern sky. The green line across each space-time diagram shows the time when the redshift was z = 1. which makes the observed supernovae 1.75 model is on the right.25. Now we have the supernova data that suggests that the vacuum energy density is greater than zero. We need to confirm it using other techniques.36 times larger in the right hand diagram. we have had only upper limits on the vacuum density and philosophical arguments based on the Dicke coincidence problem and Bayesian statistics that suggested that the most likely value of the vacuum density was zero.000 years ago it was 1 million times.

TSUNAMIS.000 years ago.It currently covers 40-60% of the Earth's southern sky if the gum nebula's plasma and engery travels about 1. 7:16 pm show options From: "Br Dan Izzo" . volcanos and earth quakes. volcanos and earth quakes. caused ozon hole.Find messages by this author Date: Sat. (Supernova Remnant in Puppis & Vela)Covering 40-60% of the Southern Sky Only 1 message in topic .000 years ago. SUPER NOVA EXPLOSION : ITS RADIATION PULSE WAS SEVERAL TIMES MILLION STRONGER THAN THE SUN . LIKE THE RECENT EARTH QUAKES.5 million miles per hour the matter will be on Earth by 5500 AD posted by Brother-Dan-Izzo @ 11:03 AM 0 comments Blame it on the Gum Nebula: the Giant Blob headed to Earth by 5500 AD ? Giant Blob headed to Earth by 5500 AD ? Blame it on the Gum Nebula star explosion @15. it may have melted last ice age. 28 May 2005 16:16:03 -0700 Local: Sat. it may have melted last ice age.May 28 2005 7:16 pm Subject: Giant Blob headed to Earth by 5500 AD ? Blame it on the Gum Nebula star explosion @15.view as tree " noWrap width="1%" bgColor=#b71c0c>Br Dan Izzo May 28.500 AD ITS GAMMA RAY/COSMIC RAY EMF ENERGY ALREADY PASTED BY THE EARTH 300-1000 YEARS AFTER THE STAR EXPLODED @15.000-11. AND STORMS.000 BC BLAME IT ON THE GUM NEBULA. caused ozon hole. (Supernova Remnant in Puppis & Vela)Covering 40-60% of the Southern Sky Reply Reply to Author Forward Print Individual Message Show original Remove Report Abuse Blame it on the Gum Nebula: Giant Blob headed to Earth ? Gum Nebula (Supernova Remnant in Puppis & Vela) Covering 40-60% of the Southern Sky and Heading this Way BLAME THE GUM NEBULA FOR THEORY THAT THE GUM NEBULA: (1) CAUSED THE MELTING OF THE LAST ICE AGE (2) CAUSED THE HOLE IN THE OZONE LAYER (3) CAUSES THE INCREASE IN EARTH'S TEMPERATURE INPART (4) CAUSES INCREASE IN EARTH QUAKES.5 MILLION MILES PER HOUR IT WILL REACH THE EARTH @ 5. AND VOLCANO ERPUPTION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------DEAR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS THE GUM NEBULA COVERS 40-60% OF THE EARTH'S SOUTHERN SKY AND IF ITS PLASMA TRAVELS AT @1.

26:08 JST(+0900).8 with IDAS LPS-P1 light-pollution supression filter . a far cry from its brief glory as one of the brightest stars ever seen. Optical: SMC PENTAX f=165mm F2. Edinburgh. TSUNAMIS. This photograph shows a portion of the north-western quadrant of an expanding nebulous shell. About ( 12.000 years ago ) 120 centuries ago an inconspicuous star in what is now the constellation of Vela brightened by about 100 million times to rival the Moon as the brightest object in the night sky. Anglo-Australian Observatory/Royal Obs. AND STORMS.THE GUM NEBULA REVIVALED THE MOON IN BRIGHTNESS IN THE SOUTHERN SKY BLAME THE GUM NEBULA FOR THEORY THAT THE GUM NEBULA: (1) CAUSED THE MELTING OF THE LAST ICE AGE (2) CAUSED THE HOLE IN THE OZONE LAYER (3) CAUSES THE INCREASE IN EARTH'S TEMPERATURE INPART (4) CAUSES INCREASE IN EARTH QUAKES. the remnant of the star that exploded.Photograph from UK Schmidt plates by David Malin.8. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Date & Time: Dec 29 2002. NY 13207 cut and pasted web page on Gum Nebula below: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Top left is NE. Exp. Aperture: F2. Image width is about 2 degrees minImage and text © 1978-2002. AND VOLCANO ERPUPTION IT IS VERY POSSIBLE THAT THE EARTH IS RECIEVING A LOT MORE THAN THE GUM NEBULA'S LIGHT ENERGY PHOTONS AT THIS TIME MORE THOUGHT AND RESEARCH NEEDED THE GUM NEBULA IS NOT AN ACT OF GOD AND IT'S PLASMA IF IT REALLY DOES MAKE IT TO EARTH WOULD BE VERY WEAK IONS AND HELP FEED OUR SUN COSMIC MAGNETIC FORCE AND GOD BLESS YOU CRYONIC LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY DEPT OF GENERAL RESURRECTION BR DAN IZZO 512 ONONDAGA AVE SYRACUSE. This tiny object spins about 11 times a second and until recently was among the faintest stars ever studied at optical wavelengths. LIKE THE RECENT EARTH QUAKES. which now surrounds the site of the explosion. Near the centre of the nebula (and not seen here) is the Vela pulsar. 25min.000 to 15. a rapidly-spinning neutron star only a few kilometres in diameter.

. ...then out of the cloud the CBS eye appeared.. I have recieved a strange CBS eye symbol on my TV after I did this. This image shows you a limited area of Gum Nebula around the border of Puppis and Vela. A circular nebulosity in center has an ID of Gum17........ 610 mhz ( on channel 78uhf-tv) by keying a cb microphone over a radio receiver set on these radio channels with your home equipment..Auto-guided with TAKAHASHI JP Equatorial Camera: PENTAX 67 Film: Ektachrome E200 (+1EV pushed) Location: Ooizumi vil.. It wasn't CBS's thought. (91fm)...real spooky.. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Fum Nebula / Supernova Remnant R...that energy is bouncing off our heads now.. Its whole figure has ring structure..the eye looked like a lizards eye.... equivalent a part of northeast region. is considered a supernova remnant exploded about from 10 to 30 thousand years ago...(~) after some research... who investigated about the nebula.so maybe back in the early days of television...tv engineers must have recieved this same signal.A.we are recieving them.and transmit the spacey sound you hear to a recieving TV set at channel 78 UHF tv. The nebula is positioned in the Milky Way of Puppis to Vela.... but its low altitude of meridian transit make difficult to take pictures of the nebula clearly. is cosmic radio signals.. 08h 34m (around center) Dec. Yamanashi pref. with a green center eye and purple round about the eye. These are known cosmic radio sources from outerspace from Annual Review of Astrophysics and Astronomy 1966 editor Leo Goldberg...many elements naturally emitt radio pulses whern excited.160 mhz. The nebula with name of an astronomer. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cosmic Radio Signals can be polarized at 91mhz (fm).made for TV picture tubes in the 1950's..is artifically generated.then you will see a ATT type of symbol.there was a " CBS" electron gun.(center) 300 light yrs.if intelligent life has learned to genrate radio signals within our galaxy... I can capture images of only northern part of Gum Nebula.but for this happened a circular rainbow image formed. Facts : A lot of the static snow that you recieve is your non cable uhf tv. -45° 00' (around center) Apparent Size 40 x 90° Real Size N/A Magnitude . looks like a swollen Veil Nebula in Cygnus.personally I think 160 vhf radio. 160mhz (vhf)..I called CBS in NY. You can polarize these signals with CB radio Microphone buy keying the transmitting CB microphone over the speaker of a recieving radio set at 91 mhz.the odds are in our favor.it was gold on the edge.since it oscillates odd..and see the oscillations and fluctutations of the cosmic radio signal that has been just polarized.(160 vhf radio)...(closest region) In lower southern sky in winter night... The Gum Nebula has been grouped into some regions and assigned ID numbers because it's too large to regard as single celestial object. and they don't know why they pick that symbol.Distance 1500 light yrs. In Japan.... an extraordinary vast but dimmed ?gGum Nebula?h is spreading out with a size of 40 x 90 degrees..as they recieve our signals from 50+ years ago..

" . will turn lead into golden color. Lead is the ONLY METAL that can be the STANDARD WEIGHT as 10kt Gold ( that is semi safe to use ) (2) Lead metal will transmutate into Gold when bombarded with a source of neutrons. (4) Certain compounds when added to lead metal .Cosmic Mangetic Force and God Bless You Br Dan Izzo 512 Onondaga Ave Syracuse. see " yellow lead " " naples yellow " ( a gold color ) and see the golden lead chrystal. NY 13207 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------- Facts on Lead Metal and its Transmutation into Gold (1) Lead metal has 82 protons & electrons and contains Gold in it already. like coal into diamonds. " Vanadinite . (3) It is alleged that Lead naturally transmutes into Gold over millions of years within a vein of quartz chrystals and the piezo electric effect interaction.

it will be safe for people to handle. If the Federal Reserve. (6) Lead is decayed uranium. " Therefore buy of me gold refined in the fire " God rev 3:18 Suffering. US Mint and Treasury needs a Modern Alchemist please let me know. Because Money Ends May God Bless You Yours Faithfully Rev Daniel Izzo BA/ MS science researcher inventor 512 Onondaga Ave Syracuse. I would like to work on this project for the US government because money ends suffering.(5) Being the only metal suitable as the Standard Weight as 10kt gold. lead can be easily transmuted into $100 US Created Gold Coins for the US Mint and its $100 Created Gold certificates and if a layer of real 10kt gold covers the created gold coin. NY 13207 1-315-472-5088 .