The harmful demons in the Tibetan folk religion

Introduction

‡ According the Buddhist world-view all gods and demons are illusion of the mind, or creatures of the our mind. ‡ In the folk religions the spiritual beings are objective beings

The classifications of Tibetan deities and demons
‡ Lama Klong-rdol ÄBstan-srung dam-can rgya-mtsho¶i rnying-gi grang bzhugs-so´ In this listing ofthe ÄNames of the Dharmapalas, as endless as the sea´ ‡ Protective deities, who are liberated from this wordly existence - µJig-rten-las µdas-pa¶i srung-ma ‡ Protective deities who work within the powers of world - µJigrten-pa¶i srung-ma

The bad spirits, demons and their residence
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The bad spirits, demons and their residence The cosmic demons and the elements astral demons - fire element weather demons: wind element earth demons: earth element klu demons: water element

Sa-bdag, Zhi-bdag

‡ The land the inhabitants of deep are the Äearth-lord´, in Tibetan sa-bdag, or zhi-bdag ± lords of land - the important local deities ‡ anthropomorphic and zooantropomorf figures

Bdud ±Devils

Bdud (Farkas - Szabó p. 55.)

Bdud nag-po (Farkas - Szabó p. 59)

The four Bdud

µChi-bdag

Nyon-mongs

Phung-po

Lha¶i bdud

Gnod-sbyin
‡ They belong to the ancestral groups of Tibetan demons. ‡ But if they become enraged they can be very dangerous for human beings ‡ They are the Indian mithology Yaksa-demons, dragons.

The¶u-rang demons

‡ The deities living between the sky and the earth have a group belonging to the lower layers of the intermediate space ‡ The the¶u rang are supernatural beings originating in the pre-Buddhist era in Tibet.

Klu ± n g
snake demons

Klu ² snake demons

Klu - n g

µDre ± evil spirits
‡ there is a demon ² male or female ² causing damage with a knife

Gnyan demons
‡ The gnyan dwell on different places, they are local deities. We know it the elements and their categorisation according to compass points.

Ma-mo
‡Most of ma-mo are depicted as ugly and ferocious female figures of a black colour, half-naked, with emaciated breast and clotted hair

Srin-po demons (Rakshasa) cannibal monsters

Dangers caused by demons
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ the poisons of klu the brandishing of the snares of the bdud the shooting-off of the arrows of the btsan demons the "ki-kang illnes of the gza´ demons the opening of the "sack of disease" belonging to the gnod-sbyin the sending of the "notched disease (stick) (khram-nad) of the ma-mo the mirrages caused by the 'byung demons the khram-kha of the gshin-rje demons the stealing of the life by the'u-rang the sending of disease and epidemics by the dri-zaharm caused to children by the bdud

Illustrations of some other harmful demons The Gza¶ demons

Btsan demons

Illnesses and demons

Gnon-drag-po dsrasla bzhi-mig An demon caused illnesses

the demon symbolize the attack of the illness

demons causing illnesses

aquatic ghosts -nagas, a local earthly god armament of who symbolize his belligerent nature.

Naga, as swelling of the foot is brought about

dog-headed demon the agent of the tremble, preta-headed demon

bird-headed demon woman

The demons open a door in our ghost the subconscious for strengths, even the physical energies, the characteristics dwelling in our consciousness are symbolize even.

Superstitions referred to the evil spirits
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Infectious places Children, babies Nagas, klus Illnesses, demonic influences

Amulates against the demonic influences

Two amulets figuring the human body and its elemets

a tanric amulet aganist diseasebinding

a bon-po amulet

Magic diagrams protecting against various kinds of evil (Nebesky-Wojkowitz)

Bibliography
Baker, Ian A.: A tibeti gyógyítás m vészete (ford. Vásárhelyi Maja). Édesvíz, 1999 Birtalan, Ágnes: Systematization of the concept of demonic and evil mongolian folk religion (manuscript) Farkas, János - Szabó, Tibor: The pictoral world of the Tibeto-Mongolian demons = Die Bilderwelt der tibetischmongolischen Dämonen. Budapest, Mandala & LibroTrade, 2002. Béla, Kelényi (ed.): Demons and protectors : folk religion in Tibetan and Mongolian buddhism. Budapest, Ferenc Hopp Museum of Eastern Asiatic Art, 2003. Douglas, Nick (selection and text): Tibetan tantric charms and amulets. 230 Examples reproduced from orogonal woodblocks. Dover Publications, New York, 1978. Labrang Kalsang: The guardian deities of Tibet. Little Lhasa Publications, Dharamsala, 1996. Nebesky-Wojkowitz, René de: Oracles and demons in Tibet: the cult and iconography of the tibetan protective deities. Akademische Druck, Graz, 1975. Norbu Chophel (compiled): Folk culture of Tibet. Superstitions and other beliefs. Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala, 1993 (2nd Printing) Samuel, Geoffrey: Civilized shamans : Buddhism in Tibetan societies. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washungton and London, 1993. Stein, R. A.: Tibetan civilization. Faber and Faber, London, 1972. Tokarev, Sz. A. (f szerk.): Mitológiai enciklopédia. Gondolat Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 1988. Tucci, Giuseppe: The religions of Tibet (trans. Geoffrey Samuel). University of California Press, Berkeley - Los Angeles, 1988. Interenet sources http://en.wikipedia.org http://www.khandro.net/mysterious_spirits.htm http://www.tibetanresearch.org/folk_religion_in_tibetan_culture.htm http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/sutra/level4_deepening_understanding_path/interferences/four_m aras_four_demonic_forces.html

Appendix Dangers caused by demons:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ the poisons of klu the madness send by rhe rgyal-po demons the brandishing of the snares of the bdud the shooting-off of the arrows of the btsan demons the "ki-kang illnes of the gza". the opening of the "sack of disease" belonging to the gnod-sbyin the sending of the "notched disease (stick) (khram-nad) of the ma-mo the mirrages caused by the 'byung demons the khram-kha of the gshin-rje demons the stealing of the life by the'u-rang the sending of disease and epidemics by the dri-zaharm caused to children by the bdud

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