Graduate center for Management Faculty of Management

MANUAL FOR MBA PROJECT WRITING

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Prepared by MMU-GCM
GUIDELINES FOR MBA RESEARCH 1. INTRODUCTION MBA students are required to take this module. They will gain 12 credits or 30 points under this module. Therefore, it affects the CGPA. Hence, it is the critical module in MBA Programme. 2. OPPORTUNITIES This module enables MBA students to develop interest and enhance their expertise in the area which they have profound implications in their later endeavours. Therefore, it is not only an academic requirement but also: • An opportunity for authentic, inexpensive consultancy service for a sponsoring organisation; • The change can provides a beneficial impact to employ the MBA graduates Simple advice from The GCM – make the most out of it. 3. OBJECTIVES The aim of this module is to provide the opportunity to conduct an extended systematic enquiry under supervision into a business area where the MBA students are interested in. More specifically, • • Consolidation of the skills and competencies acquired in MBA; Experience the application of analytical skills in the practical business situations

To success in the course, MBA students have to demonstrate two broad abilities: analyses and syntheses, in ways appropriate to choose and solve the research problems. This requires the students to extract and dissect the essential elements of the situation and to integrate information and opinions through the framework of the researcher's own judgements and viewpoints. These abilities must be demonstrated at a level of sophistication at least equivalent to that expected in other graduate papers. 4. COURSE DESCRIPTION

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The key features of the project work under this course is, the MBA students have to conduct a research in their sponsoring organisation. Sponsoring organisation proposes to solve a problem it faced in the specialised area. The report should suggest a course action, the need for which has been identified during the course of the research. It might be no 'problem' to be solved in the beginning of the research. You might have no idea if the problems exist in the organisation where you are conducting the research unless you are asked to deal with one or you look for one. On the other hand, the research may concern not with diagnosing or solving the problems, but with the feasibility of establishing new or proposed products, services, approaches or new ventures. It may, in other words, require you to be involved in research for which there is not present basic or precedents to serve as a set of guidelines. Whatever is in the project you to undertake, you must make sure it contributes to knowledge. 5. THEORY VERSUS PRACTISE IN RESEARCH From what has been written above you may gain the impression that there are two distinct "types" of research for both theoretical and practical. All research embodies elements of theoretical and practical application. 6. INVOLVEMENT Project should be carried out individually. A project conducted for candidate's sponsoring organisation has the advantage of: • Putting something back into the organisation; • Being able to relate (on the job) to the people and information • The project experience may directly contribute to the candidates present or potential career aspirations. 7. DEADLINES There are four key deadlines to meet - the initial proposal, the first meeting with supervisor, the submission of the final draft, the submission of the final report. At the commencement of the research effort, the deadlines will be set, between supervisor and students. 8. RESEARCH PROPOSALS

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The first steps in the process of developing the research report is to identify a topic- what is that you or your organisation would like focus on. Typical research topics would include: • A strategic plan for an existing or new organisation • A business plan for a new venture (separate from any business plan required for others papers) • A piece of market research • Developing and implementing a new product or service • Identifying, analysing and then solving a significant organisational problem • Introduction of quality management programmes • Attitude surveys of customers, staff or clients • Cultural audit and cultural changes Note: Any research proposal must be approved by the GCM, Faculty of Management, Multimedia University

9.

SUPERVISION The course objectives are to identify the personal supervision of one senior Multimedia University academic staff, who is referred to as the Chief Supervisor. And where necessary and appropriate, a co-supervisor may also be appointed to supervise the student's project. The Chief Supervisor has an overall and continuing responsibility for a project and co-ordinates the relationship between the individual / group and the supervisor and the agency hosting the research. The chief supervisor has an overall and continuing responsibility for a project and co-ordinates the relationship between the individual/ group and the supervisor and the agency hosting the research. The chief supervisor acts as the examiner of the final report. The co-supervisor is invited to submit a grade, which is taking into account of the letter in determining, by the final grade by the Dean in the consultation of the MBA co-ordinator. In exceptional circumstances, a senior staff member from other universities may be appointed as a research supervisor. Since supervisor is the key ingredient in this course, it is important for you to identify two supervisors as soon as possible. The procedures are as follows: • You will be provided with a list of staff members in the university who are available for project supervision. • You might, if you wish, suggest two staff members from the list provided to have the areas of expertise nearest report topic. • Complete the proposed topic and supervision proforma as per Appendix 1 and send it to the MBA co-ordinator not later than the last day or line scheduled Business Policy section.

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On the receipt of the Research Report proposal, the MBA co-ordinator will: • Approve the topic or amend it and will contact with you for further information.

Please note the following: ∗ There is a limit to the number of Research Report topics any individual staff member can adequately supervise at any time. ∗ Should a supervisor suggested by a student is not available, another supervisor considered suitable will be proposed by the GCM, Faculty of Management, Multimedia University ∗ The final decision on supervision will be made by the GCM, Faculty of Management, Multimedia University

TEN STEPS IN MANAGING A STUDENT PROJECT 1. Select the area, which you are interested in or the area which, you can handle it and competent. Begin the task of encapsulating your topic in one simple question. Your task of encapsulating your topic in one simple question. Your task in the project will be to answer to that question fully. Check with your supervisors that the area you have chosen is suitable. Negotiate what is required for acceptance of the finished report. That is, what are the normal expectations about the research activity, which will answer the question, you are asking yourself. What is the appropriate length for the kind of assignment you have set yourself? What are the constraints applying to the project (e.g. time, scope of what do you want to do, costs, etc). Do bear in mind that you must be able to complete the project with the time available. Narrow your area of interest to a specific topic. Finalise the specific research question you intend to answer. There should be inherently one major question in each research project. Projects lacking this one question often from problems of definition and focus. (However, finalising this specific question does not prevent you from later changing the direction of your project as you progress with it, in response to new or unforeseen developments). Write an initial research plan of the approach you will follow in answering your question. Get your supervisor to comment on this. Survey the literature relevant to your topic. Remember it is a rare piece of research which has no antecedents or which takes place in isolation. You should try to see your project in relationship to what are the probably numerous other similar studies that have been carried our before. Find information that helps you to understand how your study fits into the literature of the area.

2.

3.

4. 5.

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If you are through in your research you will almost certainly find that there is more than one literature of relevance to what you want to do. However, for the purposes of this paper you need show familiarity with only one. Remember that literature searching takes time, and assuming you are using the Malaysian Library at a distance, give their staff plenty of time to help you find the material you need. Recall too that if you have to obtain books or journal articles from elsewhere using MMU library inter-loan network, each request can take several weeks. 6. Now that you have some idea of other, similar projects, re-think your approach in the light of what you have learned. If necessary, rewrite your research plan and show it to your supervisors. Think again about the validity (and practicalities) of what you have planned. Can your questions in fact be answered by a research project of this nature? Are your really able to do it with the time available? If your answer to these questions is yes, now is the time to rewrite your research plan in more detail and send it to your supervisor for comment. Once your plan is approved, start to work on the project itself. Often it is helpful to create schedule of the activities you have to complete and the time you available. Estimate how long each activity will take, add another 50% as a safety margin, and allocate time to each item accordingly. Prepare a draft outline of the sections of the report. As you do the research, try to write parts of each these sections as you go. This helps you to keep an overview of the entire project and avoid getting to wrap up in any one aspect to the detriment of whole. As soon as it is clear how the final report is going to look, send a draft copy of it to your supervisors for comments. Make corrections and changes as required. Complete the report and send it in, in final typed form.

7. 8.

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10.

MBA FINAL YEAR PROJECT PROCEDURES Listed below are the procedures for the final year project. Kindly follow the steps as below: Step 1 Complete Research and Case Methodology (BRM7154) Step 2 Consult a lecturer and draft out the proposal.

Step 3 Submit your MBA Final Project Pre-registration GCM, Multimedia University form to GCM.

Step 4 Wait for the Letter of Recommendation from FOM R&D Committee.

Step 5 You may start to work on your project with the topic and supervisor recommended by the FOM R&D Committee.

Step 6 Complete all 13 modules with minimum CGPA of 3.00

Step 7

Step 8

Submit MBA Final Project Registration form with a copy of Letter of Recommendation to GCM for Senate’s approval.

Wait for the Approval Letter

Step 9 Proceed with final tuning, English checking and binding.

Step 10 Submit your final year project to GCM together with the following documents: 1. Completed Project Submission Form. 2. Copy of the Approval Letter of proposal. 3. 3 bound copies of the thesis and 2 C.D.s

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* Kindly contact GCM for further information.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PROJECT Number of Copies A student is required to submit the research project in the following format: three bound copies, two diskettes to the Faculty Assistant Director. All research projects must be submitted within the deadline given by the course coordinator. Language of Research Project All Research Projects must be prepared in English Typeface and Font Size Typeface to be used is Times New Roman. The same typeface should be used throughout the thesis. Font size of 12 point should be used for the main body of the text, which should not be script or italic. A laser or other high quality printer is recommended. Paper High quality bong paper A4 size, 80b/m2 must be used for all the submitted copies. The paper should be white in colour, acid free and "non-erasable" kind. Corrections Corrections of typographical errors, or changes in the text, figures or tables, must be made as cleanly and invisibly as possible. Correction fluid cannot be used. Corrections should be made on the original before recopying or reprinting the problem page. Margins and Spacing The margin on the document must measure according to the below specifications: i) top - 20 mm ii) Left - 40 mm iii) Bottom - 40 mm iv) Right - 25 mm Text should be typed, one and a half-spaced, on one side of the paper only. All information excluding page numbers must be within the text area. All typing, print, illustrations, etc should be on one side of the paper only. Abstract and bibliography should be typed, one and a half-spaced, and be double-space between entries. Pagination

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Page numbers are to be placed at least 15 mm from the edge of the page at the bottom centre of the page. Every page except the title must be numbered. Title page is "I" but is not numbered. Preliminary pages are to be numbered in lower case Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv etc); the text page ate to be numbered in Arabic numerals and all pages must be numbered consecutively and continuously, irrespective of volumes. Covers and Binding The Research Project should be bound in colour light blue (CODE: 547). Typeface to be used is Times New Roman Font size to be used for: Front Cover of the Thesis (Appendix A) Title of thesis: 18 and should be in uppercase Name of candidate, degree awarded and year of thesis submission: 18 should be in uppercase. Direction of lettering - run from the top of spine Photographs Photographs should be black and white whenever possible possible. Pages containing photographs should be numbered as regular pages. When photopgraphs are to be used, they are to be scanned. Using tape, glue or any type of adhesive to insert photographs is not acceptable. Pages with photographs should be copied on a colour photocopier. Non-paper formats Labels for diskette include i. Author's name ii. Degree date iii. Copyright notice iv. Operating system v. Density vi. Hardware required (if appropriate) * All disks should be write-protected RESEARCH PROJECT PREPARATION Format The Research Project should have three sections: the preliminary pages or the front matter, the text or the body matter, and the references or back matter. The PRELIMINARY PAGES include: a. Blank page b. Title page

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c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k.

Copyright Page Declaration Acknowledgements Dedication Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures, Illustration, etc Preface

The TEXT should normally be divided into chapters such as: a. Introduction b. Review of Literature c. Method of Investigation d. Analysis of Data e. Discussions and Conclusions The REFERENCES consists of: a. Appendices b. References c. Glossary d. Notes e. Index f. Bibliography g. Blank page The various pages in a thesis should normally be arranged in the following manner: a. Blank page b. Title page (Counted as lower-case Roman numeral "i" but not numbered) c. Copyright page (always numbered lower-case Roman numberal "i") d. Declaration (numbered consecutively with a Roman numeral) e. Acknowledgements (if any; numbered consecutively with a Roman numeral) f. Dedication (if any; numbered consecutively with a Roman numeral) g. Abstract (numbered consecutively with a Roman numeral) h. Table of Contents (if any; numbered consecutively with Roman numeral) i. List of Tables (if any; numbered consecutively with Roman numeral) j. List of Figures (if any; numbered consecutively with Roman numeral(s)) k. Preface (if any; numbered consecutively with Roman numeral(s)) l. Text (including introduction; first page always numbered with Arabic numeral "1"; pages numbered consecutively) m. Appendices (if any; Arabic numerals, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text) n. References (Arabic numerals, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text) o. Glossary (Arabic numerals, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text) p. Notes (If any; Arabic numerals, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text) q. Index (If any; Arabic numeral, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text) r. Bibliography (Arabic numerals, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text)

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s.

Blank page

PRELIMINARY PAGES Title Page The form and contents of the title page must follow the format of the example given in Appendix C. Title should be capitalised. The month and year cited on the title page are the month and year of Research Project submission. The title page is counted as page "i", however, the number is not printed. Declaration Please refer to the format (Appendix D) Acknowledgement (if any) This is a brief acknowledgement of assistance given to the author in researching and writing the thesis. Its page is numbered with a consecutive lower-case Roman numeral. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font size is 12. Dedication (if any) Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font sizr is 12. Abstract This is a summary of the thesis, which will state the problem, the methods of investigation and the general conclusion. An abstract should be approximately 300 words. Line spacing is one and a half spacing. Double spacing for the next paragraph. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font size is 12. Table of Contents This must include entries for preliminary pages (copyright, abstract, dedication, acknowledgement, lists of tables and figures, and preface), text (main divisions and subdivisions of the thesis), appendices, notes, references and index. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font size is 12. (Appendix F) List of Figures Figures (i.e graphs, photographs and other illustrative material) are to be listed on a separate page. Number, title and page are to be given. Figures must be numbered in Arabic numerals consecutively. (Fig 1,2,3 or 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, etc) in order of appearance and captioned. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font size is 12. (Appendix G) Preface This is a brief explanatory statement of why the author came to study the subject of the thesis. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font size is 12. Text The first page of the text is always numbered Arabic numeral "1". Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font size is 12. Text contains the chapters of the thesis, in logical order, and should normally include:

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a) Introduction b) This section should include background of the research, research questions, justification for the research, methodology, outline of the thesis, definitions, scope and key assumptions, and conclusion. c) Methodology of Investigation d) Data Analysis e) Discussion and Conclusion Table and Illustrations A table and illustrations should be self-explanatory and complete in itself. Its form should be an effective and concise arrangement of the data, centred in the space available. The table and illustration should appear if mentioned in the text and only after they are mentioned. Every table and illustration should have a title, which is brief, clear, complete and unique. The title of a table and an illustration always appear above the table. If the table contains cited data, acknowledgement is given in a source note using the words SOURCE followed by a colon. If the style or data are rearranged, extended, or deleted, acknowledgement is given in a source note using the words, ADAPTED FROM followed by a colon. The samples can be referred in Appendix H. REMINDER The last paragraph of any should comprise at least two lines of text. Any heading appearing near the bottom of a page should be followed by at least two lines of text. If this is not possible, the heading and the line should be continued in the next page. If the last paragraph of a page has to be continued on the next page, there must be at least two lines of the text appearing on the next page. Appendices The pages should be numbered continuously with the rest of the text. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font size is 10 with one and half spacing. (Appendix I) References Every reference quoted or cited in the thesis must be included in the list of references and numbered accordingly. References should be ordered alphabetically. Citation style for references in text (Appendix J) Citation style for reference in list (Appendix K) Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font size is 10 with one and half spacing. Glossary The pages should be numbered continuously with the rest of the text. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font size is 10 with one and half spacing. Notes

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The footnotes maybe numbered consecutively throughout the thesis, or throughout each chapter. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font size is 8. Single spacing with a double spacing between entries. Bibliography The pages should be numbered continuously with the rest of the text. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman and the font size is 10 with one and half spacing. Appendix A: Sample of Front Cover of the Thesis 50 mm from the top of the page

45 mm from the left margin

45 mm from the right margin

EFFECTS OF CHILDREN ADVERTISING ON CHILDREN AND PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN'S VIEWING ENVIRONMENT
Title of Thesis Typeface: Times New Roman Font size : 18

IBRAHIM BIN ABDULLAH
Student's Name Typeface : Times New Roman Font size : 18

Degree awarded, Name of University and month and year of project submission Typeface : Times New Roman Font size : 18

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MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMNISTRATION FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY AUGUST 2000
Appendix B : Sample of Spine Name of candidate Typeface: Times New Roman Font Size: 14 Key word of the title Typeface : Times New Roman Font Size : 14 Month and Year of Graduation Typeface: Times New Roman Font Size: 14 Degree Awarded Typeface: Times New Roman Font Size: 14

IBRAHIM BIN ABDULLAH

EFFECTS OF THE CHILDREN ADVERTISING

MBA

AUGUST 2000

20 mm from the end of the spine

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Appendix C: Sample of Title Page 50 mm from the top of the page

45 mm from the left margin

45 mm from the right margin

EFFECTS OF CHILDREN ADVERTISING ON CHILDREN AND PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN'S VIEWING ENVIRONMENT
Title of Thesis Typeface: Times New Roman Font size : 18

IBRAHIM BIN ABDULLAH
Student's Name Typeface : Times New Roman Font size : 18

Degree awarded, Name of University and month and year of project submission Typeface : Times New Roman Font size : 18

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MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMNISTRATION FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY AUGUST 2000
Appendix D : Sample of Declaration Page DECLARATION Typeface: Times New Roman Font Size : 12 I hereby declare that this BMP 6164 Research Project is my original work except for quotations, statements, explanations and summaries, which I have ready mentioned their sources. No portion of this Research Project has been submitted in support of any application for any other degree or qualification of this or any other university or institute of learning.

Student's Signature : ___________________________ Student's Name : ______________________________

Date: _________________________ Student ID: ____________________

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Appendix E : Sample of Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENT DECLARATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS DEDICATION ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES PREFACE CHAPTER 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 INTRODUCTION Television Advertising Industry in Malaysia Rules and Regulation in Advertising Effects of Children Advertising on Children and Parents Advertising to Children - Ethnical Issues Problem Statement Objective of Study Organisation of Research Project Page ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix

2

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Effects of Television Advertising on Children 2.1.1 Child's Ability to Distinguish Commercials from TV Programmes 2.1.2 Child's Ability to Understand the Purpose of Advertising 2.1.3 Child's Ability to Differentiate Fantasy from Reality 2.1.4 Perception of Children on Advertised Products 2.2 Parental Role in Consumer Socialisation of Children

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CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

METHODOLOGY Introduction Hypothesis of Study Sampling Procedures Sources of Data 3.4.1 Primary Data 3.4.2 Secondary Data Data Collection

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS 4.1 Demographic Profiles 4.2 Chi-square Analysis 4.2.1 Differentiate Commercials from TV Programmes 4.2.2 Differentiate Fantasy from Reality 4.2.3 Level of Understanding 4.3 Multiple Regression 4.3.1 Children's Liking to Watch Children Advertising

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 5.1 Summary and Conclusions 5.2 Recommendations Appendices

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Appendix F: List of Tables TABLE 1. Children's Profile 2. Parents and Demographic Factors 3. Age By Level of Understanding PAGE

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Appendix G : List of Figures FIGURE 1. Gross Income for Television and Radio Stations 2. The Effects of Advertising to Children PAGE

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Appendix H : Sample of Table and Illustration Table 1: Age by the influence of children advertising on buying an advertised product

Table 2: Hoyt Reliability Coefficients
Concept Computer Punched Cards Statistics Desk Calculator Reliability Coefficient .56 .80 .71 .34

SOURCE: Cyril Hoyt, "Test Reliability Estimated by Analysis of Variance", Psychometrika 60 (Apr 1997): 153- 200 Figure 1: The Effects of Advertising on Children

Attitude Product Brand Producer Seller Advertisement Advertising Advertising Child Influence on parents Purchase influence

Behaviour
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ADAPTED FROM : McNeal ju (1992) Kids as Customers , A Handbook of Marketing to children, Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Toronto Appendix I: List of Appendices 1. Sample of Questionnaire to Parents 2. Sample of Questionnaire to Children

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Appendix J: Citation Style for References in Text The American Psychological Association (APA) reference citation in text is used to provide information for readers to locates the source of information listed in the alphabetical selected bibliography or references at the end of dissertation or thesis. DESCRIPTION One work by one author • Use the surname of the author (do not include suffixes such as Jr.) and the year of publication (includes month and year) for citing in text. If the author and year are given as part of the textual discussion, exclude parenthetical information EXAMPLE

Kenneth (1996 0 compared reactions times) In a recent study or reaction times (Kenneth, 1996) In 1996 Kenneth compared

Within a paragraph, do not include the year In a recent study of reaction times, Kenneth in subsequent references if the study cannot (1996) described the method also found. be confused with other studies cited.

One work by two or more authors • When a work has two authors, always cite both names in text. • When a work has more than two authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al"…(give a period after "al") and the year In exceptional case, cite the surnames of the first author. And of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references followed by

Smith and Strumb (1997) considered Williams, Smith, Brandner, Zappulla, Rosen and Rock (1994) found [first citation in text] William et al (1994) found William et al. Found [omit year from subsequent citations after citation within a paragraph] Bradley, Ramiraz, Soo (1994) and Bradley, Soo et al (1994) reported that [the two references are: Bradley, B.T., Ramiraz, G.,

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a common and "et al". • Join the names in a multiple-author citation in running text by the word and, use as ampersand (&) for parenthetical material, in tables and captions, and in the reference list Works with anonymous author • When a work's author is designated as "Anonymous", cited in text the world Anonymous followed by a comma and the date. In the reference list, an anonymous is alphabetised by the world Anonymous. Author with the same surnames • Include the authors' initials in all text citations to avoid confusion, even if the year of publication differs. Two or more works within the same surnames • Arrange two or more works by the same author in the same order by year of publication. Place in-press citations last. Give the author's surnames once; for each subsequent work, give only the date • Identify works by the same authors (or by the same or two or more authors in the same order)with the same publication date by the suffixes a,b,c and so forth after the year; repeat the year. The suffixes are assigned in the reference list, where references are ordered alphabetically by the title.

Soo, T.K,. Ramiraz, G., & Brown, N.K (1994)] as John and Smith (1997) demonstrated as has been shown (Williams & Kenneth, 1989) (Anonymous 1993)

P.D. Luce (1989) and R.A. Luce (1990) also found P.D. Luce et al. (1984) and D.O. Dykes (1980) studied Past research (Edeline & Weinberger, 1994, 1995) Past research (Gogel, 1984, 1990, in press) Several studies (Farrel & Hammond, 1987, 1990, in-press-a, in press-b) Several studies (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c; Singh, 1983, in press-a, in press-b)

List two or more works by different authors Several studies (Balda, 1980, Kamil, 1988; who are cited whithin the same parentheses Pepperberg & Funk, 1990) in alphabetical order by the first author's surname. Separate the citations by semicolons. (cheek & Buss, 1981, p.332)

Specific parts of a source • To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation
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at the appropriate point in text. Always (Shimamura, 1989, chap. 3) give page numbers for quotations, and abbreviated the words page (p.) and chapter (chap.) in test citations. Personal communications • These are letters, memos, some electronic communication (e.g. email, discussion groups, message from electronic bulletin broads), telephone conversations, and the like. As the do not provide recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list. They are cited in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, an provide as a exact a data as possible. Citations in parenthetical material • In a citation that appears in parenthetical text, use commas (not brackets) to set off date

L.A. Schaie (personal communication, April 18, 1999) (V-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1993)

(see Table 2 of Hashtroudi, Chrosniak, & Schwartz, 1991, for complete data)

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Appendix K: Citation Style for Reference List The APA (American Psychological Association) reference style is used which includes the following categories: periodicals, books brochures, book chapters, technical and research reports, proceedings of meetings and symposia, doctoral dissertations and master thesis, unpublished work, reviews, audio-visual media, and electronic media. A reference list cites works that specifically support a particular article. The reference list must be double-spaced, and entries should start with a paragraph indent; entries will then by typeset with hanging indents. Accepted abbreviations in the reference list for parts of books and other publications are: DESCRIPTION Chapter Edition Revised edition Second edition Editor (Editors) Translator (s) No date Page (pages) Volume (as in Vol.4) Volumes (as in 4 vols) Number Part Technical Report Supplement Order of reference in the reference list Alphabetising names Arrange entries in alphabetical order the surname of the first author, using the following rules for special cases: • • • Alphabetize letter by letter Alphabetize the prefixes M', Mc, and Mac literally, not as if they were all spelled Mac Surnames that use articles and prepositions (de, la, du, von, etc. 0 are alphabetized according to different rules for different languages ABBREVIATION Chap. Ed. Rev. ed. 2nd ed. Ed. (Eds.) Trans. n.d. p. (pp.) Vol. Vols. No. Pt. Tech. Rep. Suppl.

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Alphabetize entries with numerals as if the numerals were spelled out.

Order of several works by same first author Use the following rule to arrange the entries • Single author entries by the same authors are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first Kim, K.S (1991) Kim, K.S. (1994) Single author entries precede multiple authors entries Kaufman, J.r (1991) Kaufman, J.r, & Wong, D References with the same first author and different second or third authors Kaufman, J.R., Jones,K., & Cochran, D.F. (1982) Kaufman, J.R., & Jones,K. (1980) References with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial Eliot, A.C (1983) Eliot, G.R (1990) References with the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by the title (excluding A or The) that follows the date

Exception: If the reference with the same authors published in the same year are identified as articles in a series (e.g. Part 1 or Part 2) order the reference in the series order, not alphabetically by title. Order of work with corporate or with no authors, or agency, association, or institution as author. Alphabetise corporate authors, such as associations or government agencies, by the first significant word of the name. Full official names should be used (e.g. American Psychological Association, not APA). A parent body precedes subdivision (e.g. University of Michigan, Department of Psychology) If there is no authors, the title move to the author position, and the entry is alphabetised by the first significant word of title. Entry of non-western names (Authors and Corporate Bodies) For the entry of non-western names, references is made to Mohammed M.Aman (Ed.) (1980). Cataloguing and classification of non-western material: Concern, issue and practises. London: Oryx-Press. Description MALAY NAMES Example

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Enter a Malay name under the first element of his/her name unless it is known that he/she treats another elements of his/her Merican, Faridah name as a surname. If an abbreviation is used for a word denoting filial relationship, i.e. b for bin, bt. Or bte for binti, use the full form of the word. If a person never uses the word denoting filial relationship, enter the name as found Add after the name titles of honour, rank or position that are commonly associated with the name If the title of honour, rank or position are hereditary, entry by the title

('Merican' is a surname)

Ali bin Abdullah Rogayah binti Ahmad Ismail Hussein Abdul Majib bin Zainuddin, Haji Soppiee, Nordin, Dato' Ungku Abdul Aziz Syed Hussin Ali Nik Safiah Haji A. Karim

• •

CHINESE NAMES • Enter the surnames first • If a name of Chinese origin contains both Chinese and non-Chinese gives names, record the non-Chinese given names preceding the Chinese given name

Foh, Kam Beng Ching, Fancis K.W (Name appears as Francis K.W. Ching) Loh, PhilipFOOK Seng (Name appears as Philip Loh Fook Seng P.Subramaniam (Name appears as P.Subramaniam) Subramaniam,P

INDIAN NAMES

Corporate authors • Corporate authors are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. The names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter Works with no author • When a work has no author, cite in text the first two or three words or the reference list
GCM, Multimedia University

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1991) first text citation (NIMH, 1991)-subsequent text citation (University of Pittsburghm 1993) cited in full in all text citations. On free care ('Study Finds, " 1986)

entry (usually the title) and the year. Use The book College Bound Seniors (1979) double quotations marks around the little of an articles or chapter and underline the title of a periodical or book.

GCM, Multimedia University

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