Introduction to sentence connectors in English

Connectors are the words which combine two words, phrases and sentences together. They have the same meaning of a conjunction but differ in their function. Difference between conjunction and connectors: Conjunctions are used to connect a noun with another noun; two independent clauses; different sentences; a group of words. Connectors are used to connect a large groups of words; phrases; sentences. For example: Lisa and Ria are friends. Here "and" connects two nouns. It is a conjunction. I broke my leg. However, I still feel great. Here "however' connects two groups of words, which relate to each other.

List of Sentence Connectors in English
Given below is the list of most commonly used sentence connectors in English with examples: Connectors So Yet However Too Equally Further Examples I¶ve finished my tea; so has he. Murder has no tongue. Yet it will speak. At first he refused to go. Later, however, he decided to go. He is an idler. He is a gambler, too. I admitted my error. Equally, the other driver made a mistake. The superintendent was suspended for impudence. Further, there was a charge of corruption against him. I wonder why you want to marry Maria. She is vain; she is obstinate. Moreover, she is not so rich as you think her to be. A is equal to B. B is equal to C. Therefore, A is equal to C. There are three houses. I have purchased two already. I¶ll buy the third one as well.


Therefore As well.

Neither Nor In any case On the contrary

The kittens have not been fed; neither has been the puppy. She can¶t do it; nor can I, nor can you, nor can anybody. He may apologize or not. In any case, I am not going to re-employ him. You say he is my friend. On the contrary, he gave evidence against me in the court. On the one hand he claims to be my friend; on the other hand he is always running me down.

On the other hand

Exercise on Sentence Connectors in English
In the blanks below use as many sentences connectors as possible:
y y y y y y

y y y y

He learns easily._______, he remembers what he has learnt. All were against him_________, he stuck to his point. 'I must leave now¶. µ______ must I.¶ I can¶t do it and ________ can you. Harry didn¶t go to church;____________ did his sister. There was severe famine in this country. _________, there were no deaths due to starvation. There was no news of her husband. ________, she went on hoping. I don¶t like that new dictionary; __________, it¶s too expensive. She may pass or fail, _____ she is not going to study further. He had tried and tried, but couldn¶t succeed. ______he became quite sad.

Connectors in English Grammar
Introduction to connectors in English grammar The functions of connectors in English grammar are to combine sentences and to express relationship between ideas. Connectors in English grammar help in improving writing style by adding maturity and sophistication. It is important to use connectors in English grammar to impart clarity to writing, and to make it easy to understand.

Types of Connectors in English Grammar
There are different types of connectors in english grammar: 1. Co- ordinating conjunctions: combine phrases, clauses and sentences that have equal grammatical function. 2. Subordinating conjunctions: combine elements with different grammatical function, usually dependent and independent clauses. 3. Conjunctive adverbs: show logical relationship between two independent sentences. 4. Prepositions: Indicate relationship between things mentioned in a sentence.

Examples on Connectors in English Grammar
Examples of sentences in which connectors are used: 1. Excessive use of computers is stressful and can be harmful to your health. (coordinating conjunction) 2. Just as excessive use of computers is stressful, it can be harmful to your health. (subordinating conjunction) 3. Excessive use if computers is stressful; similarly, it can be harmful to your health. (conjunctive adverb) 4. In addition to being stressful, excessive use of computers can be harmful to your health. (preposition)

A connector is a word that is used to join words or sentences. And, as well as, but, or, yet, nevertheless, however, so that, as long as, while, until, as if, because, when, after, though, before.
y y y y y

A boy and a girl An elephant and a giraffe A toy or a book The music was loud nevertheless it was enjoyable. Types of connectors

Coordinating conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions join together clauses of equal importance. Some examples of coordinating conjunctions are - and, but, or, Use of 'and' 'And' is used as a conjunction when the words or phrases are of equal importance and both conditions exist. Other words that can be used in place of and are: moreover, in addition to, along with, plus, as well as, further more
y y y y y y

Tom and Harry play hockey. A lion and a fox live in this cave. We need some gloves and a ball in addition to bats. The soldiers rose moreover they cheered the leader. We found the thief along with the bags. The gurgling stream along with the howling wind added to the charm of the place.

Use of 'but' The conjunction 'but' is used to show a contradiction between two phrases. Let's say the first phrase leads you to expect a certain event and the second phrase tells you quite a contradictory outcome. In such an event, but, is used. Other words like: nevertheless, yet, however, can be used in place of 'but'
y y y

He ran, but he missed the bus. She studied hard but could not score well in the test. The hill was very steep but the old man could climb it easily.

y y y

Sharon fell from the horse nevertheless she did not cry. The lion was hungry yet it did not attack Androcles. He is from England however he speaks Chinese very well.

Use of 'Or' When we need to express a choice between two words or phrases we use 'or'. Here only one of the two conditions exists. Example: Would you take a cup of tea or coffee? Shall we buy a book or a toy? Sit on the bench or on the grass. Are you tired or shall we go out for a walk? We can learn to talk English or we can depend on sign language. Correlative conjunctions: Conjunctions used in pairs are correlative conjunctions Either..... or Neither.....nor Both.....and Whether..... or Not only..... but also Either Peter or John has taken the book. It is neither hot nor tasty. My sister is both smart and intelligent. Tell me whether you know the route or not. Not only is she stupid but also stubborn.

Compound conjunctions Compound conjunctions are groups of words that behave like conjunctions. In order that, on condition that, provided that, as soon as Conjunction In order that On condition that Even if So that Provided that As though As well as Usage I bought all the books in order that you may study The teacher excused him on condition that he would not repeat the mistake. Sarah would not marry him even if he proposed to her. I kept away my work so that I could spend time with my daughters You can take leave provided that you work overtime later Rex behaves as though he is the boss. Monica as well as veronica was present there

As soon as As if

Mr. Ford plans to pay off his loan as soon as he gets his bonus. It looks as if there is going to be a storm.

Subordinating conjunction A subordinating conjunction joins a clause to another on which it depends for its full meaning. The chief subordinating conjunctions are after, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless.
y y

I will not go to the market if it rains. The situation 'I will not go to the market' is dependant on the condition 'if it rains'. You could go and play after you have done the dishes. King Midas was unhappy because his daughter turned to gold. You must dig the earth till you find water.

y y y

Observe the use of connectors in these sentences.
y y y y y

Lydia likes to sing and dance when she is happy. We can paint our house red or white but we must select a good painter. Harry is intelligent however he is lazy. He must wake up or he will regret it. I left the party because I was bored, moreover it was quite late. He was sad and tired along with being very hungry when a wizard appeared and offered him food however he laid down some conditions. He is cheerful though he has worked the whole day. I allowed him in as I thought he was a friend but he tried to rob me. You will do well if you study hard. My daughters either watch TV or sleep on Sundays. Susan is very fat but very active. I met by friend in the park and invited her to tea. A student must obey or he may leave.

y y y y y y y

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y

Jane and Peter have been chosen to receive the guest. After the trip Sam came to work but he was very tired. Bring some sandwiches or you will be hungry. They jumped over the stream and ran home. The dog ran after the rabbit but could not catch him. My aunt is ill so I will visit her tomorrow. The show started as soon as the chief guest arrived. You will enjoy the concert since you love music. This horse will take you to the village you even if he is tired. He was rowing the boat while I slept. The bridge fell though it was made of stones. You will pass if you work hard. He will not try unless he is forced to. We will come after we complete the work. The old man cared for the puppy as though she was his baby.

Connectors add information, introduce a similar idea, give a different/opposite idea, and introduce the result.

Satyajit Ray was one of the greatest film makers of the world. Furthermore he was also a writer of detective stories. [Here the connector adds information].


Every child's face is different from every other. In the same way every child's pattern of development is different. [Here the connector introduces a similar idea].


Ram used to like drinking tea. Of late he has started drinking coffee instead. [Here the connectors give a different idea/opposite idea].


Ram was a lazy boy. Consequently he failed in his exams. [Here the connectors introduce the results].

Note: furthermore, moreover, additionally and in addition are interchangeable.

y y y y

Rita is intelligent. Moreover she is hardworking. Mysore is famous for the Palace. In addition it is well known for Brindavan Gardens. Rita sings well. Additionally she plays the Veena. Greens contain vitamins. Furthermore they are a rich source of iron.

Note These connectors come at the beginning of the second sentence, or near the beginning after the subject. Note To present a different idea we use words like however, nonetheless, nevertheless. However, nonetheless, nevertheless are used interchangeably.

Use a suitable connector to write the second sentence:
a) Veena went on a diet, hoping to become slim and attractive. (malnutrition-weak)

Suggested answer:
However, Veena suffered from malnutrition, and became weak. b) The hotel did not offer the facilities we needed for our meeting. (holiday)

Suggested answer:
Nonetheless, we did have an excellent holiday there.

c) Cancer cannot be cured. (controlled)

Suggested answer:
Nevertheless, it can be controlled to some extent. Note To express a similar idea we use similarly and in the same way. 'Similarly' and 'In the same way' are used interchangeably.

Look at these sentences:
a) In most cities, there are less traffic jams during mid-day. Similarly there is less traffic on Sundays. b) Cars must stop at the zebra crossing. In the same way, pedestrians must only cross at the zebra crossing.

Write a second sentence in each space below using the clues given and a suitable connector:
a) Rohit framed a timetable to prepare for the final examination. (ask, his cousin)

Suggested answer:
Similarly / In the same way he asked his cousin to do so. b) Most, people are afraid of tigers. (tigers-us)

Suggested answer:
In the same way / Similarly tigers are afraid of us. c) Trusting every stranger you come across is wrong. (suspecting-not right)

Suggested answer:
In the same way / Similarly suspecting every stranger is not right. d) Public sanitation is very important for our health. (clean air)

Suggested answer:
In the same way / Similarly clean air is very important for our health. To indicate difference or contrast we use words like whereas, while or but to connect sentences.

Time Connectors Fill in the blanks with appropriate connectors:
It was late at night. Prithvi had been sleeping for several hours. 1) _______ he was woken by a furious knocking at the door. 2) _______ checking his watch and putting on his dressing gown, he staggered sleepily towards the door. 3) ________ he looked through the keyhole he saw a strange sight. It was the big bearded watchman of the flats shivering in a woman's dressing gown. 4) _______ he saw this, Prithvi rushed to his bedroom and

5) _______ in bed, pulled the covers over his head shaking with shock. 6) _________ he lay there he could hear desperate shouting and banging but Prithvi ignored it and 7) _______ fell asleep.

Suggested answer:
It was late at night. Prithvi had been sleeping for several hours. 1) When he was woken by a furious knocking at the door. 2) After or On checking his watch and putting on his dressing gown, he staggered sleepily towards the door. 3) When he looked through the keyhole he saw a strange sight. It was the big bearded watchman of the flats shivering in a woman's dressing gown. 4) As soon as or when he saw this, Prithvi rushed to his bedroom and 5) when in bed, pulled the covers over his head shaking with shock. 6) As or while he lay there he could hear desperate shouting and banging but Prithvi ignored it and 7) soon or eventually fell asleep.

Purpose Connectors Answer the following questions:
1. Why do we go to school?

Suggested answer:
We go to school to study new things. 2. Why do we have laws?

Suggested answer:
We have laws so that there is order and peace. 3. Why do children play games?

Suggested answer:
Children play games because they can have fun.

Explaining Why
Use of: so -------- that too -------- to not -------- enough to

Look at these sentences:
She is so lazy that she cannot work. She is too lazy to work. She is not active enough to work.

Using the clues given below write two/three sentences that mean the same:
1. sick - walk

Suggested answer:
a) She is so sick that she cannot walk. b) She is too sick to walk. 2. stupid - pass

Suggested answer:
a) He is too stupid to pass. b) He is so stupid that he cannot pass. c) He is not clever enough to pass. 3. cold - go outdoors

Suggested answer:
a) It is too cold to go outdoors. b) It is so cold that we cannot go outdoors. c) It is not warm enough to go outdoors. 4. hard - break

Suggested answer:
a) The sweet is too hard to break. b) The sweet is so hard that it cannot be broken. c) It is not soft enough to be broken. 5. Small - to do the work

Suggested answer:
a) Ram is too small to do the work. b) Ram is so small that he cannot do the work. c) Ram is not big enough to do the work.

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