This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Identify the frequency spectrum allocated by Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) for cellular service (GSM and 3G) operators in Malaysia. Provide details on the frequency or code planning adopted by at least one of the service operator. Answer : 1. Global System for Mobile 900 Mhz band : Upper band : 925 to 969 Mhz Lower band : 880 to 915 Mhz GSM 900 Operators : Celcom (Malaysia) Berhad Maxis Mobile Sdn. Bhd. DiGi Telecommunication Sdn. Bhd.
2. Global System for Mobile 1800 Mhz band: Upper band : 1805 to 1880 Mhz Lower band : 1710 to 1785 Mhz GSM 1800 Operators : Celcom (Malaysia) Berhad Maxis Mobile Sdn. Bhd. DiGi Telecommunication Sdn. Bhd
3. International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT2000) : Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) Upper band: 2110 to 2200 MHz Lower band: 1920 to 2010 MHz Time Division Duplex (TDD) Frequency: 1915 to 1920MHz Frequency: 2010 to 2025MHz IMT2000 Operators :
Celcom (Malaysia) Berhad UMTS (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd U Mobile Sdn Bhd DiGi Telecommunications Sdn Bhd
Distinguish the technical differences between these two technologies and give your opinion on the scenario and deployment of 4G in the near future.16m standardised by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The Fourth Generation (4G) technology candidates is foreseen most likely to be between Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-Advanced) proposed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and Mobile WiMAX using 802. – 3.75.496 – Existing and new 2.3.25-20MHz 5km >200 users @ 5MHz >400 users for larger .69 GHz.3 -2. 2. frequemcy bands (~2GHz) 3. 10Mhz 2 – 7km 100 – 200 users 2TX 100 Mbps (MIMO 2TX 2RX) 50Mbps 1.2. 8. Aspect Core Network Access Technology : Downlink (DL) Uplink (UL) Frequency Band Bitrate : DL UL Channel Bandwidth Cell Radius Cell Capacity Mobile Wimax (IEEE802. Table below presents the key elements of a comparison between Mobile WiMAX and LTE-Advanced standars as they converge to 4G broadband wireless access systems.4 GHz.16 e-2005) All IP network OFDMA 3GPP-LTE (E-UTRAN) UTRAN moving towards all IP Evolved UTRA CN with IMS OFDMA SC-FDMA 2.8 GHz 75Mbps (MIMO 2RX) 25Mbps 5.
16 e-2005 PHY and MAC CN standdardization in Wimax Forum New 2005 2007 through 2008 2009 2Tx X 2Rx 2Tx X 2Rx RAN (PHY + MAC) + CN Aoto through existing GSM/UMTS 2007 2010 2012 The parameters presented in Table 1 show that the Mobile WiMax and 3GPPLTE standars are technically similar. However. as well GSM/EDGE providers in the developing world. Although currently less matured and widespread. Mobile Wimax appears as if it will be first to market. WiMax is already being tested for example in Korea. will select Mobile Wimax for mobile broadband wireless access while providing service continuity over their legacy network. We may also conclude that the developed world major UMTS/HSPA service provider naturally evolve to 3GPP-LTE. Following this observation. .16 e-2005) bandwidth 5 bits/sec/Hz 3GPP-LTE (E-UTRAN) Up to 12km/hr Up to 250km/hr Optimized hard Inter-cell soft handover handover supported IEEE802. we may conclude that due to timeline benefits new service provider as well as existing cable and DSL providers wishing to offer mobile services are likely to select Mobile WiMax as their technology for mobile broadband access.75 bits/sec/Hz Mobile Wimax (IEEE802.16a through GSM/GPRS/EGPRS/UMTS/H 16d SPA 2Tx X 2Rx 1Tx X NRx (Collaborative SM) 1 IEEE802. whereas most CDMA2000 provider. in term of market perspective the two standard differ in term of expected time to market and legacy. Significantly. whereas LTE has not yet been standized.Spectral Efficiency Aspect Mobility : Speed Handovers Legacy MIMO: DL UL No of code words Standardization Coverage Roaming Framework Schedule Forecast : Standard complete Initial Deployment Mass market 3.
Users of the GSM network are registered with an MSC.3. VLR –the visitor location register (VLR) contains subscriber data for subscribers registered in an MSC. In GSM and WCDMA (UMTS). Visitor Location Register (VLR) and Authentication Centre (AuC) will be checked using Mobile Equipment and UMTS/Subscriber Identity Module (ME-U/SIM). IMSI. Every MSC contains a VLR. GSM network The GSM network consists mainly of the following functional parts: MSC – the mobile service switching centre (MSC) is the core switching entity in the network. The MSC is connected to the radio access network (RAN). All calls to and from the user are controlled by the MSC. the user database stored in the Home Location Register (HLR). A GSM network has one or more MSCs. geographically distributed. Using example. IMSEI and other identity. explain how the process can be carried out and show signaling details involving MSIDN. RAN is formed by the BSCs and BTSs within the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). they are always contained in one integrated node. during authentication process and roaming. . Although MSC and VLR are individually addressable.
such as a short message service centre (SMSC) and service control point (SCP). then the HPLMN is at the same time VPLMN. BTS and BSC are connected through the interface. The HLR may transfer the subscription data to a VLR during registration in a PLMN or a GMSC during mobile terminating call handling. HLR –the home location register (HLR) is the database that contains a subscription record for each subscriber of the network. Visited PLMN (VPLMN) –the VPLMN is the GSM network where a subscriber is currently registered. MSC. the subscribers are outbound roaming and inbound roaming when the subscriber is currently registered in her HPLMN. That implies that GSM user’s subscription data resides in the HLR in that PLMN.These entities are the main components for call handling and subscriber management. The BSS is connected to the MSC through the A interface. The subscriber may be registered in her HPLMN or in another PLMN. CN –the core network (CN) consists of. The BTS contains one or more transceivers (TRX). The TRX is responsible for radio signal transmission and reception. the HPLMN is at the same time IPLMN. In the latter case. GMSC and HLR . GSM uses the following sub-division of the PLMN: Home PLMN (HPLMN) –the HPLMN is the GSM network that a GSM user is a subscriber of. A GSM subscriber is normally associated with one particular HLR. BSS –the base station system (BSS) is composed of one or more base station controllers (BSC) and one or more base transceiver stations (BTS). MT call handling is done by a GMSC in the HPLMN. MT calls are always handled by a GMSC in the PLMN.GMSC – the gateway MSC (GMSC) is the switching entity that controls mobile terminating calls. MS –the mobile station (MS) is the GSM handset. regardless of the origin of the call. In that case. For most operators. amongst other things. Other types of PLMN are the time division multiple access (TDMA) network or code division multiple access (CDMA) network. Interrogating PLMN (IPLMN) –the IPLMN is the PLMN containing the GMSC that handles mobile terminating (MT) calls. This implies that calls destined for a GSM subscriber are always routed to the HPLMN of that GSM subscriber. Once the call has arrived in the HPLMN. The HPLMN may also contain various service nodes. . Other main entities in the CN are the equipment identiﬁcation register (EIR) and authentication centre (AUC). That MSC address is used to route the call to that subscriber. When a call is established towards a GSM subscriber. the HPLMN will act as IPLMN. a GMSC contacts the HLR of that subscriber to obtain the address of the MSC where that subscriber is currently registered. The HLR is responsible for the sending of subscription data to the VLR during registration or GMSC during mobile terminating call handling. A GSM network is a public land mobile network (PLMN).
voice. Examples are: • Mobile originated call –the MSC that is handling the call is the serving MSC for this call. Some of these protocols for GSM are the following: • mobile application part (MAP) – used for call control. Signalling is used for example. The circuit is used for the transfer of the encoded speech or other data When it comes to call establishment. Examples include: • • • • A interface –the connection between MSC and BSC Abis interface –the connection between BSC and BTS D interface –the connection between MSC and HLR Um interface –the radio connection between MS and BTS Various signalling protocols are used over the reference points. It is a continual aim to optimize the payload transfer through the network.e. Signalling refers to the exchange of information for call set up. For a mobile terminated GSM call. • Mobile terminated call –the GMSC that is handling the call is the serving GMSC for this call. fax etc. The called subscriber is the served subscriber Signalling in GSM The various entities in the GSM network are connected to one another through signalling networks. the data channel is generally a 64 kbit/s channel.The user of a GSM network is referred to as the served subscriber. video. A circuit is the data channel that is established between two users in the network. GSM makes a distinction between signalling and payload. The connections to the various entities are known as reference points. subscriber registration and call establishment. payload refers to the data that is transferred within a call. as payload transfer has a direct cost aspect associated with it. ROAMING . • ISDN user part (ISUP) –ISUP is the protocol for establishing and releasing circuit switched calls. subscriber registration. The payload is transferred by the ISUP connection between GMSC and VMSC. DTAP is carried over the Abis and the A interface. short message service. for subscriber mobility. the MSC that is serving that subscriber is known as the serving MSC. MAP is used over many of the GSM network interfaces. i. • base station system application part (BSSAP) – used over the A interface. Some network services are designed to optimize the payload transfer. HLR and visited MSC (VMSC). ISUP is also used in landline Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). The calling subscriber is the served subscriber. the signalling consists of exchange of MAP messages between GMSC. Within ISDN. One example is optimal routing. • direct transfer application part (DTAP) –used between MS and MSC.
The MSC and GMSC in a PLMN. When the subscriber switches her MS on again. but also by inbound roaming subscribers. The SIM card contains information such as IMSI. The HLR in PLMN-A transfers the user’s subscription data to the MSC in PLMN-B. the subscription data remains in the MSC. is logically built up from the following components: • mobile equipment (ME) –this is the GSM terminal. on the other hand. The subscriber’s subscription data remains in the MSC/VLR as long as she is served by a BSS that is connected to that MSC. The GSM operator is responsible for provisioning this data in the HLR. When the SIM card is inserted in the ME. the subscription data will be purged from the MSC. the SIM is embedded in the SIM card. for example the GSM handset.Roaming with GSM is made possible through the separation of switching capability and subscription data. In Figure below. are not speciﬁc for one subscriber group. A GSM subscriber has her subscription data. which entails the MSC asking the HLR in the HPLMN to re-send the subscription data for that subscriber. The ME is now effectively personalized for this GSM subscriber. Mobile Station (MS). After an extended period of the MS being switched off. permanently registered in the HLR in her HPLMN. the subscriber may register with a GSM network. Even when the user switches her MS off and then on again. Transfer of GSM subscription data for a roaming subscriber When the subscriber moves from one MSC service area to another MSC service area the HLR will instruct MSC to purge the subscription data of this subscriber and will send the subscription data to the new MSC. the subscriber has to re-register with the MSC. excluding the SIM card. The switching capability of the MSC in a PLMN may be used by that PLMN’s own subscribers. advice of charge parameters and . the GSM user who is a subscriber of PLMN-A roams to PLMN-B. • subscriber identiﬁcation module (SIM) –this is the chip embedded in the SIM card that identiﬁes a subscriber of a GSM network.
International Mobile Subscriber Identity The international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) is embedded on the SIM card and is used to identify a subscriber. the HLR uses the IMSI to identify the subscriber in the MSC/VLR. identifying subscribers. which uses the IMSI to derive the global title (GT) of the HLR associated with the subscriber terminating call –when the GSM network handles a call to a GSM subscriber. to start a process for delivering the call to that subscriber in that MSC/VLR. the MS reports the IMSI to the MSC. the universal subscriber identity module. For the UMTS network an enhanced SIM is speciﬁed. locating the HLR and identifying equipment. Some of these are Components of the mobile station Structure of the IMSI • • location update –when attaching to a network. Identiﬁers in the GSM Network GSM uses several identiﬁers for the routing of calls.operator speciﬁc emergency number. Some of these identiﬁers play an important role for intelligence network. . The IMSI is also contained in the subscription data in the HLR. The IMSI is used for identifying a subscriber for various processes in the GSM network.
The IMSI is reported to the SCP during CAMEL service invocation. the NDC may be used to route a call to the appropriate network subscriber number (SN) –the SN identiﬁes the subscriber within the number plan of a PLMN Structure of the MSISDN Structure of IMEI and IMEISV The MSISDN is not stored on the subscriber’s SIM card and is normally not available in the MS. establishing a call to that subscriber or sending an SMS to that subscriber. The MSISDN is also reported to SCP. countries in North America have equal country code. Hence. Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Network Number (MSISDN Number) . for example. as part of the subscriber’s proﬁle. country code (CC) –the CC identiﬁes the country or group of countries of the subscriber national destination code (NDC) –each PLMN in a country has one or more NDCs allocated to it. mobile country code (MCC) –the MCC identiﬁes the country for mobile networks. The MNC may be two or three digits in length. One subscriber may have multiple MSISDNs. The MCC is not used for call establishment. within a country all MNCs are either two or three digits. The IMSI may be needed.2The MSISDN is provisioned in the HLR. the MSISDN is used for routing purposes. mobile network code (MNC) –the MNC identiﬁes the mobile network within a mobile country MCC and MNC together identify a PLMN.• • • • • • • • roaming charging –a VPLMN uses the IMSI to send billing records to the HPLMN of a subscriber. mobile subscriber identiﬁcation number (MSIN) –the MSIN is the subscriber identiﬁer within a PLMN. These MSISDNs are . among other things. and is sent to MSC during registration. Common practice is that.The MSISDN is used to identify the subscriber when. The MCC values are allocated and published by the ITU-T. when identifying a country.
during registration. provided that that basic service is supported in that network. then the MSC disallows the call.provisioned in the HLR. Hence. At any one moment. she must have a subscription to that service. but not the current location of that subscriber in a telecommunications network. Basic Services All activities that may be done in the GSM network. These parameters are the bearer capability (BC). The MSRN is allocated to a subscriber during MT call handling and is released when the call to that subscriber is established. Each MSC in a PLMN has a (limited) range of MSRNs allocated to it. When a GSM subscriber initiates a call. The MSRN has the form of an E. but not the GSM network the subscriber belongs to. Each ME has a unique IMEI. GSM operators may conﬁgure their MSC such that subscribers cannot dial numbers that fall within the MSRN range of that operator. establishing a data call and sending a short message are classiﬁed as basic services. The MSC uses the BC. The HLR will send a list of subscribed basic services to the MSC/VLR. Mobile Station Roaming Number The mobile station roaming number (MSRN) is used in the GSM network for routing a call to a MS. The MSRN is not meant for call initiation. In order for a subscriber to use a GSM basic service. LLC and HLC to derive the basic service for this call. the MS supplies the serving MSC with a set of parameters describing the circuit. The MSC then checks whether the subscriber has a subscription to the requested basic service. only a single MSISDN is available in the MSC/VLR for the subscriber.switched connection that is requested. such as establishing a voice call. The basic service is not transported over ISUP. for example whether the subscription data in the VLR contains that basic service. low-layer compatibility (LLC) and high-layer compatibility (HLC).164 number and can be used by the GMSC for establishing a call to a GSM subscriber. The IMEI is hard-coded in the ME and cannot be modiﬁed. The handling of a basic service is fully standardized. . The MSRN indicates the GSM network a subscriber is registered in. a subscriber may use a basic service in any GSM network she roams to. The IMEI is not used for routing or subscriber identiﬁcation. An MSRN may be allocated to any subscriber registered in that MSC. An MSRN is part of a GSM operator’s number plan. International Mobile Equipment Identiﬁer The international mobile equipment identiﬁer (IMEI) is used to identify the ME [or user equipment. If the service is not subscribed to. The need for the MSRN stems from the fact that the MSISDN identiﬁes a subscriber.
the MSC reports the requested basic service to the SCP. Examples include: • • video calls may be charged at a higher rate than speech calls for data calls and fax calls Basic services are divided into two groups which are teleservices and bearer services . The SCP may use the indication of the requested basic service for call service processing.Usage of MSRN during call establishment to a GSM subscriber When an intelligence network service is invoked.
4. How can QoS provisioning be managed in the future 4G cellular network? . The public cellular service operator in Malaysia are subjected to mandatory standards for Quality of Service (QoS) or Grade of Service (GOS) by Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). List various parameters and schemes used for providing QoS/GOS in cellular network and discuss their advantages/disadvantages to the subscribers and operators.
Can help in network planning by measuring and managing traffic flow. latency.gov. Different service levels are specified for different types or streams of traffic. which is a . Service levels are specified in terms of throughput. QoS refers to the ability (or probability) of the network to provide a desired level of service for selected traffic on the network. The effectiveness of any QoS scheme can be measured based on its ability to achieve the desired service levels for a typical combination of traffic classes. jitter and packet errors or loss. 4G broadband wireless technologies such as IEEE 802. QoS disadvantages: • • • Management-software packages are a must to avoid complex configuration challenges. QOS over LTE networks: The QoS level of granularity in the LTE evolved packet system (EPS) is bearer.php?c=public&v=art_view&art_id=402 QoS advantages: • • • Guarantees bandwidth for key applications and users. QoS specifically for evolving Internet applications is a fundamental requirement to provide satisfactory service delivery to users and also to manage network resources. Can put off the need for faster network infrastructure. the network identifies or “classifies” different types or streams of traffic and processes these traffic classes differently to achieve the desired service level for each traffic class.16e/m and Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) – Long Term Evolution (LTE) have been designed with different QoS frameworks and means to enable delivery of the evolving Internet applications.Source: http://www. Implementations may require swapping out some old gear. Can create political problems as battles arise over who gets the good QoS and who controls it.my/index. To provide QoS.skmm.
SDFs mapped to the same bearer receive a common QoS treatment for example scheduling policy. Besides QCI. any SDF that does not match any of the existing dedicated bearer packet filters is mapped onto the default bearer. the default bearer typically uses a match all packet filter. LTE specifies a number of standardized QCI values with standardized characteristics. radio link control (RLC) configuration. However. This ensures multivendor deployments and roaming. The bearer management and control in LTE follows the network-initiated QoS control paradigm.packet flow established between the packet data network gateway and the user terminal. Non-guaranteed bit rate (non-GBR): A service utilizing a non-GBR bearer may experience A non-GBR bearer is referred to as the default bearer. modification. Therefore. which are preconfigured for the network elements. The traffic running between a particular client application and a service can be differentiated into separate service data flows (SDFs). if a dedicated the default bearer. In LTE the mapping of SDFs to a dedicated bearer is classified by IP five-tuple based packet filter either provisioned in PCRF or defined by the application layer signalling. The classbased method improves the scalability of the LTE QoS framework. which specifies the class to which the bearer belongs. Any additional bearer(s) is referred to as a dedicated bearer and can be GBR or non-GBR. QCI refers to a set of packet forwarding treatments preconfigured by the operator for each network element. A bearer is assigned a scalar value referred to as a QoS class identifier (QCI). and deletion of the bearers. which is also used to establish IP connectivity. queue management policy. similar to the initial Service Flow in WiMAX. The mapping of standardized QCI values to standardized characteristics is captured below diagram. the following are QoS attributes associated with the LTE bearer: . and the network initiated establishment. rate shaping policy. LTE bearers: Guaranteed bit rate (GBR): Dedicated network resources related to a GBR value associated with the bearer are permanently allocated when a bearer becomes established or modified.
The state of different bearers. but for future 3GPP releases an MBR can be greater than a GBR. The call admission control uses the ARP to decide whether a bearer establishment or modification request is to be accepted or rejected. only valid for GBR bearers. and link layer protocol configuration. LTE air interface scheduler The LTE air interface scheduler is responsible for dynamically allocating DL and UL air interface resources among the bearers appropriately while maintaining their desired QoS level in both DL and UL directions. the LTE air interface scheduler uses the following information as input: Radio conditions at the UE measured at the eNB and/or reported by the UE. Maximum bit rate (MBR): The maximum sustained traffic rate the bearer may not exceed. such as uplink buffer status reports (BSR) that are required to provide . only valid for GBR bearers Aggregate MBR (AMBR): The total amount of bit rate of a group of non-GBR bearers In 3GPP Release 8 the MBR must be equal to the GBR. The AMBR can help an operator to differentiate between its subscribers by assigning higher values of AMBR to its higher-priority customers compared to lower-priority ones. the overload control uses the ARP to decide which bearer to release during overload situations. Also. GBR: The minimum reserved traffic rate the network guarantees. Allocation and retention priority (ARP): A parameter used by call admission control and overload control for control plane treatment of a bearer. admission thresholds. queue management thresholds.QCI: A scalar representing a set of packet forwarding treatments for example scheduling weights. In order to make a scheduling decision.
.g. The ASN (Access Service Network) supports admission control & resource scheduling to manage (nonguaranteed) QoS per service flow.The default service flows are also used for DHCP and DNS.A single device can currently support up to 8 active service flows (4 DL + 4 UL). . The interference situation in the neighboring cells. A service flow (SF) is a unidirectional MAC-layer transport connection with particular QoS parameters. This improves the QoE associated with the MSs at the cell edge. including . The QoS attributes of bearers and packet forwarding parameters associated with the QCIs. QOS over WiMAX networks: WiMAX employs flow-based QoS – traffic can be classified to different service flows with different QoS parameters. .The default service flows are Best Effort and support most traffic.support for QoS-aware packet scheduling. elapsed time. Devices may also be pre-provisioned with additional “dedicated” service flows to provide QoS for selected applications. The LTE scheduler can try to control intercell interference on a slow basis. backhaul network) to provide QoS consistent with the air interface. The WiMAX network creates at least two (1 DL + 1 UL) service flows (default service flows) for a device when it enters the network. . The WiMAX ASN also marks traffic to enable other networks/elements (e. WiMAX provides QoS by classifying traffic to service flows with different QoS.Traffic must be classified to dedicated service flows.
and radio frequency (RF) conditions of different MSs. SFs with late packets or long buffer lengths also. receive higher priorities in the scheduling decision. . A scheduling decision is determined based on appropriate SFs’ QoS state variables. The air interface scheduler is responsible for enforcing QoS by assigning DL and UL physical (PHY) layer resource blocks among SFs.Requests can be initiated by either the network or device.the default service flows. modifying and deleting dedicated service flows during a subscriber’s active session. SFs’ QoS requirements such as MRTR and maximum latency. In general: • • SFs with shorter maximum latency or SFs with higher MRTR receive higher priorities in the scheduling decision. elapsed packet delay.16e supports 5 SF types: Unsolicited grant service (UGS): Supports real-time traffic with fixed-size data packets on a periodic basis Real-time polling service (rtPS): Supports real-time traffic with variable-size data packets on a periodic basis Extended rtPS (ertPS): Supports real-time traffic that generates variable-size data packets on a periodic basis with a sequence of active and silence intervals Non-real-time polling service (nrtPS): Supports delay-tolerant traffic that requires a minimum reserved rate Best effort (BE) service: Supports regular data services WiMAX air interface scheduler The SF framework provides QoS granularity and inter-SF isolation over the air interface. This mechanism is called bandwidth allocation. . WiMAX provides mechanisms for dynamically creating. like buffer lengths. WiMAX Service Flows: IEEE 802.
The flexible architecture gives the mobile client opportunities for differentiation. All packets mapped to the same bearer receive the same treatment. LTE AMBR allows the operator to rate cap the total non-GBR bearers of a subscriber.16e/IEEE 802. On the other hand.16m MSTR and MRTR. In LTE the QCI and associated nine standardized characteristics are not signaled on any interface. QoS handling in the control plane: The SF QoS parameters are signaled in IEEE 802. and traffic priority. and its mechanism is like rtPS. rtPS. LTE supports GBR and non-GBR bearers.16e/IEEE 802. QoS user plane treatment: The ARP parameter in LTE provides the following flexibilities to the operator: • Accept or reject establishment or modification of bearers during the call admission control decision based on not only the requested bandwidth.16e/IEEE 802. such as policy control and charging (PCC) functions in QoS provisioning. respectively.16m systems. However.16e/IEEE 802.16e/IEEE 802. with 3GPP Release 8. maximum sustained traffic rate (MSTR).16m even a BE SF can be rate limited using its MSTR.16m can control maximum packet delay and jitter. Also. LTE only supports network initiated QoS control. IEEE 802.16e/IEEE 802. but also the priority of the bearer • Selectively tear down bearers based on their priorities during an overload situation.16m via DSx/AAI-DSx messages. • WiMAX and LTE Comparison: There are more components and functionalities in an end-to-end network providing QoS than the air interface QoS features discussed above. nrtPS.16e/IEEE 802. GBR and MBR are set equal. The GBR bearer will be provided by the network with a guaranteed service rate.16m including UGS. we focus on a comparison of the QoS framework between LTE and IEEE 802. while in IEEE 802. and BE from IEEE 802. Therefore.16e/IEEE 802.16e/IEEE 802. minimum reserved traffic rate (MRTR).16e and the newly defined aGP service. available bandwidth. MBR and GBR are only attributes of GBR bearers.MSs with better RF conditions receive higher priorities by the scheduler in order to improve overall sector throughput.16m. QoS scheduling types: There are six scheduling service types in IEEE 802. an operator can adjust fairness to ensure MSs in poor RF conditions receive reasonable QoS. . However. LTE MBR and GBR are similar to IEEE 802. Network initiated or client initiated QoS are both supported in IEEE 802. The basic QoS transport in LTE is a bearer between UE and the PDNGW. The air interface scheduler may differentiate between traffic flows within an SF by packet priority levels such as DSCP values (intra-SF). while IEEE 802. the non-GBR has no such requirement and performs like BE in IEEE 802. both operator managed service and unmanaged service can be supported. or number of established bearers. it may further utilize the traffic priority attribute of SFs to differentiate between traffic associated with SFs of the same type (interSF).16m system is an SF. which is a unidirectional flow of packets either UL from the MS/AMS or DL packets from the BS/ABS.16m allows the operator to select independent values for MSTR and MRTR. QoS parameters per transport unit: Depending on the SF type. Here. ertPS.16m at the air interface: QoS transport unit: The basic QoS transport unit in the IEEE 802. Also.
VSAT service is becoming more popular in Malaysia.Multiple applications share the same bandwidth.architecture automatically allocates a pool of bandwidth to meet customer requirements of any site. user equipments. The customer can expand the number of interfaces at the indoor unit as he requires. How can a VSAT system accommodate subscriber that need higher data rate services. VSAT systems can be designed to serve both broadcast and interactive applications whether data. VSAT offers customers the following features and benefits: * Star network topology . * Economics of statistical multiplexing . offers lower delay and better response times.The aggregate network capacity can be increase from time to time as the number of sites and volume per site grows. TM Berhad Maxis TIME Dot Com VSAT stands for Very Small Aperture Terminal.provides a hubless network using only one satellite hop. The bandwidth automatically "follows" the new traffic patterns. flexible support of integrated multimedia communications. Smaller networks can be implemented at lower costs than traditional hub-based systems. Servers may be centralized or distributed. VSAT offers highly reliable. voice or video. It is a small satellite dish that is capable of both receiving and sending satellite signals.offers end-to-end shared hub services for network requirements that cannot economically support a dedicated hub and operated by experienced staff to ensure optimum service levels. Obtain information on VSAT service operator in Malaysia including examples of application. * Modularity and open system architecture . Compared to alternative technologies. * Full mesh connectivity . The Very Small Aperture Terminal.5. network topology. * Bandwidth-on-Demand .supports modular and open system architecture. The customer uses and pays for less total bandwidth than . * Scalability of network capacity . lease procedure and services offered and their data rate. which are now being served by terrestrial lines. The customer can move or add host computers and PABX's without having to re-engineer or resize the network.
It offers a competitive alternative even for countries. In addition. In addition. which have a high degree of communication infrastructure. Why VSAT The dish is small. VSAT network allows rapid.7% end-to-end availability for all locations.operating on global standards and operational 24 hours a day. Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) or Time division multiple access (TDMA) transmission techniques. * Cost effective solution . * Network Management and Control .with the more traditional multiple dedicated network approaches. easily transportable and installation lead-time is much shorter if compared to terrestrial links. low-cost network re-configuration and expansion to meet new or unexpected business requirements. 7 days a week for some of major Earth Stations. VSAT offers a wide of protocols and features. Application VSAT is an ideal satellite network that provides communications support for a wide range of applications: • • • • • • • • • • • • Point-of-sales transaction Order-Entry Billing Inventory Control Financial Management Data processing Reservation System Telemetry & Data Collection News Wire Services Private-Line Voice Virtual Private Networks Distance Education High Speed Internet Acces VSAT TOPOLOGY .Cost effective transmission and network operations are made possible by use of the C-band satellite frequency and frequency times division multiple access (FTDMA).provides cost-effective communication solutions with high level functionality and performance since the pricing is distance independent. VSAT network is typically engineered to achieve a minimum of 99. providing extraordinary flexibility and virtually unlimited expansion capabilities.
That explains the capability of the service reaching out to challenging areas of the country and region.4m/3. multimedia and voice applications. The available bandwidth ranging from 9. fax and Internet service via satellite. voice and fax to remote locations via satellite with a flexible multi-channel communications for public.8m/2. 2) Potential back-up service .VSAT can be customised and implemented with the topology of network that is best suited to the customers' requirement.6 kbps to 2 Mbps duplex. It integrates both high-speed Internet access and video multicasting capabilities. Value added services that VSAT can offer is as follows: 1) Gyro Stabilized System . 1) Hub type Hub type is a private network designed for data. 2) Hubless type Hubless type is a low cost rural telephony and Internet solutions that provides voice.Practical to cater for offshore communication especially for rough and choppy sea condition. Its point-to-point or mesh architecture is useful for providing interconnectivity amongst relatively high volume VSATs utilization. How high is VSAT reachability? VSAT is a satellite-based service covering national and regional telecommunications needs. A total service package that VSAT can offer to oil and gas customer. One of the advantages of Star topologies is that the hub can maintain effective control of the network through centralized processing. corporate and government applications. voice communication and facsimile during oil exploration or drilling activities. This means of communication can also serve as part of company's network diversity. The network is suitable for point to multi-point communication for customers having a single data center requiring connectivity to its branches in geographically dispersed locations.6 kbps up to 2048 kbps duplex. Typical applications are data transfer. The service is served from small parabolic dishes (1. Hubless type may also be a communication network that provides ondemand data.8m) accessing to the satellite directly from the customer premises. It delivers toll-quality voice and IP transmission and represents the most cost-effective solutions. It supports connection on demand between any pairs or terminals in the system. This service supports transmission bandwidth ranging from 9. retail outlets or branches. It is well suited for business traffic from the hub at the company headquarters and individual VSATs located at field offices. providing highly reliable communications between a central hub and almost any number of geographically dispersed sites.
1. USER EQUIPMENTS .2 up to 56 2. 64 3. 1.What is the access speeds for VSAT? The list of access speeds (in Kbps) are as below. 1536 10. 128 4. 512 7. 1024 9. 256 5. 768 8. 384 6. 2048 Satellite limitations: Satellite delay of 600 milisecond transmit and 600 milisecond receive is a universal standard.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.