TCOM 750 Satellite Communications Fundamentals

Sept 15, 2004

Satellite RF Fundamentals

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Announcements
Tonight we will view a video on amateur radio satellite operations and discuss some concepts presented in the class notes. Next week: Perspectives on Winning Proposals
Guest Lecturer: Steve Trieber

Recommended URLs:
Surrey Space Centre: http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/SSC/ Surrey Satellite Technology LTD: http://www.sstl.co.uk SpaceQuest LTD: http://www.spacequest.com/ Space Systems Development Lab: http://ssdl.stanford.edu/ US Naval Academy Satellite Lab: http://web.usna.navy.mil/~bruninga/satstation.html

Satellite RF Fundamentals

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Team Rosters

TEAM 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 Naim Kassar Heng Fan Arpan Shah Mark Norton Kenneth Lim Dana Jaff

TEAM 2 David Davis Azzie Legesse Ayele Antenagegnehu Timothy Maier Shahid Nasim Padmanabhan Raman

TEAM3 Yingjie Hall Ravi Bhalotia Roger Ensminger Shelley Mountjoy Yang Liu Anouar Benahmed

Satellite RF Fundamentals

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Objectives
Refresh your knowledge of basic RF communications concepts related to the operation of spacecraft. Analyze how amateur radio satellite operations and methods can apply to our project.

Satellite RF Fundamentals

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Satellite RF Communications Architecture Geostationary Relay Satellite(s) Spacecraft Antenna Transmitter Data Instrument Space Link Sensor Space Link OR Receiver EARTH Data to Processor Receiver Data to Processor Satellite RF Fundamentals 5 .

Terrestrial Noise Receiver Antenna Antenna Power Amplifier Receiver Noise Receiver Transmitter Modulator Implementation Loss Demodulator Information Source Information Sink 6 Satellite transmitter-to-receiver link with typical loss and noise sources Satellite RF Fundamentals . Star. Rain Loss Space Loss Pointing Loss Transmitter SPACE CHANNEL Galactic.Subsystems of Satellite RF Communications Pointing Loss Polarization Loss Atmospheric Loss.

Definitions & Some Basics dB = 10 log10 (x). dBm = 10 log10 (100000) = 50 dBm Carrier Frequency Units are Hz MHz = Hz x 106 GHz = Hz x 10 9 Frequency Bands (of interest) S-Band = 2-3 GHz X-Band = 7-8 GHz Ku-Band = 13-15 GHz Ka-Band = 23-28 GHz Satellite RF Fundamentals 7 . dBW = 10 log10 (100) = 20 dBW dBm ≡ 10 log10 (milliwatts) For 100 watts. x is usually a power ratio dBW ≡ 10 log10 (watts) For 100 watts.

0001 Watts -10 dBm A power below the reference level has negative value. for either dBm or dBW Satellite RF Fundamentals 8 .1 Watts 20 dBm -30 dBW 0.001 Watts (1 milliwatt) 0 dBm (Ref) -40 dBW 0.Logarithmic Scale dBW 20 dBW 100 Watts 50 dBm Always a 30 dB difference between dBm and dBW dBm 13 dBW 10 dBW 20 Watts 10 Watts 43 dBm 40 dBm 0 dBW (Ref) 1 Watts 30 dBm -10 dBW 0.

Fs = Frequency of Transmission Doppler rate of change = ∆f Vs = as f 2 s ∆t (C − Vs ) where as = rate of change of Vs = acceleration Satellite RF Fundamentals Doppler shifts become greater as the frequencies become higher.What is Doppler & Doppler Rate? B A C AOS OR T BI LOS EARTH Doppler Rate +∆ f Doppler Shift A Nominal (at-rest) frequency B C -∆f ⎛ Vs ⎞ Doppler Shift = ∆f = ± ⎜ ⎜ C − V ⎟ fs ⎟ ⎝ s ⎠ Vs = Radial velocity component between S/C and Site in the direction of the observer C = Speed of Light = 2. 9 .997925 x 108 meters/sec.

Doppler & Doppler Rate Phase lock loops Input Signal ± Doppler Phase & Frequency Comparer Error Signal Low Pass Filter Voltage Controlled Oscillator Filtered Error Signal Enable receiving & tracking of Doppler shifted signals Used in virtually all spacecraft & ground station designs to accommodate dynamic frequency changes Satellite RF Fundamentals 10 .

Analog and Digital Data Satellite RF Fundamentals 11 .

Analog and Digital Data Most instrument data starts out as analog data Volts time Most analog data is converted to digital data (binary 2n) Volts 7 6 5 4 time 3 bit system Binary 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 Satellite RF Fundamentals Analog 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 1 0 1 7 1 1 1 6 1 1 0 4 1 0 0 Serial data stream transmitted 12 .

Analog and Digital Data Why use digital data + Better performance vs. noise + Lends itself to computer processing & coding .Consumes more bandwidth Volts Analog Signal t Sampling Rate ≥ Nyquist rate (≥ 2 fmax) Digital Sampling t fmax – max frequency component of the original signal Digital Bit Stream t 13 Satellite RF Fundamentals .

Spectra Basics Satellite RF Fundamentals 14 .

Spectra (Baseband Signals) Frequency Domain Time Domain V(t) = Asin2πft t Period = T A Amplitude Fourier Transform 1 f= T Hz ∞ .j2πft v(f ) = ∫ v(t ) e dt -∞ y(t) t T Amplitude sin x ( ) Fourier Transform x ∞ .j2πft y(f ) = ∫ y(t ) e dt -∞ 7/T 6/T 5/T 4/T 3/T 2/T 1/T 1/T 2/T 3/T 4/T 5/T 6/T 7/T Satellite RF Fundamentals 15 .

j2 π( fm − fc )tdt 2 -∞ 2 -∞ -fm ½ M(0) M(0) 0 fm f ½ M(0) -fc Satellite RF Fundamentals 0 fc f 16 .j2 π fmt dt is the Fourier transform of M(t) -∞ 1 j2 πf t 1 − j2 πfc t using the identity cos 2πfc t = e c + e 2 2 ∞ Then: M(t ) cos 2πfc t = 1 1 M(t)e j2 πfc t + M(t )e − j2 πfc t 2 2 A Then: The Fourier transform of V(t) = V(f) 1∞ 1∞ V (f ) = ∫ M(t ) e.j2π ( fm + fc )tdt + ∫ M(t ) e.Spectra (Modulated Signal) Given: an arbitrary modulating signal M(t) an arbitrary “carrier signal” cos 2πfct then the modulated signal V(t) ≡ M(t) cos 2πfct Find: The Fourier transform of V(t) M(f ) = ∫ M(t ) e .

Coding/Spreading/Data Compression Satellite RF Fundamentals 17 .

g. 1’s and 0’s. A carrier signal is modulated using this raw data for convenient transmission over the channel. sometimes making it impossible to reconstruct the raw bits at the receiver. If a transmitted bit is received as its opposite (e. The carrier signal is subject to noise corruption in the channel. Satellite RF Fundamentals 18 .The Effects of Channel Noise In digital communications. then a “bit error” has occurred. a 1 received as a 0 or vice versa). raw data is put into the form of bits.. This results in a progressive loss of information at the receiver as the number of mistranslated bits grows.

BER and Eb/No The rate at which bits are corrupted beyond the capacity to reconstruct them is called the BER (Bit Error Rate). As the following chart shows. an even smaller BER is desired (10-7).. fewer errors) if the Eb/No increases. Since the noise density present on the channel is difficult to control. this basically means that BER can be reduced through using a higher powered signal. the BER will decrease (i. The BER is directly dependent on the Eb/No. A BER of less than 1 in 100. Satellite RF Fundamentals 19 . which is the Bit Energy-to-Noise Density ratio.e. For some types of data. or by controlling other parameters to increase the energy transmitted per bit.000 bits is generally desired for an average satellite communications channel (also referred to as a BER of 10-5).

Higher Eb/No Reduces the BER BER Versus Eb/No 10-3 Some ways of Increasing Eb/No 10-4 BER • Increase signal power • Use a bigger antenna • Use a super cooled receiver 10-5 10-6 These methods can be expensive lower Eb/No higher Satellite RF Fundamentals 20 .

Another Strategy to Reduce BER BER Versus Eb/No 10-3 10-4 This change in performance can be achieved by using Error Correction Coding 10-5 Another strategy is to shift the whole curve over to the left BER Now the same BER can be achieved using a lower Eb/No 10-6 Less expensive method of mitigating channel noise lower Eb/No higher Satellite RF Fundamentals 21 .

There are times when retransmission of the message is not practical. This implies error detection and a subsequent request for retransmission.Error Detecting versus Error Detecting/ Correcting Codes An error detecting code can only detect the presence of errors. for a given code. Usually. An error detecting/correcting code. If a spacecraft is transmitting a playback dump of a storage device while making a short pass over a ground station. Satellite RF Fundamentals 22 . on the other hand. it may not have time to stop the transmission and retransmit in a short enough time. has the ability to detect a defined number of errors and correct them for a prescribed environment that caused the errors. not correct them. which is commonly called Forward Error Correction (FEC). more errors can be detected than can actually be corrected.

often called parity bits. For instance.Error Correction Codes Error control coding aims to correct errors caused by noise and interference in a digital communications scheme. the original 0 can still be decoded correctly if one makes a final decision based on the majority of the received coded symbols. Now individual bit errors will not necessarily result in the incorrect decoding of the original information bits. this new sequence is sent over the channel. also called coded symbols.. the information bits are represented as another sequence of bits. This new sequence will use redundant information.g. send a 0 as 00000 and a 1 as 11111). to provide error protection (e. if 1 or 2 of the five 0’s sent over the channel in the above example are interpreted as 1’s at the receiver. Satellite RF Fundamentals 23 . In error control coding.

Types of Error Correction Codes
A rate 1/2 convolutional code, an example of one family of codes, is often used on NASA space communication links.
2 coded symbols for every 1 data symbol (i.e., 100% overhead) Provides improved performance in a Gaussian noise environment

The Reed-Solomon code, a special type of “block” code, also has the advantage of smaller bandwidth expansion and also has the capability to indicate the presence of uncorrectable errors.
Provides improved performance in a bursty noise environment Overhead approximately 12%

Where a greater coding gain is needed than can be provided by the convolutional code or the Reed-Solomon code alone, the two codes are often concatenated to provide a higher error-correction performance.
One code serves as the “outer” code, one as the “inner” code

Satellite RF Fundamentals

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Typical Encoded Link
Data symbols 1.12 Msps R/S Encoder Rate ½ Convolutional Encoder Data symbols 2.24 Msps Baseband Signal RF Signal

Data Bits 1 Mbps

Modulator & Transmitter

LNA Antenna Antenna Receiver Data symbols 2.24 Msps
2.24 MHz

fc

0
1 MHz 2 MHz

0
1.12 MHz 2.24 MHz

0
2.24 MHz 2.24 MHz

fc

Convolutional Decoder Data symbols 1.12 Msps R/S Decoder

Note: Coding increases the bandwidth of the baseband RF signal Data Bits 1 Mbps (with some errors)

Satellite RF Fundamentals

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Example Error Correcting Performance
For a BER of 10-5, Theoretical Required Eb/N0 is as follows:
THEORETICAL CURVES 1

Uncoded PSK: 9.6 dB Reed-Solomon (R-S) Coding: 6.0 dB Convolutional Coding (7,1/2) PSK: 4.4 dB Convolutional + R-S (no R-S interleave): ~3.0 dB Convolutional + R-S (ideal R-S interleave): ~2.4 dB

10 -1

10 -2
IDEAL PSK, NO CODING

10 -3

CONV. CODING (7, 1/2)

R-S CODING (255, 223)

10 -4 Pe
CONV. + R-S (IDEAL INTERLEAVE)

(7,1/2), where rate 1/2 indicates that for every 1 bit into the encoder 2 symbols are output of the encoder and 7 is the number of shift registers used to generate the output symbol of the encoder. Interleaving takes adjacent bits and separates them to help protect from interference.
Satellite RF Fundamentals

10 -5

CONV. + R-S (NO INTERLEAVE)

10 -6

10 -7

10 -8

10 -9

10 -10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 E /N (dB) b o

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Data Compression
Data transmission and storage cost money.
Despite this, digital data are generally stored in efficient ways such as ASCII text or binary code. These encoding methods require data files about twice as large as actually needed to represent the information.

Data compression is the general term for the various algorithms and programs developed to address this problem.
A compression program converts data from an easy-to-use format for one optimized for compactness. Basically it discards redundant data with a prescribed algorithm. An uncompression program returns the information to its original form.

As an example of compression, a fax device compresses the data before it sends it to reduce the time needed to transmit the document.
This can reduce the cost of transmission 10 or more times. Compression will be required for the Design Project Problem.
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Satellite RF Fundamentals

the original data is recovered through a process called despreading. At the receiver. thus disrupting communications Jamming can be intentional. in which a synchronized replica of the spreading signal is correlated with the received spread signal. or coding signal. which is independent of the data. high power signal which falls in the bandwidth of the desired signal. Provide isolation for signals on same frequency. A spreading signal. or it can result from natural phenomena such as multipath.Spread Spectrum Definition Spread Spectrum (SS) was developed originally as an anti-jamming technique. A jamming signal is a narrowband. is used to accomplish spreading. Spreading used in the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Reduce flux density of signals to meet Spectrum Management requirements. Wss. SS works by spreading the desired signal over a much larger bandwidth. much in excess of the minimum bandwidth W necessary to send the information. Satellite RF Fundamentals 28 .

Basic Spread Spectrum Technique: Direct Sequence Signal x(t) Symbol (Data) rate R x x Filter Recovered data spreading code signal g(t) chip rate Rch spreading code signal g(t) chip rate Rch Rch ≈ ≥ 10 symbol (data) rate Multiplication by the spreading signal once spreads the signal bandwidth. Multiplication by the spreading signal twice recovers the original signal. yet it must appear random to authorized listeners. but the jamming signal gets multiplied only once. The desired signal gets multiplied twice. Generally g(t) is generated as a pre-defined pseudo-random sequence of 1s and –1s through the use of prescribed shift registers. Satellite RF Fundamentals 29 . g(t) must be deterministic. since it must be generated at both the transmitter and receiver.

Spreading: Effect of Spread Spectrum G(f) Jammer with total power J JO = J/W Before Spreading w Gss(f) After Spreading J'o = Jo (W/Wss) wss Satellite RF Fundamentals 30 .

Spreading: Overview of Various Spreading Techniques Direct Sequencing (DS) is the SS technique described above. Each hop lasts a very short time. Allows separation between desired signals all at the same frequency & polarization Aids in meeting required flux density regulations Enables range determination of spacecraft Rule of thumb – spreading chip rate x 10 of symbol (data) rate In Frequency Hopping (FH). making the presence of a jamming signal in any one hopped frequency band much less effective. FS is still a form of SS. Not effective against continuous wave jammers. DS/FH. Satellite RF Fundamentals 31 . as it requires greatly expanded bandwidth to operate. Time Hopping (TH) uses a coded sequence to turn the transmitter on and off in a pseudorandom fashion to counter a pulsed jamming signal. but a greater time duration for transmission. the frequency spectrum of the desired signal is shifted pseudorandomly over M different frequencies. or DS/FH/TH are examples. not more bandwidth. so it is usually combined with other techniques. Requires. FH/TH. Hybrids of the three techniques above are often used.

Modulation Schemes Satellite RF Fundamentals 32 .

These digital waveforms are then used to modulate the carrier. Digital symbols (usually bits) are transformed into waveforms by a process called digital modulation. frequency or phase of the carrier signal. Satellite RF Fundamentals 33 . it means to change the amplitude. The following slide shows some commonly used Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) waveforms. Definition: Baseband signals are those signals that are used to modulate a high frequency carrier signal.Definition of Modulation Modulate means to change something In telecommunications.

Manchester 11+ 180o ) "One" is represented by a 10 "Zero" is represented by a 01 Bi-Phase-Space A transition occurs at the beginning of every bit period "One" is represented by no second transition "Zero" is represented by a second transition one-half bit period later Bi-Phase-Mark A transition occurs at the beginning of every bit period "One" is represented by a second transition one-half bit period later "Zero" is represented by no second transition 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 MIS-01 NG5061 Satellite RF Fundamentals 34 .Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Waveforms 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 NRZ-L 1 NRZ-M 0 1 NRZ-S 0 1 R-Z 0 1 Biø-L 0 1 Biø-S 0 1 Biø-M 0 1 NRZ-Level (or NRZ-Change) "One" is represented by one level "Zero" is represented by the other level NRZ-Mark "One" is represented by a change in level "Zero" is represented by no change in level NRZ-Space "One" is represented by no change in level "Zero" is represented by a change in level RZ "One" is represented by a half-bit wide pulse "Zero" is represented by no pulse condition Bi-Phase-Level (or SplitPhase.

The size of an antenna depends on the wavelength of the signal to be transmitted. then the required antenna diameter will be much more reasonable. where c is the speed of light and f is the frequency.Motivation for Modulation It would be very difficult to send a baseband signal directly over a channel because antennas are used to transmit electromagnetic fields through space. In addition. by modulating carriers at different frequencies. An antenna might need to be unacceptably long to directly transmit a baseband signal. Satellite RF Fundamentals 35 . If the baseband information is first modulated on a high frequency carrier. more than one baseband signal may be sent over the same channel. A baseband signal has a relatively low frequency and therefore a very large wavelength that is calculated as c/f. This is call frequency multiplexing (similar to current radio and TV broadcasting). Often the antenna size is taken to be λ/4. thus increasing data throughput.

Satellite RF Fundamentals 36 . the symbol period. but comes with a performance degradation.The Carrier Wave/How to Modulate The general form of a carrier wave is: s(t) = A(t) cos [wct + ø(t)] wc = carrier freq A(t) = amplitude ø(t) = phase S(t) sin x () Modulator x fc reference fc The carrier can be modulated by using the baseband signal to vary one or more of the above parameters over a duration of T. Noncoherent modulation is used when knowledge of the absolute phase is unavailable. Less complicated. Coherent modulation may be used when the receiver can exploit knowledge of the actual carrier phase.

16-PSK. The mainlobe of QPSK is half the width of the BPSK spectrum mainlobe. where QPSK modulation results in 2 symbols/Hz). but there is a tradeoff (higher required power or higher BER). etc. The probabilities of bit error for BPSK and QPSK are equal. the spectrum of QPSK is narrower than that of BPSK. Higher orders of PSK can be designed (8-PSK. Satellite RF Fundamentals 37 . but QPSK can support twice the data rate that BPSK can.QPSK versus BPSK BPSK modulation results in 1 symbol/Hz. As a result.).

dB 1a BPSK 1 = 180 DEGREES 0 = 0 DEGREES Two states for BPSK Inphase and Quadrature biphase signals Q 1b I 0a Four states for QPSK 38 1 Satellite RF Fundamentals 0 QPSK: Delay Data by 90 degrees on 1 channel 0b . Uncoded 4 3.5 Required RF Bandwidth / Data Rate QPSK BPSK.Comparison of Spectra for BPSK and QPSK for a Given Data Rate BPSK 4.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 QPSK.5 1 0. Rate 1/2 Coded Coding Gain Bandwidth Difference Theoretical Required Eb/N0 for BER of 10 -5 .5 3 2. Rate 1/2 Coded Bandwidth Difference Co d Ga ing in BPSK.5 2 1. Uncoded QPSK.

Noise Basics Satellite RF Fundamentals 39 .

and the atmosphere Solar radiation Galactic background (moon. such as the line from the antenna to the receiver Satellite RF Fundamentals 40 .) The receiver-generated noise can be caused by various receiver components Results from thermal noise caused by the motion of electrons in all conductors The principal components that generate noise are the active devices such as LNA and random noise stemming from passive elements. stars. and it is also called the sky noise Terrestrial sources such as lightning. radio emissions.Sources of System Noise The presence of noise degrades the performance of a satellite link The noise present in a satellite communications system (often called the “system noise”) comes from many different sources Some of it is injected via the antenna from external sources Some of the noise is generated internally by various receiver components The noise which comes in through the antenna can be seen as random noise emissions from different sources. etc.

K in dBW = -228.38 x 10-23 J/K. it is mandatory to reduce the noise in the receiver as far as possible Generally the receiver bandwidth is made just large enough to pass the signal. Tn. since it provides a way of determining how much thermal noise is generated by active and passive devices in the receiving system The physical noise temperature of a device.Noise Temperature of a Device Noise temperature is a useful concept in communications receivers. in order to minimize noise power Satellite RF Fundamentals 41 .6 dBW/K Tn = Noise temperature of source in Kelvins B = Bandwidth of power measurement device in hertz Because satellite communications systems work with weak signals. results in a noise power of Pn = KTnB K = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.

The total noise power can then be calculated easily. noise sources with the same noise power as the original noisy components. It is then easy mathematically to combine all of the noise sources into one noise source. B is the bandwidth of interest. we must find the total thermal noise against which the signal must be demodulated. The combination of all the noisy devices plus the antenna noise. located at the input of a noiseless receiver. The next slide shows how this is done for an earth station receiver. is called the system noise temperature. This can be done by representing the receiver components as noiseless devices with their individual gains and. as Pn = KTsBG. for link budget purposes. Satellite RF Fundamentals 42 . The noise temperature of this source. at their inputs. Ts.The System Noise Temperature To determine the performance of a receiving system. G is the total gain of the receiver.

Noise Figure and the G/T Figure of Merit Noise figure can also be used to specify the noise generated within a device The noise figure of a device is related to its noise temperature by: Td = T0(NF . is usually 290° K (room temperature) RF AMP NF = (S/N)in/(S/N)out NFdB = 3 dB.0 dB/° K Satellite RF Fundamentals 43 . so does the quality of the earth station For example. if the receive antenna is 50 dBi and the system noise temperature is 500° K . the reference temperature. often just written as G/T The G/T is often used as a figure of merit for an earth station As G/T goes up.1). where T0. NF= 103/10= 2 Td = 290 (2-1) = 290° K The receiver gain and the system noise temperature can be combined as a ratio. Gr/Ts. then Gr/Ts = 50-10log (500) ≅ 23.

0026 + .. ≈462 °K Satellite RF Fundamentals 44 ..5)290 + (2 − 1)290 + ≈ 25 + 145 + 290 + 2.5 Ts @ Reference Point System Noise Temperature ≡ Ts °K To is reference temperature of each device = 290°K (assumed) Ts ≈∈ Tsky + (1− ∈)To + (NFLNA − 1)To + (NFPC − 1)To + (NFIF − 1)To + . (10 − 1)290 (10 − 1)290 1000 + 1000 x1000 + .The Calculation of System Noise Temperature (Cont’d) Example: 3 dB Tsky = 50° Loss = L 1 LNA NFLNA = 3 dB = 2 GLNA = 30 dB DEMODULATOR NFDC = 10 dB = 10 GDC = 30 dB IF AMP NFIF = 10 dB = 10 GIF = 30 dB RECEIVER NFR = 10 dB = 10 GR = 30 dB ∈= L ∈= 1 10 3 dB / 10 = 0. GLNA GLNAGDC ≈ 0.5(50) + (1 − 0..6 + ....

Components Satellite RF Fundamentals 45 .

Components of Interest Antennas Receive & transmit RF (radio frequency) energy Size/type selected directly related to frequency/required gain Gain Pattern Omni Antenna (idealized) 0 dBi 360° Directional (Hi-Gain) Antenna Isotropic antenna Omni Antenna (typical) 110 120 130 140 150 160 plot1 mtheta Theta Cut 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 -3 dB Beamwidth Gain is relative to isotropic with units of dBi Side Lobes Boresight Peak Gain = X dBi 46 170 plot2 mtheta Three_dB 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 Satellite RF Fundamentals .

the transmit and receive antennas should have the same polarization. Linear Polarization Vertical Linear Polarization Horizontal Circular Polarization Left hand Circular Polarization Right hand Satellite RF Fundamentals 47 . specifically. as observed along the direction of propagation To minimize polarization loss. the figure traced as a function of time by the extremity of the vector at a fixed location in space.Components of Interest (Cont’d) Antennas (cont’d) Polarization: the orientation of the electrical field vector.

Components of Interest (Cont’d) Filters & Diplexers A Band Pass Filter f1 – f2 f A f f1 f2 Receive fr Diplexer Transmit ft fr (2106.5 MHz) Diplexer provides isolation between transmit & receive signals Satellite RF Fundamentals 48 .4 MHz) ft (2287.

Components of Interest (Cont’d) Transmitters (modulators) & Receivers (demodulators) Transmitter Original Signal Receiver Original Signal A sin A (x ) x sin (x ) x 7/T 6/T 5/T 4/T 3/T 2/T 1/T 1/T 2/T 3/T 4/T 5/T 6/T 7/T fc f 7/T 6/T 5/T 4/T 3/T 2/T 1/T 1/T 2/T 3/T 4/T 5/T 6/T 7/T fc Transponders & Transceivers Switch Transponder Mode Transmitter Diplexer Receiver Transceiver Mode Power Amplifier Transmitter 1 watt (0 dBW) Satellite RF Fundamentals Power Amplifier G = 13 dB 20 watt (13 dBW) 49 .

GT. for example GR. in that direction is: Power flux density (pfd) = 4πd T T 2 The equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) = PT GT The power received by an antenna with area AR is: P = pfd A = R R PG A 4πd T T 2 R The gain of any antenna. PT. is: G = R 4πA c . d. λ= λ f r 2 Satellite RF Fundamentals 50 . is uniformly distributed on the surface of a sphere of which the antenna is the center The power flux-density is the power radiated by the antenna in a given direction at a sufficiently large distance. the power supplied to the antenna. d = distance 4πd T i 2 The power flux-density radiated in a given direction by antenna P G having a gain.Link Equation For an isotropic antenna in free space conditions. per unit of surface P area is: Power flux density = .

44 + 20 log d + 20 log f Free Space Path Loss = (L) dB km MHz (see backup for derivation) In general.Link Equation (Cont’d) PR = 2 ⎛ 4 π d⎞ PT GT AR PT GT GR EIRP GR EIRP GR ⎟ = = = where L = ⎜ 2 2 ⎜ λ ⎟ L 4 π d2 4πd 4πd ⎝ ⎠ λ λ ( ) ( ) = 32. (P ) R dB = (EIRP)dB + (GR )dB − (L)dB PT GT d Receiving Antenna Area = AR (PR )dB = (EIRP)dB + (GR )dB − (Σ all losses) dB Hypothetical Sphere Satellite RF Fundamentals 51 .

Link Equation Let the noise spectral density. ⎛E ⎞ ⎛E ⎞ Margin = ⎜ b ⎟ − ⎜ b ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜N ⎟ ⎝ o ⎠rdB ⎝ No ⎠Req'd dB ⎛ Eb ⎜ ⎜N ⎝ o is related to BER (see ⎞ theoretical curves for given ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Req' d dB modulation and coding scheme) If the margin is not high enough. K in dBW = -228.38 x 10-23 J/K. No ≡ KT where K = Boltzmann’s constant = 1. using the link budget.R dB ⎜ ⎟ ⎜N ⎟ ⎝ o ⎠rdB ⎝ No ⎠dB The actual Eb/N0 can be compared to the required Eb/N0 to see how much “margin” the system contains.(Losses ) dB ⎜N ⎟ ⎝ T ⎠dB ⎝ o ⎠dB The power received to noise density is related to the data rate by the energy per bit ⎛ Eb ⎞ as follows: ⎛ Pr ⎞ ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = Energy/bit received where: R = Bit Rate ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ R ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ No ⎠r ⎝ No ⎠r ⎝ No ⎠r ⎛P ⎞ ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ r ⎟ .6 dBW/K T = system noise temperature in Kelvins Gr power P Then the in 1 Hz ≡ r = EIRP KT noise No Losses ⎛ Pr ⎞ ⎛G ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = (EIRP ) dB + ⎜ r ⎟ .(K ) dB . then. or is less than 0 dB. a system engineer can easily determine how the communication system needs to be improved to achieve the desired performance. Satellite RF Fundamentals 52 .

like “debits” 53 Satellite RF Fundamentals . or the Eb/N0 required to achieve a desired BER Link performance is analyzed in terms of: Transmit power Antenna parameters (e. propagation losses. with the “bottom line” at the bottom Factors that contribute to a higher Eb/N0 are added as positive numbers.Link Budget Analysis A link budget is an engineering tool for satellite communication systems.g.g. gain) Received system noise levels (usually specified as noise temperature) Other factors (e. numbers are added and subtracted together in a table format. like “credits” Factors that contribute to a lower Eb/N0 are added as negative numbers. used to demonstrate and analyze link performance Generally the desired end result is Bit Error Rate (BER). intermodulation) As for any budget. interference.

The receiver implementation loss. Satellite RF Fundamentals 54 . caused by imperfect pointing of the antennas Miscellaneous other losses. the only power loss term would be the path loss caused by the dispersion of the transmit power over the transmitter-to-receiver range. In the link budget. these losses are sometimes listed as line items subtracted from the received power. many other losses need to be considered as well.Additional Losses on a Real Satellite Link On an ideal link. Pointing loss. Polarization loss. caused by the a mismatch between the transmitting and receiving antennas. For a real satellite communications link. but some of them may be combined in different ways. Rain attenuation and atmospheric loss.

95 dB 0.5 MHz I = 75 MBPS Loss = 1.Sample Link Budget (direct to ground) Σ Losses = 0.67 dB 178.2 dB Polarization loss space loss @ 2575 KM and 5° elevation atmospheric loss rain loss 11m Ground Antenna QPSK 8212.84 dBi G/T = 33.45 dB 1.94 dB 55 .6 dBW 10.13 dB SPACE Encoder & Transmitter Q = 75 MBPS Gain = 4.3 dB/K LNA Receiver data 11.31 dBW C = 95.95 dB Hz No I Q ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ = 12.19 dB ⎝ o ⎠r Decoder ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 4.25 dB ⎜N ⎟ ⎝ o ⎠REQ'D Implementation Loss = 2.0 dB Alaska SAR Facility 11 meter antenna Satellite RF Fundamentals Decoded Data MARGIN = 5.49 dBW EIRP = 15.

15. Q: NOTE B NOTE A 19 .L.31 1 . USER SPACECRAFT TRANSMITTER POWER .dB 1.25 3.S. 21.15 .2 + 3 .dB-bps DIFFERENTIAL ENCODING/DECODING LOSS .dB 1.5 MHz MODULATION: I CHANNEL --------DATA RATE: 75000. RECEIVED CARRIER TO NOISE DENSITY .dBi 4.20 Include Scintillation loss 1.45 NOTE B.19 2. 17. 23.000 kbps CODING: RATE 1/2 CODED BER: 1.dB REQUIRED Eb/No . POLARIZATION LOSS .60 NOTE A.dB .WONG FREQUENCY: RANGE: 2575. FREE SPACE LOSS .84 NOTE A include multipath loss 04.94 QPSK Q CHANNEL --------DATA RATE: 75000.A. 19.dB DATA RATE .S. USER SPACECRAFT POINTING LOSS .10 + 11 .dB IMPLEMENTATION LOSS . ANALYSIS #1 DATE & TIME: 4/ 1/99 10:13:39 LINKID: EOS-AM/SGS 8212. USER SPACECRAFT EIRP .dB/DEGREES-K 33. 16.dBWi 15.dB USER CONSTRAINT LOSS . I-Q CHANNEL POWER SPLIT LOSS .dB NOTE B.dB 178.16 . RAIN ATTENUATION .20 78.60 12.9 .Example Link Budget (direct to ground) *** DOWNLINK MARGIN CALCULATION*** GSFC C.00 2.75 .95 5 .95 NOTE B 08.dBW 11. EL: 5.94 Q CHANNEL --------3.00 TO 1.12 I CHANNEL --------3. BOLTZMANN'S CONSTANT .20 1. 18. MULTIPATH LOSS .dBW/(Hz*K) -228.00 NOTE A 11.0 DEG 09.dB RECEIVED Eb/No .22 NOTE A: NOTE B: PARAMETER VALUE FROM USER PROJECT .dB .60 12.dB REQUIRED PERFORMANCE MARGIN .67 NOTE A 07. ATMOSPHERIC LOSS .18 I: NOTE B.00E-05 PERFORMED BY: Y.60 CONSTANT 13.7 .dB .01 . 20.00 NOTE A NOTE A NOTE A 2 dB Includes diff encoding and modulation losses 13 .0 km 14.75 . USER SPACECRAFT ANTENNA GAIN . 22. GROUND STATION G/T .1 dB 10.00E-05 99.13 NOTE A 03. 1.00 NOTE A 05.19 2.30 G/T with rain at 5 degrees 12.dB/Hz 95.dB MODULATION LOSS .00 4.25 3.20 78.6 .dB .20 . EOL 02.4 06.01 .8 . USER SPACECRAFT PASSIVE LOSS .SUBJECT TO CHANGE FROM CLASS ANALYSIS IF COMPUTED Satellite RF Fundamentals 56 .21 .14 .00 2.dB MARGIN .95 AVAILABILITY GR EL=5 DEGREES PARAMETER VALUE REMARKS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------01.000 kbps CODING: RATE 1/2 CODED BER: 1.17 .20 1.00 4.

6 (KaSA) Due to defining the Prec isotropically at TDRS. and interference degradation.e. -247. -231. (i. -245. Prec = Pr = GRGTPT(λ/4πR)2 Watts) In dB. GR is set to 1 (= 0 dB) for the isotropic antenna. however.2 (KuSA). TDRSS defines the relationship between data rate and the signal power level received isotropically at TDRS (Prec) for a Bit Error Rate of 10-5 Ideal required Prec = RbdB + K For rate 1/2 coded signals. incompatibility loss. 57 Satellite RF Fundamentals .. this can be expressed as PR = GR + GT + PT + 20Log(λ/4πR) dBW Margin = Predicted Prec – Ideal Prec – Other Losses Other Losses are treated as debits and encompass items such as polarization loss (mismatch of the transmit polarization with receiving polarization).TDRSS Return Link Power Received For ease of calculation. assume: K = -221. the predicted received power is calculated the same as identified earlier (see Link Equation slide). pointing loss (inability of transmit antenna to point to receiving antenna).6 (SSA).8 (MA).

00 CLASS Analysis 16 MARGIN.00 Not Considered 9 POLARIZATION LOSS.10 User Provided Data 10 SSL RAIN ATTENUATION.30 User Provided Data 4 POINTING LOSS. dB 208. dBW -156. dB 0.00 Not Considered 14 USER CONSTRAINT LOSS.00 KBPS MOD TYPE = QPSK SYMBL FMT = NRZ-M RATE 1/2 CODED ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SPACE-SPACE LINK NOTES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 USER TRANSMIT POWER.00 User Provided Data 11 Prec AT INPUT TO TDRS. dB 0.69 (11)-(12)-(13)-(14)-(15) • Slight difference in simplified link budget vs detailed link budget due to exact customer configuration and space-to-ground link effects Satellite RF Fundamentals 58 .44 -245.6 Km 1. dB 0.2 + 10*log (Data Rate) 13 DYNAMICS LOSS.5 Deg 44592.30 (1)-(2)+(3)-(4) 6 SPACE LOSS. dB 0. dB 1.7 Km ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I CHANNEL Q CHANNEL DATA RATE = 75000.S.00 Not Considered 8 MULTIPATH LOSS. dB 2.NETWORK SYSTEMS ENGINEER ANALYSIS *** GSFC C.S.A. dB 0. dBW 52.75 (5)-(6)-(7)-(8)-(9)-(10) 12 Required Prec AT INPUT TO TDRS. dBW -163.00 User Provided Data 2 PASSIVE LOSS.L.00 CLASS Analysis 15 RFI LOSS.80 User Provided Data 3 USER ANTENNA GAIN. dB 0.95 CLASS Analysis 7 ATMOSPHERIC LOSS.4 MHz DG-2 MODE-2A LCP MAXIMUM 710. dBi 44.20 User Provided Data 5 USER EIRP. ANALYSIS #0 DATE & TIME: 03/03/03 10: 1:31 PERFORMED BY: R. BROCKDORFF USERID: EOS-AM LINKID: KSA8L RELAY SYS.00 KBPS MOD TYPE = QPSK SYMBL FMT = NRZ-M RATE 1/2 CODED DATA RATE = 75000. dB 6. dBW 12. dB 0.Example Simple TDRS Link Budget using Prec Equation *** RETURN LINK CALCULATION -.: TDRS-East TO STGT SERVICE: FREQUENCY: DATA GROUP/MODE: POLAR: RANGE CASE: ALTITUDE: ELEVATION: RANGE: KuSA 15003.

30 dBW LNA Prec is defined here for a unity gain antenna and BER = 10-5 Predicted Prec = -156.95 dB Polarization loss space loss @ 44592.3 vs.10 dB 208.31 dBW) Decoder Decoded Data Satellite RF Fundamentals 59 .2 dB I = 75 MBPS Loss = 1.8 dB Encoder & Transmitter Q = 75 MBPS Gain = 44.69 dB I = 150 Msps QPSK Transparent to the link budget when using the ideal Prec equation Receiver data Q = 150 Msps Note: Significantly more EIRP needed as compared to a direct downlink (52. 15.2 dBW EIRP = 52.30 dBi Space Space Ground Link 12 dBW 10.Sample Link budget (thru TDRS) QPSK Σ Losses = 0.75 dBW Ideal Required Prec = -163.4 MHz Loss = 2.5° elevation 15003.44 dBW Margin = 6.7 KM and 1.

800. and 1200 km Merritt Island 400 km 800 km 1200 km Elevation angle is the angle between local horizontal at ground station and spacecraft Satellite RF Fundamentals 60 .Geometric Coverage (Ground) Florida ground station with spacecraft altitudes 400.

10.Geometric Coverage (Ground) Ground station elevation angles of 0. and 20 degrees Merritt Island El = 0O El = 10O El = 20O Satellite RF Fundamentals 61 .

Geometric Coverage (Ground) Spacecraft altitude = 1200 km Merritt Island Another antenna Building Antenna limits Effects of terrain and antenna limitations Elevation angel = 0° Satellite RF Fundamentals 62 .

Geometric Coverage (Ground) Coverage circle for Svalbard at a spacecraft altitude of 400 km Svalbard Location 0° elevation angel Satellite RF Fundamentals 63 .

65 deg inc circular Hawaii (HAW3). Alaska (AGIS). Svalbard (SGIS). Wallops Island (WPSA).Geometric Coverage (Ground) Spacecraft Orbit of 400 KM. McMurdo (MCMS) Svalbard AGIS WPSA HAW3 MCMS Satellite RF Fundamentals 64 .

McMurdo (MCMS) AGIS WPSA HAW3 Satellite RF Fundamentals 65 . Alaska (AGIS). 98 deg inc circular Hawaii (HAW3). Wallops Island (WPSA).Geometric Coverage (Ground) Spacecraft Orbit of 400 KM. Svalbard (SGIS).

Geometric Coverage (TDRS) Synchronous Satellite Coverage at 319 deg long Synsat location Coverage No coverage Spacecraft height = 500 km 66 Satellite RF Fundamentals .

TDRS Basics Satellite RF Fundamentals 67 .

repeater) and dramatically increase coverage to low earth orbiting satellites as compared to a worldwide network of ground stations. It hovers above a fixed point on the equator and therefore appears to be motionless. along with supporting ground systems. 100% line-of-sight coverage can be provided to LEO customers. make up NASA’s Space Network.43 km above the equator with an angular velocity that matches that of the earth. The TDRSs. The SN dramatically increased tracking and data acquisition (T&DA) coverage from 15% to 85% per orbit of low earth orbiting spacecraft as well as decreased operational costs (see coverage slides for depiction). but its orbit may be elliptical and inclined. A geosynchronous satellite has the same orbit period as a geostationary satellite. Requires ~ 30 dB additional EIRP vs direct to ground Today. Use of 2 TDRS constellation has a Zone of Exclusion (ZOE) Use of 3 TDRS constellation does not have ZOE Satellite RF Fundamentals 68 . a satellite must periodically make east-west corrections or it will drift in longitude.e. To maintain a geosynchronous orbit. A geosynchronous satellite in an inclined circular orbit moves in a figure-8 pattern as viewed from earth.NASA’s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) The TDRSs are in geosynchronous orbit at allocated longitudes A geostationary satellite is in a circular orbit parallel to and 35786. The Space Network was established to act as a bent-pipe relay (i..

TDRSS Constellation WHITE SANDS COMPLEX GUAM REMOTE GROUND TERMINAL F-5 174°W TDW F-7 171°W (in storage) TDRS-8 170.7°W TDRS-I 149. Antarctica) Satellite RF Fundamentals 69 .5°W TDRS-J 150°W F-1 049°W F-6 047°W TDS F-4 041°W TDE F-3 275°W TDZ McMurdo Ground Station McMurdo TDRS Relay System (McMurdo.

TDRSS FIELDS OF VIEW WHITE SANDS COMPLEX GUAM 254° 174° TDW 121° 127° 91° 171° F-7 94° 321° 41° TDE 355° 47° TDS 327° 275° TDZ 251° F-7 195° TDW -180W 0/360 180W TDRS VIEWS BASED ON 600KM USER ALTITUDE AT THE EQUATOR Satellite RF Fundamentals 70 .

TDRSS Ground Segment TWO FUNCTIONALLY IDENTICAL. GEOGRAPHICALLY SEPARATED GROUND TERMINALS AT THE WHITE SANDS TEST FACILITY THE WHITE SANDS COMPLEX (WSC) HAS FIVE SPACE TO GROUND LINK TERMINALS (SGLTs) A SIXTH SGLT HAS BEEN INSTALLED AT THE REMOTE GROUND TERMINAL ON GUAM AS AN EXTENDED WSC SGLT DATA SERVICES MANAGEMENT CENTER OPERATIONAL HUB LOCATED AT WSC FOR COORDINATING ALL SPACE NETWORK ACTIVITIES BETWEEN CUSTOMERS AND SN Satellite RF Fundamentals 71 .

Space Segment: Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (F1 .0 meter parabolic reflector Dual orthogonal linear polarization TDRS: single horn feed orthomode transducer Two axis gimballed Multiple Access Antenna 30 helices: 12 diplexers for transmit 30 receive body mounted Single commanded beam.9 meter shaped reflector assembly SA equipment compartment mounted behind reflector Two axis gimballing Space-to-Ground-Link Antenna TDRS downlink 2.F7) Solar array Power output is approximately 1800 watts Omni Antenna (S-band) and Solar Sail Single Access Antenna Dual frequency communications and tracking functions: S-band TDRSS (SSA) K-band TDRSS (KSA) K-band auto-tracking 4. transmit 20 adapted beams for receive Ground implemented receive function • Forward (FWD): link from TDRSS Ground Station through TDRS to Customer Spacecraft • Return (RTN): link from Customer Spacecraft through TDRS to TDRSS Ground Station Satellite RF Fundamentals 72 .

5 MHz rtn) Fixed polarization (left hand circular) Low data rate (<= 300 kbps) Forward service operations are time-shared amongst customers Return service supports multiple customers simultaneously (lower service cost to customer vs SA) Phased array antenna and beamforming equipment allow for spatial discrimination between customers.4 MHz rtn) Ka-band: selectable frequency (22550-23550 MHz fwd. 15003. 2200-2300 MHz rtn) Ku-band: fixed frequency (13775 MHz fwd. Ka-band) S-band: selectable frequency (2025. PN spreading provides additional discrimination Return Demand Access Service allows customers to have a dedicated return link continuously (lower service cost to customer) Single Access (SA): Multiple frequency bands (S-band.8 – 2117. Ku-band. 25250-27500 MHz rtn) S-band and K-band simultaneously Selectable polarization (left or right hand circular) High data rate (up to 300 Mbps) Forward service operations are time-shared amongst customers Return service operations are time-shared amongst customers (higher service cost to customer vs MA) Satellite RF Fundamentals 73 .Multiple Access (MA) vs Single Access (SA) Multiple Access (MA): Fixed S-band frequency (2106.9 MHz fwd.4 MHz fwd and 2287.

Autotrack EIRP = 63 dBW Up to 300 Mbps/800 Mbps(1). 48. 2/GRGT(5) KuSA: 2/TDRS (2).6 dBW (normal).4 dB/K N/A N/A SSA: 2/TDRS.5 dB/K (LEOFOV) (6) Range. 2/GRGT(5) KaSA: 2/TDRS (2). 20/WSC(5) G/T = 4. EIRP = 43.5 dBW (high) Single Access Return Forward Ka-Band Return Up to 300 Mbps. Formed Beam G/T= 3.Data Rates Associated with Space Network Services Service Forward S-Band Return Forward Ku-Band WSC & TDRS F1-F7 Capabilities(3) Up to 7MBps. 4/WSC(5) EIRP = 42 dBW (LEOFOV) 5/TDRS @ up to 3 Mbps. 10 KuSA/WSC. Satellite RF Fundamentals 74 .5 dBW (high) Up to 300 Mbps.0 dB/K Up to 25 Mbps(4). F8 may experience lower G/T performance less than 12 hrs per day Ku/Ka-band services through 1 SA antenna. 1&2 way Doppler 1. EIRP = 43.5 dB/K SSA: 2/TDRS. Autotrack EIRP = 46. The SN can simultaneously support S-band or Ku/Ka-band (F8.5 dBW (normal). 4/WSC.6 dBW (normal). Autotrack G/T = 24. G/T (min) = 9. 48. see 450-SNUG.0 dB/K Up to 25 Mbps(4). G/T (min) = 9.4 dB/K Up to 25 Mbps(5). Autotrack EIRP = 46. Current WSC configuration supports 7 Mbps F10 only) forward and/or return services through 1 SA antenna to 5. 20/WSC. F8-F10 cannot simultaneously support 6. 2/GRGT.4.5 dBW (high) Up to 6 Mbps. 1&2 way Doppler (No Ka-band Tracking) Number of Single Access Links Forward 1/TDRS @ up to 300 kbps. 2/GRGT WSC & TDRS F8-F10 Capabilities Up to 7 MBps. 10/WSC. 2/GRGT KuSA: 2/TDRS.5 dBW (normal). Autotrack G/T = 26. Spacecraft only 3. 8/WSC(5) 1/TDRS @ up to 300 kbps. 1/GRGT EIRP = 34 dBW 5/TDRS @ up to 300 kbps. 10/WSC. For customer data configurations.5 dBW (high) Up to 6 Mbps. Space Network Users’ Guide 2. 10/WSC. Autotrack G/T = 24. 48. 48.1 dB/K (Does not include DAS) Multiple Access Return User Tracking Notes: Range. Guam Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) is not currently configured to support TDRS F8-F10 the same ephemeris.

Spectrum Management Satellite RF Fundamentals 75 .

Accommodate new services. Promote the efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum. Bit Error Rate) when it is deployed or installed. Provide technical bases for coordination. Apply order to the use of the orbit/spectrum resource. applications and technology.. 76 Satellite RF Fundamentals .e. Ensure that systems operate as intended.Purpose of Spectrum Management Ensure that the system in which time and money has been invested to develop provides the required quality of service (i.

acts as the global spectrum coordinator and develops binding international treaty governing the use of the radio spectrum by some 40 different services around the world. Satellite RF Fundamentals 77 . Nationally (within the US): responsibility is broken into 2 areas: National Telecommunications and Information Agency (NTIA) manages the Government spectrum Federal Communications Commission (FCC) manages the nongovernment spectrum The international and national Table of Allocations shows what segments of the radio frequency spectrum are to be used by which services. which is a specialized agency of the United Nations.Frequency Allocations The radio frequency spectrum is a national and international resource whose use is governed by Federal statutes and international treaty. The Radio Regulations contain a number of provisions governing the way the radio frequency spectrum is to be used. Internationally: The International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

Space Research Primary: Space Operation. Earth Exploration-Satellite. for which information for advance publication has been received by the IFRB prior to 31 January 1992. new geostationary space stations in the space research service advanced published after that date will operate on a secondary basis.55-23.5 GHz Note: In the band 13. shall operate on an equal basis with stations in the fixed satellite service. Earth Exploration-Satellite. Space Research Primary: Space Research (non-deep space) Primary: Earth Exploration-Satellite (8025-8400 MHz) Space Research (8450-8500 MHz) No Allocation Link/Frequency Forward Link: 2025-2110 MHz Return Link: 2200-2290 MHz Forward Link: N/A Return Link: N/A Space Network Allocated Services Primary: Space Operation.75-14.75 –14.0 GHz Return Link: 14.0 GHz geostationary space stations in the space research service.35 GHz Primary: Inter-Satellite Ka-band Uplink: N/A No Allocation Forward Link: 22.25-27.55 GHz Primary: Earth Exploration-Satellite Primary: Inter-Satellite Downlink: Return Link: 25. Downlink: N/A No Allocation Primary with Fixed-Satellite Service: Space Research (note) Secondary with all other services: Space Research Secondary: Space Research Satellite RF Fundamentals 78 . Space Research No Allocation No Allocation Ku-band Forward Link: 13. Earth Exploration-Satellite. Earth Exploration-Satellite.5-27 GHz 25. 8450-8500 MHz Uplink: N/A Ground Network Allocated Services Primary: Space Operation.Spectrum Allocations Available to NASA LEO Missions for Telecommunications Band S-band Link/Frequency Uplink: 2025-2110 MHz Downlink: 2200-2290 MHz X-band Uplink: 7190-7235 MHz Downlink: 8025-8400 MHz. Space Research Primary: Space Operation.8-15.

Background Material Satellite RF Fundamentals 79 .

gsfc. http://gdms. pp 260-169 “Principles of Digital Communications and Coding.” February 2001.K.wff. http://www. April 1967. IT13.D.ORG Satellite RF Fundamentals 80 .” J. Omura “Ground Network Users’ Guide.J.References “Digital Communications. Viterbi and J. Viterbi. 8.” Bernard Sklar “Antennas.gov/~code452/ “Digital Communications. June 2002.” Kamilo Feher Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) http://www.” Rev.nasa.gov/ Sign on as Guest Select CCMS Select Document Library Select Code 450 “Error Bounds for Convolutional Codes and Asymmetrically Optimum Decoding Algorithum.” A. IEEE Trans information Theory.CCSDS.J.nasa. Vol. Ravs “Space Network Users’ Guide.” A.

etc. GIF images are examples of lossless compressed files. as opposed to a 2-to-1 ratio for GIF.Compression: Lossy versus Lossless Compression A lossless compression technique means that the restored data file is identical to the original. Lossy techniques are much more effective at compression than lossless methods: for a digital image. like executable code. Satellite RF Fundamentals 81 . On the other hand. JPEG can achieve a 12-to-1 compression ratio. A lossy compression technique allows a small level of noisy degradation to the original data. This is necessary for many types of data. do not have to be kept in perfect condition. among others. word processing files. data files that represent images.

a satellite at low earth orbit often will send its data up to a satellite at high earth orbit. if a link has uplink Pr/N0 of 60 dB-Hz and a downlink Pr/N0 of 60 dB-Hz. then the overall Pr/N0 is 57 dB-Hz. the total Pr/N0 will be almost identical to that of the weaker link. which will then relay the data down to a ground station.Link Equation: Pr/N0 for Cascaded Links Often a satellite communications link will consist of more than one point-to-point path. Satellite RF Fundamentals 82 . the total Pr/N0 can be found as: (Pr /N0 )Total = 1 1 1 + (Pr /N0 )Up (Pr /N0 )Down As an example. Sometimes either the uplink or the downlink will be much more high powered than the other. For a two-path system. For example. In this case. and the link budget for the stronger link need not even be done at all.

Link Equation: Geometric Coverage (TDRS) TDRSS Satellite System: Areas of non coverage Satellite RF Fundamentals 83 .

.6-15. NM .55-23.225 GHz GHz Rtn: 13.775 GHz (Ku-band) 13.24°E-W (inboard) *** . ±30.05 GHz RTN Link FWD Link Customer Spacecraft Space-Space Link Space-Space Link Primary site at Primary site at White Sands.0° N-S Extended FOV (HIJ only): ±76.STGT STGT .55 GHz (Ka-band) 22.05 GHz Rtn: 13.025-2.8° outboard ** .4-14.120 GHz (S-band) Fwd: 2. & Ka-Band for F8-F10 Field of View (Primary): ±22° E-W.6-15.025-2.775 GHz (Ku-band) 13..025-2.775 GHz (Ku-band) 22.1064 GHz (MA) 2.5° NS** S-Band Phased – Array for Multiple-Access (MA) Service 1 Fwd.55-23.120 GHz (S-band) Fwd: 2. NM White Sands. 5 Rtn Links for F1-F7*** 1 Fwd.025-2.1064 GHz (MA) 13.55 GHz (Ka-band) Fwd: 2.WSGTU WSGTU Additional site at Additional site at Guam to support Guam to support TDRS at 85E TDRS at 85E .1064 GHz (MA) 2.55 GHz (Ka-band) 22.225 Fwd: 14. Ku.120 GHz (S-band) TDRSS TDRSS Ground Ground Station Station NASA and NASA and Customer Customer Ground Ground Operations Operations 2.120 GHz (S-band) 2.GRGT GRGT Fwd: 2.55 GHz (Ka-band) * .1064 GHz (MA) 13.Demand Access Service allows large expansion on the number of non-coherent return link services available through F1 – F7 Satellite RF Fundamentals 84 . 5 Rtn Links for F8-F10 Field of View (Primary): ±13° conical Space-Ground Link Space-Ground Link Fwd: 14.4-14. ±28.8° E-W*.Space Segment: Tracking and Data Relay Satellites 1 of 2 Single Access (SA) Antennas S & Ku-Band for F1-F7 S.55-23..775 GHz (Ku-band) 22.55-23.76.

389D S5.391 SPACE RESEARCH (Earth-to-space) (space-to-space) S5.392 SPACE OPERATION (Earth-to-space) (space-to-space) EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) (space-to-space) FIXED MOBILE S5.388 2 160 – 2 170 FIXED MOBILE S5.388 Note: Maximum support data rate is dependent on the particular ground station capabilities Satellite RF Fundamentals Efforts to control the interservice interference are underway within the ITU-R.282 S5.391 SPACE RESEARCH (space-to-Earth) (space-to-space) S5.388 S5.Spectrum: Available Allocations for the Ground Network and/or the Space Network S-band MHz 2 010 – 2 170 Allocation to Services Region 1 2 010 – 2 025 FIXED MOBILE Region 2 2 010 – 2 025 FIXED MOBILE MOBILE-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) S5.388 2 025 – 2 110 S5. Basic capabilities of the Ground Network at S-band are: Command rates to 32 kbps (note) Telemetry and mission data rates to 10 Mbps (note) Support available from selected sites worldwide SPACE OPERATION (space-to-Earth) (space-to-space) EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) (space-to-space) FIXED MOBILE S5.388 Region 2 Region 3 Only bands that support both the Ground Network (GN) and the Space Network (SN) on a primary basis.388 2 160 – 2 170 FIXED MOBILE MOBILE-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) S5.396 2 120 – 2 160 FIXED MOBILE 2 120 – 2 160 FIXED MOBILE Mobile-Satellite (space-to-Earth) Amateur Radiolocation S5.393 S5.392A S5.390 Region 3 2 010 – 2 025 FIXED MOBILE MHz 2 170 – 2 450 Allocation to Services Region 1 2 170 – 2 200 FIXED MOBILE MOBILE-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) S5.394 S5.282 S5. .150 S5.150 S5. S5.389E S5.388 2 160 – 2 170 FIXED MOBILE S5.395 Basic capabilities of the Space Network at S-band are: Command rates to 300 kbps PN spread Telemetry and mission data rates to 6 Mbps Virtually global support.389D S5.389E S5.388 S5.389F S5.392 2 290 – 2 300 FIXED MOBILE except aeronautical mobile SPACE RESEARCH (deep space) (space-to-Earth) 2 110 – 2 120 FIXED MOBILE SPACE RESEARCH (deep space) (Earth-to-space) S5.390 S5.389C S5.388 2 300 – 2 450 FIXED MOBILE 2 120 – 2 160 FIXED MOBILE 2 300 – 2 450 FIXED MOBILE RADIOLOCATION Amateur S5.389A S5.392A 2 200 – 2 290 S5.388 S5.388 S5.389C S5.

465 S5.463 8 400 – 8 500 FIXED MOBILE except aeronautical mobile SPACE RESEARCH (space-to-Earth) S5.469 8 550-8 650 EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (active) RADIOLOCATION SPACE RESEARCH (active) S5.468 S5.469A 8 650-8 750 RADIOLOCATION S5.469 Note: Maximum support data rate is dependent on the particular ground station capabilities Satellite RF Fundamentals 86 .21.463 8 215-8 400 EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) MOBILE S5.7 235 MHz. MHz 8 175-8 750 Allocation to Services Region 1 8 175-8 215 Region 2 Region 3 EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) METEOROLOGICAL-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) MOBILE S5. The 8025-8400 MHz and 8450-8500 MHz bands may be used for transmissions in the space-Earth direction.462A S5.462A S5. subject to agreement obtained under No.Spectrum: Available Allocations for the Ground Network and/or the Space Network X-band S5.468 S5. S9.469 S5.467 Bands only support Ground Network operations on a primary basis The 7190-7235 MHz band may be used to command subject to the earth station being coordinated with terrestrial systems operating in the bands that might experience interference.466 S5. The use of the band 7 145 -7 190 MHz is restricted to deep space. no emissions to deep space shall be effected in the band 7 190 . Basic capabilities of the Ground Network at X-band are: Telemetry and mission data rates to 150 Mbps (note) 8 500-8 550 RADIOLOCATION S5.468 S5.7 235 MHz is also allocated to the space research (Earth-to-space) service on a primary basis.460 Additional allocation: the band 7 145 .

501 S5.506 RADIONAVIGATION S5.503 S5.511 Region 2 Region 3 Bands only support Space Network Operations (13.4 EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (passive) RADIO ASTRONOMY SPACE RESEARCH (passive) S5.775 GHz forward/15.504 Mobile-Satellite (Earth-to-space) except aeronautical mobile-satellite Space Research S5.484A RADIOLOCATION Standard Frequency and Time Signal-Satellite (Earth-to-space) Space Research S5.500 S5.5-14.505 GHz 14.502 S5.35 FIXED MOBILE Space Research S5.8 – 17.35 – 15.340 S5.0034 GHz return) on a secondary basis For TDRSS advanced publications received prior to January 31 1992.25 FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) S5. Virtually global support.8 – 15. Basic capabilities of the Space Network at Ku-band are: Forward link will support up to 25 Mbps.775 GHz forward link operates on a primary basis with respect to the Fixed-Satellite Service (E-S). Return link will support up to 300 Mbps.503A 14-14. the 13.339 15.499 S5.3 Allocation to Services Region 1 14.75-14 Region 2 Region 3 FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) S5.25 Allocation to Services Region 1 13.Spectrum: Available Allocations for the Ground Network and/or the Space Network Ku-band GHz 12.484A S5. Satellite RF Fundamentals 87 .

25-27.538 S5.Spectrum: Available Allocations for the Ground Network and/or the Space Network Ka-band GHz 22.5 FIXED FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) S5.55 Allocation to Services Region 1 22.540 Region 2 Region 3 The pair of Ka-band allocations (22.539 MOBILE S5.536 MOBILE Standard Frequency and Time Signal-Satellite (Earth-to-space) 25. Return links in the 25.5-27 GHz band is available globally on a primary basis for S-E transmissions from Earth-exploration satellites.536 MOBILE Standard Frequency and Time Signal-Satellite (Earth-to-space) 27.536B FIXED INTER-SATELLITE S5.55-23.25-27.55 – 23.5-28.25 – 28.5 Allocation to Services Region 1 25.5 GHz band will support data rates up to 300/800 Mbps (note) Note: Capable of supporting 800 Mbps with upgrades to the TDRSS ground stations 88 Satellite RF Fundamentals .149 Region 2 Region 3 GHz 25.25 – 25. The 25.536A S5.5 GHz) support only the Space Network on a primary basis.55 GHz band will support data rates up to 25 Mbps.484A S5.55 – 23.55 FIXED INTER-SATELLITE MOBILE S5.55 GHz and 25. Basic capabilities of the Space Network at Ka-band are: Forward links in the 22.55-23.5 FIXED INTER-SATELLITE S5.5-27 EARTH EXPLORATION-SATELLITE (space-to Earth) S5.

including data relating to the state of the environment.Spectrum: Definition of Spectrum Allocations Space Research Service: A radiocommunication service in which spacecraft or other objects in space are used for scientific or technological research purposes. in which: information relating to the characteristics of the Earth and its natural phenomena. Earth Exploration-Satellite Service: A radiocommunication service between earth stations and one or more space stations. space telemetry and space telecommand. in particular space tracking. platform interrogation may be included. This service may also include feeder links necessary for its operation. Meteorological-Satellite Service: An earth exploration-satellite service for meteorological purposes. such information may be distributed to earth stations within the system concerned. Inter-Satellite Service: A radiocommunication service providing links between artificial satellites. which may include links between space stations. Satellite RF Fundamentals 89 . similar information is collected from airborne or Earth-based platforms. Space Operation Service: A radiocommunication service concerned exclusively with the operation of spacecraft. is obtained from active sensors or passive sensors on Earth satellites.

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