Invensys APV Dairy Technology

Dairy Technology

Tel. +45 70 278 333 Fax +45 70 278 330 apv.unitsystems@invensys.com www.apv.invensys.com Anhydro A/S Østmarken 7 2860 Søborg Denmark Tel. +45 70 278 222 Fax +45 70 278 223 anhydro@invensys.com www.anhydro.com

Copyright 2002 Invensys APV, Silkeborg, Denmark, Dairy Technology 08/02 UK/2002

Invensys APV Pasteursvej 8600 Silkeborg Denmark

Table of contents

MILK
Composition of Danish Cow’s Milk 2002: . . . . . . . . Density of Milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yields from Whole milk etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pasteurisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UHT/ESL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ESL - Extended shelf life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UHT - Ultra High Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Heat Infusion Steriliser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determination of Fat Content in Milk and Cream . . . Determination of Protein Content in Milk and Cream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detection of Preservatives and Antibiotics in Milk . . Acidity of Milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Phosphatase Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standardisation of Whole Milk and Cream . . . . . . . . Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating the Extent of Random Sampling . . . . . . 3 3 4 4 6 7 9 16 17 19 20 20 22 23 26 27

BUTTER
Composition of Butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buttermaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating Butter Yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Churning Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjusting Moisture Content in Butter . . . . . . . . . . . . Determination of Salt Content in Butter . . . . . . . . . . lodine Value and Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluctuations in lodine Value and Temperature Treatment of Cream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 33 33 36 36 37 37

CHEESE
Cheese Varieties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cheesemaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standardisation of Cheesemilk and Calculation of Cheese Yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utilisation Value of Skimmilk in Cheesemaking . . . . Strength, Acidity and Temperature of Brine for Salting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 40 40 44 45

MEMBRANE FILTRATION
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membrane Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membrane Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 47 53

CIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Milk and Whey Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55 59

EVAPORATION AND DRYING
Evaporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 64

CLEANING AND DISINFECTING
CIP Cleaning in General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CIP Cleaning Programs for Pipes and Tanks . . . . . . CIP Cleaning Programs for Plate Pasteurisers . . . . General Comments to Defects/Faults in CIP Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manual Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Check of the Cleaning Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control of Cleaning Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dairy Effluent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 69 70 72 75 75 75 77 80

TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Stainless Steel Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Friction Loss Equivalent in m Straight Stainless Steel Pipe for One Fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity in Stainless Steel Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Volume in Stainless Steel Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Friction Loss in m H2O per 100 m Straight Pipe with Different Pipe Dimensions and Capacities (Non-stainless steel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 84 84 85

86

UNITS OF MEASURE
The MKSA System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The SI Unit System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables showing conversion Factors between SI Units and other Common Unit Systems. . . . . . . . Input and Output of Electric Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Steam Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atomic Weights, Melting and Boiling Points of the Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prefixes with Symbols used in Forming Decimal Multiples and Submultiples . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermometric Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conversion Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 90 92 97 98 99 100 102 103 104

2

. . 0. . ie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .000 kg. the reading must be converted by means of a correction table. . . . . .93 1. which. . . . . .53 2. . Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . when added as the second and third decimal to 1. . . . . .cream with 20% fat . . . . .4% 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cream with 40% fat . 1. If the. . . . 1. . . The upper part of the lactometer is provided with a scale showing the lactometer degree. . . . .035 kg . 1. . . .025 kg . . . approx. . . . The density of milk depends upon its composition. .993 kg 3 .8% 0. .buttermilk . 1. . The easiest way to determine the density is to use a special type of hydrometer called a lactometer. . . . . . As milk contains fat and as the density depends on the physical state of the fat. . 1. . . . 4. . . .033 kg .45 1. determination of the density is not carried out at exactly 15°C. .5% TS . . . the milk should be healed to 40°C and then cooled to 15°C before the density is determined. . . . . Citric acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .002 kg . .skimmilk . indicates the density of milk. . approx. . . . . .030 kg/litre. . . . . . 1. . . . .0 Density: 1 litre whole milk . . . . the lactometer degree can be read on the scale at the surface level of the milk. .013 kg . . . . . Lactose . . . . . . . . . . . . .2% 86. . . . . . . . Ash . . a lactometer degree of 30 corresponds to a density of 1.MILK Composition of Danish Cow’s Milk 2002: Fat . and can be calculated as follows: 100 % fat + % protein + % lactose+acid + % ash + % water 0. .cream with 30% fat . The lactometer is lowered into the milk and when it has come to rest. . . . .3% 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .032 kg . .6% Density of Milk The density of milk is equivalent to the weight in kilos of 1 litre of milk at a temperature of 15°C. . . . . . .80 1. . . .skimmed whey 6. . . . . . . . . . . . Protein . . . . .7% 0. . . . . . . .

lactic acid 2.0% solids yields: approx.0.4 .9 .40% .75 kg butter .5 .1.4 kg whey butter 7.7 kg whey powder 3. 6. 6.2 . Pasteurisation temperature and time The temperature/time combinations stated below are similar in effect and all have the minimum bactericidal effect required for pasteurisation.raw casein 3.10% 100 kg skimmilk with 9.0 . 4 . 7.0 % 8.5 .45% 7.5% solids yields: approx.3 kg buttermilk powder *) *) *) *) *) *) 100 kg unskimmed whey with approx.Yields from Whole milk etc.5 .0 .3 . Pasteurisation is intended to create only minimal chemical. The process also increases the sheIf life of the product.5 % 9.WPC 60 0.8 kg skimmilk powder 6.5 .4.whole milk powder .0 .9 .whey cheese 100 kg skimmed whey with approx.2 .1.0 .0 % 9.6 % 8.5% solids yields: approx.2 . 9. 100 kg standardised whole milk yields: with 4. 4.WPC 80 *) ripened cheese Pasteurisation Pasteurisation is a heat treatment applied to milk in order to avoid public health hazards arising from pathogenic microorganisms associated with milk. 9. physical and organoleptic changes in products to be kept in cold storage.skimmilk cheese 7.0% solids yields: approx.20% .raw lactose 3.1 .WPC 35 1.dried casein 100 kg buttermilk with 9.0 % fat approx.refined lactose 8.2.0 % 13.3.45% cheese . 0.30% .

sweetened products. concentrated milk. thus preventing possible leakage of raw milk into the pasteurised milk. 80°C/15 sec.2 microgrammes of phenol liberated by 1 ml of sample or less than 10 microgrammes para-nitrophenol liberated by 1 ml of sample. ice cream mix. Temperature recorder and flow diversion valve at the outlet of the temperature holder for diverting the flow back to the balance tank in case of pasteurisation temperatures below the legal requirement. 5 . In each case the product is subsequently cooled to 10°C or less . the system should have an automatic control system for: (1) Pasteurisation temperature. 80°C/25 sec.preferably to 4°C. 72°C/15 sec.(35% fat): Pasteurised. 75°C/15 sec. In order to minimise the risk of failure in the pasteurisation process. local legislation specifies minimum temperature/time combinations.Pasteurised milk and skimmilk 63°C/30 min. Capacity control system which activates the flow diversion valve in case the capacity exceeds the maximum for which the holding tube is designed. In many countries. etc. Calculation of residence time in holding tube The mean residence time (t) in the holding tube can be calculated as follows: t= length of tube x volume per metre capacity per second Values for volume per metre can be found in the table Volume in Stainless Steel Pipes. the phosphatase test is used to determine whether the pasteurisation process has been carried out correctly. The system will activate the flow diversion valve if the pressure on the raw-milk side of the regenerator exceeds a set minimum below the pressure on the pasteurised side. A negative phosphatase test is considered to be equivalent to less than 2. (2) Holding time at pasteurisation temperature. (3) Pressure differential control. Pasteurised cream (10% fat): . In some countries.

Holding tubes 4. Invensys APV has the largest product range within UHT: Indirect: Direct: Plate UHT Plant Tubular UHT Plant (Figure 1) Injection UHT Plant Infusion UHT Plant In addition to the 4 main systems.The individual particles spend different times in the holding tube and this results in residence time variations. Tubular regenerative cooler 6. Sterile tank 8. UHT/ESL Being the originator of the 4 main systems. 1: Flow diagram for Tubular Steriliser 6 .8 (tmin/tmean) and this can best be achieved by avoiding a laminar flow. Tubular final heater 5. Sterilising loop 10. Final cooler 7. ie.000 and choosing a ratio of length (m)/diameter >200 for the holding tube.Extended Shelf Life Pure LacTM Combi UHT (2-4 systems in one) High Heat Infusion Instant Infusion 3 95ºC 3 140ºC PRODUCT 8 9 FILLING 7 5ºC 1 2 75ºC 1 4 5 25ºC 6 COOLING WATER STEAM 10 1. CIP unit 9. To avoid bacteriological problems. Tubular regenerative preheaters 2. Water Heater Fig. ensuring a turbulent flow at a Reynolds Number >12. Homogeniser 3. it is necessary to heat even the fastest particles long enough. Invensys APV has developed the following variations: ESL . The holding tube must have an efficiency of at least 0.

Non aseptic cooler 9. The Invensys APV infusion ESL is based on the theory that a high temperature/ultra short holding time will provide an efficient kill rate as well as a very low chemical degradation. Plate preheaters 2. Aseptic tank 8. poor raw material and/or insufficient process and filling technology. Basically.4 seconds. This is also known in the USA as ultrapasteurisation. the only solution has been to produce UHT milk with a shelf life of 3 . 75ºC STEAM FILLING 2 PRODUCT COOLING WATER 9 COOLING WATER 4 7 VACUUM 3 5ºC STEAM 5 143ºC 75ºC 6 25ºC <25ºC 6 1 8 COOLING WATER COOLING WATER 1. This is due to inadequate cold chains. what it means is the capability to extend the shelf life of a product beyond its traditional well-known and generally accepted shelf life without causing any significant degradation in product quality. various attempts have been made to increase the pasteurisation temperature and this led to the extended shelf life concept.Extended shelf life In many parts of the world the production of fresh milk presents a problem in regard to keeping quality. Plate coolers 7. Flash vessel 5. Holding tube 4.6 months at ambient temperature.130°C for 2 . The term extended shelf life or ESL is being applied more and more frequently. This is the basis for the Pure-LacTM process. Aseptic homogeniser 6. A typical temperature/time combination for high-temperature pasteurisation of ESL milk is 125 .ESL . There is no single general definition of ESL. In order to try to improve the shelf life of ordinary pasteurised milk. Condenser Fig. but only for fractions of a second. Invensys APV has during the last years developed a patented process where the temperature may be raised to as high as 140°C. Steam infusion chamber 3. 2: Flow Diagram for Steam Infusion Steriliser 7 . Until recently.

Temperature 135ºC Pure-LacTM 120ºC High pasteurisation 72ºC Low pasteurisation Time Fig. Based on investigations of consumer requirements and the present market conditions in a larger number of countries. The Pure LacTM process In co-operation with Elopak.e. with long shelf life and a taste like low pasteurised milk.This means that a very high temperature for a very short time will result in a high-quality ESL product. the objective of Pure LacTM was defined as follows: • A sensory quality equal to or better than pasteurised products • A “real life” distribution temperature of neither 5°C. i. milk. creams. etc. Invensys APV has developed the Pure LacTM concept which in a systematic way attacks the challenge of improving milk quality for the consumer. 3: Temperature profile for pasteurisation processes. • To provide tailored packaging concepts designed to give maximum protection using minimum but adequate packaging solutions. ice cream mix. 8 . nor 7°C but 10°C • A prolonged shelf life corresponding to 14 to 45 days at 10°C depending on filling methods and raw milk quality • A method to accommodate changes in purchasing patterns of the consumer • An improved method for distribution of niche products • To cover the complete milk product range. desserts.

After reviewing the range of “cold technologies” available, it became obvious that most of them were only suited for white milk. Furthermore, the actual microbiological reduction rate for some of the processes was inadequate to provide sufficient safety for shelf life of more than 14 days at 10°C. Process Technology/Shelf Life
Process Log. reduction aerobic, psycrotropic spores 0 1 02-mar 8 8 (*) 40 Extended shelf life max. 4°C storage 10 days 14 days 30 days Over 45 days 180 days180 days Expected shelf life max. 10°C storage 1 - 2 days 4 - 5 days 6 - 7 days Up to 45 days (**) 180 days at 25°C

Pasteurisation Centrifugation Microfiltration Pure Lac ESL pasteurisation UHT process High Heat Process
TM

* Thermophilic spores ** Depending on filling solution UHT - Ultra High Temperature All UHT processes are designed to achieve commercial sterility. This calls for application of heat to the product and a chemical sterilant or other treatment that render the equipment, final packaging containers and product free of viable micro-organisms able to reproduce in food under normal conditions of storage and distribution. In addition it is necessary to inactivate toxins and enzymes present and to limit chemical and physical changes in the product. In very general terms it is useful to have in mind that an increase in temperature of 10ºC increases the sterilising effect 10-fold whereas the chemical effect only increases approximately 3-fold. In this section we will define some of the more commonly used terms and how they can be used for process evaluation.

9

ºC 150
Direct Infusion

High Heat Infusion Indirect UHT

100

50

0

Time

Fig. 4: Temperature profiles for direct infusion, high heat infusion and indirect UHT processes The logarithmic reduction of spores and sterilising efficiency When micro-organisms and/or spores are exposed to heat treatment not all of them are killed at once. However, in a given period of time a certain number is killed while the remainder survives. If the surviving micro-organisms are once more exposed to the temperature treatment for the same period of time an equal proportion of them will be killed. On this basis the lethal effect of sterilisation can be expressed mathematically as a logarithmic function: K · t = log N/Nt where N = number of micro-organisms/spores originally present Nt = number of micro-organisms/spores present after a given time of treatment (t) K = constant t = time of treatment A logarithmic function can never reach zero, which means that sterility defined as the absence of living bacterial spores in an unlimited volume of product is impossible to achieve. Therefore the more workable concept of “sterilising effect” or “sterilising efficiency” is commonly used. The sterilising effect is expressed as the number of decimal reductions achieved in a process. A sterilising effect 10

of 9 indicates that out of 109 bacterial spores fed into the process only 1 (10°) will survive. Spores of Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus stearothermophilus are normally used as test organisms to determine the efficiency of UHT systems because they form fairly heat resistant spores. Terms and expressions to characterise heat treatment processes Q10 value. The sterilising effect of heat sterilisation increases rapidly with the increase in temperature as described above. This also applies to chemical reactions which take place as a consequence of an increase in temperature. The Q10 value has been introduced as an expression of this increase in speed of reactions and specifies how many times the speed of a reaction increases when the temperature is raised by 10ºC. Q10 for flavour changes is in the order of 2 to 3 which means that a temperature increase of 10ºC doubles or triples the speed of the chemical reactions. A Q10value calculated for killing bacterial spores would range from 8 to 30, depending on the sensitivity of a particular strain to the heat treatment. D-Value. This is also called the decimal reduction time and is defined as the time required to reduce the number of micro-organisms to one-tenth of the original value, i.e. corresponding to a reduction of 90%. Z-Value. This is defined as the temperature change, which gives a 10-fold change in the D-value. F0 value. This is defined as the total integrated lethal effect and is expressed in terms of minutes at a selected reference temperature of 121.1ºC. F0 can be calculated as follows: F0 = 10(T - 121.1) /z x t / 60, where T = processing temperature (ºC) z = Z-value (ºC) t = processing time (seconds) F0 = 1 after the product has been heated to 121.1 ºC for 11

5: Bacteriological and chemical changes of heated milk one minute.6 120 130 2. some countries are using the following terms: 12 . In the case of milk treatment.3 Fig.5 1 ·103 in K -1 T 140 2. To obtain commercially sterile milk from good quality raw milk. B* and C* Values. for example. an F0 value of minimum 5 to 6 is required.4 150 160ºC 2.7 110 2.4000 3000 region of sterilisation 2000 lo ss F HM 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 lo ss F HM 10 of th ia m in e = 80 % th 0 10 l ol/ µm re sh ol 60 % d ra ng e Heating time or equivalent heating time in seconds 200 HM F1 ol/ µm l of th ia m in e l ol/ µm of di sc ol ou ra tio 40 % n = 3% /C *= 1 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 % 10 % e 60 la ct ul os 20 9 1 e= valu s / B*= re eath al d ic spo therm ophil therm 0 m tu lac lo se 0 40 m g/ l ss lo l of e in ys 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 = l g/ 1% UHTregion 2 1 100 2.

5 Fig. The Invensys APV Steam Infusion Steriliser has a C* value of 0.135 ) /31. The B* and C* values also include the bacteriological and chemical effects of the heating up and cooling down times and are therefore important in designing a plant with minimum chemical change and maximum sterilising effect. 13 . where T = processing temperature (ºC) t = processing time (seconds) The C* value is based on the conditions for a 3 percent destruction of thiamine (vitamin B1).135 ) / 10.5 x t / 10. A C* value of below 1 is generally accepted for an average design UHT plant.4ºC. The more severe the heat treatment is. Consequently the C* value can be calculated as follows: C* = 10 ( T .• Bacteriological effect: B* (known as B star) • Chemical effect C* (known as C star) B* is based on the assumption that commercial sterility is achieved at 135ºC for 10. The B* and C* calculations may be used for designing UHT plants for milk and other heat sensitive products. Improved designs will have C* values significantly lower than 1.15. For different UHT plants the C* value corresponding to a sterilising effect of B* = 1 will vary greatly. The B* value for a process is calculated similarly to the F0 value: B* = 10 ( T . 5 shows that a UHT process is deemed to be satisfactory with regard to keeping quality and organoleptic quality of the product when B* is > 1 and C* is < 1.4 x t / 30. representing a reduction of thermophilic spore count of 109 per unit (log 9 reduction).0. this is equivalent to 135ºC for 30. the higher the C* value will be.1 seconds with a corresponding Z-value of 10.5 seconds with a Z-value of 31.5ºC.1. this reference process is giving a B* value of 1.

Chemical and bacteriological changes at high temperatures The heating of milk and other food products to high temperatures results in a range of complex chemical reactions causing changes in colour (browning). It is important to seek the optimum time/temperature combination. and any powders must be easy to dissolve.Residence time Particular attention must be paid to the residence time in a holding cell or tube and the actual dimensioning will depend on several factors such as turbulent versus laminar flow. at the same time. Since there is a tendency to ope-rate at reduced residence time in order to minimise the chemical degradation (C* value < 1) it becomes increasingly important to know the exact residence time. as the quality of the final product will be directly affected. This principle enables Invensys APV to define and monitor the holding time and temperature precisely and makes it the only direct steam heating system. Raw materials must be free from dirt and have a very low bacteria spore count. In Invensys APV the infusion system has been designed with a special pump mounted directly below the infusion chamber which ensures a sufficient over-pressure in the holding tube in order to have a single phase flow free from air and steam bubbles. 14 . which allows true validation of flow and temperature at the point of heat transfer. In working with UHT products commercial sterility is used as a more practical term. Commercial sterility The expression of commercial sterility has been mentioned previously and it has been pointed out that complete sterility in its strictest sense is not possible. foaming. which provides sufficient kill effect on spores but. Raw material quality It is important that all raw materials are of very high quality. These unwanted reactions are largely avoided through heat treatment at a higher temperature for a very short time. and a commercially sterile product is defined as one which is free from micro-organisms which grow under the prevailing conditions. in order to comply with market requirements for the final product. development of offflavours and formation of sediments. air content and steam bubbles. limits the heat damage.

Having defined this. Different products have different heat stability and although the UHT plant will be chosen on this basis.g. This is not a very sharp and exact definition and it depends to a large extent on the perception of “minimum acceptable quality”. This will decrease running hours between CIP cleanings and thereby increase product waste. but also to prevent operational problems as e. Heat stability. the better the heat stability of the milk.45 days 3 . water. fouling in the UHT plant. High heat stability is important because of the need to produce stable homogeneous products. it will be raw material quality. The shelf life of a product is generally defined as the time for which the product can be stored without the quality falling below a certain minimum acceptable level. The higher the concentration of ethyl alcohol is without flocculation. Production and shelf life problems are usually avoided provided the milk remains stable at an alcohol concentration of 75%.6 months Storage refrigerated refrigerated ambient temperature The usual organoleptic factors limiting shelf life are dete15 . Undissolved powder particles will also damage homogenising valves causing sterility problems. When samples of milk are mixed with equal volumes of an ethyl alcohol solution. The question of heat stability is an important parameter in UHT processing. For most products this is possible by applying the alcohol test.All powder products must be dissolved prior to UHT treatment because bacteria spores can survive in dry powder particles even at UHT temperatures. Milk is a good example of how wide a span the concept of shelf life covers: Product Pasteurised milk ESL/Pure-LacTM UHT milk Shelf life 5 . Generally it will also disrupt smooth operation and increase the risk of insterility. the proteins become unstable and the milk flocculates.10 days 20 . processing and packaging conditions and conditions during distribution and storage which will determine the shelf life of the product. chemical and energy consumption. Shelf life. it is desirable to be able to measure the heat stability of the products to be UHT treated.

riorated taste, smell and colour, while the physical and chemical limiting factors are incipient gelling, increase in viscosity, sedimentation and cream lining. High Heat Infusion Steriliser The growing incidents of heat resistant spores (HRS) is challenging traditional UHT technologies and setting new targets. The HRS are extremely heat resistant and require a minimum of 145 - 150ºC for 3 - 10 seconds to achieve commercial sterility. If the temperature is increased to this level in a traditional indirect UHT plant it would have an adverse effect on the product quality and the overall running time of the plant. Furthermore, it would result in higher product losses during start and stop and more frequent CIP cycles would have to be applied. Using the traditional direct steam infusion system would result in higher energy consumption and increased capital cost. On this basis, Invensys APV developed the new High Heat Infusion system. The flow diagram in fig. 6 illustrates the principle design including the most important processing parameters while fig. 7 shows the temperature/time profile in comparison to conventional infusion and indirect systems. Note that the vacuum chamber has been installed prior to the infusion chamber. This design facilitates improvement in energy recovery and it is possible to achieve 75% regeneration compared to 40% with conventional infusion systems and 80 - 85% with indirect tubular systems. The killing rate is F0 = 40.
VACUUM PRODUCT 90ºC 125ºC STEAM FILLING

2

3

5

COOLING WATER

9

5ºC

60ºC

150ºC

75ºC

25ºC

1

4

1

2

7

6

7

10 COOLING WATER

8 STEAM

8 STEAM

1. Tubular preheaters 2. Holding tube 3. Flash vessel (non aseptic)

4. Non aseptic flavour dosing (option) 5. Steam infusion chamber 6. Homogeniser (aseptic)

7. Tubular coolers 8. Tubular Heaters 9. Aseptic tank 10. Non aseptic cooler

Fig. 6: Flow diagram for High Heat Infusion Steriliser 16

UHT of products with HRS (comparative temperature profiles with Fo= 40)

ºC 150

100

50

0
Direct UHT 150ºC High Heat Infusion 150ºC Indirect UHT 147ºC Reference Indirect UHT 140ºC

Time

Fig. 7: Time/temperature profiles illustrating High Heat Infusion processing parameters

Determination of Fat Content in Milk and Cream Röse-Gottlieb (RG) The fat globule membranes are destroyed by ammonia and heat, and the phospholipids are dissolved with ethanol. After heat treatment, the fat is extracted with a mixture of diethyl ether and light petroleum. Then the solvents are removed by evaporation and the fat content is determined by weighing the mass left after evaporation. Schmid-Bondzynski-Ratzloff (SBR) This method uses hydrochloric acid instead of ammonia to destroy the fat globule membranes and is used for cheese samples. The principal difference between RG and SBR is that the free fatty acids are not extracted by the RG method since the analysis is made in alkaline media. The free fatty acids are extracted by the SBR method since the analysis is made in an acidic medium.

17

Gerber’s method Whole milk is analysed as follows: Measure into the butyrometer 10 ml sulphuric acid, 11 ml milk (in some countries only 10.8 ml) and 1 ml amyl alcohol, in that order. Before measuring out the milk, heat to 40°C and mix carefully. Insert the stopper and shake the mixture while holding the stopper upwards. Then turn the butyrometer upside down two or three times until the acid remaining in the narrow end of the butyrometer is mixed completely with the other constituents. During the mixing process, the temperature rises to such a degree that centrifugation can take place without further heating. The butyrometer is centrifuged for 5 minutes at 1,200 rpm and the sample is placed in a water bath at 6570°C before reading. The reading is made at the lowest point of the fat meniscus. Skimmilk and buttermilk are analysed as follows: The acid, milk and amyl alcohol are measured out as described above. Immediately after shaking, the sample is cooled to 10-20°C before the sulphuric acid remaining in the narrow end of the butyrometer is mixed in by turning the butyrometer up and down. Before centrifugation, the sample is heated to 65-70°C. The butyrometer is centrifuged for 10-15 minutes at 1,200 rpm and the value read at 65-70°C. When skimmilk samples are read, the fat will be seen as two small triangles. If these two triangles are just touching each other, the milk contains approx. 0.05 % fat. For buttermilk samples, the reading is taken at the lowest point of the fat meniscus and the figure of 0.05 is then added to give the fat content. Cream is analysed as follows: Measure into the butyrometer 10 ml sulphuric acid, 5 ml cream, 5 ml water, and 1 ml alcohol. The water is used for removing the remainder of the cream from the cream pipette into the butyrometer and must have a temperature of 40°C. Insert the stopper and continue as described for whole milk. Before a reading is taken, the bottom of the fat column must be set at zero on the butyrometer by turning the rubber stopper to move it up or down. Milkoscan The Danish company N. Foss Electric has developed an 18

The amount of ammonia is determined by hydrochloric acid titration.55 µm The value for water is calculated on the basis of the sum of the values for fat. the Milkoscan.40 µm Lactose at 9. from N. The instrument requires exact calibration and must be thermostatically controlled. Then the mixture passes through a flow cuvette where the different components are measured by their infrared absorption. lactose and water. This method involves the combustion of the protein contained in a specific quantity of milk in sulphuric acid with an admixture of potassium sulphate and copper sulphate.instrument. This converts nitrogen from organic compounds into ammonium ions. the Pro.38. for rapid and simultaneous.milk. The protein content is found by multiplying the measured nitrogen quantity by 6. The amido black method (Pro-milk) When milk is mixed with an amido black solution at pH 2.45. and lactose plus a constant value for mineral content. The addition of sodium hydroxide liberates ammonia. and the protein is precipitated. protein.73 µm Protein at 6. the concentration of non-precipitated pigment. determination of fat. Determination of Protein Content in Milk and Cream Kjeldahl’s method Kjeldahl’s method provides for accurate determination of the milk protein content. This method has been automated in an instrument. In this instrument. Fat at 5. Foss Electric. which is measured by means of the photometer. 19 . which distils over into a boric acid solution. The instrument filters out the protein pigment by means of special synthetic filters and a photometer displays the protein percentage directly. the positively charged protein molecules are linked to the negatively-charged amido black molecules in a specific ratio. protein. is inversely proportional to the milk protein content. When the precipitate of coloured protein pigment has been removed. the sample is diluted and homogenised.

After 2 1/2 hours. formalin. i. especially penicillin. into the flask until the colour of the liquid changes from white to a 20 . One of these is the Dutch Delvotest P. which indicates the true acidity (the hydrogen ion concentration). After 6-8 hours there will be a distinct difference in the titres (or pH) of the two samples if one of them contains antibiotics or other growth-inhibiting substances. The acidity is determined by measuring either the titrated acidity. borax. salicylic acid. Both samples are heat-treated at 90-95°C for approx. The titrated acidity of fresh milk is 16-18. fresh milk has a slightly acid reaction. Titration Normally. using phenolphthalein as an indicator. tests for rapid determination ¯f antibiotics.1 n sodium hydroxide solution is added. and from a burette 0. the titrated acidity of milk is indicated by the number of ml of a 0. and mixed with 2% starter. etc). aureomycin.1 n sodium hydroxide solution required to neutralise 100 ml of milk. By means of a pipette.U.6-6..Detection of Preservatives and Antibiotics in Milk The growth of lactic acid bacteria may be inhibited by the presence in the milk of ordinary antiseptics (such as boric acid. which is highly sensitive to penicillin and to some extent also to other antibiotics.which is both costly and time-consuming. 25 ml of milk is measured into an Erlenmeyer flask.e. or by measuring the pH value.8./ml. Acidity of Milk Normally. Rapid detention of slow-ripening milk can be achieved by a comparison of the acidification process in the suspected sample with that in a sample of mixed milk. 25°C. is inoculated with the suspected milk. the quantity of acid produced will be sufficient to change the colour in the dissolved pH indicator from red to yellow. benzoic acid. the total content of free and bound acids. In order to find out which of the above mentioned substances is present. cooled to approx. it is necessary to test for each of them . However. drop by drop. hydrogen peroxide) or antibiotics (penicillin. A special substrate containing Bacillus colidolactis. This method gives a definite determination of the penicillin concentration down to 0. salicylates. and pH is 6.06 I. 15 minutes. To this 13 drops of a 5% alcoholic phenolphthalein solution is added. in milk have been developed.

the figure obtained must be multiplied by four.H. the milk is diluted to different degrees. If the titratable acidity increases to 30 or more. Consequently. and it is therefore only possible to make approximate comparisons of the various degrees of acidity. When the final result is calculated.uniform pale red. However. Soxhlet Henkel degrees (S. Supposing that the latter is 30% and that the quantity of sodium hydroxide solution used was 2.25 n NaOH solution necessary to neutralise 100 ml of milk. Phenolphthalein is used as an indicator. the figure gives the percentage of lactic acid. Since for practical reasons only 25 ml of milk is used in the analysis. Thörner degrees of acidity indicate the number of ml of a 0. the fat content of the cream must be taken into account. Titration then proceeds as explained above. In the various methods of analysis. using phenolphthalein as an indicator.) give the number of ml of a 0. working only from the amount of NaOH used 21 . This residue is washed into the Erlenmeyer flask by milk taken from the flask after neutralisation takes place and the red colour starts to appear.8 × 4 × 100 = 16 100-30 The acidity of milk is expressed in various ways in various countries. the casein content will be precipitated when the milk is heated. the titratable acidity of the cream would be: 2. Dornic degrees of acidity give the number of ml of a 119 n NAOH solution necessary to neutralise 100 ml of milk. supposing that the quantity of sodium hydroxide solution used was 5 ml. When cultured milk or buttermilk is titrated. The acidity of cream is determined by the same procedure.8 ml. using phenolphthalein as an indicator Divided by 100. the titratable acidity would be: 5 × 4 = 20 The normal titratable acidity of fresh milk is 16-18. part of the milk will stick to the inside of the pipette.1 n NAOH solution required to neutralise 100 ml of milk to which two parts of water have been added.

the various degrees of acidity can be compared as shown below: Degrees of acidity 02.0 Dornic 02.5 25.1125 0.5 shows a degree of acidity ten times higher than pH 6.5 05.25 22. enzyme activity.0 indicate alkaline reactions.2025 0.5 30.0 12.2250 0.5 30.5 20.00 Approx. 22 . ie.0 22.00 11.5. a maximum of 0.5 25. In milk.25 13. For example.50 06.0 SoxhletHenkel 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 Thömer 02.0 12.0 indicate acid reactions.0.5 15. pH being the symbol used to express the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration.010 mg free phenol is liberated per ml milk. % lactic acid 0. taste.0450 0. and the system must always be calibrated properly before use.5 15.0675 0. when the phosphatase test is applied.50 24. Values below 7. etc.5 10. reactions of colour indicators. The pH value is measured by a pH-meter with a combined glass electrode.0 27. The neutral point is pH 7.1800 0.50 15.0 27.1350 0.75 09.2700 Measurement of pH The true acidity of a liquid is determined by its content of hydrogen ions. Milk pasteurised by one of these methods must be healed in such a way that.5 20.0 07.1575 0. A difference in pH value of 1 represents a tenfold difference in acidity.2475 0.0225 0. bacteria growth. it is the pH value and not the titratable acidity that controls the processes of coagulation. The Phosphatase Test The phosphatase test is used to control the effect of HTST pasteurisation and batch pasteurisation of milk.5 10.00 20.0 17.25 04. Acidity is measured in pH value. a solution with a hydrogen ion concentration of 1:1.75 18.000 or 10-3 has a pH of 3.and the normal acidity figure.0 22.0 17.5 05. and values above 7.0 07. pH 5.0900 0.75 27. the heat treatment must not be so effective that the reaction of the milk to Storch’s test (peroxidase test) is negative. However.

It may. The colour extinction is a measure of the content of phenol and can be measured in a Pullfricphotometer. be done manually as a batch process. Leave the two test tubes at room temperature for 15 minutes and compare them. however. milk and cream sold for consumption must contain a legally fixed fat percentage. Only if the contents of test tube A appear paler in colour than the contents of test tube B can the milk be considered sufficiently heated.2 g pure an. 18. a sample for control testing should be sent to an authorised research institute.5% and 1.010 mg phenol in 5 ml) and 5 ml substrate solution.5% in low-fat milk. Then. Shake both test tubes and leave them in a water bath at 38-40°C for one hour. although slight variations are usually allowed. If the milk fails this test. to both tubes. Standardisation of Whole Milk and Cream In many countries. To test tube B. add 5 ml distilled water saturated with chloroform and 5 ml substrate solution (prepared by dissolving one small “Ewos” phosphatase tablet l in 25 ml of a solution consisting of 9. 23 . Standardisation before or during heat treatment is to be preferred as the danger of subsequent contamination is thereby reduced. which will carry out the phosphatase test in such a way that colour is extracted after incubation. The various types of cream must have a fat content of 9. it is necessary to standardise the fat content. This can be done in various ways depending on the stage at which standardisation is carried out. In Denmark. or 36%. the fat content of heat-treated whole milk must be 3. Standardisation will normally take place automatically during the separating and pasteurising process. respectively.The phosphatase test is performed as follows: Measure 1 ml milk into two test tubes.hydrous sodium carbonate and 13.6 g sodium bicarbonate in 1 litre distilled water saturated with chloroform). Transfer test tube B to a 80"C water bath for 5 minutes and then cool. for example. in which case the table below may be used. and shake the tubes vigorously. add exactly six drops of phenol reagent (three “Ewos” phosphatase tablets II in 10 ml 93% alcohol). marked A and B. 13. In order to comply with these regulations. add 5 ml diluted phenol solution (0. To the milk in test tube A.

00 26.60 00.75 00.85 15.00 05.38 00.13 01.2 4.10 32.00 11.10 40.50 27.45 18.38 00.68 03.20 06.90 09.10 09.30 16.70 00.10 07.90 33.50 19.51 01.60 02.5 3.60 08.30 17.70 16.30 03.30 03.80 29.90 14.30 33.70 20.40 12.30 02. add x kg skimmilk.70 09.90 11.38 00.90 19.12 00.50 11.80 27.70 16.60 03.90 14.75 00.6 3.50 06.89 02.70 05.15 01.1 3.40 03.38 00.20 06.40 14.50 05. Batch Standardisation For batch standardisation the following equations may be used.10 23.15 01.52 01.00 15.00 03.80 02.37 The figures above the shaded lines indicate the amount in kg of skimmilk to be added per 100 kg whole milk when the fat content is too high.67 03.90 20.37 01.70 16.38 00.77 01.70 11.80 30.50 02.70 24.70 28.70 00.20 03.60 10.90 03.20 23.40 00.50 15.80 29.60 39.08 03. y kg whole milk = z (% fat required .30 02.30 10.80 00.10 34.40 07.90 26.13 00.05 21.20 16.% fat required) % fat required .% fat in skimmilk) % fat in whole milk .60 21.00 10.50 03.00 08.90 02.Table for standardisation of Whole Milk % fat in whole milk 4.80 05.76 01.90 12.50 44.00 36.20 05.70 08.10 41.00 13.40 13.38 00.80 47.92 02. mix y kg whole milk with x kg skimmilk.80 03.75 01.80 06.28 02.76 01.66 25.30 09.07 03.15 01.00 12.50 01.90 23.90 13.10 03.29 02.5 4.54 01.60 25.0 3.50 26.4 3.70 37.10 02.92 02.30 38.60 05.y Fat content to be increased: To increase the fat content in y kg low-fat milk.31 02.38 00.60 03.00 06.3 4.% fat in skimmilk To obtain z kg standardised milk.20 02.4 4.90 31.75 00.50 18.20 19.77 01.76 01. The figures below the shaded lines indicate the amount in kg of cream with 30% fat to be added per 100 kg whole milk when the fat content is too low.90 00.27 30.40 22.9 3.10 45.90 30.37 01.30 08.2 3.00 03. add x kg cream (or high-fat milk).7 3. x kg skimmilk = y (% fat in whole milk .30 36.69 03.60 13.0 % fat in standardised milk 04.00 19.14 01. 24 .50 00.30 50.70 03.00 23.40 13. Fat content to be reduced: To reduce the fat content in y kg whole milk.90 17.53 01.53 01.20 20.1 4.89 32.91 02.8 3.14 01.90 42.% fat in skimmilk x kg skimmilk = z .52 01.10 03.80 03.3 3.46 03.70 10.40 22.

z To obtain x kg surplus cream. y kg z (% fat in cream . milk milk x kg surplus cream = y .% fat in stand. Standardised milk z kg. Surplus cream x kg.z Fat content to be increased: Standard in-line systems cannot be used for this purpose. z kg y (% fat in surplus cream .% fat required To obtain z kg standardised milk.% fat in standardised milk) whole = % fat in whole milk . y kg low-fat milk = x kg cream = z . The fat content of skimmilk is normally estimated at 0.% fat required) % fat in surplus cream . use y kg whole milk. mix y kg low-fat milk with x kg cream (or high-fat milk). y kg whole = milk z (% fat in surplus cream .% fat in whole milk z (% fat in cream .% fat in low-fat milk) % fat in cream . 25 .05%.% fat required % fat in cream .y ln-line Standardisation For in-line standardisation the following equations may be used. = % fat in surplus cream .% fat in standardised milk milk z kg standardised milk = y .% fat in shole milk) stand. Fat content to be reduced: To obtain z kg standardised milk.x y kg whole milk used will result in z kg standardised milk and x kg surplus cream.% fat in low-fat milk x kg surplus cream = y .x kg cream = y (% fat required . use y kg whole milk.

000000 .015% *) SD of the controlling lab instrument: 0. By stating a SD figure.9 93 6 6% 99 .400 95%0000000000.574000 .400000 .700 99.73%00000000 002. which are derived from the standard deviation figure (cf. Guaranteed Sigma 1 2 3 4 5 6 Percent within the Defects per specification 1000 68%0000000000.063 99.7 3% 95 % 68 % If for instance the SD figures for a fat value range from 1% to 5% are: SD of the automatic butter fat standardising unit: 0.001974 It is assumed that the data are distributed normally! 99 .0063.600 99.0000.99366%00000 000. the below table).Standard Deviation The accuracy of an automatic butter fat standardising unit will commonly be expressed in the term Standard Deviation (SD).0000.01% Then the two SD figures shall be added as follows: 26 . it is guarantied that a certain percentage of the fat standardised milk will be kept within the upper and lower limits. 045. 317.9999426%000 99.700.9999998026% Defects per million 2.

then the fat value set point of the automatic standardising unit must be 3.(SD of the automatic standardising system)2 + (SD on the measuring instrument)2 2 2 0. The supplier of the measuring instrument expresses this by stating the standard deviation of the measurements to be xxx%.054% 4 level: 99. Calculating the Extent of Random Sampling How many samples need to be taken in order to prove that the standardising unit will comply with the granted guarantees? Various methods are available for calculating the extent of a random sampling – this is a simple method.99366% of the production time the fat value will lie within ± 0.018% The summarised SD will thus be = 0. 27 .015 +0. the accuracy to be obtained will be as follows: 1 level: 68% of the production time the fat value will lie within ± 0.018% Conferring the above table.054% = 3.454% *) There is a degree of accuracy connected with the measuring equipment. If a dairy for instance must guarantee minimum 3.072% The above accuracy figures can now be used to calculate the fat value set point of the automatic standardising unit.7% (3 ) of the milk delivered.4% fat in 99.01 = 0.018% 2 level: 95% of the production time the fat value will lie within ± 0.7% of the production time the fat value will lie within ± 0.036% 3 level: 99.4% + 0. From the below chart the relation between the Number of Degree of Freedom Required (the number of samples taken) to estimate the standard deviation within P% of Its True Value with Confidence Coefficient can be read.

Logically. Due to the analysis uncertainty.018%: . 25% (P%) deviation from Its True Value (0.020% 0.018% P% 25% 15% 10% 0% 28 .A Confidence Coefficient = 95 would normally apply for the dairy and food industry.Number of samples 30 and . The magnitude hereof is illustrated in the below examples: Number of samples 30 80 200 N (Total) Required SD in sample set 0. the calculated SD of the 30 random samples must thus be better than 0.Confidence Coefficient ( = 95) Referring to the below chart.018% + 25% = 0.021% 0. if the number of samples is increased the deviation (P%) from Its True Value to be allowed for will narrow in.023%.0018%) must be allowed for. Example (above example continued): Verification of the SD guarantee of 0.023% 0.

Chart T *): Number of Degrees of Freedom Required to Estimate the Standard Deviation within P% of Its True Value with Confidence Coefficient 1. and Maxfield. 1960). China Lake. L. CA. Naval Ordnance Test Station. (1950). J. 20 10 8 6 5 5 6 8 10 20 30 40 50 P% *) Adapted with permission from Greenwood. NAVORD Report 3369. “Statistics Manual. E. A. New York. 9 95 =. Davis.S. Sample Size Required for Estimating the Standard Deviation as a Percent of Its True Value”. M. 258. (1955). (Reprinted by Dover Publications. p. U. NOTS 948. Degrees of freedom 100 80 60 50 40 30 90 =. 45. M. The manner of graphing is adapted with permission from Crow. Journal of the American Statistical Association. A.000 800 600 500 400 300 200 9 =. vol. and Sandomire. 29 . M. W. F.

6% fat approx. . ... . . 8. In addition to cream treatment.. .. .5% MSNF 0. ..3 Buttermilk normally contains: Sweet buttermilk ... .. .2 kg cream with 38% fat 2. . . . 2% Acidity: Sweet cream butter .BUTTER Composition of Butter Butter must comply with certain regulations: Fat . .7% fat approx. . . . .. . working of the butter grains into a cohesive mass. .. . 1% Strongly salted . . . .. It could be used only for the treatment of sweet 30 . . . .. approx. . . . . . ... buttermaking comprises the following stages: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) churning of cream into butter grains and buttermilk. . . 2% Salt (NaCl): Mildly salted . .. this machine was deficient in a number of respects. . .. . 8. .. . Max... . addition and distribution of salt. .5-0. . . .2% fat 2. Cultured buttermilk . .. .. Dr. under vacuum. 16% Milk solids non-fat (MSNF) . .7 Cultured butter .. . . . . . . separation of butter grains and buttermilk. . . . pH 6. . .. ... However. Min. Max.. (82%) 0.. .6 Mildly cultured butter . . 80% Moisture . . . . .. It was invented by a German professor. Fritz.. pH 4.. . .3% MSNF Yields 1 kg butter can be made from: approx.4-0.. . . . . .. pH 5. .. . . final working. .. to minimise the air content. .. ..... . . A continuous buttermaking machine has existed for many years.. . 20 kg milk with 4. ... adjustment and distribution of moisture. . ..0 kg cream with 42% fat Buttermaking Buttermaking may be carried out either as a batch process in a butter churn or as a continuous process in a continuous buttermaking machine.. .

The Invensys APV continuous buttermaking machine also guarantees that products are of the highest possible quality.000 kg butter/hour. In the production of salted butter. which retains even small butter grains. The buttermilk drainage from the butter grains is very efficient and the rotation of the strainer drum prevents butter clogging. The moisture content of the butter and the fat content of the buttermilk also depend on the beater velocity. in principle. Blended products (e. Bregott) in which some of the butter fat has been replaced by vegetable fats can also be produced. and that the operating economy is the best obtainable. designed in accordance with the system of Dr. and working elements in the form of perforated plates and mixing vanes.cream. The Invensys APV continuous buttermaking machine is designed according to the following principles: (1) The churning section is. (2) The separating section consists of a horizontal rotating cylinder. The velocity is infinitely variable. and there were problems with the production of salted butter. Since the churning process lasts only 1-2 seconds. it is important to adjust the beater velocity to obtain optimum butter grain size. The first part of the cylinder is equipped with baffle plates for further treatment of the mixture of butter grains and buttermilk which is fed in from the churning section. It is equipped with a very finely meshed wire screen. 31 . The Invensys APV continuous buttermaking machine can produce all types of butter: cultured and sweet. The velocity of each of the two sections is infinitely variable. The section consists of a horizontal cylinder and a rotating beater. The second part of the cylinder is designed as a sieve for buttermilk drainage. Fritz. (3) The working section consists of two inclined sections (I and II) with augers for transport of the butler. Invensys APV manufactures continuous buttermaking machines with capacities ranging from 500 kg to 12. Furthermore. a salt slurry (40-60%) is pumped into working section I where it is worked into the butter.g. the machine can produce butter according to the “NIZO” as well as to the “IBC” method. The beater velocity is infinitely variable between 0 and 1. salted and unsalted.400 rpm.

which conveys the butter to the butter silo. Furthermore. 32 . Also. In order to reduce the air content in the butter from 5-6% or more to below 0. an ordinary B starter is worked into the butter to obtain the correct moisture content. Any adjustment of the moisture content also takes place in working section I. it passes through a double perforated plate from which it emerges in very thin layers. Buttermaking according to the IBC method (Indirect Biological Culturing) This is a method for production of cultured butter from sweet cream. After sweet cream churning and buttermilk drainage. This provides the best conditions for escape of air. When the butter from working section l enters this chamber. The butter leaves the machine through a nozzle fitted at the end of working section II. the salt is mixed into the D starter. is worked into the butter. which has a high diacetyl (aroma) content. lactic acid has been added to this starter. Water dosing is carried out automatically. producing a pH reduction in addition to the aroma.5%. a so-called D starter. When salted butter is produced. a vacuum chamber has been inserted between working sections I and II. Mounted on the nozzle is a butter pump.Butter Water Buttermilk 2 1 4 3 3 5 (1) Churning section (2) Separating section (3) Working section (4) Vacuum chamber (5) Butter pump The above is a diagram of Invensys APV’s continuous buttermaking machine.

5% fat Churning Recovery The churning recovery value (CRV) is equal to the amount of fat remaining in the buttermilk expressed as a percentage of the total fat content of the cream before churning. It can be worked out from the following equation: CRV = (100-7/6 x % fat in cream) x % fat in buttermilk % fat in cream In other words. buttermilk and butter is not known.4% fat Butter = 82. the following estimated values rnay be used: Skimmilk = 00.A similar production method is the well known “NIZO” method.% fat in buttermilk kg butter = If the fat percentage in skimmilk.05% fat Buttermilk = 00. kg cream = kg milk x (% fat in milk . Besides.% fat in skimmilk) % fat in cream . (Loss and overweight are not considered. Calculating Butter Yield The yield of butter from whole milk can be calculated using the following equations. 33 .). The above methods provide for more flexible cream treatment since the incubation temperatures for the starters do not have to be taken into account.% fat in buttermilk) % fat in butter . butter produced according to this method has a longer shelf life.% fat in skimmilk kg cream x (% fat in cream . Finally. the only data required are the cream and buttermilk fat percentages. the production of cultured buttermilk is avoided (sweet buttermilk is much more usable in other products than cultured buttermilk).

16 0.45 0.51 0.42 1.77 0.84 0.5 45.37 1.0 44.64 1.19 0.04 1.68 0.26 1.0 36.91 0.50 1.24 0.46 0.46 1.33 0.85 0.32 0.12 1.04 1.0 42.00 0.53 0.97 0.80 0.34 0.0 32.68 1.27 0.52 0.63 0.11 0.32 0.02 1.52 0.19 0.37 0.09 1.07 1.23 1.79 0.25 0.14 0.64 0.42 0.69 1.15 1.00 0.96 0.13 0.66 0.14 1.61 1.3 33.16 0.21 1.53 0.49 1.74 0.00 0.18 1.57 0.83 0.85 1.32 1.38 0.32 0.20 0.57 0.36 0.12 0.72 0.58 0.63 0.03 1.47 0.26 0.5 37.77 0.82 0.27 0.41 1.29 0.83 0.56 0.36 0.56 0.55 0.31 0.53 0.53 1.16 0.18 1.95 0.84 0.22 0.5 40.64 0.91 0.71 0.98 0.24 1.80 1.12 1.70 1.14 0.29 1.20 1.56 0.89 0.59 0.72 1.90 0.35 0.61 0.36 0.20 0.91 0. See below.39 0.81 1.89 0.13 1.97 0.55 0.18 0.5 38.87 0.48 1.46 0.38 0.13 0.63 0.04 1.12 0.5 36.81 0.14 0.11 0.15 0.99 0.44 0.98 0.43 0.78 0.5 41.23 1.29 1.70 0.34 0.5 43.43 0.65 1.5 32.44 0.55 0.11 0.41 0.94 0.17 1.88 0.06 1.17 0.73 0.26 1.40 0.92 0.5 42.39 1.35 0.68 0.24 0.60 0.79 0.56 1.61 0.30 0.09 1.15 0.52 1.22 0.90 1.21 0.20 0.17 1.44 1.34 1.62 0.76 0.12 1.59 0.33 0.16 1.35 1.23 0.09 1.85 0.31 0.0 31.Churning Recovery Table % fat in cream 30.37 0.68 0.82 0.03 1.5 33.35 1.51 0.0 35.96 0.24 1.07 1.95 The result can also be taken from a table that has been worked out on the basis of Report No.18 0.20 1.60 1.41 0.28 0.86 0.81 0.01 0.5 39.76 0.42 0.50 0.73 0.73 0.27 1.76 1.71 0.13 0.12 0.0 34.21 1.49 1.76 0.57 1.38 1.11 0.86 0.35 0.5 35.30 0.88 0.80 0.54 0.0 38.08 1.70 0.23 0.47 0.78 0.45 1.65 0.40 0.15 1. 34 .32 1.42 0.93 0.0 41.50 0.07 1.21 0.66 0.0 43.75 0.87 0.97 0.5 34.49 0.21 0.39 0.5 44.05 1.69 0.17 0.67 0.0 37.10 1.48 0.40 0.60 1.93 0.42 1.75 0.5 31.90 1.59 0.0 % fat in buttermilk 0.85 0.29 0. 38 from the Danish Government Dairy Research Institute.0 39.31 1.12 0.25 0.45 0.27 1.65 0.10 0.60 0.02 1.14 0.0 40.62 0.75 0.93 0.00 0.

20 2.71 0.32 4.94 0.66 2.89 3.55 4.21 4.76 4.20 2.54 3.33 3.9 15.6 13.63 1.7 15.22 3.09 3.87 3.29 1.82 1.83 0.86 1.66 2.44 2.54 4.71 0.06 0.7 14.06 0.00 4.82 0.4 15.54 3.12 0.5 13.00 2.47 0.52 1.64 1.24 0.74 2.0 13.94 0.89 2.6 15.7 13.21 3.5 12.2 12.43 2.22 3.65 3.59 0.44 4.21 3.78 2.44 3.7 12.10 2.76 3.21 2.21 2.35 1.77 2.21 4.65 3.87 1.36 0.54 2.17 1.94 1.33 3.98 3.75 1.6 14.99 3.47 1.2 14.59 1.0 15.87 3.67 3.8 15.12 0.66 2.41 1.99 3.47 0.5 0.47 0.71 1.78 3.4 13.36 0.75 1.41 1.89 3.24 0.32 4.43 4.88 2.43 4.29 1.43 2.32 2.9 14.44 3.63 1.76 3.8 15.94 0.2 13.4 12.98 35 .12 0.78 3.22 3.9 15.10 3.99 2.06 0.66 3.24 0.34 3.33 3.00 2.64 1.35 0.20 2.82 0.47 0.05 1.59 0.56 3.65 4.11 4.44 2.3 15.8 14.6 12.24 0.5 14.75 1.94 0.0 Addition of water in kg per 100 kg butter when the desired % moisture is as follows: 16.5 15.11 3.9 12.55 3.29 1.89 2.18 1.40 2.21 2.43 3.43 3.32 2.10 1.88 3.67 3.18 1.24 0.8 12.59 0.64 1.09 2.55 3.43 2.41 1.71 0.10 3.65 2.55 2.59 0.75 1.00 3.12 0.22 3.77 3.88 2.9 13.1 15.29 1.06 0.67 2.94 0.1 12.8 13.59 0.55 2.31 3.32 3.4 14.71 0.63 2.0 14.55 2.52 1.86 1.0 12.40 1.17 1.7 15.54 2.11 2.77 3.45 3.97 2.36 0.82 0.32 4.29 1.1 13.36 0.88 2.10 1.21 4.12 0.09 1.29 1.09 1.32 2.66 3.75 1.71 0.98 1.88 3.99 3.22 4.3 13.44 3.52 1.32 2.98 1.10 3.98 1.87 4.77 2.3 12.86 2.00 2.10 2.33 2.06 0.11 3.40 1.87 1.77 2.2 15.83 0.11 3.12 0.Table for adjustment of Moisture Content in Butter % water present 15.52 2.97 1.1 14.09 1.6 15.99 2.3 14.98 1.33 4.78 2.52 1.52 1.87 1.47 0.17 1.24 0.17 1.56 3.

If desired. the following equation may also be used: kg water to be added = kg butter x (% MD .is below the maximum permitted amount. a salt slurry is continuously dosed into the butter.17 n silver nitrate solution (AgNO3).% MP where: MD = Moisture desired MP = Moisture present Continuous Buttermaking Machines The churning of the cream should be carried out in such a way that the moisture content of the butter .Adjusting Moisture Content in Butter Conventional Churns The churning of the cream should be carried out in such a way that the moisture content of the butter is slightly below the maximum permitted amount. When salted butter is manufactured.% MP) 100 . however.1 = percentage of salt. After addition of 10 drops of saturated potassium chromate solution. The moisture content of the butter and the regulation of the water dosing pump will normally be automatically controlled. Determination of Salt Content in Butter There are several ways of determining the salt content of butter. titration takes place with the use of a 0. 36 . The butter is melted and poured into a 150 ml beaker. The butter residue is washed into the beaker by means of 50100 ml of water at 70°C. The analysis can most conveniently be carried out with a 10-gramme sample that has already been used for determination of the moisture content of the butter. The salt content is then determined in accordance with the following equation: ml of silver nitrate solution used x 0. A test of the moisture content should be made as soon as the butter has been worked sufficiently. reducing the amount of water to be added. When the amount of butler is known. the table above can be used.without any addition of water . added gradually until the colour changes from yellow to brownish. will increase the moisture content of the butter. This.

which have a lower melting point than saturated fatty acids.2 41.2 42. It is therefore possible to influence the iodine value and thereby the firmness of the butter through feeding.0 42. give hard and brittle butter. when a ray of light passes from the air through melted butterfat. On the other hand. The refractive index stales the angle of refraction measured in a socalled refractometer.5 42. Roots. 35).1 44.3 44.7 42. The relation between the iodine value and the refractive index is given in the table below.3 43. for example.6 44.lodine Value and Refractive Index The iodine value is defined as the number of grammes of iodine that can be absorbed in 100 g butterfat.8 Hard fat Soft fat Fluctuations in lodine Value and Temperature Treatment of Cream Milk fat contains.9 41. while grass and hay give butter of a good consistency. It is usually difficult to regulate the various ingredients that make up coarse feed.7 43. but this percentage is subject to large seasonal fluctuations: the iodine value is high in the summer and low in the winter.6 40. Both the iodine value and the refractive index are an indication of the content of unsaturated fatty acids (the most important being oleic acid). 35% oleic acid (iodine value approx.5 43.4 41.8 44. concentrated feed should 37 . Iodine value 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Refractive Index 40. on average.0 43. The iodine value depends primarily on the fat content of the feed and on the composition and melting point of this fat.

the normal high iodine treatment should be started straightaway. the 8-19-16 method or a modification. it is possible to change the structure of the butter in order to improve its consistency. etc. should be used. In periods with iodine values above 35. for example. for example. whereas in the spring. By means of temperature treatment of the cream. In transitional periods (iodine values between 32 and 35). It is therefore necessary for the creamery to know the iodine value of the butterfat used. but this difference can be adjusted by choosing the right feed. linseed and rape seed cakes. for example. feeding with soya beans. should be used. Other conditions being equal. 38 . whereas the iodine value is lower when feeding with coconut and palm cakes. The temperatures used should be determined partly on the basis of the iodine value of the butterfat and partly on the basis of the temperature at which the butter will be consumed. Holsteins. 8-20-12. For example. In periods with iodine values below 32. a 12-19-12 treatment can be used in the autumn. and this value should be determined once a month. gives butterfat with a high iodine value. 23-12-8.be chosen only after taking into account the fat content and particularly the composition of the fat (iodine value). Jersey cows yield butterfat with a lower iodine value than. the 19-16-8 method or a modification.

36-39% fat in TS and 26-29% fat in TS respectively. which means that the cheeses contain 50-53% fat in TS. Unripened cheese: Queso Fresco. Soft cheese: Port Salut. Quarg. but it is constant for each type of cheese. The fat content of the cheese states the fat in the cheese as a percentage of the TS content (50+. Butterkäse. Danablu. etc. 39 . Cheddar. Below are possible classifications of cheese types: Yellow cheese: White cheese: Cheese produced from cow’s milk.CHEESE Cheese Varieties It would be an almost impossible task to list all cheese types. Fontal. etc. Danbo. Cheese produced from ewe’s and goat’s milk. Emmental. 30+. Blue veined cheese: Stilton. in which the fat does not contain carotene. Parmesan. Roquefort. “Reduced Fat” and “Half Fat” are used. Brie. Kashkaval. Mozzarella. etc. As an addition. Feta. Cottage Cheese etc. 20+). Pizza Cheese. Limburger. and very rarely the content of total solids (TS) in the cheese is also stated. White surface ripened cheese: Camembert. Mould cheese: Fresh cheese: Pasta Filata: Hard cheese: Semi-hard cheese: Gouda. many cheeses are characterised solely by their name. etc. etc. However. Bel Paese. Semi-soft cheese: Tilsit. Samsoe. 45+. Provolone. Furthermore. the fat content of the cheese is often indicated. The TS content of the cheese normally varies between 65% (Cheddar) and 40% (Feta). the designations “Full-Fat”.

The two main elements in the standardisation of the fat percentage of cheese milk are: (1) The protein percentage of the cheesemilk. (2) The fat content required in the desired cheese type. CHEESE: 10-15% of the milk Fat: 89-94% of the milk fat Protein: 74-77% of the milk proteins approx. The higher the protein percentage. The table below can be used as a guideline for fat standardisation. incl. rennet being an enzyme that makes the milk coagulate and the coagulum contract. in turn. the higher the fat percentage. Thus. 40 . so-called syneresis. causes whey exudation. the cheesemilk is separated into curd (cheese) and whey. which.5% of whey is MSNF * non-protein nitrogen ** milk solids non-fat Standardisation of Cheesemilk and Calculation of Cheese Yield The standardisation of cheesemilk has two separate objectives: (1) To obtain cheese with a composition that complies with the agreed standards.Cheesemaking The feature common to all cheesemaking is that rennet is added to the milk. (2) To obtain the most economic use of milk components consistent with consumer demands. NPN* MSNF**: 6. 100% of the milk casein WHEY: 85-90% of the milk Fat: 6-11% of the milk fat Protein: 23-26% of the milk proteins.

05%.60 1.00 0.05 3.60 2.71 1. a value of 4.48 0.7 3.Whole milk 45% fat in TS % whole milk % fat in cheesemilk 40% fat in TS % whole milk % fat in cheesemilk 30 % f a t in TS % whole milk % fat in cheesemilk 20% fat in TS % whole milk % fat in cheesemilk 10% fat in TS % whole milk % fat in cheesemilk 4.67 1.3 11.50 64 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 1.50 3.95 0.25 3.2 4.02 1.05 3.4 = protein% thus.70 2.6 11. 0.47 10.20 3.51 0.50 2.0% fat is found.20 3.5 x fat% + 1.40 3.60 1.60 2.51 0.00 2.2 11.65 1.50 0.95 2.1 11.8 11.7 12.45 3.47 0.55 2. Furthermore.3% protein The cheese is to contain: 45% fat in TS In the column “Whole milk” of the table.49 0.15 % protein % fat 3.8 3.35 3.90 0.15 3.0 Example 1: The cheesemilk contains: 3. From the column “40% fat in TS” it appears that the milk must be standardised to 2.0 11.9 3.65% fat. The table is arranged in such a way that it can also be used in case only the fat content of the non-standardised milk is known. for example.69 1.55 1.3 4.20 3.4 = 3.30 3. a value of 3.6 11.70 2. Example 2: The non-standardised milk contains: 04%fat The cheese is to contain: 40% fat in TS In the column “Whole milk” of the table.00 1.95 75 76 77 77 78 80 81 82 84 2.3% protein is found.3% protein.9 + 1.55 39 40 40 40 41 41 42 42 43 1. In case the protein content of the milk is not known.0 3.50 0.75 2. 41 . From the column “45% fat in TS” it appears that the milk must be standardised to a fat content of 3.65 1.8% + 1.55 3.01 1.8 3. it is possible to make an approximate calculation of the protein percentage of the milk by using the following equation: 0.90 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 0.4 = 1.1 4.65 2.95 0.5 x 3.49 0.03 1.5 3.10 3.

but even then. . . . . . . . . Protein in MSNF in cheese . Salt (NaCl) . . . . . . . and more in cheeses of the low-fat type. . . . . . . . Calculations: 41. as a reading error of 0. unsalted cheese.5%. . If samples are taken for analysis of fresh. Retention figures: Fat .6% (4) 42 . it must be taken into account that the salt increases the TS in the cheese by approximately 2%. reducing the fat in TS by approximately 1. Instead of using the table for adjusting the fat content in the cheesemilk. . . . . The final determination of fat in TS can only be carried out after 4-6 weeks when the salt has spread throughout the cheese. .5% fat in TS in a 45% cheese. (1) Cheese to be produced: Moisture .1% means an error of 1. .5% 51. . Raw milk: Fat . variations of more than 1% fat in TS can be found in cheeses from the same vat. Several equations can be used for this calculation. .0% 3. . . . .5% 87. . . . . . . . . . Fat in TS . . . . the actual fat percentage can be calculated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It is important that care is taken when stirring the cheesemilk and when carrying out the fat analysis. Cheese samples should be analysed regularly to make sure that the cheesemilk has contained the correct percentage of fat. . Protein . . . . . . . . . which varies with the seasons. . . It is therefore advisable to operate with a safety margin of at least 1% for ripened cheese and consequently 1. . . . . . .5% more for the fresh cheese. . . . Protein . but the one used in the following gives a very high degree of accuracy. .0% with 34% skimmilk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0% 76. and this should be adjusted on the basis of the chemical composition of the milk. . . . . .5% (2) 4. . . . . .it can be seen that this is obtained by mixing 66% nonstandardised milk with a fat content of 4. . . .4% (3) 91. . . . .0% 1. .

. Solids non-fat . . Fat in TS . Cheesemilk . Salt (NaCl) . 41. .000 g cheese: 298. . . . .4 g = 91% 237.9 g = 76.9 x 100 = 3. . . . . . . .(4. . . . . . 100. . . . . . .0 g = 100. . .54% Protein in fat-free milk = Per 1. .4 g 286. . . .2 g = 9. . . . . .1 g = 23.0 x 100 = = 8. . .113 (4. Protein in MSNF . . . . . . . .4) = 3. . .54 Fat . . . . . . . .0% = = 1. . . . . .6 g 237. .0 g 298. . . .0 g 271.9 g 1. . . . .5% = 415. . .4 x 100 (100 . . . . . . . .1) Cheese .6% = 585. . . . .2) Kg milk/kg cheese: Fat Protein 58. . . . . .3 g milk 3. .3) Fat percentage in cheesemilk: 327. . . . . . .785.5% = = 87.6 g 15. .4) Cheese yield: 100 9. .60% 9.5% Cheesemilk: 327.97% 43 . . . .5% Whey: 29. (4. .0 g TS . .0 g Moisture . . MSNF .5% = 51. . . . . . . . .5 g = 9% 73.0% 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . = 327. .000. . . . .113.9 g =100% 311.000 g cheese: Fat-free 311. .9 g = 9. .0% = 1. . . .1132 kg milk/kg cheese (4.113 = 10. . . . .

.78 P .36% 8. 38% = 0. . . . the figures from the cheese yield calculation are used as an example: kg cheesemilk per kg cheese .0% and the loss of curd fines to approx.2) x 1. However. . .0295 kg whey .05 krone/kg Butter fat = 30.000 = 8. 8.88 F + 0. 0. . . 0. . .1) x 1. .0. . . . 0. . . .0. . . . .05% by means of separation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 P .10 1-M Mozzarella: Y = Cheddar where: Y= Y = Yield in per cent F = Fat percentage in milk P = Protein percentage in milk M = Moisture per kg cheese. .7853 kg fat in whey . 9. . . . . . . . .38 kg Cheese yield is influenced by the loss of fat and curd fines in the whey. . 9.30 krone/kg * 1 Danish krone = 100 øre 44 . . . . . . it is possible to reduce the fat loss to less than 7. .Equations often used for the calculation of cheese yields are: Cheddar Y= (0. .77 F + 0.9 F + 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .09 1-M (0. . . .75 krone/kg* Whey = 00. . . . .12 1-M (0. . . . . . . .1132 The fat in whey may be reduced to 0. . . . . . In the following example. Utilisation Value of Skimmilk in Cheesemaking For this calculation. . . . . . . .1132 kg fat in cheesemilk .3279 kg skimmilk . the values used are: Cheese = 22. . . .1132 fat in whey .1132 -1. . . . . . .78 P . . . . . . .02) x 1. . . . . . . . . 100 mg/kg whey. . . . . .0.0295 x 100 = 0. . . . . with modem production equipment and correct processing technology. . .

degrees Baumè can be considered equal to the salt percentage. . .11 kg whey at 5. 976. the pH value should immediately be brought to the desired level by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the solution. In practice.5 øre fat from whey separation: 8. the hydrometer will show a deviation of 1-2°BÈ because of the substances dissolved in the brine.05) x 3.415. but this can be counteracted by using a weaker solution. . . . Acidity and Temperature of Brine for Salting The saturated brine which is normally used for salting cheese occasionally produces too hard a rind. When the brine has been in use for a certain time. .0 øre 8. The strength of the brine should be checked every day: otherwise there is a risk that the solution may become too weak. i.7 øre Costs per kg cheese: butter value 0. corresponding to 10°BÈ. . . .7853 Strength.275. The solution should. contain at least 20% salt. . but in a freshly made solution it will usually be somewhat higher depending upon the acidity of the water supply. when measuring the strength of a 2-3 months old brine solution.11 x 0. .e. .2 = 111. 420. Utilisation value of skimmilk . this means that. If this happens. . By means of a 45 . It will usually take a week for the acidity to fail to the desired pH level. . The strength of the brine should be measured with a hydrometer indicating degrees Baumè.25 = 2.1 øre 8. but to avoid any risk of damaging the cheese rinds during this time.2. pH 5. .0 øre/kg . . . 40.11 x (0. . . 2. approx.2 øre 2. . . . .2 øre 976.391. .0 øre whey separation 8.Income per kg cheese: 1 kg cheese .030 100 = 76.030 = 993. .5 øre Value of skimmilk per kg cheese . . .3279 x 3. the cheese protein exuded through the whey will quickly decompose. . The acidity of the brine should be about the same as that of the cheese.0 øre 1.5 øre operating costs . . .36 -0. and the increase in the growth of bacteria will cause defects not only in the rind but also in the interior of the cheese. however.

simple analysis of the creamery’s water supply. When used for the manufacture of rindless cheese. Sodium hypochlorite can also be added regularly once a month. Strictly speaking. in particular. and this will ensure that the content of harmful bacteria in the brine is kept low. The temperature of the brine. any laboratory will be able to state the amount of hydrochloric acid required. It is therefore often necessary to cool the brine in the summer and heat it in the winter. 46 . the brine should be sterilised regularly. If the brine contains considerably more than 100.000 litres brine.000 bacteria or moulds per ml. brine can be used for an indefinite time provided that the content of saltpetre (KNO3) or bacteria and moulds does not become too high. and should be 10-12°C the whole year round. it should be sterilised by boiling or by adding 1/2 litre sodium hypochlorite per 1. controls the speed at which the salt is absorbed by the cheese.

when the component passes freely through the membrane.MEMBRANE FILTRATION Definitions Membrane filtration processes are pressure-driven molecular separation processes to obtain either concentration. as the feed is divided into two new liquids of altered chemical/microbiological composition: 1) the retentate (what is rejected and concentrated by the membrane. clarification and/or even a sterilisation of a liquid.g. Membrane Processes Concentration: In true concentration all total solids are re47 . The volume of permeate produced by a certain membrane surface area per hour is called flux (measured in l/m2/h or simply “lmh”). giving an identical concentration on both sides of the membrane.e. The separation is determined by the membrane characteristics (molecular weight cut-off value – MWCO) and the molecular size of the individual components present in the liquid. what is passing through the membrane. and the rejection is 0%. Membrane filtration changes the volume and/or the composition of a liquid. The driving pressure is the transmembrane pressure (TMP). High cross-flow velocities are especially important in UF and MF systems. which reduces run times and flux and may alter the separation characteristics. All membrane filtration processes are cross-flow filtration (feed flow parallel to the membrane surface. fractionation. e. when the component is fully concentrated by the membrane (cannot pass the membrane). Rejection is 100%. e.g. since a high velocity and shear rate across the membrane surface is essential to prevent build-up of retained materials. The volumetric concentration factor (VCF or CF) is the ratio between the incoming feed volume and the outcoming retentate volume. also called tangential flow). which is the pressure difference between the mean pressure on the retentate side (high) and the mean pressure on the permeate side (low or zero). water and minerals). proteins) and 2) the permeate (i. filtrate.

Example: Nanofiltration (NF). Low molecular components like organic acids and NPNcomponents are not fully rejected by the membrane. 90% recovery means that 90% of the feed is recovered as permeate (equal to 10x concentration). Clarification: Changing a turbid liquid into a clear solution by removing all suspended and turbid particles. while others remain unchanged. sweet whey). achievable solids by RO are in the range of 17-23% TS for whey and UF permeates.g.g. Fractionation: Changing the chemical composition by concentrating some components. Ultrafiltration (UF). why highpressure pumps are needed to overcome the osmotic pressure. especially when they appear uncharged (non-ionic). Example: Reverse Osmosis (RO). typically in acidic environments. Reverse Osmosis In reverse osmosis practically all total solids components are rejected by the membrane allowing only water to pass through the membrane. Microfiltration fractionation (MFF). Since also practically all ions (apart from H+ and OH-) are rejected by the membrane. the osmotic pressure in the retentate will increase. Max.tained since only water can pass through the membrane (as in evaporation and drying processes). The amount of permeate produced is often referred to as “recovery”. Example: Microfiltration (MF). lactic acid whey) compared to sweet products (e. Example: Ultrafiltration (UF) and Microfiltration (MF) Sterilisation: Removing all microorganisms from a liquid. This is the reason why COD levels in the permeate are higher processing acid products (e. 48 .

20 00.1 .001.200 MF 800 .02 0.30 10 .00 0.60 00.40 20 .0.100 MFF 50 .000 30 .00 Permeate 0. K+ and Cl-. Example of NF mass balance of UF permeate from cheese whey (indicative): Nanofiltration True protein% NPN% Lactose% Acids% Total ash% Total solids% Capacity kg/h UF permeate 00.10 0.60 0.00 49 .30 3-8 0.00 0.000.000.60 7. achievable solids by NF are in the range of 21-25% TS for whey and UF permeates.20 0. Nanofiltration allows passage of monovalent ions like Na+.004.1400 < 100 100 .20 00.8 0.2 UF 5 . (°C) 0.000.000. The degree of demineralisation is the %removal of minerals (or ash) from the feed to the permeate.1 NF 0.000.0.000 . whereas divalent ions like Mg++ and Ca++ are rejected by the membrane.180.000. Max.500 5.018. Since some of the monovalent ions are removed from the retentate.005.000.000. but the NF membranes are slightly more open than in conventional reverse osmosis.000.5 .000. the osmotic pressure will be lower than for conventional RO.000.04 0.40 0.RO Pore size (nm) MWCO Typical pressure (bar) Typical temp.00 0.820.000.016.000.50 10. For this reason it is possible to obtain higher %TS in the retentate compared to the RO process.01 00. In this way the nanofiltration process demineralises the feed by typical 30-40%.50 00.1 .00 2.00 Retentate 0.30 10 or 50 50 50 Applications Concentration Protein Bacteria DemineraliProtein fractionation removal sation/ concentration Whey fat Cheese milk concentration (WPC/MPC) removal (WPI) ESL milk Nanofiltration Nanofiltration is very similar to the RO process.8 10 .000.30 0.20.1 .

06 6. This method is used for fresh cheeses like Quarg. When this method is used.9 0.7 00.3 9.3 04.7 24. i.4 38x + Ultrafiltration of cheese milk Protein standardisation: The protein content in the cheese milk is increased (e.2 25.7 00. Diafiltration is necessary for higher purity products like WPC 80 (80% protein in the powder or in the solids).2% up to 4. Queso Fresco and Cast Feta. water is added to the retentate to increase “washing out” of dissolved substances like lactose and minerals to the permeate. and in many cases the retentate can be spray dried directly without an evaporation step.5 00. In diafiltration.7 29x 23. The protein content may be concentrated up to 23-27% protein. In the dairy ingredients industry UF is used for concentration of whey proteins from whey into WPC products or for concentrating milk proteins from skim milk into MPC products.3 00. Yoghurt and Pate Fraiche may also be produced by total UF concentration.5 0.5%). 50 . from 3.g. The advantages of this method are savings in cheese rennet.9 02. a cheese process without whey drainage. and higher and more standardised cheese yields (throughput capacity) in existing cheese equipment.9 04.3 01.00 1x WPC 35 WPC 55 WPC 70 WPC 80 WPI 90 3.7 00.5 13x 17. but basically it is a process for concentration of protein (and milk fat).3 01.e.1 38x + 23.3 4. traditional cheesemaking equipment may be used after UF and the cheesemaking technology involved is largely the same as that used in the traditional cheesemaking.3 28.0 5x 08.80 4. Ymer.60 0.0-4.8 14.50 0. Cream Cheese. UF of whey for the production of WPC retentates (a fat removal step is essential for producing WPI): Composition Protein% Lactose% Ash% Fat% TS% VCF ratio Diafiltration Whey 0.Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration has many applications.0 01.0 01. Total concentration: Total concentration is a process in which the TS content in the retentate and in the fresh cheese is the same.

whey and WPC. 51 . fermented products and modified MPC powder. MF is used to remove Clostridia spores so nitrate addition to the cheese milk can be avoided. However. Fractionation (MFF) In the protein fractionation processes using ceramic membranes with 0. For cheese milk. where the UHT thermal load can be reduced (since MF remove HRS spores) to make new types of market milk products. which may have applications in production of cheese. In microfiltration applications it is important to operate with low TMP (< 1 bar). 3-3. Cheese brine can also be clarified and sanitised.4 micron pore size. this means theoretically no fractionation takes place. large proteins (casein micelles) are separated from the small soluble proteins (whey proteins). For raw milk cheese (of non-pasteurised milk). Cheese brines may often contain a large number of yeast and mould. there are two microfiltration processes: Bacteria removal/”cold sterilisation” (MF) and fractionation (also called microfiltration fractionation – MFF).5 log reduction. MF operating at <40°C removes critical patogenic bacteria like Listeria and Salmonella by app. aggregated protein particles/micelles and large fat globules may be partially rejected by the membrane. Whole milk cannot be microfiltered due to the presence of milk fat globules. which may block the MF pores. In this way it is possible to concentrate the micelles. but for this application SW/organic membranes are often used instead of ceramics.Microfiltration Basically. it is possible to achieve a 3. It may be possible to produce caseinate only using membranes.1 micron pore size. Bacteria removal (MF) In “Cold sterilisation” using ceramic membranes with 1.0-4. or to combine MF with HHT/UHT processes. Feed liquids which can be processed are skim milk. but by means of MF the content can be reduced to < 10/ml without changing the chemical composition of the brine (which happens during pasteurisation). Since only bacteria are removed. With MF it is possible to produce ESL milk with shelf life up to 28 days at 5°C.0 log reduction of total plate counts.

It is also recommended to pasteurise the feed to prevent high bacteria counts in the retentate.9-6. Calcium phosphate precipitation may occur when concentrating dairy liquids. and a separator is necessary to remove whey fat. which will lower the permeate flux and thus the plant capacity. Capacity. average capacity. During the defatting process. Invensys APV presently holds four patents in MF applications: 1) special handling of retentate to avoid heat treating 2) special MF module (UTP design) made solely of stainless steel 3) double microfiltration to increase food safety 4) whey defatting with high protein recovery Pre-treatments Membranes (especially SW elements) are sensitive to suspended particles. A bag filter or metal strainer may also be installed to protect membranes from large particles in the feed. A UF plant may start up at 20-50% higher capacity than the designed. a protein loss to the retentate should be expected. This phenomenon can be prevented by lowering the pH (pH adjustment to 5. Since the pore size is very small for fractionation processes. Therefore a clarification step for whey is necessary to remove cheese fines.In the whey-defatting process a similar membrane is used to remove all fat and aggregated whey proteins from whey or WPC products so as to produce WPI products with less than 1% fat in the powder. after which it drops back again to the level obtained before the feed pressure was raised. In RO/NF processes this fouling may be compensated by gradually increasing the pressure (TMP) to ensure constant plant capacity. Invensys APV holds a patent to increase the recovery (> 85%). The protein recovery may be in the range of 70-85%.0). Run Time and Fouling A membrane is always exposed to fouling. This is more difficult for UF membranes. Usually after 3-4 hours the average capacity is reached and in the remaining pro52 . the permeate is theoretically sterile. and cleaning of the membranes may be difficult if these particles are not removed before the membrane filtration plant. reducing temperature and avoiding high VCF. since raising the feed pressure will increase the flux for a short period only.

The elements are 3. 6.8" diameter and 40" long. overflowing of initial surplus permeate into the feed tank or putting some loops on hold are ways of compensating for the fouling and the reduced plant capacity. or very viscous products. which may be trapped inside the element construction (spacer net).g. the flux decrease will be less significant. Run times are usually 8-10 hours for warm processes (50°C) and 16-20 hours for cold processes (10°C). To obtain constant capacity.8" (4"). and ceramic membranes are typically made as tubular elements. An element designated with the term “3840” means 3. easy to replace and follow standardised dimensions. which is designated in “mil” (1/1000 of an inch). since they are cheapest per square metre.3" (6") or 8. Fouling. 53 . they are not suitable for liquids containing large number of suspended particles. which may alter separation characteristics) are limiting to run times. compact. Microfiltration plants are usually operated at a constant capacity. Organic Membranes Spiral-wound elements (SW) are most often used. If the viscosity of the liquid increases. However. bacteria concentrations (or even growth) or/and compaction of boundary layer (e. since the TMP is minimised to avoid fouling. which is happening during protein concentration. The elements can also be divided according to the height of the spacer net. the spacer height must be selected accordingly. Membrane Elements Membranes are either made of polymers (organic) or ceramics (inorganic).0" (8") in diameter and the length is 38" or 40". protein gel layer or fat.duction time. The organic membranes are typically made as a spiral-wound element.

6 bar). The membranes are tubular. and generally require more pumping energy. they are sensitive to mechanical vibrations (should always be installed vertically) and thermal shock.The following table summarises modules and their approximate membrane area: Element type Membrane type 032 mil (0. like specially designed SW elements and tubular ceramic membranes. the ceramic material is very resistant to heat and chemicals. The crossflow rate should be 25 l/plate/min. Plate & frame (P&F). This module can go high in protein% (more than 29%).8-1.6 mm) 080 mil (2.5 mm) 4" (3840) RO/NF/UF/MF 7.6 m2 3. When assembling new membranes. module 37 (M37) is the only P&F module still in use and only for high viscosity products like cream cheese (Philadelphia type). and ceramic membranes will last for typically 5-10 years or more. an ATD must be placed at the end and between the elements. the module should be compressed applying 240kN (or 24 tons) of pressure (or until the module stops leaking!). To avoid telescoping of the spiral. The M37 module is increasingly challenged by newer module types. pump performances and pressure drops determine the configuration of a SW plant.6 m2 4. SW elements can be mounted in series inside a housing (also called pressure vessel or module). Due to the ceramic nature. they are much more expensive. when operated with a positive pump up to 12 bar. 0.8 mm) 048 mil (1. 54 .2 bar per element (for 8" elements max. Tubular membranes Invensys APV’s experience is largely based on the French “Exekia” membrane (formerly SCT). Inorganic Membranes (Ceramics) Unlike the polymeric membranes (especially RO/NF). flux curves.5 m 2 6" (6338) UF/MF 20 m2 16 m2 13 m2 10 m 08 m 2 2 8" (8040) RO/NF 32 m2 25 m2 20 m2 16 m2 - SW loop configurations SW elements are operated with a pressure drop of 0. with the feed circulating inside tubular channels.2 mm) 064 mil (1. However. Spacer height.0 mm) 100 mil (2.4 m2 5.

65 4 mm (P19-40 GL) 0.08 Not available 4.The diameter of these channels is 3.8 – 1. which is selected according to the viscosity of the product. 55 . 4 and 6 mm. which are zirconia material on alumina structure.2 – 0. Two products are available: The standard element. which are alumina membranes on alumina structure. which is crucial for successful results. since the ceramic element can be operated with permeate back-pressure. so as to achieve a low TMP. which only tolerate certain cleaning limits in terms of pH and temperature (and desinfectants/ oxidisers). For UF processes it is not necessary to control a low TMP.68 Not available 4.36 1.5 – 0. UF pore sizes available are: 20 – 50 – 100 nm.32 7. The main application for ceramics is MF. DiverseyLever.45 6.1 – 0.4 – 2 – 3 – 5 microns. Exekia Membralox membranes and their membrane areas: Channel size Ø 1P housing (m2) 3P housing (m2) 7P housing (m2) 19P housing (m2) 3 mm (P37-30 GL) 0. Ecolab.92 (22P) 12P housing (m2) Not available CIP Cleaning of membranes is nothing like cleaning of standard dairy equipment made of stainless steel. where UTP operation is required (permeate recirculation to create permeate back-pressure) and the newer GP element.05 2. Novadan and others.24 0. In the table below some limits are listed for different membrane materials.72 1. Membrane elements are often organic polymeric membranes made of materials.56 6 mm (P19-60 GL) 0. Available MF pore sizes are: 0. where the permeate back pressure/resistance is integrated inside the membrane structure (GP = Gradient Pressure).35 1. Therefore it is almost always necessary to use formulated cleaning products including enzymatic products from approved suppliers like Henkel.

1 <15 <5* <15 <3 <1 <1000 <10 <1 Parameter Iron (Fe) Manganese (Mn) Aluminium (Al) Silica (SiO2) Chlorine (Cl2/HOCl) German Hardness Fouling Index Turbidity Total plate count 22˚ C Total plate count 37˚ C Coliforms Units mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l ˚ dH SDI NTU per ml per ml per 100 ml *) The chlorine content should be max 5 mg/l in order to avoid development of chlorous gas when cleaning with acid. it may still be ac56 . 0.2% bisulfite Polysulphone (UF) Polyester 50 Not critical 1. If water hardness is higher than 15°dH. temperature.5-11.2% bisulfite Polysulphone (UF pHt) Polypropylene 70 Not critical 1-13 Max 200 ppm Yes Only anionic 0.5 Max 200 ppm Yes Only anionic 0.1 <15 <5* <15 <3 <1 <1000 <10 <1 <0.05 <15 <0.02 <0.05 mg/l) may be accepted in some cases.1 <0. The above-listed requirements are based upon the various requirements stated by our membrane manufacturers.5-11.1 <15 <3 <1 <1000 <10 <1 <0.2 mg/l) and manganese (max. so the cleaning efficiency can be monitored. which must be recorded at the same pressure.05 <0. the water flux should be registered to be used for future reference. If the silica content is less than 5 mg/l.02 <0.Membrane material Support/backing Max temp (°C) Cooling rate PH range Free chlorine Phosphoric acid Surfactants Sanitation Polyamide (RO/NF) Polyester 50 Not critical 1.5% nitric acid Water flux: After installation and cleaning of new membranes. Cleaning of membranes should always be followed by a water flux reading. the water used should be within the following specifications RO/NF UF/MF UF/MF organic organic ceramic membrane membrane membrane <0. CIP Water Quality Guidelines For optimal cleaning and flushing of membranes. 0.2% bisulfite Ceramic (MF/UF) Alumina 85 (not critical) Max 10°/min 1-14 Not critical No Not critical 0.05 <0. Organic membranes always stabilise within the first few weeks. time and cleaning step.5 No Yes Only anionic 0.05 <0. higher levels of iron (max.

especially once precipitated. For intermediate flushing this water is fine. but the conductivity should be min. Silica is practically insoluble in water at any temperature and is very hard to remove from the membrane. It should be stored at cold temperature and for as short time as possible before use. Notes on parameters mg/l: In practice equal to ppm (parts per million) Silica: Total = colloidal + soluble silica. in order not to prolong flushing time resulting in unacceptably high water consumption. Antifoaming agents may block the membranes irreversibly and cannot be accepted in the water. This risk is reduced if the last cleaning step involves chlorine. Chlorine: Must be analysed on site as the chlorine quickly disappears from the sample Hardness: Is determined from the content of calcium and magnesium (see formula for German hardness °dH). RO permeate and evaporator condensate may contain some organic acids (COD > 20 mg/l).14 ppm MgO or 17.0 ppm MgCO3 57 .9 ppm CaCO3 or 24. Colloidal silica should be absent. 1°dH equals 10 ppm CaO or 07.1 24. etc. but the CIP procedure will have to be modified accordingly (higher dosage concentrations. extra addition of EDTA/NTA.3 Total hardness = temporary + permanent hardness Soft water < 8°dH medium water < 16°dH hard water. on the condition that the above-listed specifications are fulfilled. For final flushing there will be a risk of bacteria growth.3 ppm CaSO4 or 15. ˚dH = 5. 5 µS/cm. Softened water is also acceptable.) Water source Water classified as “Drinking Water” (potable) is generally acceptable.cepted. when the plant is left closed down.61 x ( ppmCa2+ ppmMg2+ + ) 40. or as low as possible. Some customers are adding antifoaming agents to their evaporator condensate.

79 1. Milli-pore HAW PO 47000) at a constant pressure of 2.1 bar (30 psi). Severe foaming may also be a result of using soft 58 .10 1. In comparison. SDI 3-6: Some fouling.00 0. complexing agents) to bind or “carry” the soil and to keep it in solution until flushing. as it governs the dosage concentration of the cleaning chemicals and the flushing time.45 micron CA filter Ø 47 mm (ref.Equivalent units are listed below: Unit 1°dH German 1°dH Danish 1°H English 1°H American 1°THF French German °dH 1.79 1.85 17. which means that pH limits are reached at lower concentrations.00 0.00 1. equal to JTU or FTU). if 2% may be tolerated in 20°dH before the pH limit is reached. SDI 6-20: High fouling SDI = 100 x( 1-(t0/t15) ) 15 CIP and hardness The hardness of the water is an important factor. Turbidity: Method: Particles scatter light (expressed in NTU.00 1. soft water has a much reduced buffering effect when dosing cleaning chemicals. but the principle is the same. Turbidity may also be expressed in SiO2 (mg/l). Silt Density: Equal to Fouling Index. drinking water is in the range of 300-800 µS/cm.00 0. However.43 0. As a rule of thumb. Method: Pass the water through a 0.70 17.00 1. SDI 0-3: Non-fouling.07 0. only 1% may be tolerated in 10°dH (when applying Divos 124). carriers.85 14.56 English American French °H °H °THF 1.056 0.30 1. as there are less cleaning agents (surfactants. Lower concentrations reduce the cleaning efficiency even at the same pH.00 1.00 Conductivity: If water is demineralised one should expect less than 30 µS/cm.56 Danish °dH 1.80 0. Colloid Index or Colmatation Index. However.00 10.25 1.25 1. with a low risk of mineral precipitation on the membrane surface. This index is related to “Suspended Solids” and replaces this analysis. where 10 mg/l equals 4 JTU. these figures are not true for all caustic products. The time to pass 500 ml water is measured at test start (t0) and 15 minutes (t15). Soft water is the most gentle for the membranes.056 0.

the following pre-treatments may be applied: Cartridge filter: Reduces SDI and remove particles by raw water filtration (5-10 micron pore size) Sand filter: Removes Fe and Mn. The flushing time is prolonged with higher water consumption as a result (ever washed hands using soft water?). Active carbon: Removes organic matter and neutralises chlorine. Pre-treatment methods If some of the parameters do not meet the requirements. Fe. these minerals will have to be added. When using soft water. Sand filter: Special filling material removes fouling particles (SDI/turbidity). The solubility of calcium salts is much reduced at higher temperatures resulting in heavy fouling of the membrane. When using hard water extra complexing agents such as EDTA or NTA must be added in order to prevent mineral precipitation.g. Bisulfite: Neutralises chlorine. One hour chlorination followed by dechlorination is recommended.water. Mn. Some enzymatic products need certain minerals (e. Al. calcium) in order to work. softens hard water Chlorination: Kills bacteria (e. Ion exchange: Removes SiO2. 59 .g. from surface water).

18% 4.66% 0.000 400.44% 0.000-100.06% 3.60% 2.3% 83-84% 77-79% 16.19% 3.000 >1100 030.4% 0.21% 0.73% 13.2% 60 .543 to -0.000-300.000 <300.50% 82.000-400.Milk and Whey Composition Raw milk quality (Denmark.000-650.77% 9.000 <400 1st class 2nd class 3rd class >300.55% 2.5 5.5% 5.84% 0.63% 0.000 <400 Negative 400-1100 -0.20% 4.3% 3.000 100.5-15.65% 0.000 >650.0-6.84% 0.000 300.516 Composition of milk in Northern Europe (average values): Raw milk (DK/NL 1999) FAT TOP (Total protein) NPN (NPNx6.2% Skim milk (Germany 2002) 0.6% 78.19% 3.38) TRP (True protein) TWP (True whey proteins) CAS (Casein) ACD (citric acid) LAC (lactose) TOA (total ash) TS (total solids) CAS/TRP ratio CAS/TOP ratio TWP/TOP ratio NPN/TOP ratio 4. 2001): Extra Total counts/ml Somatic cells/ml Anaerobic spores/l Freezing point °C Antibiotics 0<30.

000 77.000 89.000 14.800 77.5 0.5-5 0.1-10 (2-6) <1 Diameter size in nanometer (nm) 10 10-300 10-12 Protein particles (colloidal) Lipoprotein particles (protein + P-lipids) Casein micelle (app.000 61 .000 2 x 85.500 31.000 6. 500 subunits) (casein micelle = 70% water + 30% casein) Subunit of casein micelle (10 casein molecules) Individual proteins Casein molecule Para casein Whey proteins (= serum proteins) Immunoglobulins (IgG) Immunoglobulins (IgM) ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG) Alpha-lactalbumin Bovin Serum Albumin (BSA) Lactoferrin/Transferrin (LF) Caseinomacropeptide (CMP/GMP) Enzymes Lactoperoxidase (LP) Cheese rennet (chymosin/rennin) Xanthin Oxidase (XO) (in fat globules) Milk Lipase (mLPL) (in casein micelle) Phosphatase (in fat globule membrane) Milk Plasmin (in casein micelles) Molecular Weight (MW = Daltons) 20-25.000 66.000 (= 30 nm) 2 x 18.000 50.200 3-6 nm 150.8x1.000 900.Components in milk and whey and their approximate size: Large particles Somatic cells (leukocytes) Yeast cells Bacteria cells Bacteria spores (Bacillus/Clostridium) Fat globules in raw milk Fat globules in skim milk/homogenised milk Diameter size in micron (my) 10-20 5-30 0.000 283.000 12.

Components in milk and whey and their approximate size (continued): Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN) Cholin (vitamin) Amino acids Peptides Urea-N Creatin/creatinin Carbohydrates/Acids Lactose Glucose Galactose Lactulose Lactic acid Citric acid Acetic acid Minerals – positively charged Sodium (Na+) Magnesium (Mg++) Potassium (K+) Calcium (Ca++) soluble Minerals – negatively charged Chloride (Cl-) Phosphate (PO4—) soluble Sulphate (SO4—) Carbonate (HCO3-) Molecular Weight (MW = daltons) 121 75-200 200-1500 60 131 342 180 180 342 90 192 60 23 24 39 40 35 95 96 61 62 .

The milk is often heat treated up to 130°C for classification of the powder in Low. MVR evaporators are single effect evaporators divided into several stages.8. using a high-pressure fan for recompression of the vapour.3 effects. Below table shows specific energy consumption and cost for different types of evaporators as well as an index for energy efficiency. using a steam jet compressor for re-compression of the vapour over 1 .EVAPORATION AND DRYING Evaporation Evaporators are used for concentration of milk or milk based products before drying or transportation. TVR evaporators are multi effect evaporators with 2 . Other milk based products such as whey and whey permeate are concentrated to 60 – 70% total solids before crystallisation and drying. 5 . 63 . Medium and High heat powder.7 effects. Evaporation is one of the most energy intensive processes in the dairy industry and it is essential that the evaporation process is approached with view on low energy consumption and process effectiveness. In the dairy industry both MVR (mechanical vapour re-compression) and TVR (thermal vapour re-compression) evaporators are used for concentration. For manufacturing of powder the milk is concentrated to 48 – 50% total solids before spray drying. Either MVR or TVR alone or as a combination with MVR evaporators concentrating up to 40% solids followed by a TVR evaporator for further concentration up to the required solids for drying or further process. If milk products are transported over longer distances the products are normally pre-concentrated to 30 – 38% total solids in order to reduce the transportation cost.

600 2.000 22 408.24 4 effect TVR 0.075 20 250 Water evaporation Steam price Electric power Production hours per day Production days per year kg/h EUR / kg EUR / kWh .000 14. It takes relatively more heat or longer time to remove the moisture within the particles.14 6 effect TVR 0.800 3.000 kWh 1.000 18.000 12.017 0.200.075 306.800 2.000 204.000.000 0.000 238.017 EUR 0.012 Drying Spray drying is the transformation of a product from the liquid state into a dried form by spraying the product into a hot drying air stream.64 Energy consumption per year Price per energy unit Index EUR 0. Energy consumption per hour 3 effect TVR 0.400 2.000 170.017 0.017 0.000 EUR 90.017 0.000 EUR 100 75 58 50 42 Total energy cost per year kg steam 24.000 kg steam 4.000.000 kW 240 Plant type Specific energy consumption kg steam/kg water evap.000.18 5 effect TVR 0.000. 20.000. The rate of evaporation is rapid until a dry particle surface is obtained.017 0.000 10.10 kW/kg water evap.12 7 effect TVR 0. MVR (fan) 0.

gentle thermal treatment is very important in spray drying. Two. This is ensured by rapid evaporation which means that the solids in the product will not reach the temperature of the drying air.000 4.900 kJ 5. Apart from the physical and chemical properties of the raw material the design and operation of the drying equipment are important parameters influencing the final powder structure. the second stage is a fluid bed dryer built into the bottom of the spray drying chamber. The powder resulting from spray drying consists of single particles or agglomerates. The first drying stage is the spray dryer. and the operation can be adjusted to suit any product requirements.100 3. After the particles have been formed the most gentle heat treatment is achieved by fluid bed drying.750 Drying air Inlet Outlet Fluid bed temperature: max. It dissolves quickly and easily and is used for re-constitution of milk and for many industrial purposes. Fluid bed drying takes place at low temperatures so that a long residence time will not harm the product.When heat sensitive milk products are dried.200 1.and three-stage dryers are designed to produce agglomerated powder. 100oC max. 250oC max.980 1. and the third stage is an external fluid bed for final drying and/or cooling. Energy Consumption: Type of dryer 1 2 3 Energy per kg evaporated water kcal 1. This has led to the development of the three-stage drying system in which spray and fluid bed drying are combined. Agglomerated powder is non-dusty and easy to handle. 120oC 65 .

the concentration may be fixed at a suitable high level without too much waste. stainless steel) that are resistant to the corroding effects of the cleaning agents.CLEANING AND DISINFECTING The design of modern dairy equipment allows cleaning and disinfecting to take place without the equipment having to be taken apart. A mechanical factor 3. This does not alone apply to the parts in contact with the product. A time factor 1. The processing equipment must also be designed in such way that all surfaces in contact with the product can be cleaned. in this way: Pollution Fat Protein Ash (milk residues) Water residues Basic + + Acid + + + In the central CIP plant the majority of the cleaning solutions is led back to the CIP tanks and reused. A chemical factor 2. Therefore. The chemical factor is determined by the cleaning agent and the concentration in which it is used. but also to the external parts and rooms etc. cleaning-in-place (CIP). A thermal factor 4. 66 . CIP Cleaning in General Milk components are excellent substrates for microorganisms and a careful cleaning is thus very important. The cleaning agent is chosen according to the type of pollution to be removed. The effectiveness of the cleaning is determined by the following four factors: 1. i.e. This means that the processing equipment must be made of materials (eg.

3.To keep the impurities dissolved in the cleaning solutions to prevent them from precipitation on the cleaned surfaces . The cleaning turbines in the tanks make up an effective mechanical factory. as there may be considerable differences between the single routes. the pump speeds are considerably higher during CIP than during production. Guiding concentrations: Acid (HNO3) 0. as residues of proteins and lactic salts are precipitated at too high temperatures. the turbines should be inspected regularly.8-1. The indicated periods should only be regarded as a broad guidance. However.8-1. 67 . 4. and the solubility of the salts in the water is reduced. The time factor is important to the softening and solution part of the pollution.To loosen the pollution . a too high temperature also presents disadvantages. the more efficient the cleaning will be. The mechanical factor is determined by the speed of the liquid over the surfaces. i. but partial blockings of the turbines may appear.To prevent sedimentation of lactic salts. Consequently. In the program survey. and lye (NaOH) 0. both as regards equipment to be cleaned and the fouling degree.2%.75oC and acid solution 60 .65oC. that the liquid parts continuously change place mutually.e. The faster the liquid moves.The functions of the cleaning agents are: . It is important that the movement of the liquid is turbulent. The thermal factor (the temperature) is very important. Within chemistry it is said that the reaction speed is doubled if the temperature is increased by 10oC. Guiding temperatures: Lye solution 70 .5%. approximate periods for the single steps in the programs are indicated. 2. In consequence.

E. 68 . C.90oC. After cleaning. Today. The central CIP plant includes programs for sterilisation with hot water. Today. The object is to remove any possible product residue before cleaning.Disinfection The purpose of a disinfection is to kill the largest possible number of bacteria to avoid an infection of the products. Chemical free water is collected and used for pre-rinse. special cleaning agents are commonly used instead of sodium hydroxide. Cleaning with sodium hydroxide The process equipment is cleaned by means of circulation of a hot sodium hydroxide cleaning solution. B. D. special cleaning agents are commonly used instead of nitric acid. Final rinse Any remaining cleaning solution is flushed out with either cold or hot water. After cleaning. the cleaning solution is collected and reused. Re-use should not take place before the concentration of the returning solution (%) has been checked and adjusted accordingly. the cleaning solution is collected and reused. Intermediate rinse Any remaining cleaning solution is flushed out with either collected rinse water or fresh water. Cleaning with nitric acid The process equipment is cleaned by means of circulation of a hot nitric acid cleaning solution. Pre-rinse The processing equipment is rinsed with cold or warm water. The rinsing water containing the product residue should be led to suitable reception facilities in order to minimise pollution. and the return temperature is set to 85 . Cleaning of dairy equipment is carried out as follows: A. Re-use should not take place before the concentration of the returning solution (%) has been checked and adjusted accordingly. Heat in the form of steam or especially hot water is the most used form of disinfection.

Disinfection must always be followed by a rinse with clean and drinkable water.2% 12. Above corresponds to a titter of Acid: HNO3 . HNO3. per 10 ml against phenolphthalein (8.30% concentrated solution. Hydrochloric acid. (HCl). Lye. (Cl ). hydrogen peroxide. The CIP plant is normally designed to allow for disinfection by circulation of either hot water at 90-95°C or a solution of e.F. must never be used.0 1. Disinfection can be carried out thermally or chemically. Cleaning Methods Cleaning agents: The following cleaning agents can be used for CIP-cleaning.5% 30. and/or chlorine-containing cleaning agents.0 Titter corresponds to ml 0. .7-15. Acid.30% concentrated solution.0-37.Nitric acid: . 69 .0% 12.0-30.2% 20.Solution for cleaning of pasteuriser Above corresponds to a titter of Note: 0.7-19.Solution for cleaning of tanks and pipes Above corresponds to a titter of Lye: NaOH .8-1. NaOH.8-1.4).Solution for cleaning of tanks and pipes.2-1.5 0.8-1.9 0. Disinfection This is carried out immediately before the product plant is put into operation.Solution for cleaning of pasteuriser Above corresponds to a titter of Acid: HNO3 . Normally used cleaning solutions: Lye: NaOH .1 N (NaOH or HCL). Sodium hydroxide: .62% concentrated solution.g. Today special agents for disinfection is widely used in place of hydrogen peroxide.

if necessary. cold water/recyclable water Cleaning Time * minutes 1-3 minutes Lye cleaning 1% solution at 70°C 6-10 minutes (The time stated is only started when return concentration and return temperature are identical with the above) Intermediate rinse. Quarterly check: Change of cleaning solution in the lye and acid tanks.Special software solution Acid cleaning 0. solution.1 N Sodium hydroxide. CIP Cleaning Programs for Pipes and Tanks Pipes Picking up of residual products Pre-rinse. cold water (The time stated is only started when return concentration indicates clean water) Total cleaning time 1-3 minutes 4-6 minutes 1-3 minutes ** minutes 70 . Monthly check: Control of various gaskets and replacement of these. 5% Alcoholic phenolphthalein solution. Weekly check: Control of stone deposits in lye tank/ tanks and water tank/tanks.Reagents: 0. General maintenance of CIP plant: Daily check: Control of lye and acid cleaning concentrations. 0. Drawing off of bottom sludge from lye and acid tanks. cold water/recyclable water . solution. (HCl).8% solution at 60°C (The time stated is only started when return concentration and return temperature are identical with the above) Final rinse. (NaOH).1 N Hydrochloric acid.

8% solution at 50-60°C (The time stated is only started when return concentration and return temperature are identical with the above) 1-3 minutes 4-6 minutes 71 . **) Time is dependent on the physical conditions in and around various pipes/pipelines to be cleaned as well as the software to control cleaning of pipes/pipelines. solution 200 ppm. *) Time is dependent on the physical conditions in and around various pipes/pipelines to be cleaned. Above times are stated as efficient cleaning times and should be seen as recommendable values.Hot water sterilisation at 85°C (The time stated is only started when return temperature is identical with the above) 3-5 minutes Cold water disinfection with hydrogen peroxide. H2O2. cold water/recyclable water .special software solution Acid cleaning 0. as well as the complexity of various physical/ chemical as well as microbiological deposits. cold water/recyclable water Cleaning Time * minutes 1-3 minutes Lye cleaning 1% solution at 70°C 10-15 minutes (The time stated is only started when return concentration and return temperature are identical with the above) Intermediate rinse. These values may change dependent on the physical conditions in and around various pipes/pipelines as well as the complexity of various products with regard to the physical/chemical conditions. Tanks Picking up of residual products Pre-rinse.

H2O2. CIP Cleaning Programs for Plate Pasteurisers Pasteurisers Picking up of residual products Pre-rinse.5% solution at 70°C 45-60 minutes (The time stated is only started when return concentration and return temperature are identical with the above) 72 . cold water/recyclable water Cleaning Time * minutes 5-10 minutes Lye cleaning 1. as well as the complexity of various physical/chemical as well as microbiological deposits.5-1 (The time stated is only started when return concentration indicates clean water) Total cleaning time Hot water sterilisation at 85°C (The time stated is only started when return temperature is identical with the above) minute ** minutes 3-5 minutes Cold water disinfection with hydrogen peroxide. cold water 0. solution 200 ppm *) Time is dependent on the physical conditions in and around various tanks to be cleaned (tank dimension). These values may change dependent on the physical conditions in and around various tanks (tank dimensions) as well as the complexity of various products with regard to the physical/chemical conditions. Above times are stated as efficient cleaning times and should be seen as recommendable values. **) Time is dependent on the physical conditions in and around various tanks to be cleaned (tank dimension). as well as the software to control cleaning of tank/tanks.Final rinse.

These values may change dependent on the physical conditions in and around various pasteuriser/pasteuriser plants as well as the complexity of various products with regard to the physical/chemical conditions.Intermediate rinse. as well as the complexity of various physical/chemical as well as microbiological deposits.special software solution 5-10 minutes Acid cleaning 0. Above times are stated as efficient cleaning times and should be seen as recommendable values. cold water (The time stated is only started when return concentration indicates clean water) Total cleaning time 2-5 minutes ** minutes Hot water sterilisation at 85°C 15-20 minutes (The time stated is only started when return temperature is identical with the above) Cold water disinfection with hydrogen peroxide. **) Time is dependent on the physical conditions in and around various pasteuriser/pasteuriser plants to be cleaned as well as the software to control cleaning of pasteuriser/pasteuriser plants. Pasteurisers Continuous buttermaking machines CIP* CIP** special 73 . H2O2. *) Time is dependent on the physical conditions in and around various pasteuriser/pasteuriser plants to be cleaned.8% solution at 50-60°C 20-30 minutes (The time stated is only started when return concentration and return temperature are identical with the above) Final rinse. cold water/recyclable water . solution 200 ppm.

the pasteurisers. approx. 300-500 g trisodium phosphate should also be added. If the volume of the plant is unknown. If the water is very hard.5 l nitric acid (30%) is added slowly and circulated for 2030 minutes at 60-65°C after which the acid is flushed out with water. it should be dissolved in approx. A closed circulating flow is then established by leading the water from the outlet back to the balance tank and slowly adding approx. 2. 3. At the end of the production run. the pasteurisation system is disinfected by circulation of hot water at 90°C for 15-20 minutes. are flushed out with cold water until the water is clear and free of milk at the outlet. 10 l cold water per kg NaOH before it is added to the balance tank. **) CIP of buttermaking machines is always carried out without the use of the ordinary CIP plant. Warning: NaOH should always be mixed slowly into cold water . including pumps. it may be appropriate to clean the pasteurisation plant independently of the CIP plant for pipes and milk tanks. because relatively large amounts of fat residue must be removed by the detergent and because the cleaning of buttermaking equipment must give the machine surfaces a protective coating. Then. The NaOH solution is flushed out with water and the circulating flow is re-established.5-4.never water into NaOH as it will boil up with explosive force. valves and pipes. If the sodium hydroxide is in dry form. Cooling and pasteurising temperatures are adjusted to normal production before the water is forced out with milk. which serves to prevent 74 . The temperature is raised to 70-75°C and circulation is continued for at least 45-60 minutes.Ultrafiltration plants (UF) Evaporators *) CIP*** special CIP As a consequence of both a higher detergent concentration and a longer cleaning period compared with the cleaning of pipes and tanks. Before start-up of the next production run. the concentration must be checked as described below. Always use facial protection when working with concentrated detergents.0 l 30% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) per 100 kg water in the system.

requirements for disassembling of large machine parts. Although a surface seems clean. CIP flow speed too low Cleaning time too short Cleaning concentration (lye or/and acid) too low Cleaning temperature too high/low Time of production without cleaning too long Etc. for instance by means of the swabbing method. 75 . Cleaning also includes the rooms. but firstly the external surfaces are not cleaned by CIP. Dirty surfaces. and plans for regular manual cleaning of both rooms and equipment should be worked out. 4. A visual control of the effectiveness of the cleaning may be difficult. ***) CIP of a UF plant is always carried out by means of an internal circulating flow as special detergents are used in order to prevent any damage to the membranes. Futhermore. must be cleaned every day with hot soapy water and rinsed with clean water.the butter from adhering to the surfaces. For cleaning. plate heat exchangers and pipe connections. will arise at intervals. 6. due to leakage. which would reduce the permeate flow. 3. Check of the Cleaning Effect Hygienic control Apart from the daily visual control with the hygienic condition of the production equipment and the production rooms. microbiological examinations should be made for determination of the state of cleaning effect. the following defects/ faults may be the cause: 1.o. 2. e. there may be a large number of bacteria per cm2. General Comments to Defects/Faults in CIP Cleaning In case of unsatisfactory cleaning. 5. a. Manual Cleaning CIP is automatic cleaning. an internal circulating flow is established. secondly there will always be a few machine parts that have to be cleaned every day.g.

8 .5% Temperature 85 . The mentioned guiding figures may be summarised here: Concentration Hot water Concentrated acid Concentrated lye Acid cleaning solution Lye cleaning solution 30 or 60 .1. 4.Equipment: 1. Procedure: 1. 100 cm2 (10 x 10 cm) of the surface to be examined are rubbed with the swab. it is important to keep the right strength in the cleaning agents and the right temperature. After incubation. the state of the cleaning effect is judged after the following scale: Number of total bacteria per 100 cm2 surface 0-10 10-100 over 100 State of cleaning effect Very good Good Bad Control of the cleaning liquids and temperature Naturally. 3. Dependent on the degree of pollution. Approx. maybe 0. 2.8 .90oC Room temperature Room temperature 60 – 65oC 70 – 75oC 76 .1 ml. Swabs made of cotton wool coiled around the end of a small stick. Ordinary equipment for bacteriological examinations. and the upper part of the stick. which has been touched.2% 0. The swab is sterilised in the test tube with Ringer’s liquid.01 ml is transferred to a sterile Petri dish. The swab is transferred to the test tube (1) again. and substrate is poured on according to the type of bacteria to be examined. is broken off.1. Test tubes with 10 ml Ringer’s liquid. 3. 1 ml or 0. 2.62% 30-33% 0.

0. 77 . Hot cleaning solution is removed from the lye tank with a ladle. Number of ml consumed of 0. Drop bottle 4. Equipment: 1.1 ml normal hydrochloric acid until the colour changes. and this solution is transferred to a flask. by which the lye solution is coloured red. and the solution is cooled to approximately 20oC. 2. Titration burette (25 ml) 2. Emptying of the tanks will be necessary at intervals depending on fouling and may take place by opening the bottom valves manually. Phenolphthalein solution (2%) 5. 10 ml lye solution is measured with a measuring glass or a pipette. Method: 1.1 normal acid is read on the burette and corresponds to the titer of the lye solution. Five drops of phenolphtalein solution are added. The colour changes from red to colourless. Control of Cleaning Solutions Determination of the strength of lye by titration In order to obtain a satisfactory cleaning effect it is important that during the whole course of cleaning the lye solution keeps the right strength according to the directions for use. Titration flask 100 ml 6.Control of the strength of the cleaning agents should be made twice a day. 5. 4. 3. Under careful shaking this is titrated with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid. 10 ml pipette or measuring glass 3.

2.x % 100 Where: a = ml titration fluid until colour change/10 ml solution b = normality of titration fluid (0.1) c = molecular weight (NaOH = 40. lye solution at first. then acid solution. The acid solution is removed from the acid container. The concentration in the cleaning solution can be calculated as follows: Concentration in %: axbxc = xx. e. and this solution is cooled to approximately 20oC.The titer of the lye solution corresponds to the concentration of the cleaning solution. 2. 3. depending on which cleaning technique gives the best result on the spot. 78 . Equipment: 1. This is why combined cleaning is used.0 = 1.g. and this solution is transferred to a titration flask. approximately 62%) are used at the dairies with mechanical cleaning of pipes and tanks of completely stainless material.1 x 40. Titration equipment (see under lye solution).0) Example: Concentration in % 25.00 % 100 Determination of the strength of the acid by titration Acid cleaning solutions containing nitric acid (technically clean. and lye solutions dissolve protein coatings. 0. Acid solutions dissolve calcium oxide coatings. Five drops of phenolphtalein solution are added. or in reverse order.0 x 0. Method: 1.1 N sodium hydroxide. 10 ml acid solution is measured with a measuring glass or a pipette.

02) Example: Concentration in % 15.02 = 1. e. 5. (see Table: Concentration of Cleaning Solution) To compare the strength of the cleaning solution and the conductivity measured in milli-siemens mS please look in the manual of Henkel P3-LMIT 08. The colour changes from colourless to red.1) c = molecular weight (HNO3 = 63.00 % 100 In order to make the calculation easier it is possible to work out tables for the lye or acid strength and titer.4.x % 100 Where: a = ml titration fluid until colour change/10 ml solution b = normality of titration fluid (0. Number of ml consumed of 0. 79 .9 x 0.g. The concentration in the cleaning solution can be calculated as follows: Concentration in %: axbxc = xx.1 x 63. The titer of the acid solution corresponds to the concentration of the cleaning solution.1 normal lye is read on the burette and corresponds to the titer of the acid solution. Under careful shaking this is titrated with 0.1 normal sodium hydroxide until the colour changes.1%-2% so that it is possible to read the lye or acid strength directly. from 0.

5 4.9 2.00 28.0 4.00 12.30 07.50 37.5 2.50 1.80 5.10 0. protein.4 1.7 0.2 1.20 04. BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) is determined by the demand of dissolved oxygen for oxydising the organic material in an aqueous sample of the effluent in 5 days at 20°C.0 1.30 15.65 Acid HNO3 Nitric acid 62% HNO3 l/100 l 0.00 Concentration 30% HNO3 l/100 l 0.00 42.5 1.75 20.4 0.Concentration of Cleaning Solution Lye NaOH Sodium Hydroxide Titration 0.90 17.25 35.70 0.30 1.10 12.80 25.70 14.9 1.1 nNaOH ml/10 ml 01.60 22.20 2.0 1.60 30.65 1.10 31. and lactose.5 0.35 Titration 0.10 5.75 50.40 1.90 09.80 06.50 4.5 0. The result is expressed in mg oxygen per litre.05 1.5 0.0 5. 80 .0 1.65 3.0 Dairy Effluent Increasing discharge costs make it important to have knowledge of both the quantity of effluent and the content of pollutants.10 2.60 0.85 2.0 2.60 03.55 0.55 2. The pollutants in dairy effluent are primarily the organic substances fat.40 3.5 1.0 3.80 3.00 20.25 4.00 2.00 22.75 10.30 0.0 0.75 40.10 3. but nitrate and phosphate are also important substances.50 27.6 0.5 3.15 1.50 17.25 45.1 1. Two methods are used to determine the content of organic material in effluent: BOD and COD.5 4.45 0.00 2. COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) is determined by treating a sample with a potassium dichromate solution and neutralising excess dichromate by titration with ferrous ammonium sulphate.00 32.20 23.5 1.75 30.50 47.35 5.25 25.25 05.5 3.95 1.8 0.3 1.70 2.95 4.6 1.1 n 30% HCL NaOH ml/10 ml l/100 l 02.1 0.75 1.0 4.80 0.40 27.5 2.3 0.25 0.8 1.85 1.40 1.50 19.25 15.0 3.25 2.50 07.70 % 0.2 0.7 1.35 0.15 1.50 11.0 2.

1 p. For dairy effluent the following conversion can be used as a guideline: 1 mg BOD = 1.e.5 mg COD 1 mg COD = 0. 150.110 70.000 Whey Content mg/l 00.000 47.200 13.000 mg COD/kg 01.400 34. skimmilk. 81 .). approx. The loss is estimated to be 1%. effluent pollution equal to the pollution from 4.600 53.It is not possible to convert BOD directly to COD as the values for the two methods are dependent on the varying composition of the organic matter.e.000 47.3-1. in other words.360 people.000 Protein 34. 3.000 046.000 Lactose 46. ie. Example: A dairy receives a daily quantity of 300.000 mg COD.000 052. COD: 3.200 46.000 Total. corresponds to 250 x 600 = 150.000 x 218 = 4. corresponds to 250 l of water polluted to a COD value of 600.400 10.e.360 p.67 mg BOD The table below lists COD values and thus the “pollution degree” of whole milk.000 l/day. and whey: Substance Whole milk mg COD/kg 120.110 100.000 Skimmilk Content mg/l 00.000 220. In other words.000 litres of milk.000 Content mg/l Fat 40.75-0. A term often used to describe the “pollution degree” is “person equivalent” (p.000 mg COD/kg 01. One p.000 Or.e.240 53.

NOTES 82 .

0 0.000 10.5 3 2.000 100. Tube size 100 3. Metres H20 per 100 metres pipe 0. friction loss and velocity of flow O.5 10 1 2 4 1" 5 1¼" 6 1½" 7 2" 8 2½" 3" 4" 5" 6" Friction loss. 1.5 1.TECHNICAL INFORMATION Stainless Steel Pipes Capacity.1 1.5 Velocity m/sec.000 1.000.000 Capacity l/h 83 .D.

Velocity: 1. in bigger pipeline dimensions.5 2.5 m/sec. Fitting Valve (two-way) Valve (three-way) Elbow Tee 25 mm 6 7 0.000 l/h in a 2" stainless steel pipe. might be accepted.5 m/sec.6 mm ø 1. the water velocity must not exceed 3 m/sec in small pipeline dimensions up to about 3".) stated below: Product Milk Cream Water Suction lines 25 mm ø 101.5 mm 9 10 1 4 76 mm 10 12 1. Velocity in Stainless Steel Pipes The velocity in stainless steel pipes should not exceed the values (in m/sec. is acceptable. in the pressure lines. a velocity of up to 3.5 m/sec.5 3. the velocity should be kept at a lower level. in the suction line and 2 m/sec. whole milk and skimmilk.5 84 .0 2.Example: 10. Friction Loss Equivalent in m Straight Stainless Steel Pipe for One Fitting Nominal diam.0 3.5 1.0 3. such as water.5 5 The figures for pressure loss taken from the diagram are fairly good approximations for liquids having viscosities below 5 cPs.5 m H2O per 100 m pipe. a velocity of up to 2 and 2. Friction loss: 5.0 2. and for pipe dimensions 5" and 6" or bigger even higher velocities can be accepted In pipelines for cream (40% fat) and other viscous dairy products. As concerns pipe dimensions of 3" and 4". For special products like fermented milk products. However.8 2 38 mm 8 9 1 3 51 mm 8 9 1 3 63. the velocity should not exceed 1.5 m/sec. the velocity should be kept at only 25-40% of the levels for milk.0 Pressure lines 25 mm ø 101. In milk lines.0 3. When pipe dimensions are determined. especially for unpasteurised milk.0 1.6 mm 10 12 1. with pipe dimensions below 3".5 5 101.5 2.6 mm ø 2.

6 mm 060.6 mm 048.0 mm 154.6715 85 .3 mm 072.5 m/sec.0 mm 038.1739 07.4815 12.4011 00.0 mm 150.6 mm 129.2718 17.8558 04. the velocity should not be less than 1.6 mm 035.5 mm 076.8551 02.0 mm 051.9954 01.0 mm Inside diameter 022.6 mm 125.0 mm 101.0 mm Litre/metre 00.For CIP cleaning.0 mm 063.9 mm 097. Volume in Stainless Steel Pipes Outside diameter 025.

438 0.470 0.873 0.30 9.179 1.988 0.904 2.1 35 0.154 0.25 1.229 3.347 0 231 1.93 216.292 0.185 0. (For foot.349 1.0 130.32 16.542 0..719 0.50 69.551 0..436 0.122 0.379 0.363 0.627 1.25 27.581 0.184 3.75 21.50 105.82 0.751 0.5 25 0. 44 1 022 2.231 3.16 9.74 18.368 2.409 0.347 0.803 0.33 30.0 150 2..576 0.539 0.49 24.367 0.08 70.705 0. 86 pipe length in metres x 100 figures from table (metre head) Friction loss: Quantity of water Nominal diameter in inches and inside diameter in mm ½” ¾” 1" 1¼” 1½” 2" 2½” 3" 3½” 4" 5" 6" m³/h l/min.66 8.693 0.700 0.413 0.50 5.75 41.277 1.11 12. B: Friction loss in Tee or non-return valve indicated in metres of straight pipe.996 0.670 0.8 80 1.6 60 1.940 0.0.328 0.819 1..035 2.42 2.164 2.375 0.2 20 0.718 2.337 10.498 0.83 41.132 0..67 46.231 4.748 0.510 4 93 1 91 1 004 2.254 0.664 0.5 125 2.997 0.565 1.365 0.49 11.251 12 200 3..584 0 331 0 249 1.544 0.40 13.66 5.12 76.616 0. multiply by 2).385 0..4 40 0.101 2..412 0.244 0.41 17.53 8.321 0.0 50 0.346 1 0 730 0 312 1.403 1.275 3.5 175 2.Friction Loss in m H2O per 100 m Straight Pipe with Different Pipe Dimensions and Capacities (Non-stainless steel) Small figures: Velocity in metres per second.940 3.290 1.972 1.494 1.809 0.58 2.449 0.329 0.19.0 35.310 0.74 3.234 0.33 33.0 155.828 4. l/sec.38 1..6 10 0.802 0.0 100 1.624 1.223 1.296 5.416 2 11 4 862 1 570 1.075 1.50 25.124 0.247 0.168 0.335 1..87 7.338 0.9 15 0.5 0.488 0.496 0.124 3.25 52.043 1.33 42.75 6.18 6.75 21.269 9 54 1 811 0 914 0 291 1. Large figures: Loss of head in m H2O per 100 m pipe.218 3.93 8.140 2.415 0.449 0.830 0.407 0.460 0.623 0.256 0.263 4. 15.00 80.784 2 0 249 0.910 2.131 2.506 0.649 2.91.53 3.876 0.918 0.34 16.241 7.967 2.50 38.159 2.927 1.248 6.949 0. valves.901 0.4 90 1.36 6.92 33.25 92.287 0. A: Friction loss in 90°C elbow or sluice valve indicated in metres of straight pipe.160 0.385 0.574 0.820 2.875 0.903 1.688 0..988 1.588 0.00 57.319 2.855 0.2 70 1.660 1.90 5.162 0.288 2.490 1.879 1.084 .372 0.182 1.203 2.462 0.710 0..459 0.770 0.14 3.751 0.67 27.539 0.434 0.431 0.8 30 0.962 0.494 0.289 9.28 4.677 0..308 2.834 0.493 1.919 1.855 0.1.659 0.870 1.50 68.558 0.

350 0.790 0.7 13.7 7.126 0.960 31.7 20.614 0.3 4.328 1.618 51.836 6.351 0.647 4.0 1.3 41.417 3.962 1.0 1.130 1.0 2.736 4.240 2.488 3.926 4.444 1.306 8.94 0.97 0.4 5.72 1.570 2.3 5.0 4.175 0.386 14.665 2.097 1.0 4.757 1.187 0.445 0.317 3.903 0.480 8.282 0.753 0.00 6.52 4.987 78.439 0.535 1.577 0.356 1.829 0.807 2.7 83.315 1.595 2.368 13.965 13.294 17.511 6.340 24.0 16.0 1.582 2.976 6.887 9.00 3.924 10.622 1.671 25.32 3.406 7.702 0.984 5.0 1.770 0.010 2.740 45.0 1.260 0.693 2.005 1.883 3.26 0.992 1.0 11.377 4.263 0.6 6.616 1.2 33.84 1.04 3.521 3.925 4.7 50.646 0.347 0.0 4.509 8.481 0.0 87 .589 38.823 1.995 3.0 29.62 3.445 0.155 1.526 0.744 0.530 1.458 1.197 4.540 3.934 1.117 26.762 1.632 5.232 6.83 10.76 4.674 1.100 13.1 4.620 0.754 2.5 6.42 4.3 15.732 3.0 1.309 14.496 2.20 4.831 1.812 26.345 1.6 6.130 31.254 1.71 4.0 2.0 66.30 3.074 0.5 9.124 0.15 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 75 90 105 120 150 180 240 300 0.720 18.149 64.139 9.2 5.0 1.850 17.635 11.377 0.968 1.256 1.52 3.17 5.066 1.0 8.468 2.51 4.488 0.009 1.261 1.860 1.555 0.216 3.848 36.0 1.212 19.295 10.505 2.97 3.294 0.40 2.316 1.009 1.03 2.67 8.04 3.753 14.117 32.877 0.078 24.628 0.16 4.623 0.502 0.828 2.18 2.792 1.8 25.767 13.43 0.06 4.983 2.879 0.193 3.42 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 A B 1.347 2.023 22.941 36.027 1.053 1.05 5.314 0.147 2.17 1.892 3.86 3.10 4.

Example: water iron copper air 1 0. 1 kp = 1 kgf. One kilocalorie (kcal) is equal to the amount of heat required to heat or cool 1 kg water one degree Celsius. The specific gravity (density) is equal to the weight in grammes (g) of one cubic centimetre (cm3) of a substance. The unit of work.114 0. Example: ice 80 88 . The unit of length is one metre (m). Specific heat is equal to the number of kilocalories required to heat 1 kg of a substance 1°C. The unit of force is one kilogramme-force (kgf).09 0. The unit of temperature is one degree Celsius (IC). In certain countries the designation kilopond (kp) is used. one horse power (hp). The unit of time is one second (s).24 The latent heat of fusion is equal to the number of kilocalories required to change I kg of solid substance to liquid when it has previously been heated to melting point. One horse power hour (hph) is equal to the work that can be carried out by one horse power (hp) in one hour. The terminal unit is one kilocalorie (kcal). one kilogramme-force metre (kgfm) is equal to the energy required to raise one kilogramme to a height of one metre. is equal to a work performance of 75 kilogramme-force metres per second (kgfm/s). The unit of effect.UNITS OF MEASURE The MKSA System The unit of weight is one kilogramme (kg).

1 ato = 2 bar). The unit of resistance.0 cm mercury (Hg). 1 at. is equal to a pressure of: (1) 1 kgf per cm² (2) a 10 m column of water (H2O) at 0°C. is equal to a current which. The absolute humidity is equal to the weight in grammes of the water vapour contained in 1 cubic metre of air. at a temperature of 0°C.3 cm long and with a cross section of 1 mm².e. 1 atm. one volt (V). The dew point is equal to the temperature reached when air is cooled to saturation point. The unit of potential. 1 ato is the pressure above atmospheric pressure (i. is equal to a pressure of: (1) 1. relative humidity. The latent heat of evaporation is equal to the number of kilocalories necessary to change 1 kg of liquid to vapour of the same temperature. is equal to the difference in electrical potential between two separate points on a 89 . Example: water at 100°C: 607 water at 100°C: 536 The degree of humidity. A technical atmosphere. and the amount of water vapour the air can hold at the temperature in question.118 milligrammes per second. A normal atmosphere. is equal to the relation between the actual water vapour content of the air. when passed through a solution of nitrate of silver. is equal to the resistance in a column of mercury. The unit current intensity. or (3) 73.The thermal conductivity coefficient is equal to the number of kilocalories that are transmitted in one hour through a 1 m² cross section of a 1 m thick plate when the temperature difference is 1°C. 106. one ampere (A).033 kgf/cm² (2) 1013 millibars of 76. 1 ata is absolute pressure. one ohm (Ω).6 em mercury (Hg). is capable of depositing silver at the rate of 1.

33x10-2 1. and where the electric current is one ampere.36 1.367x10-6 427 kWh 0. multiples and sub-multiples. will eventually be used worldwide.34x10-3 860 1 * metric The SI Unit System SI (Système International d’Unités) is a metric system of international units which lends itself to simplification and systemisation. The unit of power. the unit of power (Watt) can be used for electric motors and combustion engines. one watt (W).860 1 Energy. 90 . kilogramme. Thanks to uniformity and systemisation.81 1 1. Such units as metre. Conversion Table Power. Horsepower will gradually disappear from the language. The SI system is gaining popularity throughout the world and forms the basis of the first truly international system of measurement. heat flow rate hp*) kgfm/s W kcal/h hp 1 1.36x10-3 1. litre.70x10-5 1 0. is equal to the energy produced when the strength of the electric current is I ampere and the potential difference 1 volt. one kilowatt hour (kWh) is equal to the energy that is (produced or used) by 1 kilowatt (kW) working for 1 hour (h). The unit of electric energy. derivatives. For example. no conversion factors will be required under the SI unit system. irrespective of the area measured.conductor with a resistance of 1 ohm.58x10-3 kgfm 2. primarily associated with subdivision of the 24-hour day.43 0. There is a definite advantage in applying the same units for all sizes. SI includes a range of basic units. work.16x10-3 kcal 632 2.736 2. etc. quantity of heat hph kgfm kWh kcal hph 1 3.16 kcal/h 632 8.102 0.58x10-3 kgfm/s 75 1 0.75x10-6 1.119 IW 736 9.75x10-6 1 1. There are also supplementary units.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Basic SI units: Length . . Force Work Energy Quantity of heat Power Pressure newton N kg x m/s² joule J kg x m²/s²= N x m = W x s watt W kg x m²/s³ = J/s pascal Pa N/m² bar bar 105 Pa 91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass . . . (m) metre (k) kilogram (s) second (A) ampere (K) kelvin (cd) candela (mol) mole (rad) radian (sr) steradian The table below can be used to convert MKSA units used in this booklet and other common units to SI units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Luminous intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic temperature . Supplementary units: Plane angle . . . . . . . . . Amount of substance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric current . . . . . . . . . . . . .

= 1 6.914 36 3 1.4 x 103 5.33 x 10 0.189 x 10-3 15.s. Example showing use of pressure/stress table: 1450 p.305 12 1 0.77 x 10 0.28 x 103 Area Other units ft2 (square foot) 10.568 x 10-3 0.8 x 10-6 39.i.621 x 10-3 -2 Length SI unit m 1.772 x 10-3 0. line p.i.111 1 SI unit m2 in2 (square inch) 1 1.20 0.4 3.94 x 10-3 1 9 yd2 (square yard) 1.s.54 x 10 -2 1 8.333 1 1.645 x 10 -3 1 9.9 x 10-2 x 1450 ~ 100 bar 0.161 x 103 63.09 -2 in (inch) ft (foot) 1 2.92 Other units yd (yard) mile 0.836 1.55 x 103 Tables showing conversion Factors between SI Units and other Common Unit Systems.76 x 103 1 0.30 x 103 . converted to bar? Find factor for bar.29 x 10-2 144 0.8 6.28 2.

60 x 10-3 6.305 1.73 x 103 1 0.6 0.10 93 0.95 x 10-3 4.79 x 10-3 231 0.95 x 10-3 gallon (US) 264 4.134 Velocity Other units ft/s 3.161 3.833 1.4 x 10 -6 1 0.48 202 1.911 1 1.765 46.61 .55 x 10-3 277 0.83 x 10-2 1.23 168 1 0.682 1 SI unit m/s km/h 1 3.47 mile/h 2.24 0.7 x 103 27 4.33 x 10-3 7.214 x 10-6 3.70 x 10-2 1 5.621 0.278 1 0.31 0.20 1 SI unit m3 in3 (cubic inch) ft3 (cubic foot) 1 61.28 0.Volume Other units yd3 (cubic yard) gallon (UK) 220 3.447 1.0 x 103 35.3 16.579 x 10-3 2.

unit of mass 0.24 x 10-2 103 1 3.454 10-3 36.102 0.1 x 10-6 6.94 Density (mass/volume) Mass Other units SI unit kg metric tech.7 1 Other units SI unit kg/m3 g/cm3.738 7.138 lbf x ft 0.63 x 10-2 lb (pound) 2.45 0.225 9.79 x 10-3 1 Force.21 4.61 x 10-2 62.23 1 Other units SI unit N kp lbf (pound force) 1 0. g/ml lb/in 3 lb/ft 3 1 1 9.102 1 4.454 1 .102 1 0.0 1. weight SI unit Nm 1 9.73 x 103 16.81 1 2.36 Moment of force Other units kpm 0.21 21.81 1.7 x 103 27.7 1 1.81 0.4 27.60 x 10-2 5.

66 x 106 7.06 x 103 1.293 x 10-3 0.367 x 106 1 427 108 0. Ws kWh kpm Btu (Brit.138 95 .72 x 10-6 1.239 x 10 860 2.41 x 103 929 x 10-3 3.16 x 10-3 0. Nm.6 x 106 9.278 x 10 1 2. thermal unit) 0.97 1 1.23 3.36 0.948 x 10 3.377 x 10-6 -6 0. work. quantity of heat Other units kcal 0.252 0.19 x 103 1.29 x 10-3 -3 f t x lb f (foot pound-force) 0.Energy.09 x 103 779 1 1 3.102 0.324 x 10-3 -3 SI unit J.738 2.81 4.34 x 10-3 1 0.

0 641 1. J/s hp (Brit.860 9.51 x 103 1.55 x 103 2.399 x 10-3 1 0.32 x 10 1. heat flow rate SI unit W. Nm/s.01 1 7.36 75 632 .96 Other units Btu/h 3.986 -2 -3 -3 Power.97 1 2.393 x 10 746 76. horsepower) 1.16 0.252 0.293 2.58 x 10-3 0.56 x 10 1 0.99 x 10 -2 0.33 x 10-2 1.5 3.81 1 8.41 33.119 1 0. horsepower) kpm/s kcal/h hK (metr.34 x 10-3 1.36 x 10-3 1.102 0.43 1.

75 1.0 56.85 2.1 1.0 5.0 82.5 10.0 69.84 0.0 92.0 45.87 n 70.0 29.0 78.6 3.0 80.0 83.73 kW.84 0.86 0.0 87.0 4.5 15.0 40.8 9.0 30.83 0.0 5.0 3.0 75.0 3. and Approximate Values of cos j and n (at 1500 rpm) kW 0.87 0.78 0.0 72.0 88.0 15.5 0.88 0.0 42.90 0.37 0.55 0.0 cos ϕ 0.85 0.0 55.82 0.0 11. 1.0 1.2 3.0 20.0 104. 50 Cycle Electric Motors.4 4.0 90.5 2. for thre-phase networks.0 36.87 0. hp and Full-load Current for 3x380 Volt.84 0.0 77.5 11.0 22.3 7.0 100.5 7.83 0.0 97 .75 1.84 0.0 hp 0.0 89.0 15.0 25.0 Full-load current amp.86 0.5 2.73 0.0 18.5 7.0 91.0 75.0 79.0 30.0 50.Input and Output of Electric Motors Alternating current 1 phase U x I x cos 1000 U x I x cos 736 3 phases 3 x U x I x cos 1000 3 x U x I x cos 736 Current input (kW) = Mechanical output (hp) U = Voltage.45 1.0 86.0 78.0 5.0 37. U represents tension between two phases I = Amperage cos ϕ: See table below n: See table below 3 =1.86 0.0 92.87 0.9 6.0 1.0 60.7 4.0 84.0 92.5 22.75 0.0 136.0 92.5 71.

11 5.10 10. In the part of the table dealing with oil-firing.82 6. . = 659.59 9. 1 kg steam at a pressure of 7 atm. Øre Price per kg steam Øre 9.25 7.)* Heavy fuel oil (3500 sec.82 7.29 7. 98 kg steam per kg fuel (7 atm. abs.42 *) The viscosity measured in Redwood seconds at 100°F. abs. the expenses of atomising the oil have not been considered.99 6. kg Effective kcal.66 10.33 6.34 6.89 9. Stoker Screened coal 9850 9775 9750 7000 6800 6500 3380 2635 2513 1675 1475 1140 Price per ton DKK Fuel 75 72 70 62 69 55 7390 7040 6825 4340 4690 3575 14.10 Light fuel oil Heavy fuel oil (1500 sec.) Thermal efficiency in boiler % Calorific value kcal.) Steam coal Singles.52 12.77 11.20 10.4 ~ 660 kcal.Fuel Table Price per 1000 effective kcal.34 10.

7 645.74 110.33 118.3 641.45 059.83 179.0 12.8 661.0 03.4 634.04 188.6 0.2 1.19 142.0 662.8 0.56 108.5 20.9 636.2 0.0 06.0 09.7 0.99 096.25 106.8 629.5 1.76 104.61 172.7 659.5 0.45 092.92 197.0 07.0 623.42 080.5 631.4 654.2 637.21 164.18 099.5 03.8 643.6 1.9 653.Saturated Steam Table (according to Mollier) Absolute pressure Atmos.11 154.0 08.0 665.4 1.5 663.7 655.5 639.68 075.1 626.4 638.7 1.17 166.20 151.0 04.5 10.0 Temperature °C 045.5 99 .5 04.92 147.45 089.0 05.7 668.4 662.5 05.08 161.67 068.3 1.0 642.8 658.5 08.6 667.76 211.8 656. 0.1 0.4 640.0 Temperature °C 126. 02.36 204.0 1.1 1.9 2.79 132.72 158.62 Enthalpy kg° 617.57 116.5 09.01 119.4 660.3 0.5 06.4 0.6 633.88 138.8 1.3 651.97 169.5 657.5 644.53 176.2 642.09 101.5 07.73 114.1 666.86 085.8 Absolute pressure Atmos.1 660.3 650.38 Enthalpy kg° 648.13 174.3 645.9 1.1 644.0 17.5 15.79 112.

100.9380 (258) 200.87 2080 184.188.58 4612 3074 .272.226 atm 1474 g.8 5027±100 m.49 4.9815 (243) 121.9332 63.5 1244±3 .048 3902 2732 4742 .934 2700 .3 .248.10 3464 1740 1342 3402 1090 1962 356.24 20.87 2617 1021 .028 26.08 (251) 12.34 g 156.9 2840±0.00260 164.34.33 (247) 9. Melting and Boling Points of the Elements Name Actinium Aluminium Americium Antimony (Stibium) Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Caesium (Cesium) Calcium Califomium Carbon Cerium Cesium (Caesium) Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper (Cuprum) Curium Dysprosium Einstenium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold (Aurum) Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron (Ferrum) Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead (Plumbum) Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium Mercury (Hydrargyrum) Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium (Columbium) Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Symbol Ac Al Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi B Br Cd Cs Ca Cf C Ce Cs Cl Cr Co Cu Cm Dy Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu Mg Mn Md Hg Mo Nd Ne Np Ni Nb N No Os Atomic number 89 13 95 51 18 33 85 56 97 4 83 5 35 48 55 20 98 6 58 55 17 24 27 29 96 66 99 68 63 100 9 87 64 31 32 79 72 2 67 1 49 53 77 26 36 57 103 82 3 71 12 25 101 80 42 60 10 93 28 41 7 102 76 Atomic weight 227. m.38.906 (260) 207.35 4130 2750 .12 132. m.Melting point notes (°C) L 1050 660.67 640±1 1453 2468±10 .7 613 (sub) 337 1640 2970 (5 mm) 1560±5 2550 (sub) 58.305 54. r .82 126.185.74 g.9984 (223) 157.59 196.9054 35. r 180.98 1857±20 1495 1083.50 (252) 167.86 3045±30 g g g.048 58.4 1064. r g g r. t g r g .948 74.96 (257) 18.011 140.01 .9064 14.268.61 113.8±0.546 (247) 162.2 1340±40 1412 1529 822 Boiling point (°C) 3200±300 2467 2607 1750 .434 2227±20 g .905 192.41 132.75 39.209.9216 (210) 137.967 24.6 2572 2870 2567 2567 2868 1527 .156.502 g.252.7.54 1663 g 648.4±0.78 765 669.2 Foot.3 2079 .195.69 92.5 2410 1535 g.01218 208. m L g 100 .54 144.152.453 51.00794 114.81 79.Atomic Weights.22 55.6 g 918 g g.847 8380 136.967 178.30±0.219.01 839±2 3652 (sub) 798 2840±0.62 (27) 1313 29.59 95.25 69.930 1.904 112.941 174. m . r 327.3 1484 1 3443 669.996 58. r .905 40.1179 237.72 72.259.26 151.2 320.2 817 (28 alm) 302 g 725 1278±5 271.189.246.980 10.0067 (259) 190.78 937.37 994±4 630.14 (677) 3273 2403 2830 2808±2 4602 .2 6.

9559 78. r range in isotopic composition of normal terrestrial material prevents a more precise atomic weight being given.107.0983 140.61.8 2996 2172 449.60 158.04 88. L g g g g g r g g. 1101-1136.93 97. (graphite-liquid-gas).39 91.674 5425±100 4877 989.9 3520 3000 (est.8 1890 ± 10 .9738 195.218. The atomic weights presented in the above Table are the 1981 atomic weights as presented in Pure and Applied Chemistry.9681 1660 ± 10 3410 ± 20 Boiling point (°C) .5 1750 1545 231.03 769 112.9059 65. 101 . 3627 ± 50°C at a pressure of 10.0855 107.934 118. No.224 g g geological exceptional specimens are known in which the element has an isotopic composition outside the limits for normal material. 1983.88 183.111.42 30.07 150.71 47. m modified isotopic compositions may be found in commercially available material because if has been subjected to an undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic separation.) 1950 2270 3287 5660 L g.96 28.9415 Footnotes g.9994 106.9898 87.1 (white) 1772 641 254 63.85 (263) (262) (261) (262) 238.62 32.25 931 1042 1600 700 . pp.71 3180 1965±3 38.Atomic Weights. Vol. t L Longest half-life isotop mass is chosen for the tabulated Ar (E) value.1 ± 3 1196 5338 907 4377 131.0 2355 2212 882. r g Melting point (°C) . L g.029 50. 3830 to 3930°C at a pressure of 12 to 13 Gpa.81±0. triple point.9 1384 444. Melting and Boling Points of the Elements (continued) Name Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium (Kalium) Praseodymium Promethium Protoactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver (Argentum) Sodium (Natrium) Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin (Stannum) Titanium Tungsten (Wolfram) Unnihexium Unnilpentium Unnilquadium Unnilseptium Uranium Vanadium Wolfram (see Tungsten) Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Symbol O Pd P Pt Pu Po K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb Ru Sm Sc Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W (Unh) (Unp) (Unq) (Uns) U V Xe Yb Y Za Zr Atomic number 8 46 15 78 94 84 19 59 61 91 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 21 34 14 47 11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 22 74 106 105 104 107 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 Atomic weight 15.038 168.8 5627 (est. 55.182.0359 226.36 44.9±1.868 22.4678 101.4 1554 44.8±3.025 (222) 186.906 85.9479 (98) 127.925 204. The difference between the atomic weight of the element in such specimens and that given in the Table may exceed the implied uncertainty considerably.06 180..3 1356 303.908 (145) 231.08 (244) (209) 39. 7. m 1132 ± 0. the tabulated Ar (E) value should be applicable to any normal material.207 102.) 1140 .58 1852 ± 2 3818 3380 .383 232.) 3727±100 686 3900 1794 2836 684.89 2310 1074 1541 217 1410 961. Substantial deviations in atomic weight of the element from that given in the Table may occur. m 173.1 Mpa and (graphitediamond-liquid).9 819 1552 419.8 3230 1457±10 3800 (approx.29 g.962 3140 280 (white) 3827±100 3232 962 759.5 ± 0.

3 ms 0.3 x 10-3 s 102 .94 x 10-3 m 140000 N/m2 = 140 x 103 N/m2 = 140 kN/m2 or 1.94 mm 0.0003 s = 0.4 bar = 0.4 x 105 N/m2 = 1.Prefixes with Symbols used in Forming Decimal Multiples and Submultiples Name exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Symbol E P T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a Factor by which the unit is multiplied 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 10 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 The symbol representing the prefix is fixed to the unit symbol and raises the latter to the stated power: Example: 12000 N = 12 x 103 N = 12 kN = 3.00394 m = 3.

2 .6 *) All temperatures in this booklet are in °C 103 .21.4 132 269.0 44.2 .2 098 208.4 087 188.0 37 098.0 71.6 141 285.15.0 139 282.13.6 106 222.8 130 266.6 .8 .5.8 140 284.6 .0 69.6 .0 05.0 82.0 54 129.9 075 167.0 35 095.0 33.2 103 217.25.2 63 145.15.0 089 192.4 .2 53 127.20.0 60.2 .0 36 096.0 64.0 .0 079 174.6 126 258.8 70 158.4 .0 53.8 .6 121 249.0 77.0 094 201.2 .8 .0 57.4 097 206.2 73 163.0 0.2 083 181.17.24.0 50.0 .0 114 237.0 134 273.0 91.4 .2 68 154.6 .22.8 120 248.0 .28.6 61 141.4 67 152.8 085 185.19.0 69 156.2 43 109.0 59.8 40 104.4 .0 .2 58 136.0 41.0 149 300.0 084 183.4 137 278.2 093 199.2 .6 71 159.0 124 255.12.8 145 293.4 57 134.0 074 165.10.0 80.0 .8 .4 .6 081 177.0 109 228.29.26.4 102 215.2 .0 38 100.0 44 111.0 86.4 .17.0 62.10.8 125 257.0 87.8 090 194.2 108 226.4 .8 115 239.0 59 138.4 117 242.4 62 143.8 110 230.34.0 39 102.0 35.0 46.13.8 .8 65 149.32.17.6 136 276.31.2 088 190.4 082 179.14.12.16.6 096 204.10.2 128 262.0 37.0 42.8 55 131.0 099 210.0 144 291.8 50 122.8 .6 41 105.4 122 251.6 076 168.4 .6 66 150.4 42 107.0 129 264.8 00.6 146 294.2 078 172.0 64 147.4 127 260.0 23.0 93.4 142 287.0 104 219.0 51.6 51 123.19.6 56 132.14.8 .32°) °F = (°C x 9/5 + 32° °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F .6 131 267.2 48 118.4 092 197.0 39.4 47 116.0 119 246.2 143 289.6 116 240.2 .0 55.0 14.23.0 84.2 123 253.0 89.8 60 140.30.6 .8 150 302.2 118 244.8 105 221.Thermometric Scales Celsius and Fahrenheit Degrees *) °C = 5/9 (°F .8 095 203.8 135 275.6 101 213.6 091 195.16.4 147 296.4 52 125.33.4 72 161.4 112 233.8 100 212.0 66.6 46 114.4 107 224.6 086 186.0 32.2 133 271.0 78.11.0 .0 49 120.0 73.27.0 .2 .18.2 113 235.2 148 298.6 .4 077 170.2 138 280.15.8 080 176.6 111 231.18.6 .11.0 48.0 75.0 68.8 45 113.

5400 0000.4540 0907. inch 1 cm 1m 1m 1 km 1 cm2 1 m2 1 m2 1 hectare 1 cm3 1 m3 1 litre 1 litre 1 litre 1 litre 1g 1 kg 1 tonne 1 tonne 1 kg/cm2 °C = 5/9 (°F .7850 0004.9144 1609.2810 = foot 0001.3200 = cubic foot 0001.2640 = US gallon 0000.7640 = square foot 0001.0600 0000.4520 0000.4711 = acre 0000.1550 = square inch 0010.0929 0000.8000 0016.32°) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 0002.3200 0000.2200 = UK gallon 0015.7600 = pint (liquid UK) 0002.1970 = square yard 0002.1360 0000.0610 = cubic inch 0035.3048 0000.3940 = inch 0003.5500 0028.2200 = pound per sq.4320 = grains 0002.1100 = pint (liquid US) 0000.9460 0003.5680 0000.1023 = short ton 0000.3500 0000.0700 = cm =m =m =m = cm2 = cm2 = cm2 = cm2 = cm2 = litre = litre = litre = litre = litre = litre = litre =g = kg = kg = kg = kg/cm2 0000.4730 0001.Conversion Table 1 inch 1 foot 1 yard 1 mile 1 square inch 1 square foot 1 square yard 1 acre 1 cubic inch 1 cubic foot 1 pint (liquid UK) 1 pint (liquid US) 1 UK quart 1 US quart 1 US gallon 1 UK gallon 1 ounce 1 lb 1 short ton 1 long ton 1 pound per sq.8360 4086.3900 0028.0936 = yard 0000.9842 = long ton 0014.2046 = lb 0001.0000 0006.6213 = mile 0000.1800 1016. inch °F = 9/5 (°C + 32°) 104 .

NOTES 105 .

106 .

107 .

108 .

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