Final Exam: Sociology

1. What might a sociologist say about why an individual chooses a particular person to marry? A. B. C. D. In the case of love, opposites attract. There is no accounting for personal feelings like love This shows that peoples actions reflect human free will This shows that the social world guides human behavior

2. Which discipline defines itself as “the systematic study of human society”? A. B. C. D. Psychology Economics History Sociology

3. By saying that the sociological perspective shows us “the strange in the familiar,” the text argues that this point of view: A. Rejects the familiar idea that people simply decide how to act in favor of the initially strange idea that society shapes our lives. B. Shows that common sense is a good guide to understanding human behavior C. Shows that people often behave in strange ways D. Focuses on the bizarre elements of society 4. From a sociological perspective, patterns of childbearing around the world suggest that the number of children born to a woman reflects: A. B. C. D. Whether she lives in a poor or rich society How many children she can afford Her personal choice The desires of her husband

5. Three roommates are in their dorm room sharing a late-night discussion about why they are in college. A sociological point of view would point to the importance of: A. The desires of her husband B. Which country we live in, because going to college is far more common in higher-income nations. C. Class, because college students tend to come from families with aboveaverage incomes D. Age, because college students tend to be young adults. 6. The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was: A. B. C. D. Emile Durkheim Margaret Mead Auguste Comte Karl Marx

7. Suicide rates are generally higher among:

D. There is no longer serious poverty in the world B. Accepting conventional ideas The belief that society is mysterious Challenging commonly held beliefs People to become isolated from one another 13. Making use of the sociological perspective encourages: A. An example of the “Sociology advantage” in a career would be a person in: A. Medicine understanding patterns of health and illness in a community B. Females compared with males Poor people compared with rich people Single people compared with married people All the above are correct 8. Greater self-esteem Less money and other resources Lower social integration More clinical depression 9. Learning more about other societies helps us better understand our own way of life D. People the world live in ways that are mostly the same C. When life is getting better During times of peace and prosperity In times of social crisis Among the very rich 11. D. D.A. C. C. Learning more abou sociology helps us to: A. B. B. there is little reason for us to learn about the international economy 12. C. A. a category of people with a higher suicide rate typically has: A. D. Be more active participants in society See the constraints in our lives See the opportunities in our lives All of the above are correct 14. B. Which of the following statement is TRUE? A. C. People in which of the following categories are most likely to make use of the sociological perspective? A. Wright Mills pointed out that sociological awareness tends to be more widespread: A. C. B. People of color Politicians People living in suburbs The middle class 10. Retail sales understanding how effectively connect with diverse people . C. B. B. Because the Untied States is so rich. C. According to Emile Durkhiem. D.

All of the above are correct. Which one did NOT? A. we create a: A. B. 15. Herbert Spencer Karl Marx Adam Smith Auguste Comte 19. Principle Concept Theory structure 21. Historically. B. D. D. The term “sociology” was coined in 1838 by: A. Canada The united states France Japan 18. C. D. D. All but one of the following historical changes stimulated the development of the discipline of sociology. B. C. Two of sociology’s early founders were: . D. Which of the following is a way of understanding the world based on science? A. Isolated villages Countries experiencing rapid social changes Nations with little social change Countries where tradition was strong 17. D. the sociological perspective was most likely to develop in: A. C. C. B.C. B. Law enforcement understanding which categories of people are at high risk of becoming victims of crime A. In which of the following countries did sociology develop first? A. The spread of the Roman Catholic church The rise of an industrial economy New political ideas stressing individual rights The growth of cities 16. D. Which woman made a mark as an early sociologist by studying the evils of slavery and also translating the writing of Auguste Comte? A. Elizabeth Cady Stanton Margaret Mead Jane Addams Harriet Martineau 22. B. C. Theology Tradition Free will Positivism 20. C. B. By linking specific facts together to create meaning. C.

In deciding what question to ask as they begin research. Wright Mills and Karl Marx Auguste Comte and Karl Marx 23. A. D. D. D. In-group Out-group Reference group Network 29. Which of the following concepts refers to a social group toward which we feel competition or opposition? A. Symbolic-interaction approach Social-conflict approach Structural-functional approach None of the above is correct 26. Small groups with elected leaders. C. we have constructed a ____ of family life. B. C. C. C. sociologists are guided by: A. C. Peer group Reference group Out-group Cohort 27. Which of the following concepts refers to a social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions? A. C. D.A. D. . In-group Out-group Reference group Network 28. Augste Comte and C. D. Sheer chance Their own common sense One or more theoretical approaches The data they collect 25. B. Principle Framework Theory Concept 24. Formal organizations are: A. B. B. If we state that children raised in single-parent families are at high risk of being single parents themselves. Which of the following concepts refers to a social group that commands a member’s esteem and loyalty? A. B. Wright Mills Robert Merton and Emile Durkheim C. B. Which theoretical approach is closest to that taken by early sociologists Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim? A. D. C. B.

D. Which of the following concepts refers to the rule of the many by the few? A. C. Networks that have clear social boundaries. A. D. C. Large secondary groups organized to achieve goals efficiently. B. C. D. In his “iron law of oligarchy. C. normative organization. 31. Any source of inefficiency in organizational operation. D. B. Impoverish Generate conflict among Alienate Unite 33. Favoring kin over strangers Hierarchy of offices Rules and regulations Specialization 32. B. D. More willingness to ask questions More emphasis on communication More flexible leadership All of the above are correct . An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently. while efficient. B. Which of the following is NOT one of the traits of bureaucracy noted by Max Weber? A. B. C. Read the following list of traits.” Robert Michels stated: A. B. The concept “bureaucracy” refers to: A. have the ability to ______ people within them.B. D. An organizational model that operates informally. 30. What traits have been described as a “female advantage”? A. Government agencies with multiple goals. Bureaucracy Formal organization Oligarchy Democracy 34. C. D. Managers carefully observe each worker on the job Managers figure out how workers can be more efficient Workers receive more pay for being more productive All of the above are correct 36. Which of the following is part of the scientific management approach? A. B. Bureaucracy always means inefficiency Bureaucracy always means the few rule the many Bureaucracy always means formal rules and regulations All of the above are correct 35. C. Max Weber argued that formal organizations. D. C. A large.

True or False? A. True B. True B. Solomon Asch’s experiment in group conformity showed many people stick to their opinions even if doing so encourages others to see them as “different”. True or False? A. What does the opening chapter story about the conviction of corporate executive Martha Stewart suggest about crime in the United States? A. True or False? A. False 42. False 43. False 41. Efficiency Creativity Uniformity Control through automation 38. B. The sociologist who described the primary group was Charles Horton Cooley. D. people in the secondary relationship think of others as a mean to some end. False 44. McDonald’s organizational principles coming to dominate much of society B.37. Rich people get longer prison sentences than poor people. True or False? A. . B. Corporate executives never have to account for criminal actions D. We fail to punish most criminals B. C. Which of the following is evidence of the “McDonaldization of society”? A. Expressive leadership emphasizes the completion of tasks. Replacingbank tellers with automatic teller machines (ATMs) Shopping in carefully designed. People accused of crimes do not always fit the common stereotype of “street” criminal. D. The term “McDonaldization of society” refers to: A. C. The spread of McDonald’s restaurants around the world C. Generally. Society becoming more filled with inefficient “red tape” D. Which of the following is NOT one of the principles of the McDonaldization? A. True B. The less and less predictable nature of today’s society 39. climate-controlled malls The spread of world-wide chain stores and restaurants All of the above are correct 40. C. True B.

D. C. B. B. Deviance Crime Unsuccessful socialization Juvenile delinquency 46. Is always more serious Is always less serious Is a violation of norm enacted into law Involves a larger share of the population 47. The anthropologist Oscar Lewis suggested the cause of poverty lies in: A. The normative system Socialization Civil law The criminal justice system 49. B. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms Responding to deviance promotes social unity Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries All of the above are correct 50. C. B. B. Neighborhood watch Childhood socialization Social control The legal system 48. Innovation Ritualism Retreatism Rebellion 51. Which of the following concepts is used in Robert Merton’s strain theory of deviance to refer to the process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting conventional means to get there. Which of the following is a function of deviance noted by Emile Durkheim? A. This process of regulation is called: A. A lower-class “culture of poverty” Lack of government action Too few available jobs Official corruption 52. What concept refers to the formal system that responds to alleged violations of the law using police. D. D. D. D. C. Which of the following sociological term refers to “the recognized violation of cultural norms”? A.45. B. Government data show that about what share of the heads of poor households in the United States did not work at all in the last year? . D. D. C. and prison officials? A. B. A. “Crime” differs from “deviance” in that crime: A. C. C. courts. C. Every society regulates the behavior of individuals with the goal of preventing deviance.

C. 100. The poorest 20 percent of the global population receives about what share of all global income? A. B. Which one of the statements is TRUE? A. B. Rough estimates suggest that about_______ people in the United States are homeless for some time during a given year.000 1. D. D.500. D. C. B.000. The wealthiest 20 percent of the global population receives about what share of all global income? A. C. Most homeless adults are mentally ill. A. B. B. Most homeless adults are substance abusers The elderly are the fastest-growing category of the homeless One-third of all homeless people are entire families 55. B. Which of the following statements about high-income nations is correct? . Some countries do a far better job of protecting workers than the United States does. The deadly fire in a Bangladeshi sweatshop described in the opening to the chapter shows that: A. C. High-income nations are found where on the planet? A. C. 12 percent 32 percent 52 percent 72 percent 53. 1 5 10 15 58. 56. Factory jobs are hard to find in low-income nations D. D. Evenly spread throughout all world regions Mostly in the Northern Hemisphere All within North America Mostly in the Southern Hemisphere 59.A. C.000 54. D. The lives of the world’s poor are far worse than most people in the United States realize B. Read the following four statements about homeless people in the United States. Bangladesh has suffered a number of natural disasters in recent years C. D.000 1. 20 40 60 80 57.000 250.

the most productive economy in the world is that of: A. D. C. C. D.A. In high-income societies. C. B. About the same as in rich nations Not as great as in rich nations Greater than in rich nations Just about nonexistence . C. The largest and strongest families The strongest sense of tradition and cultural heritage The highest material living standards All of the above are correct 61. D. B. D. poverty in low-income nations is: A. B. B. The poverty rate in low-income countries 64. C. C. D. The absolute number of people in any country C. The real poverty rate as opposed to what governments claim to be the case D. They are at the forefront of the information revolution. compared to poverty in the United States. More likely to involve men More widespread and severe Less likely to involve children Less serious a problem 62. China Norway Japan The United States 63. They make use of large factories and advanced energy sources They contain almost all the world’s financial markets All of the above are correct 60. D. B. in the poorest countries of the world. C. B. for the world as a whole. in poor countries. One Ten Fifty Seventy-five 65. 1 million 10 million 100 million 1 billion 66. the disadvantages women face relative to men are: A. people benefit from: A. roughly half of all children who are born die before reaching the age of: A. A lack of resources that is life-threatening B. the concept “absolute poverty” refers to: A. about how many people suffer from chronic hunger that leaves them less able to work and places them at high risk of disease? A. D. B.

All societies define “feminine” the same way C. B. the point of describing gender in the Israeli kibbutzin is: A. All societies define “masculine” the same way B. C. B. The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male D. None of the above is true 71. The degree of inequality between men and women in a society B. B. The secondary sex characteristics of men and women C. People’s sexual orientation 69. D. That women have been closing the gap with men in most athletic performances D. D. C. D. B. what share are women? A. but also a matter of differences in: A. Societies may define both “masculine” and “feminine” differently D. 20 percent 35 percent 50 percent 70 percent 68. Margaret Mead’s research on gender in three societies in New Guinea illustrates that: A. Farming is always done by men All societies consider men to be more aggressive than women All societies display much the same gender definitions What is feminine to one society may be masculine to another . D. Power Wealth Privileges All of the above are correct 70. the chapter argues that gender is not a matter just of difference. Little or no change in female-male differences in performance B. To show that gender is basically biological To show that women can dominate men To show that cultures define gender in different ways To show that boys and girls should not be raised by biological parents 72. of the roughly 1 billion people in the world who live in absolute poverty.67. gender refers to: A. C. All of the above are correct 73. The male performances are improving faster than female performances C. Margaret Mead’s research on gender in three societies showed that: A. comparing the athletic performances of females and males over time shows: A. C.

C. Patriarchy Matriarchy Monarchy Gerontocracy 75. Kinship is defined as two or more people who: A. A family unit that includes parents and children. The family is a social institution that is found in: A. is called: A. B. C. B. An Iowa farmer is part of the primary sector of the U. B. as well as other kin. True or False? A. A nuclear family An extended family A family of affinity A conjugal family 66. The concept “endogamy” refers to marriage between: . D. False 62. marriage. A nuclear family An extended family A family of affinity A consanguine family 67. D. C. C. C. D. It is a legally sanctioned relationship It usually involves sexual activity It usually involves childbearing All of the above are correct 65. which of the following concepts refers to social organization in which males dominate females? A. Which of the following is a trait of marriage? A. D. C. D. A family composed of one or two parents and their children is called: A. True B.S economy. or adoption Live together Have the same last name 64. Having less power than women Having fewer privileges than women Engaging in many high-risk behaviors All of the above are correct 61. B. B. B. B. in the United States. Know each other well Are related by blood. D. the cost of sexism for men include: A. C.74. D. Most but not all societies About half of human societies High-income nations but not in low-income nations Every human society 63.

B. How How How How families keep society as a whole operating families perpetuate social inequality individuals select partners who offer about as much as they do families regulate sexual activity 74. D. B. B. the family: A. C. A system of marriage that unites two partners is called: A. D. A trend over the course of the last century in high-income nations such as the united states is that families have become: A. In many traditional societies. D. B. C. Operates to perpetuate social inequality Might be called the backbone of society Is not necessary for a society to operate All of the above are correct 73. D. Socialization of the young Regulation of sexual activity Social placement All of the above are correct 72. The concept “homogamy” means that: . A social-exchange analysis of family life might consider: A. B. the most common form of marriage is: A. Set up by the parents of the people to be married Unknown Delayed until the people reach their thirties Based almost entirely on romantic love 75. B. D. D. marriage is: A. B. C. C. Which of the following are counted among the functions of family? A. More dominated by males More egalitarian with regard to gender Larger in terms of numbers of children Less likely to experience divorce 71. C. D. C. B.A. C. People People People People of the same sex ofdifferent racial categories of the same social category married at least once before 68. C. Around the world. D. Polygyny Polygamy Polyandry Monogamy 69. especially in rural areas. Following the structural-functional approach. Polygamy Polygyny Monogramy None of the above are correct 70.

children are: 79. Compared to fifty years ago. Patterns that describe many latino families include: .ves Marriage is based on romantic love 76. In the united states today.u . The concept “empty nest” refers to: 82. What is the effect of industrialization on the typical number of children in a family? 78. C.. the average number of children per family is about: 81.A. One concern about the great importance most people in the United States give to romantic love as the basis of marriage is that: A. People marry because they enjoy being married Women usually marry older men People marry others who are spcoa. D.S women in their late twenties are now: 80. 77. Today’s baby boomers are often called the “sandwich generation because: 83.ole the. B. In today’s high-income societies.

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