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From The Rational Edge: The first in a new series of articles on portfolio management, this introduction expresses IBM’s viewpoint about the foundations and essentials of portfolio management, and discusses ideas and assets that support and enable effective portfolio management practices. A good way to begin understanding what portfolio management is (and is not) may be to define the term portfolio. In a business context, we can look to the mutual fund industry to explain the term's origins. Morgan Stanley's Dictionary of Financial Terms offers the following explanation: If you own more than one security, you have an investment portfolio. You build the portfolio by buying additional stocks, bonds, mutual funds, or other investments. Your goal is to increase the portfolio's value by selecting investments that you believe will go up in price. According to modern portfolio theory, you can reduce your investment risk by creating a diversified portfolio that includes enough different types, or classes, of securities so that at least some of them may produce strong returns in any economic climate.
Note that this explanation contains a number of important ideas:
A portfolio contains many investment vehicles. Owning a portfolio involves making choices -- that is, deciding what additional stocks, bonds, or other financial instruments to buy; when to buy; what and when to sell; and so forth. Making such decisions is a form of management. The management of a portfolio is goal-driven. For an investment portfolio, the specific goal is to increase the value. Managing a portfolio involves inherent risks.
Over time, other industry sectors have adapted and applied these ideas to other types of "investments," including the following: Application portfolio management: This refers to the practice of managing an entire group or major subset of software applications within a portfolio. Organizations regard these applications as investments because they require development (or acquisition) costs and incur continuing maintenance costs. Also, organizations must constantly make financial decisions about new and existing software applications, including whether to invest in modifying them, whether to buy additional applications, and when to "sell" -- that is, retire -- an obsolete software application.
Product portfolio management: Businesses group major products that they develop and sell into (logical) portfolios, organized by major line-of-business or business segment. Such portfolios require ongoing management decisions about what new products to develop (to diversify investments and investment risk) and what existing products to transform or retire (i.e., spin off or divest). Project or initiative portfolio management, an initiative, in the simplest sense, is a body of work with:
A specific (and limited) collection of needed results or work products. A group of people who are responsible for executing the initiative and use resources, such as funding. A defined beginning and end.
Managers can group a number of initiatives into a portfolio that supports a business segment, product, or product line. These efforts are goal-driven; that is, they support major goals and/or components of the enterprise's business strategy. Managers must continually choose among competing initiatives (i.e., manage the organization's investments), selecting those that best support and enable diverse business goals (i.e., they diversify investment risk). They must also manage their investments by providing continuing oversight and decision-making about which initiatives to undertake, which to continue, and which to reject or discontinue.
03.2007 Operating Profit increased to Rs. Remittances and Non Resident Indian business 5 specialized NRI Branches exclusively for servicing NonResident Indians 1 Small Scale Industries Branch extending finance exclusively to SSI units . 76000 Crores as on 31.2007 Net Profit increased to Rs.2007 Net worth improved to Rs. Bangalore and Mumbai exclusively for handling forex transactions arising out of Export.1358. IndFund Management Ltd A front runner in specialized banking • • • 88 Forex Authorized branches inclusive of 3 Specialized Overseas Branches at Chennai .59 Crores as on 31.03.77 Crores as on 31. Import.03.2007 1476 Branches spread all over India International Presence • • Overseas branches in Singapore and Colombo including a Foreign Currency Banking Unit at Colombo 229 Overseas Correspondent banks in 69 countries Diversified banking activities .759.3 Subsidiary companies • • • Indbank Merchant Banking Services Ltd IndBank Housing Ltd.03.3621 Crores as on 31.INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN BANK A premier bank owned by the Government of India • • • • • • • Established on 15th August 1907 as part of the Swadeshi movement Serving the nation with a team of over 22000 dedicated staff Total Business crossed Rs.
Leadership in Rural Development • • • Loan products like Artisan Card. Yuva Kisan Vidya Nidhi Yojana to meet diverse credit needs of farmers. Reuter Monitors. 429 connected Automated Teller Machines(ATM) in 99 cities/towns 24 x 7 Service through 8500 ATMs under shared network Internet and Tele Banking services to all Core Banking customers e-payment facility for Corporate customers Cash Management Services Depository Services Reuter Screen. A pioneer in introducing the latest technology in Banking • • • • • • • • • • • • 100% Business Computerisation 168 Centres throughout the country covered under 'Anywhere Banking' Core Banking Solution(CBS) in 1204 branches and 77 extension counters. Dealing System provided at all Overseas Branches I B Credit Card Launched I B Gold Coin . Provision of technical assistance and project reports in Agriculture to entrepreneurs through Agricultural Consultancy & Technical Services (ACTS) 2 Specialised Agricultural Finance branches to finance High Tech Agricultural Projects. Kisan Card. Kisan Bike Scheme. Telerate.
Indian Bank today announced a strategic alliance with Pnb Principal Insurance Advisory Co. insurance portfolio analysis & placement. The Bank is presently selling the Insurance products. 2006: Indian Bank is enlarging its activities to deliver value-added services to its customers. As the alliance will enable access to the Financial products of 30 Insurance companies both life and non-life and an equal number of Investment solutions to the Bank’s Customers under one roof. The strategic . Pvt. January 25. People. in the financial planning business. Ltd. The Bank is concentrating on optimizing the 3 Ps. Ltd. This partnership will also deliver risk management solutions to Indian Bank customers through the Insurance advisory route. the Bank will distribute the investment solutions offered by Pnb Principal Financial Planners through its extensive branch network. Indian Bank has taken an equity stake in the Company.Indian Bank enters into a Strategic Alliance with Pnb Principal Chennai.. research. As per Indian Bank’s strategic alliance with Pnb Principal Financial Planners Pvt. Ltd.. investment advisory. The solutions offered will include risk assessment. both Life and Non-life as a Corporate Agent. As per the scope of the alliance with Pnb Principal Insurance Advisory Co. Process and Products to give maximum advantage to its customers and to face the market competition by exploiting the emerging opportunities. systems and business development to Indian Bank.. Pvt.. and claims management. Ltd. the Bank’s emphasis would be to serve as an “agent to its customers”. in the insurance advisory business and Pnb Principal Financial Planners Pvt. Pnb Principal Financial Planners will provide support in the area of financial planning. insurance portfolio administration.
Insurance and Investment will help in providing a One-stop solution to the 15 million strong customers of Indian Bank throughout the country. Principal International said. This tie-up brings a paradigm shift from being an agent of Insurance Company to one of being a customer agent. “the best people to bank with”. K. B Sambamurthy. Executive Director has said that this is a part of Bank’s mission to provide all financial products under one roof. Sanjay Sachdev.alliance will enable customers of Indian Bank to access a wide range of superior investment solutions. Chakrabarty. The Tie-up will help realize our cherished goal of making our Bank. Country Manager-India. METHODOLOGY . Chairman and Managing Director. Indian Bank said. Mr. Announcing the partnership with Indian Bank. “Banks have currently emerged as the largest distribution channel for financial investment options.” The alliance with Pnb Principal in the areas of Risk Management.” Dr. This partnership with Indian Bank will make a range of investment solutions more accessible to retail investors of Indian Bank. Elaborating. We are pleased to associate ourselves with Indian Bank.C.
profitability.Portfolio Management is used to select a portfolio of new product development projects to achieve the following goals: • • • Maximize the profitability or value of the portfolio Provide balance Support the strategy of the enterprise Portfolio Management is the responsibility of the senior management team of an organization or business unit. etc. short-term. The second step is to understand the budget or resources available to balance the portfolio against. competitive emphasis. A logical starting point is to create a product strategy . customers. product line. Third. risks. investment requirements (resources). new products vs. products. which might be called the Product Committee.markets. this is the same group that conducts the stage-gate reviews in the organization. and other appropriate factors. improvements. This team. But organizations must balance these goals: risk vs. meets regularly to manage the product pipeline and make decisions about the product portfolio. Often. The weighting of the goals in making decisions about products varies from company. reward. strategy approach. strategy fit vs. Several types of techniques have been used to support the portfolio management process: • Heuristic models . long-term vs. market vs. each project must be assessed for profitability (rewards).
However. financial return vs.• • Scoring techniques Visual or mapping techniques earliest Portfolio Management techniques optimized projects' The profitability or financial returns using heuristic or mathematical models. Mapping techniques use graphical presentation to visualize a portfolio's balance. Scoring techniques weight and score criteria to take into account investment requirements. probability of success. product line coverage. . profitability. risk and strategic alignment. etc. profitability. The shortcoming with this approach can be an over emphasis on financial measures and an inability to optimize the mix of projects. this approach paid little attention to balance or aligning the portfolio to the organization's strategy. marketplace fit vs. These are typically presented in the form of a twodimensional graph that shows the trade-off's or balance between two factors such as risks vs.
While this visual presentation is useful. The size of the bubble is proportional to the total revenue generated over the lifetime sales of the product. The horizontal axis is Net Present Value.The chart shown above provides a graphical view of the project portfolio risk-reward balance. This mix is often dependent upon the priority of the goals. . Therefore. it can't prioritize projects. some mix of these techniques is appropriate to support the Portfolio Management Process. It is used to assure balance in the portfolio of projects neither too risky nor conservative and appropriate levels of reward for the risk involved. the vertical axis is Probability of Success.
).g. This strategic allocation should apportion the planned R&D investment into business units. etc. By dividing this result by the development cost remaining. Once this is done.. we recommend a strategic allocation process based on the business plan. geographic areas. and related sales expected from new products.. . etc. headcount.The recommended approach is to start with the overall business plan that should define the planned level of R&:D investment. it places more weight on projects nearer completion and with lower uncommitted costs. The development productivity index is calculated as follows: (Net Present Value x Probability of Success) / Development Cost Remaining. It factors the NPV by the probability of both technical and commercial success. markets. platform development. resources (e. and upgrades/enhancements/line extensions. etc.g. product lines or types of development. An example of this scoring method is shown with the worksheet below. then a portfolio listing can be developed including the relevant portfolio data. It may also breakdown the R&D investment into types of development. product lines. e. We favor use of the development productivity index (DPI) or scores from the scoring method. new products. The scoring method uses a set of criteria (potentially different for each stage of the project) as a basis for scoring or evaluating each project. With multiple business units. technology development.
. This portfolio list can then be ranked by either the development priority index or the score. The worksheet computes the average scores and applies the weighting factors to compute the overall score.Weighting factors can be set for each criterion. The evaluators on a Product Committee score projects (1 to 10. An example of the portfolio list is shown below and the second illustration shows the category summary for the scoring method. The maximum weighted score for a project is 100. where 10 are best).
For example. the risk-reward balance is commonly checked using the bubble chart shown earlier. Pie charts such as the one below can be used for this purpose. the subsequent higher priority projects that depend on that platform or . For example. if a lower priority platform project was omitted from the protfolio priority list. This subset of the high priority projects then needs to be further analyzed and checked. Other factors can also be checked using bubble charts. it then needs to determine where the cutoff is based on the business plan and the planned level of investment of the resources avaialable. A final check is to analyze product and technology roadmaps for project relationships. The first step is to check that the prioritized list reflects the planned breakdown of projects based on the strategic allocation of the business plan.Once the organization has its prioritized list of projects.
current year revenues are increasingly based on new products developed in the last one to three years. Finally. With the significant investments required to develop new products and the risks involved. this balanced portfolio that has been developed is checked against the business plan as shown below to see if the plan goals have been achieved . In many companies. . Portfolio Management is becoming an increasingly important tool to make strategic decisions about product development and the investment of company resources.projects within the planned R&D investment and resource levels and sales that have met the goals.platform technology would be impossible to execute unless that platform project were included in the portfolio priority list.
The asset may be physical or financial like Shares Bonds. based on the current information. Debentures.MEANING OF PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT Portfolio is a collection of asset. Mutual Funds. According to Securities and Exchange Board of India (Portfolio manager) Rules. and Preference Shares etc. Main objective is to maximize portfolio return and at the same time minimizing the portfolio risk by diversification. One of the key inputs in portfolio building is the risk bearing ability of the investor. for that would amount to great risk. Portfolio management can be having institutional. Investment Companies and non-Investment Companies. The individual investor or a fund manager would not like to put all his money in the shares of one company. for example. Designing portfolios to suit investor requirement often involves making several projections regarding the future. 1993. . Unit Trust. which comprise the portfolio. “ portfolio” means the total holding of securities belonging to any person. Portfolio management is the management of various financial assets. Pension Provident and Insurance Funds. When the actual situation is at variance from the projections portfolio composition needs to be changed.
is known as a portfolio manager. Hindu undivided families. who manages other people’s or institution’s investment portfolio with the object of profitability. The large institutional investors avail services of professionals. job function of portfolio manager and security analyst are separate. A professional. Institutional e. In case of medium and large sized organization. INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT AND PORTFOLIO THEORY . The portfolio manager performs the job of security analyst. individual.g. growth and risk minimization. Non-investment Company’s etc. Portfolios are built to suit the return expectations and the risk appetite of the investor.
Passive Portfolio Strategy A strategy that involves minimal expectation input.). There are two types of Portfolio Strategies: A. B.Portfolio theory is an investment approach developed by University of Chicago economist Harry M. as measured statistically. for their investment portfolios. Markowitz explained how to best assemble a diversified portfolio and proved that such a portfolio would likely do well. Portfolio theory allows investors to estimate both the expected risks and returns. In other words. and instead relies on diversification to match the performance of some market index. Markowitz described how to combine assets into efficiently diversified portfolios. who won a Nobel Prize in economics in 1990. Markowitz (1927 . It was his position that a portfolio's risk could be reduced and the expected rate of return could be improved if investments having dissimilar price movements were combined. Active Portfolio Strategy A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a better performance than a portfolio that is simply diversified broadly BASIC CONCEPTS AND COMPONENTS FOR PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT .
Now that we understand some of the basic dynamics and inherent challenges organizations face in executing a business strategy via supporting initiatives. 2. The basis for constructing a portfolio should reflect the enterprise's particular needs. you might choose to build a portfolio around initiatives for a specific product. which contribute to the achievement of goals or goal components identified in the Enterprise Business Strategy. a portfolio is: One of a number of mechanisms. constructed to actualize significant elements in the Enterprise Business Strategy. It contains a selected. or separate business unit within a multinational organization. and continuously evolving. For example.The Portfolio First.The Portfolio Structure . we can now introduce a definition of portfolio that relates more directly to the context of our preceding discussion. let's look at some basic concepts and components of portfolio management practices. 1. collection of Initiatives which are aligned with the organizing element of the Portfolio. approved. business segment. and. In the IBM view.
and conformance to expectations for. a portfolio structure identifies and contains a number of portfolios. should align with significant planning and results boundaries.As we noted earlier. for example. then you would have a separate portfolio for each major product or product group. like the portfolios within it. If you have several portfolios within your portfolio structure. The exact range of responsibilities (and authority) will vary from one organization to another. Each portfolio would contain all the initiatives that help that particular product or product group contribute to the success of the enterprise business strategy.1 but the basics are as follows: • • • One portfolio manager oversees one portfolio. If you have a product-oriented portfolio structure. This structure. The portfolio manager ensures that data is collected and analyzed about each of the initiatives in the portfolio.The Portfolio Manager This is a new role for organizations that embrace a portfolio management approach. and with business components. then you will likely need a portfolio manager for each one. • . The portfolio manager provides day-to-day oversight. A portfolio manager is responsible for continuing oversight of the contents within a portfolio. The portfolio manager periodically reviews the performance of. 3. initiatives within the portfolio.
organization managers specify the frequency and contents for these periodic reviews.g. and strategic contribution. the organization should conduct periodic reviews of actual (versus planned) performance and conformance to original expectations. Portfolio Reviews and Decision Making As initiatives are executed. A significant aspect of oversight is setting multiple decision points for each initiative. budget. 5. The reviews should be multi-dimensional. Typically.. so that managers can periodically evaluate data and decide whether to continue the work.g. Making these decisions at multiple points in the initiative's lifecycle helps to ensure that managers will continually examine and assess changing internal and external circumstances. needs. and individual portfolio managers oversee their planning and execution.. and resource allocation) and strategic elements (e. expected benefits. including both tactical elements (e. and performance. adherence to plan. support for business strategy goals and delivery of expected organizational benefits). Governance . These "continue/change/discontinue" decisions should be driven by an understanding (developed via the periodic reviews) of a given initiative's continuing value.• The portfolio manager enables periodic decision making about the future direction of individual initiatives. 4.
The IBM view of governance is: An abstract. Portfolio management governance involves multiple dimensions. Implementing portfolio management also requires creating a structure to provide planning.). and decision-making authority. • . projects. defining (and filling) new roles to identify portfolios (collections of work to be done). etc. exercise of control and oversight. the roles. Defining and maintaining a portfolio structure containing all of the organization's initiatives (programs. continuing direction. and delineating boundaries among work efforts and collections.Implementing portfolio management practices in an organization is a transformation effort that typically involves developing new capabilities to address new work efforts. and within which actions and activities are legitimately and properly executed. Reviewing and approving business cases that propose the creation of new initiatives. collective term that defines and contains a framework for organization. That is where the notion of governance comes into play. including: • • Defining and maintaining an enterprise business strategy. and oversight and control for all portfolios and the initiatives they encompass. together with the definition of the functions. and the responsibilities of those who exercise this oversight and decision-making.
.either an individual or a collective -. suffice it to say that it is worth investing time and effort to create a sound and flexible governance structure before you attempt to implement portfolio management practices. The complexities of governance structures extend well beyond the scope of this article. control. continuously adjust direction. Ownership of portfolios and their contents.to develop and approve plans. and decision-making for all ongoing initiatives. and links them to an authority scheme. • Each of these dimensions requires an owner -. It defines individual and collective roles.• Providing oversight. For now. Many organizations turn to experts for help in this area because it is so critical to the success of any business transformation effort that encompasses portfolio management. A good governance structure decomposes both the types of work and the authority to plan and oversee work. and exercise control through periodic assessment and review of conformance to expectations. Policies that are collectively developed and agreed upon provide a framework for the exercise of governance.
They applied this principle all across the Roman Empire.6. in turn. These concepts are useful until they become obsolete. We are beginning to express this view as a collection of "essentials" that are. they would last longer. engineers discovered that such supports would last even longer if their downstream side was also shaped to offer little resistance to the current. engineers discovered that if the upstream supports of a bridge were shaped to offer little resistance to the current of a stream or river. So that became the new standard for bridge construction. like bridge-building. Then.Portfolio management essentials Every practical discipline is based on a collection of fundamental concepts that people have identified and proven (and sometimes refined or discarded) through continuous application. based on our experiences with clients who have implemented portfolio management practices and on our research into the discipline. in Roman times. grouped around a small collection of portfolio management themes. Recently. supplanted by newer and more effective ideas. and a number of authors and practitioners have documented fundamental ideas about its exercise. in the Middle Ages. we have started to shape an IBM view of fundamental ideas around portfolio management. is a discipline. Portfolio management. For example. .
one of these themes is initiative value contribution. ..For example. a program or project) should be estimated and approved in order to start work. It suggests that the value of an initiative (i. and then assessed periodically on the basis of the initiative's contribution to the goals and goal components in the enterprise business strategy. These assessments determine (in part) whether the initiative warrants continued support.e.
OBJECTIVES OF PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT
The basic objective of Portfolio Management is to maximize yield and minimize risk. The other objectives are as follows:
Stability of Income: An investor considers stability of income from his investment. He also considers the stability of purchasing power of income.
Capital appreciation has become an
important investment principle. Investors seek growth stocks which provide a very large capital appreciation by way of rights, bonus and appreciation in the market price of a share.
An investment is a liquid asset. It can be
converted into cash with the help of a stock exchange. Investment should be liquid as well as marketable. The portfolio should contain a planned proportion of highgrade and readily salable investment.
Safety: safety means protection for investment against loss under reasonably variations. In order to provide safety, a careful review of economic and industry trends is necessary. In other words, errors in portfolio are unavoidable and it requires extensive diversification.
Investors try to minimize their tax
liabilities from the investments. The portfolio manager has to keep a list of such investment avenues along with the return risk, profile, tax implications, yields and other returns.
There are three goals of portfolio management:
1. Maximize the value of the portfolio 2. Seek balance in the portfolio 3. Keep portfolio projects strategically aligned It provides a set of portfolio management tools to help achieve these goals. With multiple business units, product lines or types of development, we recommend a strategic allocation process based on the business plan. The Master Project Schedule provides a summary of all-active as well as proposed projects and classifies them by status (active, proposed, on-hold) and by business unit/product line to align projects with the strategic allocation. The Master Project Schedule also provides additional portfolio information to prioritize projects using either a scorecard method or the development productivity index (DPI *). In addition to this prioritization, PD-Trek provides a Risk-Reward Bubble Chart and a Project Type Pie Chart to assure balance. A Product or Technology Roadmap template is provided to help visualize platform and technology relationships to assure critical project relationships are not overlooked with this prioritization. This will allow management to develop a balanced approach to selecting and continuing with the appropriate mix of projects to satisfy the three goals.
To maximize the after-tax return by investing in various taxes saving investment instruments. The functions undertaken by the portfolio management are as follows: 1. Every investor is risk averse. 2. To make timely buying and selling of securities. To provide a balanced portfolio which not only can hedge against the inflation but can also optimize returns with the associated degree of risk. . In order to diversify the risk by investing into various securities following functions are required to be performed. 4. 3.FUNCTIONS OF PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT The basic purpose of portfolio management is to maximize yield and minimize risk. To frame the investment strategy and select an investment mix to achieve the desired investment objective.
STEPS IN PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT Performance Evaluation Portfolio Revision Portfolio Execution STEPS Selection of Asset Mix Identification Of Objectives Portfolio Strategy .
security etc. These objectives may be tangible such as buying a car. . educational requirements. house etc.1) IDENTIFICATION OF THE OBJECTIVES The starting point in this process is to determine the characteristics of the various investments and then matching them with the individuals need and preferences. Personal or individual objectives may be related to personal characteristics of individuals such as family commitments. income. 2) FORMULATION OF PORTFOLIO STRATEGY The aspect of Portfolio Management is the most important element of proper portfolio investment and speculation. All the personal investing is designed in order to achieve certain objectives. these objectives may be classified as financial or personal objectives. a careful review should be conducted about the financial situation and current capital market conditions. profitability and liquidity. consumption and provision for retirement etc. status. depends. This will suggest a set of investment and speculation policies to be followed. and intangible objectives such as social status. While planning. Financial objectives are safety. Similarly.
strategies and constraints. It means spreading out portfolio investment into different asset classes like bonds. investor’s wealth changes. Therefore. the optional strategic asset allocation also changes. The statement of investment policies includes the portfolio objectives. There are different investment strategies. security price change. Portfolio strategy means plan or policy to be followed while investing in different types of assets. The security classes are simply the type of securities as under: . They require changes as time passes. stocks. The strategic asset allocation policy would call for broad diversification through an indexed holding of virtually all securities in the asset class. Selection of asset mix refers to the percentage to the invested in various security classes. investor’s knowledge expands. mutual funds etc. In other words selection of asset mix means investing in different kinds of assets and reduces risk and volatility and maximizes returns in investment portfolio. 3) SELECTION OF ASSET MIX The most important decision in portfolio management is selection of asset mix.
. Once the goal has been selected. plan. The portfolio manager has to decide the goals before selecting the common stock. the portfolio manager can select the common stocks.» money market instrument » fixed income security » equity shares » real estate investment » international securities Once the objective of the portfolio is determined the securities to be included in the portfolio must be selected. Normally the portfolio is selected from a list of high-quality bonds that the portfolio manager has at hand. growth with some income or income only. 4) PORTFOLIO EXECUTION: The process of portfolio management involves a logical set of steps common to any decision. The goal may be to achieve pure growth. Applying this process to actual portfolios can be complex. implementation and monitor.
if the percentage holdings of various asset classes are currently different from desired holdings. should be rebalanced. this is only thing. 5) PORTFOLIO REVISION . Then the investor or portfolio manager can make any tactical asset allocation or security selection decision. industry group or economic sector. which is known as strategic asset allocation. Such timing decisions are known as tactical asset allocation and selection decision deals with securities within a given asset class. If the statement of investment policy requires pure investment strategy. which is done in the execution stage. industries or economic sectors from the strategic asset allocation. The investor has to begin with periodically adjusting the asset mix to the desired mix. in the execution stage. Timing decisions over or under weight various asset classes. Such speculative transactions are usually classified as timing or selection decisions. The portfolio than. However. three decisions need to be made. many portfolio managers engage in the speculative transactions in the belief that such transactions will generate excess risk-adjusted returns. Therefore.
The portfolio. the frequency of review depends upon the size of the portfolio. However. portfolio revision means changing the asset allocation of a portfolio. which are not worth. actual results obtained and analysis of reason for variations. Investment portfolio management involves maintaining proper combination of securities. Thus. targets for portfolio performance. investor should have continuous review and scrutiny of his investment portfolio. The review should be followed by suitable and timely action. For this purpose. the sum involved. he can dispose of the securities. Whenever adverse conditions develop. has to be continuously reviewed over a period of time and if necessary revised depending on the objectives of investor. which comprise the investor’s portfolio in a manner that they give maximum return with minimum risk. . There are techniques of portfolio revision. the kind of securities held and the time available to the investor. The review should include a careful examination of investment objectives. which is once selected. Portfolio management would be an incomplete exercise without periodic review.
If revision is attempted too infrequently the benefits of timing may be foregone. Ideally investors should buy when prices are low and sell when prices rise to levels higher than their normal fluctuations. thus. The investor should decide how often the portfolio should be revised. Investors buy stock according to their objectives and return-risk framework. These fluctuations may be related to economic activity or due to other factors. timing for revision of portfolio. transaction and analysis costs may be high. 6) PORTFOLIO PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: . The important factor to take into consideration is. If revision occurs to often.
by evaluating his own performance can identify sources of strength or weakness. It can be viewed as a feedback and control mechanism that can make the investment management process more effective. The investor should have continues review and scrutiny of his investment portfolio. which comprise the investor’s portfolio in a manner that they give maximum return with minimum risk. . On the other hand. in which case such performance may not be expected to continue in the future. the first task in performance evaluation is to determine whether past performance was good or poor. Good performance in the past might have resulted from good luck. A portfolio manager. Then the second task is to determine whether such performance was due to skill or luck. poor performance in the past might have been result of bad luck. Portfolio management involves maintaining a proper combination of securities. Complete evaluation of the portfolio performance must include examining a measure of the degree of risk taken by the fund. These rates of return should be based on the market value of the assets of the fund. Therefore.
preferably once in a month or a quarter. . Good performance in the past may have resulted from the actions of a highly skilled portfolio manager. The performance of portfolio should be measured periodically. The performance of an individual stock should be compared with the overall performance of the market.
to maximize the yield. almost all portfolio managers parks the funds in the money market securities such as overnight market. In this discretionary PMS. return on such investment varies from 14 to 18 per cent. who in return. handles all the paper work. depending on the call money rates prevailing at the time of investment. Normally. makes all the decisions and gives a good return on the investment and for this he charges a certain fees. .TYPES OF PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT: The two types of portfolio management services are available o the investors: Discretionary portfolio Management Non-discretionary portfolio Management 1. the client parts with his money in favor of manager. The Discretionary portfolio management services (DPMS): In this type of services. 182 days treasury bills and 90 days commercial bills.
2. The manager concentrates on stock market instruments with a portfolio tailor made to the risk taking ability of the investor. but the investor is free to accept or reject the manager’s advice. . the manager for a services charge also undertakes the paper work. The Non-discretionary portfolio management services: The manager function as a counselor.
Equity portfolio is a risky portfolio. All financial and market information of given security is already reflected in the market price. One is technical analysis and the other is fundamental analysis. There are two approaches to the selection of equity portfolio. but at the same time the return is also higher. Charts are drawn to identify price movements of a given security over a period of time. Equity portfolio provides highest returns.EQUITY PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT It is logical that the expected return of a portfolio should depend on the expected return of the security contained in it. An efficient portfolio manager can obviously give more weight age to fundamental analysis than the technical analysis. Technical analysis assumes that the price of a stock depends on supply and demand in the stock market. . These charts enable the investors to predict the future movement of the price of security.
Allocation of funds for equity portfolio is a question of top most importance to any portfolio manager. Among all risky investments. . The fundamental analysis includes the study of ratio analysis. There may be several combinations of investment portfolio. selection of the best possible combination and allocation of funds among these selected investment groups are of great importance. government policies etc. quality of management. past and present track record of the company.
Investment in bond is less risky and safe as compared to equity investment. Bond portfolio includes different types of bond. The portfolio can be spared over variety of securities.BONDS PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT The individual investors can invest in bond portfolio. investment in bond portfolio is less risky and safe but. However. the return on bond is very low. it is suitable for normal investors for getting average return over their investment. However. . There are no much fluctuations in bond prices. Some bonds are tax saving which help the investor to reduce his tax liability. Therefore. there is no capital appreciation in this case. return is reasonable. tax free bonds and taxable bonds. low liquidity and tax saving are some of the more important features of bond portfolio investment. There is no much liquidity in bonds.
Therefore. Tax free bonds are issued by public sector undertaking or Government on which interest s compounded half yearly and payable accordingly. They have a maturity of 7 to 10 years with the facility for buyback. taxable bonds yield higher interest compounded half yearly and also payable half yearly. the interest rates on these bonds are very low. . However. The tax free bonds means the interest income on these bonds is not taxable. They also have buy back facilities similar to taxable bonds.
It is impossible for any individual whishing to invest and sit down and analyses all these intricacies of the market unless he does nothing else. b) The Indian stock markets are very complicated. units etc. look after his deliveries and payments. This is further complicated by the volatile nature of our markets.. c) Even if an investor is able to visualize the market. is much less than from stock market. The return from bank deposits. it is difficult to investor to trade in all the major exchanges of India. over the long period capital markets have given an excellent return when compared to other forms of investment. which demands constant reshuffling of port . Though there are thousands of companies that are listed only a few hundred.ADVANTAGES OF PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT Individuals will benefits immensely by taking portfolio management services for the following reason: a) Whatever may be the status of the capital market. which have the necessary liquidity.
economic uncertainty and instability. Growth in the number and the size of invisible funds–a large part of household savings is being directed towards financial assets.IMPORTANCE OF PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT ⇒ In the past one-decade. ⇒ It is becoming important because of: i. Greater use of computers for processing mass of data. iv. Emergence of institutional investing on behalf of individuals. A number of financial institutions. ii. iii. . on their behalf. mutual funds. significant changes have taken place in the investment climate in India.both individual and institutional-with investment portfolios ranging in asset size from thousands to cores of rupees.risk and return parameters of financial assets are continuously changing because of frequent changes in governments industrial and fiscal policies. and other agencies are undertaking the task of investing money of small investors. Increased market volatility. ⇒ Portfolio management is becoming a rapidly growing area serving a broad array of investors.
. Professionalization of the field and increase use of analytical methods (e.g. Larger direct and indirect costs of errors or shortfalls in meeting portfolio objectives. quantitative techniques) in the investment decision-making.increased competition and greater scrutiny by investors.v. and vi.
He must be able to judge and predict the effects of the information he gets. fast intuition and self-confidence to arrive at quick decisions. weakness. In the stock market every new piece of information affects the value of the securities of different industries in a different way. . The analyst can know the strengths. alertness. opportunities of the economy. Analytical Ability: He must have his own theory to arrive at the value of the security. He has to work in an extremely uncertain and conflicting environment. An analysis of the security’s values. is continues job of the portfolio manager. industry and the company. company. etc. 2. A good analyst makes a good financial consultant. Sound general knowledge: Portfolio management is an existing and challenging job. He must have sharp memory.QUALITIES OF PORTFOLIO MANAGER 1.
In this Marketing skills help him a lot. Marketing skills: He must be good salesman. markets trends etc. clients. He has to compete with the Stock brokers in the stock market. . The experience of different types of securities. Experience: In the cyclical behavior of the stock market history is often repeated. He has to convince the clients about the particular security. therefore the experience of the different phases helps to make rational decisions. 4. makes a perfect professional manager.3.
3. A portfolio manager shall not place his interest above those of his clients. observe high standards of integrity and fairness in all his dealings with his clients and other portfolio managers. He shall disclose to the clients.CODE OF CONDUCT. while providing unbiased services. ensure proper care and exercise independent professional judgment. practice or unfair competition. A portfolio manager shall render at all time high standards of services exercise due diligence. or where any conflict of interest arises. 4. A portfolio manager shall not make any statement or become privy to any act. ensure fair treatment to all his customers. in the conduct of his business. 2. The money received by a portfolio manager from a client for an investment purpose should be deployed by the portfolio manager as soon as possible for that purpose and money due and payable to a client should be paid forthwith. A portfolio manager shall. The portfolio manager shall either avoid any conflict of interest in his investment or disinvestments decision. which is likely to be harmful to the interests of other portfolio managers or it likely to place such other portfolio managers in a disadvantageous position in relation to the portfolio manager himself. .PORTFOLIO MANAGERS: 1. while competing for or executing any assignment. possible sources of conflict of duties and interest.
7. He shall also take necessary action for conversion of securities and subscription of/or rights in accordance with the client’s instruction. A portfolio manager shall not make any exaggerated statement.5. The portfolio manager shall where necessary and in the interest of the client take adequate steps for registration of the transfer of the client’s securities and for claiming and receiving dividend. At the time of entering into a contract. 9. his interest in various corporate bodies. which has come to his knowledge. interest payment and other rights accruing to the client. Portfolio manager shall ensure that the investors are provided with true and adequate information without making any misguiding or exaggerated claims and are made aware of attendant risks before they take any investment decision. 8. A portfolio manager shall not disclose to any clients or press any confidential information about his clients. to the client either about the qualification or the capability to render certain services or his achievements in regard to services rendered to other clients. 6. whether oral or written. the portfolio manager shall obtain in writing from the client. . which enables him to obtain unpublished price-sensitive information of the body corporate.
The .10. 11. Ensure that all professional dealings are affected in a prompt. efficient and cost effective manner. FACTORS AFFECTING THE INVESTOR There may be many reasons why the portfolio of an investor may have to be changed. and his own professional skills. He should render the best possible advice to the client having regard to the client’s needs and the environment. The portfolio manager always remains alert and sensitive to the changes in the requirements of the investor.
marriages. The fund manager should observe the changes in the attitude of the investor towards risk and try to understand them in proper perspective. deaths. which make it necessary to change the portfolio composition.following are the some factors affecting the investor. . and divorces – all have their own impact on the investment horizon. while they can afford. the portfolio manager should modify the portfolio accordingly. Change in the Time Horizon As time passes. It says that people can afford to take more risk as they grow rich and benefit from its reward. Change in Wealth According to the utility theory. As people get rich. 2. some events take place that may have an impact on the time horizon of the investor. If the investor turns to be conservative after making huge gains. the risk taking ability of the investor increases with increase in wealth. they may not be willing. in practice. But. Births. 1. they become more concerned about losing the newly got riches than getting richer.averse. So they may become conservative and vary risk.
For example. 3. 4. considering his delicate health. the amounts available for investment in the fixed income or growth securities that actually help in achieving the goal of the investor get reduced. the money taken out today from the portfolio means that the amount and the return that would have been earned on it are no longer available for achievement of the investor’s goals. a person may have planned for an early retirement. There are. The happening or the non-happening of the events will naturally have its effect. after turning 55 years of age. But. if his health improves. Changes in Taxes . many other important events in the person’s life that may force a change in the investment horizon. of course. This forces portfolio manager to increase the weight of liquid investments in the asset mix. That is. Due to this. he may not take retirement. Change in Liquidity Needs Investors very often ask the portfolio manager to keep enough scope in the portfolio to get some cash as and they want.
The rate of tax under long.term capital gains is usually lower than the rate applicable for income. Others There can be many of other reasons for which clients may ask for a change in the asset mix in the portfolio. 5. If there is a change in the minimum holding period for long-term capital gains. It is said that there are only two things certain in this world. The only uncertainties regarding them relate to the date. place and mode. it may lead to revision.death and taxes. This may call for a change in the return required from the other investments. Portfolio manager have to constantly look out for changes in the tax structure and make suitable changes in the portfolio composition. . time. there may be change in the return available on the investments that have to be compulsorily made with the government say. For example. in the form of provident fund. The specifics of the planning depend on the nature of the investments.
managers have to send half-yearly reports to SEBI on their portfolio management activities. all PMS Managers have to send their clients at least a quarterly report giving the status of their portfolio and the transactions that have taken place.PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT SCHEMES (PMS) PRESENT SCENARIO “The regulatory environment has totally changed now and with SEBI fixing strict norms for companies launching PMS. . PMS also takes care of a number of the headaches endemic with investing in the markets. only the serious players are going to enter his business. The biggest one is custodial services. They must also advise him on all transactions.” The PMS members today have full transparency: managers are required to maintain individual accounts showing all dealings in a client’s portfolio. Experienced handling of cash and money power apart. The client-PMS manager contract is as per SEBI ground rules. Finally. It has several checks to protect investor’s interest like laying the custodial responsibility on the manager and preventing any alterations in the scheme without the client’s consent. Secondly.
All these services come for a fee. Difficulties such as late transfer and postal theft are reduced in case of brokers. of course. All PMS Managers act as custodians of shares and are responsible for the load of paper work related to the share transfer. While the actual PMS charges vary from a high of 7% of the amount invested to a low of around 3. So investors have to be very careful in choosing the promoters. The most important is the fact that despite all the SEBI checks. SEBI directives also put the onus on the PMS promoters to take follow-up action in case shares are lost or damaged. PMS Managers are not allowed to assured any fixed returns. postal work and even ensuring that dividends are credited to clients account. extra. follow-up services charges As in all schemes.5%. Problem inherent in most schemes on offer will be misused of investor’s funds to some extent. This really discharges the managers for any responsibility if the scheme does badly. . documentation work. there is a downside to putting cash into portfolio management as well. because they not only have direct access to registrars but also have branch offices to ensure quicker transfers.
. Funds collected from investors will aid the brokers concerned in their own games in the market.
their share in the total volume is very small. The size of capital market is increasing. India today has 20 million investors.50000crore will be mobilized through the stock market.PROSPECTS OF POTFOLIO MANAGEMENT ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ . However. The percentage of investment of the household savings is bound to go up. There is no constraint on the demand for this type of financial service as every entity would be saving and investing and interested in optimizing the rate of return. There is an increase in the number of stock exchanges. It is conservatively estimated that during the eighth plan resources to the tune of over Rs. New instruments are being introduced in the capital market. . At present. as compared to 2 million in 1980. there are a very few agencies which render this type of services in an organized and professional way. The equity cult is spreading in the interiors and rural areas.
till the disposal of such application. » No person shall carry on any activity as a portfolio manager unless he holds a certificate granted by the Board under this regulation.SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE BOARD OF INDIA RULES. » Provided further that nothing contained in this rule shall apply in case of merchant banker holding a certificate granted by the board of India Regulations. 1993 REGARDING PORTFOLIO MANAGERS No person to act as portfolio manager without certificate. 1992 as category I or category II merchant banker. . » Provided that such person. if he has made an application for such registration. who was engaged as portfolio manager prior to the coming into force of the Act. as the case may be. may continue to carry on activity as portfolio manager. » Provided also that a merchant banker acting as a portfolio manager under the second provision to this rule shall also be bound by the rules and regulations applicable to a portfolio manager.
shall be valid for a period of here years from the date of its issue to the portfolio manager. The certificate of registration on its renewal. as the case may be. d) He shall abide by the rules and regulations made under the Act in respect of the activities carried on by the portfolio manager. nature and other particulars of the complaints received. . The board may grant or renew certificate to portfolio manager subject to the following conditions namely: The portfolio manager in case of any change in its status and constitution. b) He shall pay the amount of fees for registration or renewal. as the case may be. c) He shall make adequate steps for redressed of grievances of the clients within one month of the date of receipt of the complaint and keep the board informed about the number. » a) Conditions for grant or renewal of certificate to portfolio manager. shall obtain prior permission of the board to carry on its activities. » Period of validity of the certificate. in the manner provided in the regulations.
any application. before rejecting any such application. 2. which is not complete in all respects and does not confirm to the instructions specified in the form. any application made by a portfolio manager prior to coming into force of these regulations containing such particulars or as near thereto as mentioned in form A shall be treated as an application made in pursuance of subregulation and dealt with accordingly. Notwithstanding anything contained in sub regulation (1). Application of confirm to the requirements Subject to the provisions of sub-regulation (2) of regulation 3. Application for grant of certificate An application by a portfolio manager for grant of a certificate shall be made to the board on Form A. shall be rejected: Provided that. 1993 Registration of Portfolio Managers: 1. the applicant shall be given an opportunity to remove within .SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE BOARD OF INDIA REGULATIONS.
all matters which are relevant to the activities relating to portfolio manager and in particular whether the applicant complies with the following requirements namely: The applicant has the necessary infrastructure like to adequate office space. The Board may require the applicant to furnish further information or clarification regarding matters relevant to his activity of a portfolio manager for the purposes of disposal of the application.the time specified such objections as may be indicated by the board. if so required. equipments and manpower to effectively discharge his activities. Furnishing of further information. its principal officer shall. . clarification and personal representation. 4. 3. Consideration of application. The Board shall take into account for considering the grant of certificate. The applicant or. appear before the Board for personal representation.
fulfils the capital adequacy requirements specified in regulation 7 The applicant. law. his partner. . and accountancy or business management. The applicant has the professional qualification from an institution recognized by the government in finance. directly or indirectly connected with the applicant has not been granted registration by the Board in case of the applicant being a body corporate. partner or principal officer has not at any time been convinced for any offence involving moral turpitude or has been found guilty of any economic offences. The applicant. The applicant has his employment minimum of two persons who have the experience to conduct the business of portfolio manager. director or principal officer is not involved in any litigation connected with the securities market and which has an adverse bearing on the business of the applicant. The applicant. A person. his director.
why? .PRIMARY SURVEY Purpose of the study: To ascertain investor awareness about services provided by portfolio management institutions and the interest shown by investor to invest in portfolio management services. To know whether they are interested to hire such services in future and if not.
SPECIMEN QUESTIONNAIRE Survey on investor’s views about Portfolio Management Name: Age: Occupation: » Are you aware of services offered by portfolio manager? Yes » No If yes. what types of services you are aware of ? Management of Mutual fund investment Management of Equities Management of Money market investment Advisory or consultancy services Others (If other please specify) .
why? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ » What is the Percentage of commission that you are ready to pay to portfolio manager for services provided by him in ? Equities Mutual fund investment services Other investment Money market investment Advisory or consultancy .» Would you want to hire a portfolio manager at present or in future? Yes No » If yes. for what type of services? Investments in Mutual Funds Investments in Money market Advisory or consultancy service Investments in Equities Investments in other[s] (If other please specify) » If No.
why? » What type of services would you want from portfolio manager in future? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ » Suggestions if any: __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ ____________ Signature .(If other please specify) » Do you think there will be growth in portfolio management in future? If Yes why? If No.
On the other . advisory and consultancy services are the services provided by the portfolio management institution. management of money market investment. Due to lack of experience and market knowledge. advisory and consultancy services are the services that the individual investors are more aware of. the age group of 45-60 is more interested to hire portfolio manager at present in order to manage their portfolio.FINDINGS This case study has been conducted on various age groups of individual investors on portfolio management. These consist of age group ranging from 18-30. Management of mutual fund investment. Amongst these. management of equities. The age group ranging from 18-30 is more interested in making investment in equities whereas group ranging from 60 & above are more interested in making investment in mutual fund. Following interpretation has been made on the basis of the information collected from individual investor’s of various age groups through questionnaire: Age group of 18-30 is more aware about services offered by portfolio manager whereas age group of 60 & above is less aware of such services. 30-45. 45-60 and 60 & above.
All the age groups of individual investors in portfolio management believe that there is a better scope for portfolio management in future. investment in mutual funds in the near future. age group of 30-45 and 45-60 are least interested in any of the services provided by portfolio management institution. Also they possess good knowledge with regards to market fluctuations.hand. . Reasons specified for the presence of disinterest in any of these services were that the investors are having good hold on their investment. Investors would prefer the introduction of services like advisory and consultancy services. investment portfolio’s and other factors relating to portfolio management.
it can be said that the future of portfolio management is bright in years to come.CONCLUSION With the help of given project I got an in-depth knowledge about the working of portfolio management. They believe in investing and managing their portfolio on their own. tax benefits etc.e. age group bet. 18-30) is willing to invest in different investment avenues through portfolio manager or through mutual funds which are again managed by portfolio managers. . diversified portfolios. young generation (i. On the other hand. Portfolio management is governed by SEBI Act. expert professional management. age group of 60 & above are least interested in making investment in different avenues through portfolio managers. It can be concluded from the project that future of portfolio management is bright provided proper regulations prevail and investor’s needs are satisfied by providing variety of schemes. Due to the benefits available to the individual’s such as reduction in risk. The interest of investors is protected by SEBI. which scheme provide better return as compared to other and who are the portfolio management players in the Indian market. Also I got an insight as too how to invest in portfolio management. However.
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