Piping Fundamentals – For Fresher Engineers Piping System - What is that?

Concept Layout Development Piping Components & their access requirement. Straight length requirements. Orientation of various tapings, components, etc. Piping Drains & Vents Insulation. Material & Sizing Critical piping system consideration. Pipe Stress Analysis. Pipe Supports

Piping Fundamentals – For Fresher Engineers Let us first Discuss about WHAT IS PIPE! It is a Tubular item made of metal, plastic, glass etc. meant for conveying Liquid, Gas or any thing that flows. It is a very important component for any industrial plant. And it’s engineering plays a major part in overall engineering of a Plant. In next few pages we shall try to familiarize about pipe and it’s components.

Now let us start with a plant where we see three tanks.In any plant various fluids flow through pipes from one end to other. Tank-2 and Tank-3 We have to transfer the content of Tank no. Tank-1. We will need to connect pipes to transfer the fluids from Tank-1 to Tank-2 and Tank-3 LET US BRING THE PIPES. . 1 to the other two tanks.

Pipes are all straight pieces. re sa e pip es! e om t siz s en feren Ev dif of We need some branch connections We need some bend connections . now we need to solve some more problems. which are called PIPE FITTINGS We have just brought the pipes.To solve these problems we need the pipe components.

These. etc. There are various types of fittings for various purposes. . Tees/Branches. but the ends are yet to be joined with the Tank nozzles. Couplings. in piping term. the pipes and fittings are in place. Olets. We now have to complete the end connections. Reducers/Expanders. we call TERMINAL CONNECTIONS.These are the pipe fittings. some common types are Elbows/Bends. Anyway.

VALVE .So far this is a nice arrangement. We need some arrangement to stop the flow if needed These are flanged joints This is a welded joint To control the flow in a pipe line we need to fit a special component. That is called . But there is no control over the flow from Tank-1 to other tanks.

Butterfly. categorized based on their construction and functionality. Check. which cleans out derbies from the flowing fluid.There are many types of valves. etc. Globe.Gate. Other than valves another important line component of pipe line is a filter. Those are . This is called a STRAINER .

which is called an EXPANSION JOINT . when the tank is hot. with valves and strainer installed.Here we see a more or less functional piping system. Let us now investigate some aspects of pipe flexibility. If this tank nozzle expands. In such case we need to fit a flexible pipe component at that location.

To know these information we need to install INSTRUMENTS in the pipeline. flow rate etc. temperature. pressure. of the fluid. .When some fluid is flowing in a pipe we may also like know the parameters like.

Also there are specific criteria for installation of various pipe line instruments.Next we shall look into how to SUPPORT the pipe/and it’s components. . There are various types instruments to measure various parameters.

Here are some of the pipe supporting arrangements. There can be numerous variants. Let us see some OTHER types of supports . All depend on piping designer’s preference and judgement.



Pipe size. « Types of Valves are planned « Also the types of instruments required are planned We represent the whole thing in a drawing which is called Piping and Instrumentation Drawing. Let us see a P&ID prepared in SPP&ID . Flowing Fluid. For P&ID generation we use SPP&ID software. We shall rewind and check how it is really done in practice. 1) What. pipe material and pipe wall thickness are selected. in short P&ID.We have just completed a pipe line design. « First the flow scheme is planned. So the SPP&ID drawing is an Intelligent drawing which under it’s surface carries all the information about a pipe like. 2) From what point. 3) To which point « Pipe sizes are selected. we enter all the pipe lines system information in the drawing. By this time you have already come to know that while we prepare P&IDs in SPP&ID. etc.


This is screen picture of P&ID made by SPP&ID If we click on any line it will show the Data embedded. .

Also should not encroach any equipment maintenance space. Here we carryout pipe routing / layout in Virtual 3D environment.After the P&ID is ready we start the layout work. Not Preferable Preferable . « Should not hinder any normal passage way. We use PDS 3D software to route piping in the Plant virtual 3D space. While development of piping layout we have to consider the following « Piping from source to destination should be as short as possible with minimum change in direction. We call this as piping modeling or physical design.

strainers. like for flow orifice we need to provide 15 times diameter straight pipe length at upstream of orifice and 5 times diameter straight at down stream of orifice. like temperature gauge can not be installed in pipe which is less than 4 inch in size.While carrying out pipe routing we also need to consider the following « Valves. « Specific requirements of STRAIGHT LENGTH of pipe for some components to be maintained. Example of Straight length requirement for Flow Orifice . « Specific requirements for instrument installation to be checked. instruments on the pipe should be easily accessible. like some valves or strainers can only be installed in horizontal position. « If needed separate ACCESS PLATFORMS to be provided to facilitate these. « Desired location and orientation of valves / instruments and other pipe components are to be checked and maintained.

} To achieve this a DRAIN connection with Valve is provided at the lowest point of the pipeline } Pipes are also slopped towards low points. } Also arrangement is kept in the pipeline so that liquid can be drained out if required. } To achieve this a VENT connection with Valve is provided at the top most point of the pipeline. we have to make sure that all air is allowed to vent out of the line when the line is filled with liquid. Let us look into typical Vent and Drain arrangement in a pipeline .} For Pipeline which shall carry liquid.

This is a 3D model of Feed water line along with pumps and other accessories Let us have a look into a piping model done by PDS 3D .

It is called Cold Insulation. Insulation preserves the heat of the fluid. It is called Acoustic Insulation.  Containing the heat inside the pipe. so that people do not get burn injury by touching hot surface of pipes are also insulated Cold pipe. by heat tracing element. It is called Hot Insulation  Personnel safety.INSULATION .When hot fluid flows through pipe then generally pipe is insulated. Other types of Insulation  When gas flows through pipes at high velocity. It is called Heat Tracing Insulation. There are two primary reasons for insulating the pipe carrying hot fluid. . In such cases pipes are insulated to reduce noise. it creates noise.  Some times cold pipes are insulated to prevent condensation of atmospheric water vapor on pipe surface.  Some times pipe and it’s content are heated from outside. In that case pipe along with heat tracing element are insulated to conserve the heat of the tracer. It is called Anti-Sweat Insulation. It is called Personnel Protection Insulation  Cold or chilled fluid carrying pipes are insulated to prevent heating of cold fluid from outside.

The insulating material should be bad conductor of heat. Have a look at how pipes are insulated. Glass Wool. There are two basic categories 1) Fibrous Material. Note stagnant air is a bad conductor. which has large voids full of air between fibers . So the outer surface of insulation are protected with Aluminum sheet or GI sheet cladding. and general components of insulation . Polystyrene (Thermocol).Cork. 2) Cellular Material.Insulation materials are generally soft or fragile. etc. INSULATION CLADDING . Organic Fibers. Cellular Glass (Foam Glass). which has closed void cells full or air . Mineral Wool.INSULATION MATERIAL . Some times Cast material like Cement Plaster or Plaster of Paris are also used.Calcium Silicate. Polyurethane Foam (PUF).

to select appropriate pipe material based on flowing fluid property. & Pressure Check Pipe life Expectancy Select suitable Material per practice (Note-1) Check Mat.Pipe Material Selection . Press. flow area required and Pipe size Calc. Find out Flow volume per second Check Velocity Allowable per second Calc. Pipe Sizing Calculation . & Pressure Decide on Corrosion allowance Calc. & Diameter as above Find out Fluid Temp. Drop for that Pipe size Check Press. Budget NO Increase Pipe Size Pipe Thickness Selection . Listed in Design Code NO See Note1 YES Pipe Material OK Note-1 : Material is selected per past experience with cost in mind and per material listed in design code.to select appropriate pipe thickness based on flowing fluid property. Pipe Thickness per Code Pipe Size OK .to select required pipe diameter based on velocity and pressure drop. If material is not listed in code we may select next suitable material listed. Select Mat. YES Drop meets Press. Find out type of Fluid flowing Find out Fluid Temp.

We have to built in flexibility in the high temperature pipe routing so that the expansion force is absorbed within the piping.the Indian Boiler Regulation . And also there are piping which carries water at High pressure. and routed at beginning of the overall plant layout. } Very special care are taken for design of these piping. } As these pipes carry the main system fluid of the power plant. } These pipelines are call the CRITICAL PIPING. } Steam pipes run at very high temperature and the hot pipes expand. they are given the right of way. } First the pipe material selection for such piping is very important as it has to withstand the high pressure and may be also high temperature.1.} In Power plant there are some piping which carries steam at high pressure and temperature. These pipes carries the main cycle steam and water of the steam power plant. } Also there should be enough flexibility in these pipe routing so that high loads are not transferred to the nozzles of Turbine or Pumps } There are many recognized international codes which lay down guide lines and mandatory requirements for design of such piping. } The most important codes used by power plant piping engineers are } ASME ANSI B31.Power Piping Code & IBR .

} We also find out the pipe growth due to change in temperature and need to keep the movement of pipe within acceptable limits. This loading are to be within acceptable limits of the equipment suggested by the vendors.Pipe Stress Analysis } We have already seen that some of the pipes are subjected to high pressure and high temperature. Each step is checked } If a check fails we have to go back. } Then we check with governing codes if those stresses generated are acceptable or not. } This process of checking the stress developed in the piping due to various loading is called Pipe Stress Analysis/Flexibility analysis. } Pipe Stress Analysis is an Interactive and Iterative process. } We also check out the terminal point loading generated from pipe to the equipment connected to the pipe. } In the process of Analysis we apply various postulated loading on the pipe and find out the stress resulted from these loading. . } We need to check and confirm the pipe is not going to fail with these loading. Also pipes carry the load of the flowing fluid. modify the layout and restart the analysis. } We check support load & movement for various loading condition.

1 } In India Power cycle Piping to comply IBR code requirements.Commercial Piping analysis software } There are many other commercial software available Outputs } Stress of the pipe at various loading conditions } Load at various supports and restrains. } Thrust on pipe due to earthquake } Load of Snow on pipe } Any transient loading like Steam Hammer load } Any other load on the piping Tools we use } PIPSYS .PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS Inputs } Geometric layout of Pipe } Pipe supporting configuration } Pipe Diameter and Thickness } Pressure inside Pipe } Cold and Hot temperatures of Pipe } Weight of Pipe and insulation } Weight of carrying Fluid } Pipe material Property (Young’s Modulus. Thermal Expansion Coefficient) } Thrust on pipe due to blowing wind. . Codes and Standards } In general Power Plant Piping have to comply stipulations of ASME ANSI B31. } Movement of pipe at support locations } Pipe terminal point loading.is an integrated pipe stress analysis module of PLADES 2000 } CEASER .

} Constant load support. Rigid Support Rigid Hanger Variable Spring Constant Load Spring Dynamic Support.Types of Pipe Supports In the beginning of this discussion we talked about various types of pipe supports. the load remains constant within some range of movement. here support load changes as the pipe moves. Here is some elaboration } There are three general types } Rigid type (no flexibility in the direction of restrain) } Spring type (Allows pipe movement in direction of loading) } Dynamic Support (Degree of restrain depends on acceleration of load) } There are two types of spring support } Variable load type. Snubber Rigid Support .

which turns on as the ambient temperature goes down. } Or U/G piping be protected by using Cathodic protection. } Keep in mind if pipe leaks U/G. } Avoid flange joint in U/G piping. is below freezing. } Electric Heat tracing is done by wrapping electric coil around pipe. Buried piping should be properly protected from corrosion. Freeze Protection of outdoor Piping: } In the areas where the ambient temperature goes below freezing there is a possibility that the liquid content of pipe may freeze while the plant is under shut down. . it will be difficult to detect. Pipes are insulated over the heat tracing coils. so avoid U/G routing of pipe carrying hazardous fluid. } Pipe to be laid below Frost Zone at areas where ambient temperature goes below freezing. } Pipe may be properly wrapped and coated to prevent corrosion. } For similar case pipes are wrapped with heat tracing elements to maintain the content temperature above freezing (around 4 deg. C) even when the ambient temp.Some Special Considerations for Piping When pipes are routed UNDER GROUND (Buried) following points to be kept in mind: } Minimum pipe size to be routed under ground shall be not less than1 inch. } U/G. } Heat tracing can also be done by winding Steam tubes around main pipes.

Hope you have gathered the fundamentals on the subject of Piping .We have come to the End of Session.

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