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Employee Satisfaction and Morale Boosting.
Presented by:Jitesh Ahire (Roll No.4) Aviral Dubey (Roll No.27) Aishwarya Duggal (Roll No. ) Nikita Gholkar (Roll No.33) Deepti Joshi (Roll No. 46)
History Models on Job Satisfaction Measuring job satisfaction Myths relating to Job Satisfaction Best Practices Role of Employee Satisfaction and Morale Boosting 3 4 5 5 6 7 Job satisfaction 2 .
Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations.and an attitude towards one’s job. Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. job enlargement and job enrichment. the more satisfied they are said to be. Questions relate to rate of pay. causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. work responsibilities. not from the new conditions. Despite the large number of studies that have dealt with these issues. Definitions Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job. employee involvement. primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School. but from the knowledge of being observed. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. variety of tasks. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance. A number of consequences have been shown to result from job satisfaction/dissatisfaction. History One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book.an affective reaction to one’s job. which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. methods include job rotation. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5 represents "extremely satisfied"). sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity. Principles of Scientific Management. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were 3 . It was later found that this increase resulted. The happier people are within their job.Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. although it is clearly linked. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies. promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers. The concept of job satisfaction traditionally has been of great interest to social scientists concerned with the problems of work in an industrial society. however. These studies (1924-1933). empowerment and autonomous work groups. there has been little accumulation of knowledge.
locus of control. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. a motivation theory. the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e. his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met).L. general self-efficacy. thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. social needs. Models of job satisfaction Affect Theory Edwin A. It should also be noted that the work of W. compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Job Characteristics Model 4 . Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy. To illustrate. laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. proposed by Timothy A. workers became exhausted and dissatisfied. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Bryan. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories.g. When a person values a particular facet of a job. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model.forced to work at a faster pace. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Finally. regardless of one’s job. Judge in 1998. Further. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. Walter Dill Scott. and neuroticism. as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. and self-actualization. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem. and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor’s work. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs. Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life. safety needs. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction. However. self-esteem needs. then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B.
It is an improvement to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general. is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay. and growth. Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety. Measuring job satisfaction There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviours----. or can’t decide (indicated by ‘?’) in response to whether given statements accurately describe one’s job. coworkers. and the Faces Scale. The scale is simple. Pay—adequacy of pay and perceived equity vis-à-vis others. Argument: Satisfaction Causes Performance -If job satisfaction causes high levels of performance. The MSQ measures job satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (five items from each facet) and a short form with 20 questions (one item from each facet). The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert). and knowledge of the actual results). participants answer either yes. and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness. created by Smith. The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. promotions and promotion opportunities. task identity. the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS). This data is typically collected using an Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) system. supervision. True/False questions. checklists. Kendall. point systems. no. autonomy. Relationships with co-workers—social harmony and respect. in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction. and forced choice answers. • • • • • The work itself—responsibility. including job satisfaction. one of the first scales used widely. work motivation. Promotion opportunities—chances for further advancement.). the Faces Scale of job satisfaction. Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). Quality of supervision—technical help and social support. measured overall job satisfaction with just one item which participants respond to by choosing a face. which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes. etc. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI). & Hulin (1969). Finally. interest. task significance. The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job. and the work itself. absenteeism. experienced responsibility for outcomes. the message to managers is quite simple: To 5 . By far.Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model. Some general myths relating to Job Satisfaction. A metaanalysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM.
lead to satisfaction. This conclusion is widely recognized among OB scholars. they “link” performance with later satisfaction. the size and value of the reward vary in proportion to the level of one’s performance accomplishment. Whereas job satisfaction alone is not a good predictor of work performance. A basic model of this relationship. In this model rewards are intervening variables. job satisfaction would be expected to follow. in turn. that is. maintains that performance accomplishment leads to rewards that. The key word in the previous sentence is proper. make them happy. In this case. indicates that no simple and direct link exists between individual job satisfaction at one point in time and work performance at a later point.increase employees’ work performance. And whereas giving a low performer only small rewards initially may lead to dissatisfaction. attention should be given to helping people achieve high performance. The point is that managers should consider satisfaction and performance as two separate but interrelated work results that are affected by the allocation of rewards. Large rewards are given for high performance. Argument: Rewards Cause Both Satisfaction and Performance : This final argument in the job satisfaction–performance controversy is the most compelling. small or no rewards are given for low performance. based on the work of Edward E. the expectation is that the individual will make efforts to improve performance in order to obtain greater rewards in the future. In addition. Rather than focusing first on peoples’ job satisfaction. Lawler and Lyman Porter. The moderator indicates that performance will lead to satisfaction only if rewards are perceived as equitable. If an individual feels that his or her performance is unfairly rewarded. Argument: Performance Causes Satisfaction :If high levels of performance cause job satisfaction. well-managed rewards can have a positive influence on both satisfaction and performance. But research also indicates that performancecontingent rewards influence a person’s work performance. even though some evidence suggests that the relationship holds better for professional or higher level employees than for nonprofessionals or those at lower job levels. It suggests that a proper allocation of rewards can positively influence both performance and satisfaction. Research indicates that people who receive high rewards report higher job satisfaction. the performance–causes–satisfaction relationship will not hold. a moderator variable—perceived equity of rewards—further affects the relationship. What kindles dissatisfaction? • • Earnings or benefits Job quality or workplace support 6 . however. Job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of individual work performance. Research. Research indicates an empirical relationship between individual performance measured at a certain time period and later job satisfaction. the message to managers is quite different.
7) Recognition (first) and Reward (second) How to keep Employees Engaged and Happy? Strengthen work environment Make improvements to mould the company as an employer of choice Treat employees as an important part of the organisation Encourage participation in various planning and decision-making aspects Offer meaningful work and challenging assignments to effectively utilise staff skills Empower employees and ensure them of job security. 7 . genuinely listen to staff concerns and make their interests a management priority Role of Employee Satisfaction & Morale Boosting. 1) Recruiting and Hiring…it all starts with this 2) Provide a Career / ‘Skill’ Path 3) Employee Development and Training 4) Strong Supervisors / Good Coaching 5) Work Environment / Company Culture 6) Rewarding work / empowering employees.• • • Lack of appreciation Stagnation or no growth Lack of freedom Best Practices -Employee Satisfaction . Provide legitimate feedback.
or to use Hackman and Oldham’s (1980) terms. For instance. _ Workplace Design. and Workplace Design all relate to one’s satisfaction with the work context. Recognition & Reward. and _ Loyalty to the Organisation. Conditions of Service. _ Performance Management. Job Significance Pascoe. 1980) that are claimed to be necessary for job satisfaction and the motivation to perform one’s job well. _ Recognition & Reward. & Warne (your own belief 8 . “Job Context Satisfaction”. _ Organizational Loyalty to Workers. _ Job Significance. Organizational Loyalty to Workers. Similarly.Seven social learning processes and strategies were identified that relate to Job Satisfaction and Morale. These are: _ Conditions of Service. Ali. These seven elements of Job Satisfaction and Morale align with components of the Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham.
Long serving members. Whilst there appears to be no direct relationship between Loyalty to the Organization and elements of the Job Characteristics Model. however. thought of their work in the Defence Forces as a long term career. the billets which were often perceived to be the ‘jewels in the crown’ as far as military postings are concerned. respectively. one’s attitude to the organization for which they work would influence their motivation to work well. The interviews highlighted how social changes with regard to individuals’ goals and aspirations are impacting on work expectations. Thus. but not necessarily as a lifelong career. until very recently.that your work is important and has value) and Performance Management relate to Experienced Meaningfulness of Work” and “Knowledge of Results”. there seemed to be some degree of resentment: [There is] “the perception that civilians were taking over the organisation…a lot of things we used to do is now being taken over by civilians…We had people 9 .” “I don’t think [this service] has found a method to address women who want to have families…” “My partner and I have not lived in the same state since’95…it’s just not a sacrifice I’m prepared to keep making. The data clearly indicates that younger personnel now have much higher expectations of being able to balance their personal life with work commitments. both of which are posited as necessary psychological states for high levels of motivation to work well. Although it was recognised that the civilians formed an important part of the service. Conditions of Service Generally. An example is the difference in expectations between long serving personnel and new recruits (generation of baby boomers and generation X). the data indicates that there is a perception that the conditions of service and the implementation of certain associated policies and practices are having some negative impacts on how people view their work environment. new personnel view it as an opportunity to enjoy the work and the challenges the military offers. The changing role of the military from war fighting to that of the peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance has an impact on the conditions of service and ultimately on job satisfaction.” The shrinking labour market available for recruiting new staff led to the ‘civilianisation‘ of some military billets. many comments occurred in the interviews that related to ’family friendly policies’ in the service. for example: “I’d leave … if that’s what’s necessary because I have to put my family first now.
Recognition and Reward The lack of proper recognition for a job well done seems to be an endemic problem for many organisations (Mitchell. Interestingly.” This change in the way things are replaced rather than repaired has a significant impact on job design and it may be necessary to re-design other aspects of maintenance-type jobs to sustain interest and variety. The research data indicates that the lack of recognition and extrinsic reward for one’s work is mainly due to the system because rules and regulations largely prevent supervisors from 10 . of respondents were satisfied with the level of resourcing and the workload. 2000). That’s his career. This has impacted heavily on officers' perceptions of conditions of service: “I have a letter from the Chief of Defence Force (CDF) telling me that I can expect probably two jobs in rank and then it’s up or out. indicating that this factor is not adversely affecting Job Satisfaction and Morale.” Many interviewees indicated they had planned to stay until they were 55 years old. Sixty-two percent and 72%. The research data points to the general perception that junior staff will be told to go home. It meant then the [uniformed] people had to take up the slack. whereas before I was promoted to this rank I probably did. This occurs both at junior and senior ranks. With the downsizing policies that plague most government and private sector organisations. and the workload. The quantitative survey canvassed opinions on having sufficient resources to do your work. this has been compounded by the policy of the service whereby some talented young people are being given fast track promotions. Due to the changing economic climate there were changes introduced to promotion and advancement policies. but that they now felt that this was not possible.come in and weren’t trained to the same level as the [service] people. but that no-one tells the senior ranks to go home and not to work such long hours. and by the perception that if you have not reached a particular rank by a certain age then you are wasting your time staying in the service. respectively.”…”I have no security of tenure here.” Two quality of work issues emerged from the interviews: having interesting and challenging work (which is discussed under the heading of job significance). An example relating to the latter is: “The technicians…are very much monkey see monkey do these days…he’ll … learn to replace boxes. the culture to work long hours seems to be heavily entrenched. and the change in the way things are manufactured and repaired.
Most interviewees talked about the use of promotion as a reward. and as a consequence there are probably a large number of exceptional people who are missing out. & Warne surprising. Organisational Loyalty to Workers The prevailing economic climate has led many organisations onto a path of implementing efficiency measures.. typical comments were: “It’s been very rewarding personally. Interviewees also commented that the existing honours and awards system is complex. The research team was told that due to a heavy workload commendations are not written (only one or two people seem to be writing up 90% of the commendations). and I’m busting my buns and have for the past 30 something year. frequent organisational changes and downsizing are the results of that. Quotes typical of those about the honours and awards system are: “The honours and awards system is quite a complex one but it’s one of the most publicly and visibly recognised way of getting reward. It is not Pascoe. Ali.” Such comments indicate that some have specifically joined the military because of intrinsic rewards such as a wide variety of jobs and opportunities. but I’ve done a lot of really interesting things.” On the matter of intrinsic reward.” There were also a number of comments about inadequate feedback: “I’ve been here for three months and I don’t get any feedback on the work that I’ve done…I presume it’s been OK because they haven’t come back to me and said “You’re hopeless. Restructuring. but also emphasised that not everyone who is capable is going to be promoted because there are not enough positions available. professionally. that there is the perception that the organisation is less loyal to workers now than in the past as illustrated by the following comment: “Well hang on.” "Conspicuous service medals and the Australia Day Medals …there’s a general avoidance of people [in this HQ] getting those sort of things because it’s then seen as being nepotistic.” “…You get offered good opportunities because you’re good doing that stuff and you’re working hard.offering “encouragement awards” (such as gift vouchers) in recognition of a job well done. if the head shed [HQ] gets all the kudos. if not financially.” 11 . always been a workaholic and always delivered 150%. therefore. there ain’t no loyalty here.
Reichheld (2001) also states that true employee loyalty includes responsibility and accountability for building successful. It’s not just a case of I didn’t enjoy the last six months. Despite the mixed messages concerning loyalty to the service. which is making me sad to leave. some mixed messages from people who perceived themselves as extremely loyal to the service and yet they were leaving it: “I’m leaving but I’ve actually really enjoyed it.The other aspect of organisational loyalty raised during interviews related to the contract of trust between leaders and staff being broken: “[There is the] expectation that there’s going to be more money put into people and the only place they can get that money from. It’s the best place that I’ve worked with Defence… I’m really glad I worked here and I’ve got this loyalty to the service. This is likely to be reflected in the level of job satisfaction and staff retention rates. but there is a general feeling out there that that is a platitude and we don’t really live up to that. because they can’t go across to the government say ’we need more money‘… The only way they can get it is out of operating costs. were happy.” “I’m probably actually quite loyal to the organisation.” There were.” In the quantitative survey only 15% of respondents indicated that they would not consider a career outside Defence. and would stay with the service forever. however. and despite the fact that 12 .” “there is a simmering air of discontentment and unhappiness and there’s also this underpinning loyalty and love for the service. mutually valuable relationships. shared objectives you know it would take a long period of not having a good time. Many of the interviewees considered themselves loyal to the service. if they could: “I’m…sort of very proud to be wearing the uniform and I knew it was something that I wanted to do when I was in high school. and involves staff being loyal to the organisation and the organisation being loyal to staff.” “We keep saying that people are the backbone of [this service]. This could lead to a serious problem should those remaining 85% employees act upon it and leave the Department.” Loyalty to the Organisation According to Reichheld (2001) unless leaders of an organisation have built relationships on loyalty then nothing will keep staff and other stakeholders from jumping ship the instant a better opportunity comes along.
1980).” “I really enjoyed it because I felt I was actually contributing something. and only 45% indicated they could work effectively in the open plan environment. there is a clear sense of loyalty to the service. for example: “It’s the first job I’ve ever had where I can make a big difference. and if one sees their job as trivial they are unlikely to experience it as meaningful. lack of tangible and significant outcomes from work can lead to workers being less willing to engage in generative learning. Workplace design The physical design of a workplace impacts on the behaviours that occur in that space. and that common identity.” Job Significance Job significance is the extent to which one feels his or her work is significant.staff still indicated they are leaving. Regardless of industry or organisation. Most of the interviewees talked about the importance of feeling they are making a contribution and that their work is having an effect. and what it does promote is the transfer of knowledge. In turn. of actually getting out there and doing what you are trained to do is remarkable. From the interview data it became apparent that the preferred solution to this was to book a quiet conference room and work there.” “I’m very pleased to be going back to something where…I think I can make a contribution because I struggled to find a way to really make a contribution.” 13 . and I love it. some interviewees' comments indicated they favoured an open plan environment. of something like the Gulf. or is something that ‘counts’. they are unlikely to develop a high level of job satisfaction or work motivation (Hackman & Oldham. Interestingly. Some indicated that working at the HQ has given them a clearer picture of what the service does and how they contribute to that. it’s a day-to-day task that doesn’t contribute to the bigger goal… doesn’t have a big impact on any projects whatever. morale and communication had been enhanced due to the collocation of staff: “You can just pull up a chair and talk about something” “It really promotes a team. Fifty-nine percent of respondents to the quantitative survey found the work environment too noisy.” “Service to our nation is one of the greatest things you can ever do and the simple satisfaction of something like Timor.” Others talked about a lack of challenge and job significance as a reason for leaving: “More administration.
or how valued you are to the organisation. and this directly influence employees’ Willingness To Share Corporate Knowledge and their Willingness to Voice New Ideas. higher levels of Job Satisfaction & Morale would have positive impacts on Loyalty to the Organization and levels of Job Significance. Figure 2 below illustrates the impact that factors associated with Job Satisfaction and Morale can have on these two elements that are vital to generative learning. perform or you’re out. you know. Job Satisfaction & Morale will impact on Motivation to Work Well. congratulations. Finally. The findings of the study reported in this paper suggest that Conditions of Service.The research data clearly points to lack of job significance as a main reason for those who leave the service. Recognition & Reward. Performance Management Assessment. but the relationship is recursive. well done. reporting and performance management form a significant part of the overall management of military personnel throughout their careers. Workplace Design. These include the willingness to share corporate knowledge and the willingness to voice new ideas and engage in dialogue about new and innovative ways of working. trust.” Individuals identified the following as important in their performance management: realistic goals. What it says is that "Now that you're here. Organizational Loyalty to Workers. making sure your performance is fully recorded.” “…It doesn’t say anything about. 14 . For instance. and Performance Management contribute directly to Job Satisfaction & Morale. Issues raised in relation to performance management of individuals are indicated by the following comments: “…Evaluation of personnel and reports were not handed in on time and as a result some people missed [out] on advancement. and the linking of the financial and performance The Role of Job Satisfaction and Morale in Organisational Learning Job satisfaction and the motivation to perform well at work is important in today's business climate not merely because of their links with high levels of work effectiveness – they are also important because the competitive advantage requires a ‘knowledge edge’ and this cannot be achieved unless employees are willing to engage in behaviours that will result in generative learning. Loyalty To the Organization and Job Significance also contribute to Job Satisfaction & Morale.
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