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29416308-Ob-Assignment-Final

29416308-Ob-Assignment-Final

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LEADERSHIP APPROACHES

Table of Contents
Leader ........................................................................................................................................ 2 LEADERSHIP ............................................................................................................................. 2 Trait Theory ................................................................................................................................ 2 Behavioral Theory....................................................................................................................... 3 Ohio State University Studies .................................................................................................. 4 University of Michigan Studies ................................................................................................ 5 The Managerial Grid................................................................................................................ 6 Contingency Theory.................................................................................................................... 7 Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory .................................................................. 7 Cognitive Resource Theory ..................................................................................................... 9 HERSEY AND BLANCHARD¶s SITUATIONAL THEORY ...................................................... 10 Leader-Member Exchange .................................................................................................... 11 Path-Goal Theory of Leadership............................................................................................ 13 CONTIGENCY VARIABLES AND PREDICTIONS ................................................................ 14 Supportive leadership ........................................................................................................ 14 Directive leadership ........................................................................................................... 14 Participative leadership ...................................................................................................... 14 Achievement-oriented leadership....................................................................................... 14 References............................................................................................................................ 16

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Traits Adaptable to situations Alert to social environment Ambitious and achievement-orientated Assertive Cooperative Decisive Dependable Dominant (desire to influence others) Energetic (high activity level) Persistent Self-confident Tolerant of stress Willing to assume responsibility Skills Clever (intelligent) Conceptually skilled Creative Diplomatic and tactful Fluent in speaking Knowledgeable about group task Organized (administrative ability) Persuasive Socially skilled y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y 2|P a ge . which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits. too. Leadership A simple definition of leadership is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day.  People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits. then they.  Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits. could also become great leaders. Trait Theory This theory has the following Assumptions  People are born with inherited traits.LEADERSHIP APPROACHES Leader A leader is "a person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal". often by studying successful leaders.

LEADERSHIP APPROACHES y y y y Emotional stability and composure: Calm. A behavioral theory is relatively easy to develop. Intellectual breadth: Able to understand a wide range of areas. thus adding a second layer of understanding. This is easier to teach and learn then to adopt the more ephemeral 'traits' or 'capabilities'. rather than are born. Rather. then it should be relatively easy for other people to act in the same way. in that it assumes that leadership capability can be learned. You can also identify behaviors which contribute to failure. Behavioral Theory This theory has the following Assumptions  Leaders can be made. as you simply assess both leadership success and the actions of leaders. Behavioral is a big leap from Trait Theory. confident and predictable. rather than having a narrow (and narrow-minded) area of expertise. Good interpersonal skills: Able to communicate and persuade others without resort to negative or coercive tactics. This opens the floodgates to leadership development. rather than putting energy into covering up. 3|P a ge .  Successful leadership is based in definable. particularly when under stress. Admitting error: Owning up to mistakes. rather than being inherent. you can then correlate statistically significant behaviors with success. If success can be defined in terms of describable actions. With a large enough study. they look at what leaders actually do. as opposed to simple psychometric assessment that sorts those with leadership potential from those who will never have the chance. Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. learnable behavior.

1957. 1957. 5. According to Starbuck (1996) "Initiating structure embodied the essential properties of the leadership concepts of 1910. 7. 1. Fleishman & Harris. 2. Two statistically independent dimensions behavior-factors or dimensions were said to be universal. A leader could be low. There is also a Leader Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ) completed by the manager. medium or the 2 dimensions at the same time: Initiating structure + Consideration = High-high leader INITIATING STRUCTURE This is the One Voice Leader who Directs with Transactional and Task oriented style. 3. the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ-XII) was administered to the world (Fleishman. the micro-manager." The main point . 3. 5. Treats all work-unit members as his or her equal Is friendly and approachable Does little things to make work pleasant Puts suggestions made by the work unit into operation Looks out for personal welfare of work unit members Supportive socio-emotional work atmosphere Maintains high morale in work-unit Collaborative work atmosphere 4|P a ge . 8. 4.LEADERSHIP APPROACHES Ohio State University Studies To determine the leadership styles. and a bit Transformational. Let¶s work-unit members know what is expected of them Schedules the work to be done Encourages the use of uniform work procedures Assigns work-unit members to particular tasks Plans tasks for work-unit members Makes his or her attitudes clear to the work unit Clarifies work roles Asks for results CONSIDERATION This is the Poly Voice Leader who is people-oriented and Participative.Initiating Structure and Consideration are just about transaction behaviors. 6. and consideration embodied the concepts of the 1930s. At best great for routine and repetitive task. Hemhill & Coons. 6. 4. 7. 1953. 1. Halpin & Winer. 1962). 2. and not about changing the game of life at work. at worst.

Production Centered:  Emphasize technical or task aspects of the job  Concerned mainly with accomplishing group's goal  Regard group members as means to an end Employee Centered:  Emphasize interpersonal relations  Take personal interest in needs of employees  Accept individual differences among members FINDINGS  High producing groups were led by leaders with an employee-centered style. this time production or employee centered. 2 dimensions. Once again. Maccoby. and these are about managing transactions. 5|P a ge . like the Ohio State LBDQ. & Morse. It began in 1947 when Rensis Likert and his group of social researchers at University of Michigan launched series of leader studies in range of settings. not about changing or transforming the rules of the game. is once again reliant upon the perceptions of only one source (subordinates) completing the questionnaire. 1950).LEADERSHIP APPROACHES University of Michigan Studies University of Michigan called the Survey of Organizations (Katz. This behavioral survey.

While they consider the ³team management´ style of leadership to be ideal. such as the Michigan Leadership Studies and the Ohio State Leadership Studies. This is a well-known grid that uses the Task vs. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse1 refined the Leadership Grid® which identified various types of managerial leadership based on concern for production coupled with concern for people. how much attention to they pay to one or the other? This is a model defined by Blake and Mouton in the early 1960s. but as other models point out. They work to motivate employees to reach their highest levels of accomplishment. 6|P a ge . The Managerial Grid was the original name. Leaders may be concerned for their people and they also must also have some concern for the work to be done. Effective managers have great concern for both people and production. They are both clearly important dimensions. and they understand the need to change.LEADERSHIP APPROACHES The Managerial Grid Robert R. they are not all there is to leadership and management. The question is. It later changed to the Leadership Grid. They are flexible and responsive to change. Person preference that appears in many other studies. they recognize that it may be difficult to implement in some work situations. Many other task-people models and variants have appeared since then.

helpful. the capabilities and behaviors of followers and also various other situational factors. This helps to explain how some leaders who seem for a while to have the 'Midas touch' suddenly appear to go off the boil and make very unsuccessful decisions. Contingency theory is similar to situational theory in that there is an assumption of no simple one right way. A high LPC leader generally scores the other person as positive and a low LPC leader scores them as negative. gloomy. An effect of this is that leaders who are very effective at one place and time may become unsuccessful either when transplanted to another situation or when the factors around them change. Contingency theories are a class of behavioral theory that contends that there is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others. Fiedler identified the a Least Preferred Co-Worker scoring for leaders by asking them first to think of a person with which they worked that they would like least to work with again. Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory This theory has the following Assumptions  Leaders prioritize between task-focus and people-focus. The main difference is that situational theory tends to focus more on the behaviors that the leader should adopt. whereas contingency theory takes a broader view that includes contingent factors about leader capability and other variables within the situation.  Relationships. power and task structure are the three key factors that drive effective styles. given situational factors (often about follower behavior). unhelpful. etc.).) and negative factors (unfriendly. 7|P a ge .LEADERSHIP APPROACHES Contingency Theory This theory has the following Assumptions  The leader's ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors. cheerful. including the leader's preferred style. etc. High LPC leaders tend to have close and positive relationships and act in a supportive way. and then to score the person on a range of scales between positive factors (friendly. even prioritizing the relationship before the task.

Generally. people-focus as a major categorization of the leader's style. and the least favorable. Relationship-motivated leaders are most effective in moderately favorable situations. rather than change their leadership style. Situational favorableness.The ability of a leader to control subordinates through reward and punishment.Fiedler suggests that it may be easier for leaders to change their situation to achieve effectiveness. described in terms of task motivation and relationship motivation. Position power .Extent to which the task is structured and defined. This is another approach that uses task. Leader-member relations . Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on: y y Leadership style. in which a low LPC style is better. low levels. a high LPC approach is best when leader-member relations are poor. This approach seeks to identify the underlying beliefs about people. 2. 8|P a ge . with clear goals and procedures.Degree to which a leader is accepted and supported by the group members. except when the task is unstructured and the leader is weak. in particular whether the leader sees others as positive (high LPC) or negative (low LPC). 3. High levels of these three factors give the most favorable situation. Task-motivated leaders are most effective at either end of the scale. The best LPC approach depends on a combination of their three.LEADERSHIP APPROACHES Low LPC leaders put the task first and will turn to relationships only when they are satisfied with how the work is going. determined by three factors: 1.vs. The neat trick of the model is to take someone where it would be very easy to be negative about them. Task structure .

Stress affects the relationship between intelligence and decision quality. Fiedler also linked CRT with his Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory. 3. although significant are not enough to predict leadership success.LEADERSHIP APPROACHES Cognitive Resource Theory This theory has the following Assumptions  Intelligence and experience and other cognitive resources are factors in leadership success. suggesting that high LPC scores are the main drivers of directive behavior.  Stress impacts the ability to make decisions. for simple tasks. A leader's cognitive ability contributes to the performance of the team only when the leader's approach is directive. 4. Cognitive Resource Theory predicts that: 1. 2.  Cognitive capabilities. Experience is positively related to decision quality under high stress. leader intelligence and experience is irrelevant. 9|P a ge . CRT arose dissatisfaction with Trait Theory. whilst experience counts for more during high-stress moments. A particularly significant aspect of CRT is the principle that intelligence is the main factor in low-stress situations.

LEADERSHIP APPROACHES HERSEY AND BLANCHARD¶s SITUATIONAL THEORY Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. offers suggestions for changing leadership style. Blanchard identified a three-dimensional approach for assessing leadership effectiveness: ‡ Leaders exhibit task behavior (the extent to which leaders are likely to organize and define the roles of followers and direct the work) and relationship behavior (the extent to which leaders are likely to be supportive. 10 | P a g e . ‡ The effectiveness of the leader depends on how his or her leadership style interrelates with the situation. This approach is easy to understand. and the like). ‡ The willingness and ability (readiness) of an employee to do a particular task is an important situational factor. encouraging. It focuses on the need for adaptability (the degree to which the leader is able to vary his or her style appropriately to the readiness level of a follower in a given situation). and shows leaders what to do and when to do it.

The main challenges are to carry out a thorough and consistent refinement of the measuring instruments used. the leader may offer them opportunities to demonstrate their capabilities. In this article. Although LMX theory has resulted in a number of useful accomplishments. The same effect also applies to cultural and racial differences. and a member who is similar to the leader in various ways is more likely to succeed. Leader-Member Exchange Theory. Another key factor in this stage is the discovery by both parties of how the other likes to be respected. describes how leaders in groups maintain their position through a series of tacit exchange agreements with their members. Role making In the second phase. start very soon after a person joins the group and follow three stages. also called LMX or Vertical Dyad Linkage Theory. Role taking The member joins the team and the leader assesses their abilities and talents. and evaluations which facilitate or inhibit the development of high-quality working relationships. we try to answer the question whether research on the various aspects of the exchange processes between leaders and their subordinates is consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of LMX theory.LEADERSHIP APPROACHES Leader-Member Exchange In the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory of leadership. it still faces a number of challenges. both theoretical and practical. 11 | P a g e . This perhaps explains why mixed gender relationships regularly are less successful than same-gender ones (it also affects the seeking of respect in the first stage). attributions. the leader and member take part in an unstructured and informal negotiation whereby a role is created for the member and the often-tacit promise of benefit and power in return for dedication and loyalty takes place. Our focus is on the similarities and differences between the theoretical assumptions of LMX theory and the way the core concepts are elaborated in empirical studies. The LMX process These relationships. Based on this. 1. and to gain more insight into the mutual behaviors. if they are going to happen. the quality of the exchange relationship between a leader and a particular member of a work unit. team or organization is the basic unit of analysis (dyad). This negotiation includes relationship factors as well as pure work-related ones. 2.

LEADERSHIP APPROACHES 3. a pattern of ongoing social exchange between the leader and the member becomes established. which then can then share on downwards. 12 | P a g e . The leader also gains power by being a member of their manager's inner circle. People at the bottom of an organization with unusual power may get it from an unbroken chain of circles up to the hierarchy. Routinization In this phase. Onwards and upwards The principle works upwards as well.

as well as the difficulty of the job and other contextual factors. Remove roadblocks that are stopping them going there. Increasing the rewards along the route. In particular. In increasing rewards. In clarifying the path. Leaders can take a strong or limited approach in these. leaders: y y y Clarify the path so subordinates know which way to go.  Take into account their subordinates¶ characteristics and the type of work they do. According to Robert House¶s path-goal theory. they may be directive or give vague hints. 3 effective leaders:  Motivate their followers to achieve group and organizational goals.  Make sure that they have control over outcomes their subordinates desire. In removing roadblocks.  Raise their subordinates¶ beliefs about their ability to achieve their work goals and perform at a high level.  Reward subordinates for performing at a high level or achieving their work goals by giving them desired outcomes.LEADERSHIP APPROACHES Path-Goal Theory of Leadership The path-goal theory postulates that the most successful leaders are those who increase subordinate motivation by charting out and clarifying the paths to high performance. including the follower's capability and motivation. 13 | P a g e . they may scour the path or help the follower move the bigger blocks. This variation in approach will depend on the situation. The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership was developed to describe the way that leaders encourage and support their followers in achieving the goals they have been set by making the path that they should take clear and easy. they may give occasional encouragement or pave the way with gold.

High standards are demonstrated and expected. boring or hazardous. Directive leadership Telling followers what needs to be done and giving appropriate guidance along the way. Rewards may also be increased as needed and role ambiguity decreased (by telling them what they should be doing). This approach is best when the task is complex. The leader shows faith in the capabilities of the follower to succeed. This includes giving them schedules of specific work to be done at specific times. This includes increasing the follower's self-esteem and making the job more interesting. Achievement-oriented leadership Setting challenging goals.LEADERSHIP APPROACHES CONTIGENCY VARIABLES AND PREDICTIONS House and Mitchell (1974) describe four styles of leadership: Supportive leadership Considering the needs of the follower. This approach is best when the followers are expert and their advice is both needed and they expect to be able to give it. Participative leadership Consulting with followers and taking their ideas into account when making decisions and taking particular actions. This increases the follower's sense of security and control and hence is appropriate to the situation. This approach is best when the work is stressful. both at work and in self-improvement (and often together). This may be used when the task is unstructured and complex and the follower are inexperienced. 14 | P a g e . showing concern for their welfare and creating a friendly working environment.

This approach assumes that there is one right way of achieving a goal and that the leader can see it and the follower cannot. This casts the leader as the knowing person and the follower as dependent. 15 | P a g e .LEADERSHIP APPROACHES Leaders who show the way and help followers along a path are effectively 'leading'. It also assumes that the follower is completely rational and that the appropriate methods can be deterministically selected depending on the situation.

and Lombardo. Fiedler.G. NY: Wiley Fiedler. Fall. New York: Free Press McCall. 16. J. Contemporary Business. 321-339 House. In L. Jr. (1971). and Mitchell. A contingency model of leadership effectiveness. and Garcia.com/od/leadership/g/leadership.htm 16 | P a g e . A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness. New approaches to leadership: Cognitive resources and organizational performance.about. The effect of supervisory behavior on the path-goal relationship. (1974).edu/~dboje/teaching/338/behaviors. Administrative Science Quarterly. M. F. T. Path-goal theory of leadership. (1987). R. Off the track: Why and how successful executives get derailed.E.M. Advances in experimental social psychology. F.E.W.E. (1967).J. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance.J. NC: Centre for Creative Leadership Evans. 3. F. Advances in experimental social psychology. Handbook of leadership: A survey of the literature.R. NY: Academic press. 81-98 Fiedler. (1986). In L. (1970).M. (1983). A theory of leadership effectiveness. (1974). NY: McGraw-Hill sbinfocanada. Berkowitz . F. 5. R. R. The contribution of cognitive resources to leadership performance. (1964). Berkowitz (ed).LEADERSHIP APPROACHES References Stodgily. M. Greensboro. M.nmsu.E.htm business. NY: Academic Press Fiedler. 277-298 House.E.

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