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Author: Sagar Sonker

Table of Contents

ℵ Numbers ℵ H.C.F & L.C.M of Numbers ℵ Surds & Indices ℵ Percentage ℵ Profit & Loss ℵ Ratio & Proportion ℵ Partnership ℵ Chain Rule ℵ Time & Work ℵ Pipes & Cisterns ℵ Time And Distance ℵ Trains ℵ Boats & Streams ℵ Alligation or Mixture ℵ Simple Interest ℵ Compound Interest ℵ Logarithms ℵ Area ℵ Volume & Surface Area ℵ Stocks & Shares ℵ True Discount ℵ Banker’s Discount ℵ Copyright Notice

Page 1 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.sonker.com

if.ab + b2) = (a . A number is divisible by 11.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Ratio ‘r’ is given by: a.b)2= 4ab 10.sonker. (a . (12 + 22 + 32 + … … … + n2) 19.r] 17. A number is divisible by 8. P. 4.2ab + b2 9. (a2 – b2) 12. An Arithmetic Progression (A. (13 + 23 + 33 + … … … + n3) = [n(n + 1)] / 2 = [n(n + 1)(2n + 1)] / 6 = [n2(n + 1)2] / 4 Page 2 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Difference ‘d’ is given by: [a]. [a + (n . (a3 – b3) = (a + b)(a . A number is divisible by 9.com . if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9 6. or 8 2.b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 = a2 . 2. … … …. (a + b)2 + (a . A number is divisible by 3.1)d Sum of first ‘n’ terms. A number is divisible by 4. [(a + d)].rn)] / [1 . ar3. … … ….114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Numbers 1. Tn = a + (n . (1 + 2 + 3 + … … … + n) 18. [(a + 2d)]. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3 3.(a . (a3 + b3) 13. (a + b)2 8. ar2. Results on Division: Dividend = Quotient × Divisor + Remainder 15. A number is divisible by 2. Tn = arn-1 Sum of first ‘n’ terms Sn = [a(1 . arn-1 nth term.b)2 = 2(a2 + b2) 11. Sn = n/2 (First Term + Last Term) 16.1)d] nth term.b)(a2 + ab + b2) 14. (a + b)2 . A Geometric Progression (G. P. ar. if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by 8 5. if the number formed by its last two digits is divisible by 4 4.b) = (a + b)(a2 . if its unit’s place digit is 0. (Sum of its digits at the odd place) – (Sum of its digits at even place) is equal to 0 or 11x 7. starting from the RHS.

am × an 22. then the increase in consumption.sonker. F. ( 31. If ‘A’ is R% more than ‘B’. a0 26. C. . 27. (ab)m 24.C. (a / b)m 25. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 . = a(m + n) = a(m . C. × Their L. Product of two numbers = Their H. To express a / b as a percent. we have a / b = (a / b × 100) % 34. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 + R] } % 35. then ‘B’ is more than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity decreases by R%.n) = a mb m = an / bn =1 = a1/n = (a1/n)n =a = = )m = = Percentage 32. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year.M of Numbers 20. then ‘B’ is less than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity increases by R%.com / 28.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker H.C. we have x% = x / 100 33. then the reduction in consumption. If ‘A’ is R% less than ‘B’. M. then its population after ‘N’ years is P (1 + R/100)N Page 3 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. To express x% as a fraction. am / an 23. 29.F & L.R] } % 36. Surds & Indices 21. 30.

x α y. then.c. (a . (e : f) is (ace : bdf) 45. we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a.d). Selling Price = [(100 + Gain%) × Cost Price] / 100 = [(100 . (a + b) / (a . then. which is called the componendo.Loss%) × Cost Price] / 100 Ratio & Proportion 41. (c : d). the first and fourth terms are known as extremes. which is called the dividendo. 51. we say that x is inversely proportional to y if x = k / y for some constant k and we write x α 1 / y. If a / b = c / d.R/100)N] 40. a2 : b2 is a duplicate ratio of a : b 46.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 37. Product of extremes = Product of means 43. then its population ‘N’ years ago is P / [(1 + R/100)N] Profit & Loss 38. a3 : b3 is a triplicate ratio of a : b 48. d are in proportion. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. Page 4 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. then. a1/3 : b1/3 is a sub-triplicate ratio of a : b 49. If a / b = c / d. The equality of two ratios is called a proportion.b) / b = (c .sonker. then its value ‘N’ years ago at a depreciation of ‘R’ p.R/100)N 39.a is P / [(1 .c. 52. 50. Variation: We say that x is directly proportional to y if x = ky for some constant k and we write. Also.d) / d.p. 53. then its value after ‘N’ years at a depreciation of ‘R’ p. If a : b = c : d. while the second and third are known as means. The compounded ratio of the ratios (a : b). 42. Mean proportion between a and b is 44. (a + b) / b = (c + d) / d.p.com .a is P (1 .b) = (c + d) / (c . which is called the componendo & dividendo. c. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. In a proportion. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. : is a sub-duplicate ration of a : b 47. b. If a / b = c / d.

60. Time & Work 59. 56. the net part of the tank filled in 1 hour is (1/x – 1/y) Time And Distance 63. If A can do a piece of work in n days.v)] hrs 65. 61. Ratio of times taken by A & B to finish a work = 1 : 3 Pipes & Cisterns 62. Time taken to cover a distance is inversely proportional to the speed of the car. then A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. then Share Of Partner = (Total_Profit × Part_Share / Total_Share) Chain Rule 55. then on opening both the pipes. The time (number of days) required to complete a job is inversely proportional to the number of hours per day allocated to the job. Suppose a man covers a distance at ‘x’ kmph and an equal distance at ‘y’ kmph. then average speed during his whole journey is [2xy / (x + y)] kmph Trains 64. If a number of partners have invested in a business and it has a profit. The cost of articles is directly proportional to the number of articles. Time taken to cross each other is [(x + y) / (u + v)] hrs 66. then A can finish the work in n days. Page 5 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. 58. Lengths of trains are ‘x’ km and ‘y’ km. then the time taken y the over-taker train to cross the slower train is [(x + y) / (u . then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1.com . The work done is directly proportional to the number of men working at it. If A is thrice as good a workman as B. u > v) in the same direction. moving at ‘u’ kmph and ‘v’ kmph (where. 57. If a pipe can fill a tank in ‘x’ hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in ‘y’ hours (where y > x). If two trains start at the same time from two points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b hours in reaching B and A respectively.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Partnership 54. If A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n.sonker.

70.I. Let Principle = P. 68. Rule of Alligation: If two ingredients are mixed. Alligation: It is the rule that enables us to find the ratio in which two or more ingredients at the given price must be mixed to produce a mixture at a given price. ) / ( P × T ). d. . b.sonker. a. = ( 100 × S. c. then: Speed in still water = ½ (a + b) km/hr. Rate of stream = ½ (a . S. ) / ( R × T ). Then.c) Simple Interest 76. y metres/sec = (y × 18/5) km/hr. then: Speed downstream = (u + v) km/hr. 74.I. Alligation or Mixture 71. then: : ). Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. Page 6 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. If the speed of a boat in still water is u km/hr and the speed of the stream is v hm/hr.v) km/hr. P R T = ( P × R × T ) / 100 = ( 100 × S. 73.com . Mean Price: The cost price of a quantity of the mixture is called the mean price.I.m) : (m .: (Cheaper quantity) : (Dearer quantity) = (d . 72.b) km/hr. If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed upstream is b km/hr. Boats & Streams 69. = ( 100 × S. ) / ( P × R ). Speed upstream = (u . x kmph = (x × 5/18) m/sec. A’s speed : B’s speed = ( 67.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Then.I. We represent the above formula as under: 75.

loga x h. I. When interest is compounded Annually. namely characteristic and mantissa. say R1%. it is taken as 10 i.sonker. loga (xy) b. loga (xp) f. say 3⅞ years. but the time is in fraction.com . Amount = P (1 + R/100)3 × (1 + ⅞R/100) 79. Amount = P (1 + R1/100) (1 + R2/100) (1 + R3/100) 80. loga (x/y) c. Logarithms to the base 10 are known as common logarithms j.e. Present worth of Rs. x due n years hence is given by: Present Worth = x / (1 + R/100)n Logarithms 81. then we write m = loga x and say that the value of log x to the base a is m. The logarithm of a number contains two parts. other than 1 and am = x. The integral part is known as characteristic and the decimal part is known as mantissa. When interest is compounded Annually. R2%. Page 7 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. logx x = loga x + loga y = loga x . When base is not mentioned. Then. When Rates are different for different years. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. Properties of Logarithms: a. When interest is compounded Half-yearly: Amount = P (1 + R/2/100)2N III. 2nd. 82. Then. loga x g. R3% for 1st.loga y = 1 (i. Let Principle = P. Log of any number to its own base is 1) = 0 (i. Logarithm: If a is a positive real number. Then. and 3rd year respectively.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Compound Interest 77. When interest is compounded Quarterly: Amount = P (1 + R/4/100)4N 78. Amount = P (1 + R/100)N II.e. loga 1 e. Log of 1 to any base is 0) = p loga x = 1 / logx a = logb x / logb a = log x / log a (Change of base rule) d.

Number 234.56 23. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 87.g. e.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker I. the characteristic is one more than the number of zeroes between the decimal point and the first significant digit of the number and it is negative. In this case. Area of square = (side)2 b. Case 1: When the number is greater than 1. Area of a parallelogram = Base × Height Page 8 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. b.00234 III. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 2 e. Area of a triangle = ½ × base × height b. c are the sides of the triangle c. Case 2: When the number is less than 1.456 2. IV. Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (length + breadth) × height 86. then antilog y = x.0234 0. we look through the log table. Area of a square = ½ (diagonal)2 85.sonker. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2 (length + breadth) 84. Antilog: If log x = y. Rectangle: a.34 0. Area of a triangle = . Square: a.com . and a.234 0. Characteristic 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 For mantissa. the characteristic is one less than the number of digits in the left of decimal point in the given number. Triangle: a. In this case. where s = ½ (a + b + c). Parallelogram/Rhombus/Trapezium: a. Area of a rectangle = (length × breadth) b. Area 83. II. Area of an equilateral triangle = / 4 × (side)2 d.

a. Surface Area c. units . Cylinder: Let radius of base = r & height (or length) = h. Then. units b. units = units d. breadth = b & height = h units Then. Length of an arc = Ө/360 × 2πR = ½ (arc × R) = Ө/360 × πR2 Volume & Surface Area 89. Surface Area c. a.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker b. = ½ × (sum of parallel sides) × (distance between them) d. units c. Curved Surface Area = (2πrh) sq. Volume b. Then. Cone: Let radius of base = r & height = h. Cube: Let each edge of a cube be of length a. 92. Area of a rhombus c. = ½ × (Product of diagonals) The halves of diagonals and a side of a rhombus form a right angled triangle with side as the hypotenuse. Circumference of a circle = 2πR c. units =( × a) units Diagonal = (l × b × h) cu units = 2 (lb + bh + hl) sq. Cuboid: Let length = l. Then. Area of a sector 91.com Total Surface Area = 2πr(r + h) sq. a. Volume b. Area of a circle = πR2 b.sonker. Circle/Arc/Sector. Volume = (πr2h) cu. Page 9 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Area of trapezium 88. Diagonal = a3 cu units = 6a2 sq. 90. where R is the radius of the circle: a.

) = Rs. units c. 95. Slant height. Sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. 100.) Page 10 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.W. Brokerage: The broker’s charge is called brokerage. Curved Surface Area = (2πr2) sq. 156 due 4 years hence. Suppose a man has to pay Rs. Present Worth (P. 156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. Then.P.P. if S. So. Then. is Rs. brokerage is subtracted from the selling price. 100. brokerage is added to the cost price. Hemi-sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. Surface Area 94. units b. 100. if S. True Discount (T. units Stocks & Shares 95. is less than Rs. Volume b.W. When stock is purchased. units Curved Surface Area = (πrl) sq. When the stock is sold. units 93. c.100) = (Sum due) – (P. 156 due 4 years hence. 9% stock at 95’.D. annual interest is 9% of the face value and the market price of a Rs. Clearly. 800. we mean a stock whose face value is Rs. True Discount 100.P. the payment of Rs. l b. units = (4/3 πr3) cu. Total Surface Area = (3πr2) sq. if S. units = (4πr2) sq. 800. 156 in 4 years. (156 . 100 at 14% will amount to Rs. Volume = (2/3 πr3) cu. b.com . Rs. 97. By ‘a Rs. 100 exactly. below par (or at discount). The selling price of a Rs. 96. a. a. We say that: Sum due = Rs.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker a.sonker. Volume c.) = Rs. 100 stock is Rs. units d. 99. 100 now will clear off the debt of Rs. is more than Rs. at par. = units = (⅓ πr2h) cu. 100 stock is said to be: a. 98. above par (or at premium). Total Surface Area = πr(r + l) sq.

D.htm before you share.W.) = (B.) – (T.D.D. on bill for unexpired time = (B. Copyright Notice: Feel free to share. a.W.]) d.]) / ([S.W.G.W. When the sum is put at compound interest. × T. 109.) is the S. Page 11 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. distribute this document.D.D. B.W.] × [T.I. = (P. 106.sonker.D. Make sure to preserve this copyright notice alongwith the header and footer with the copyright note of www.I.) for the unexpired time 107.com.) – (T. distribute this document for free.D. print. Sum = (100 × Amount) / (100 + [R × T]) = (100 × T.D. = Amount / (1 + R/100)T Banker’s Discount 105.) + (T. print.D.G. T. B.D.) = (B.) × R × T / 100 = ([Amount] × R × T) / (100 + [R × T]) = ([S.)2 / P. Be sure to read the copyright information and terms of use of the documents at http://www. and true discount is reckoned on the amount 104.D. Banker’s Discount (B. Amount = Interest on P.) – (T. T. B.D. on T. T. 111. × 100) / (Rate × Time) 110.) 103. = S.D. When the date of the bill is not given.D.com/sagar/Copyright. P. Let rate = R% per annum & time = T years. T. on T. grace days are not to be added 108. b. Interest is reckoned on R.W. Then. copy.D. c. = = (Amount × Rate × Time) / 100 = (Amount × Rate × Time) / (100 + [Rate × Time]) = (B. 112.D.I.I. on the face value for the period from the date on which the bill was discounted and the legally due date. (S.) / (B.D.D. e. = (T.D. 102.D. copy. – T.] – [T.I.) / (R × T) = (P. T.D.G.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 101.I.) = S.) = S.D.W. 113.D. Amount 114.sonker.I. then P. Banker’s Gain (B.com .D.sonker.

com .sonker.sonker.com the full authority to take a legal action. Do you have any more information to add to this document? Write to me at sagar@sonker.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Illegal reproduction of this document without the prior permission of the author and/or removal of this copyright notice and/or the header/footer gives www. Page 12 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.com or submit your feedback at www.sonker.com/sagar.

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