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EthnographyCastesTribes

EthnographyCastesTribes

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WACKERNAGEL. ETHNOGRAPHY (CASTES AND TRIBES) BY SIR ATHELSTANE BAINES WITH A LIST OF THE MORE IMPORTANT WORKS ON INDIAN ETHNOGRAPHY BY W. 5.Grundriss der Indo-arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde (ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDO-ARYAN RESEARCH) BEGRUNDET VON G. FORTGESETZT VON F. HERAUSGEGEBEN VON H. SIEGLING. II. BAND. KIELHORN. LUDERS UND J. HEFT. TRUBNER . J. ^35^- STRASSBURG VERLAG VON KARL 1912. BUHLER.

DuMout Schauberg.M. StraCburg. .

from the tribal animism of the primitive denizens of the forest to those involving the most refined metaphysical conceptions. The scope of the review. however. BUHLER. HERAUSGEGEBEN VON II. by the omission of which the definite population dealt with is reduced from 294 to 283 millions. Moreover. HEFT. and the Faith returned under a single title. In the main. J. even an approximate indication of the great fundamental a subject which also escapes the Census inquiry since II. FORTGESETZT VON H. Indo-arische Philologie. F. and solely in their bearings upon the ethnography of the country. it takes the form of a descriptive survey of the return of castes and tribes obtained through the Census of 1901. Religion. § I. is split up into almost innumerable self-contained divisions. each of the principal tongues having its dialects whose Shibboleth infallibly denotes the stranger a hundred miles or so from his native village. itself of foreign origin. any of the essential elements of Nationality. Society. or variety of race. as a whole. include Burma or the outlying tracts of Baliichistan. for reasons which will appear below. which. are to a great extent outside the Census inquiry. is limited to the population of India properly so called. § 2. blood or occupation. 5. constitutes a well-defined distinction only in the case of creeds introduced from abroad. BAND. varies from Province to Province. therefore. then will be here discussed more than cursorily. and is politically under one rule. by nearly three fourths of the population covers a vast and incoherent collection of beliefs and forms of worship. Aden and the Andamans. again. LUDERS UND 5.6RUNDRISS DER INDO-ARISCHEN PHILOLOGIE UND ALTERTUMSKUNDE (ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDO-ARYAN RESEARCH) BEGRiJNDET VON G. Full information upon the philology and the main currents of religious belief of India will be found in special treatises upon those subjects in other volumes of this Encyclopaedia. tribe. The subject with which it is work social is that branch of Indian ethnography proposed to deal in the present which is concerned with the organisation of the population. INTRODUCTION. neither creed nor mother-tongue affords an adequate. WACKERNAGEL. under sacerdotal prohibition from intermarriage and domestic intercourse with each other. KIELHORN. ETHNOGRAPHY (CASTES AND BY TRIBES) SIR ATHELSTANE BAINES. that but for the fact that this vast aggregate is spread over a continuous area between Cape Comorin and the Himalaya. 260835 . or the dispersal of the latter into groups based upon considerations of race. Irrespective of racial differences. the population does not contain. Neither religion nor language. falling under no less than 147 heads. It should be borne in mind from the outset. the Language. moreover. and does not.

of existing facts only. as they have played a highly important part in determining the racial distribution of the population. whilst race has been for centuries obscured by the operation of the two most prevalent forms of religious profession. whilst the uncompromising tendencies of Islam obliterate. no doubt. is yet sufficiently difficult to have proved an effective obstacle in the infancy of means of communication and of protective government. the trend of the lower ranges renders it possible for those accustomed to forest and mountain life to enter. short and broad-nosed race. These prominent natural features have now to be coordinated with the ethnology of India. of considerable width in both hill and forest. the population. the ranges of Central India. Purity of descent is no more a general characteristic of the population of India than it is of any other old civilisation in the Eastern Hemisphere in which geographical conformation admits of access from the North. perforce. . too. again. In the Upper. The veil of superficial uniformity which has thus been drawn over the actual elements from which Indian society has been formed can only be removed. and the narrow strips intervening between the ranges and the sea consist of fertile and low-lying country. over country which is now sandy desert. In early times. lie the vast alluvial plain of the Ganges and its tributaries and the open plains of the Five Rivers. in certain directions. with the aid. The Central Belt. however. presenting little or no difficulty of passage on the East. of old the guardians of the routes through their territory. It also affords shelter to a considerable population of the wilder tribes. except along parts of the West Coast. as the hills do not reach either coast. is comparatively homogeneous. To put it briefly. the flank can be turned on both east and west. § 3. distinctions of race equally with those of doctrine and ceremonial. though not in large bodies. on the eastern flank of the Himalaya. Ethnography. but which was once the abode of a considerable population. The principal physical features of the country have to be taken into account in connection with its ethnography. Between the mountains and the next obstacle. The basic population of practically the whole country consists of a dark. hair. at all events. and both have their effect in diminishing the popularity of the more restricted vernaculars. South of that barrier. portion of India that purity is probably found in the upper classes of the Panjab and Rajputana. or Continental. and the main variations noticeable in it are not more marked than those which may reasonably be attributed to secular differences in habits and pursuits. The plastic and assimilative nature of Brahmanism absorbs. It exists. India can only be entered from the north by any considerable body of men by passes through the outlying ranges running southwards from the Himalaya in the western extension of that great system. the latter takes cognisance. of anthropometrical investigation. so far as our knowledge of the latter extends. amongst the Hill tribes of the Belt dividing the above portion of India from the Peninsula. access was comparatively easy by routes debouching on the middle and lower Indus. with wavy. and then but partially and on conjecture perhaps. at the opposite end of the social ladder. though of insignificant height in comparison with the Himalaya. but not woolly. by recourse to such ethnological evidence as may be gleaned from tradition and literature. the valley of the Brahmaputra or the eastern Gangetic Delta.5. so far as it has yet been carried. Similarly. to the great southern plains and the Dekkan plateau. As in the case of the Himalaya.

is that of the Aryas. but in most cases their impact upon India was sharp but short. revealed in the collection of their invocations handed down from perhaps as early as 3000 B C. for instance. The other race. may be considered the autochthonous inhabitant of these tracts. seem always to have kept to their present localities. More than one such race are known to history. slightly. in which it is at the present time concentrated under its distinctive tribal appellations. From these sources it appears that a number of cognate tribes of northern race and pastoral habits advanced across and along the Indus into the Panjab. the supreme influence over the community was transferred from the chieftain to the priests. and to a great extent conjecturally. who. is generally attached. The former. The seem . This graduation is due to miscegenation between the Kol. known as Dravidian. Formerly. it is akin. along the Jamna. at least in language. to which the title of Kol or Munda. under whose auspices society was organised in a way that secured the absolute supremacy of their own order. combined to soften the northern fibre of the race. On philological grounds. except in a few cases where tribes have migrated into the Belt within historic times. to communities now settled on the borders of Assam. its identity has been obscured. over the whole of the great plains of Upper India. The comparatively easy conditions of life in sub-tropical circumstances. Such. which was secured by their mountain rampart. In the east and north-east of India. was the connection of the Macedonians with the Panjab. indeed. if not obliterated. and. where they settled after dispossessing the dark tribes in occupation. is not known south of the forest Belt. by the successive immigrations of people of Mongoloidic race from eastern Tibet and the head waters of the great Chinese rivers. § 4. and the immunity from attack in force from the west. Their progress eastwards from K51 tribes after a time to have offered no serious resistance. at any rate. it was spread according to recent philological discoveries. of whom more will be said below. indeed. Salwm and Mekhong. not. and a taller and fairer race. but more distinctly as the east is approached. and far to the east of the Bay of Bengal. of a character to leave a permanent impression upon the population. however. The only immigrating race of practical importance in connection with the present subject. as far as ethnography is concerned. in the Rgveda and the In the present in day it is and a higher state of culture sacerdotal literature appended to it at later dates. whose advent and progress are indirectly. as the own. however. relegating them to the position of helots in the service of the new communities. The Vedic Aryas seem to have lost touch in time with their original country across the snows. represented by the wild tribes of the Central Belt. the people south of the Belt are distinguished from those further north. In the Gangetic plain the type is traceable throughout the population. and to have developed their civilisation on lines peculiarly their the Indus was that of expansion rather than of conquest. whose main streams of migration have sought the sea by the valleys of the Irawadi. in course of time.Introduction. by the population of the southern portions of the Peninsula. which entered India by the passes of the North-west or the plains of Baliichistan. and. and almost everywhere more prevalent as the social position is lower. were the principalities set up from time to time in the North-west by scions of the race or races termed Scythian. spread its former habitat over a still wider area. More durable though still in few cases amounting to settlement or colonisation. Some investigators.

is one in point. and also to the recruitment of that stock through the subsequent occupation of the firstmentioned tracts by communities from beyond the Himalaya. so simple in its demands upon traditional rites and customs. that without propaganda or formal conversion. if any. Whatever the actual race. as well as a political. was of Aryan race. Ethnography. § 5. not political or military. a blend which. ethnical distinctions are thus obliterated by religious terminology. cross-breeding. long before their overthrow. The origin of most of these peoples was probably in the Mongoloid regions of north-east Asia. After the usual vicissitudes north of the great ranges. It may be fairly conjectured that the open and fertile plains of the south-east afforded opportunities for civilisation upon local lines to an extent which. the point relevant to the present question is that they were all northerners. and thus alien in blood and physique to the pre-Aryan inhabitants of India. it absorbed and continues to absorb into the pale of orthodoxy the religious and domestic observances of all the non-Aryan tribes with which it came into contact. in none of which tracts is creed or language an indication of racial origin. that it is almost certain to have left a physical. tribal languages have long tended to disappear from usage. they ruled in Central India for a considerable period.5. The striking differences in this respect between the population of the Panjab and northern Rajputana and that east of the Jamna appears to be due both to the stricter maintenance of the purity of the original northern stock. along with the tribal nomenclature. dynasty held sway on the lower Indus. As a necessary result. character. impress upon the population. as above stated. too. or Parthian. they seem to have been absorbed into the local chieftainry of Rajputana and Malva. The case of the Yetha Hunas. There does not appear to have been any colonisation. In the first named region. For several generations. or Scythians. From the Aryan additions to the vocabulary of the vernacular tongues and the special features of the Brahmanism and the social system of the South it may be inferred that the influence of Aryan civilisation was there of a missionary. and social divisions adopted the Brahmanic organisation but. and. in Central India. driven southwards by the pressure on west-central Asia from the north-east. The cloak of Brahmanic orthodoxy was thrown over the local deities and ceremonial. In more than one instance the dynasty establishing itself in India lasted so long and penetrated so far into the interior. had placed the Dravidian communities in a much stronger position than the Kol tribes of the Continental plains. This has been the case throughout the Gangetic valley. . The most important of the latter are the various tribes known in ancient Indian literature by the probably generic title of S'aka. . grows more perceptible as the distance from the centres of Aryan settlement increases. and. by the time the Aryas had spread to the means of access from the north. system thus established was so elastic in the matter of doctrine and worship. and that an important dynasty in Northern India. The connection of the Aryas with Dravidian India seems to have been of a different character from that established in the Gangetic region and the Panjab. the greater portion of whom made their way south by way of Bactria. and along the northern districts of the Western coast. and little. the physicalcharacteristics of the masses denote clearly the admixture of K51 with Aryan blood. or White Huns. too. but recent investigators appear to consider that it is not improbable that at least one. a Pahlava.

is alleged to date from the first century of the Christian era. Another community which. however. as a rule. more Muslim than any other country in the world. after a generation or two. the community consists almost entirely of local converts from Brahmanism. all of which tend to differentiate. and have planted permanent settlements as far south as Malabar. as regards the majority of its § 7. without any admixture of foreign blood. but. and votaries of their faith are found in every part of it. to a great extent. but now permanently established in the land of their adoption. and that of the eastern tracts of the great Delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra is in active progress. and the considerable staff of the railway systems. the extent to which it introduced fresh blood into the country is of far less importance than its religious and political influence. It remains to mention the more modern accretions to the peoples of India received from foreign countries. the converted community from that to which it originally belonged. as is the case. chiefly on the Malabar coast. The conversion of Sindh and Kashmir has long been almost complete. With this exception. From the standpoint of ethnography it is not to be assumed that the results of conversion to Islam extend no further than the substitution of one dogma or ritual for another. the mercantile communities of the larger The conversion cities. which is cut off from the Tamil country and the Dekkan by the Sahyadri range. when a lower race is absorbed into Brahmanism. and comprise the European military and civil establishments. members. of whom more than 91 per cent are native to the country and another 3 per cent of mixed European and native origin. is the result of apostolic zeal rather than of immigration. that which took place under the auspices of the followers of Muhammad first claims attention. and scarcely existent in the Central Belt of hills and forests. § 6. colonies of considerable importance were left by successive waves of invasion. 5 beyond the introduction of a certain contingent of Brahmans as teachers and advisers.Introduction. of certain localities. India contains. The remainder are practically sojourners only. The Arabs. of foreign Muslim are those recruited from the Indus frontier. and settled not far from that river. In the case of the Moghal dynasties. and is very small amongst the Dravidians. military and administrative centres were established far down the Ganges and on the western coast. on the whole. tradition assigns a northern origin to several of the more important communities. except in the territories bordering upon the exclusively Muslim States of Afghanistan and Baluchistan. however. the proportion of Muslim diminishes. is that of the Christians in India. too. It must be noted. The acceptance of the monotheistic creed entails. it is true. material expansion of the matrimonial field and of the social horizon generally. and already extends to more than half the population. but until the arrival of the Portu- . no Aryan blood was infused into the population. have been in commercial intercourse with that coast from time immemorial. Of movements of this description which have had a racial significance. however. In Upper India. and is confirmed by physical appearance and certain special customs. the modification extending to physical as well as to other attributes. especially in and round the cities founded or occupied by the conquering races. southwards and eastwards from the Panjab. Along the western coast. like that of the Aryan stock. with a wider range of diet also. that. The largest aggregates.

The Roman Catholic missionaries. on the Malabar coast. however. of which the more ancient. The members thereof possess the physical characteristics of their race. which has kept its breed pure. the propaganda was not extended far beyond the original settlements of the Nestorian Church. The breach with old custom is more marked where conversion is comparatively sporadic. the west coast § of India has also afforded refuge to successive small bodies of Israelites. and. or. and the bulk of their descendants are still to be found in and round the tract upon which they first landed. From their arrival in the country the Parsis made a point of keeping their race and ritual unsullied by intercourse with their neighbours. to the Dravidian tracts. has been embraced by considerable numbers of more or less the same social position. which dates from the Christian era. on the mainland near Bombay. and slighter in the case where Christianity has been hereditary for generations. their lot. It is remarkable. is generally low. hold the tradition that like the Parsis. at all events. Unlike their compatriots in general. make use sons of Iran. maintenance of their customs and ritual. and to this particularism is due to that with this strict extent. Like the 9. they have kept up their religion and customs and lost their mother-tongue. The opening of the latter by the British as the commercial emporium of western India. At the very opposite pole to the Muslim and Christians in regard to recruitment by propaganda of their religion. and their abstinence from intermarriage with Indians. This position. their very slow rate of increase. though they have adopted the dress and language of their Maratha neighbours. and is not increasing. varies. there is scarcely a large town in India in which § a few families of Parsi traders are not resident. which is suspected of intermarriage with Indians or of the incorporation of local converts in days of yore. and is therefore socially avoided by the others. as the change is there not only less of a sacrifice to people who have no hope of rising. Another Jewish settlement of apparently distinct origin from those further south. on the coast north of Bombay. to this day.5- Ethnography. except in their liturgy. under the political aegis of Goa. though their aggregate numbers is only just over 93 000. The differentiation of the convert to this religion from his Brahmanic fellows usually according to the numbers and homogeneity of the local congregation. Pahlavi. the Parsis have long lost all hold of their original language. The total number of both communities does not exceed 1300. and from this centre they have spread all over the country to such an extent that. is that of the Beni-Israel. and keep up their religious observances. again. ranged over a large portion of Southern India. The original settlers of this race were driven out of Iran by the Muslim in the 7 th century. they are engaged chiefly in cultivation. stand the small but well defined body of Parsis. they were driven by persecution from their fatherland. Parsis and Arabs. the White. if of comparatively recent acceptance. and have taken to a considerable extent also to military service in the . but may even bring with it some chances of ameliorating 8. three fourths of the Christian population of India belongs and more than half to the Church of Rome. and the Black. and uni- some versally of Gujarat! as their mother-tongue. owing mainly to the restrictions of the caste system. if not from an earlier period. It consists of two sections. induced many families of Parsis to migrate thither. guese. and gets its brides occasionally from Syria and Baghdad. The earliest colony is that of Cochin. In addition to the Christians.

and are propagated by Brahmanic teaching" (Lyall). other than those of the hill-tribes. The word was first used by the Muslim invaders for all Indian creeds in which the uncompromising Unitarianism of the follower It religion returned under the tribal . The prevalence of the different professions of faith in the principal territorial divisions of India a is shown in Table appended to this volume. Again. traditions and mythologies that are sanctioned by the sacred books and ordinances of the Brahmans. is probably a European sojourner. . then. the Mongoloid tribes of the North-east. The largest community of Jews in India is the comparatively recent commercial settlement in Bombay and to a less extent in Calcutta. and. In practice. The undoubted racial difference between the fair people of Rajputana and the Panjab and the masses further east is obscured. be inferred from what has been stated above. In numbers they greatly surpass their fellow exiles. keep § 10. Appended to this volume is a Table showing the territorial distribution of each of the principal tongues. and the Muslim immigrants of the North-west. to their exile from their country same tradition as those of Cochin as under persecution. for the purposes of ethnography. in regard to Mothertongue. but seem to have a laxer grip of their past than the latter. along with their § II. this amounts to the application of the title to any Brahmanic community that has not returned one of the more specific denominations which can legitimately be included under the general name. and no inclination for alliances British Indian army. the great mass of the people come under it. It is here taken in conventional sense of „the collection of rites. First. They have the with those of their race beyond the seas. such as the Kol of the in their place of business. In Table II on the next page. that no more than about one person in a thousand returns any language not peculiar to India or its immediate vicinity. north of the Dravidian country. and that one. BalQchi.Introduction. so far as nomenclature is in question. without some exposition of the distribution of creed and language. It will diversity of religion relative proportion to the total population. that the is by no means equal to that of language. on the whole. by the superstructure of Brahmanism under which it now lies buried. This survey would be incomplete. even though it be restricted to mere numbers. the numbers of those professing the main forms of belief are given. Tibetan or one of the almost innumerable languages of the hill-tracts between India and Burma. the title Hinduism" is only recognised by the community to whom it is applied as denoting a distinction between them and the foreigner. whilst permanently settled in close touch with their old home. of the ethnological aspect of the subject will serve to indicate this fact of primary relevance. Nine in a thousand speak a frontier dialect.. The languages distinguishable as restricted respectively to special tribes are returned by some 6'/^ millions. however. must be understood that the term „Tribal Animism" refers to the name by those who adhere to none of the wider creeds. that. The above sketch Central Belt. worships. beliefs. mainly Pashtu. 96 per cent speak Indo-Aryan languages or Dravidian. from which a conception may be formed of the great linguistic diversity of the country. Consequently. it will be seen from Table I given on the next page. who. of traders from Baghdad. its of the Prophet detected signs of the worship of idols. the demarcation of race is only ascertainable in the case of the communities under tribal constitution.

Linguistic Class . I.5- Ethnography.

and there is a tendency. On the opposite frontier. The Baluch tribe is bound together by political rather than ethnic ties. adopted somewhat ar- The enumerators. but trusting to their fellow-tribesmen of other divisions to provide them with brides. the distinction was less noticed. and who. however. the tradition of kinship or descent from a common ancestor. after a term of probation. just across a political frontier. As amongst the Baliich. It is to be noted. or those who instructed them. Historical. in spite of the above drawbacks. the tendency seems to have been to return the tribal terms wherever the community in question is in predominant occupation of a continuous and well-defined region. surrounded by a fringe of strangers who have affiliated themselves to the community for the purpose of mutual defence. in time. Speaking generally. . That most intimately connected with India proper is found amongst the Kol-Dravidians of the Central Belt. Here. pretations given to the instructions for recording tribal creeds and languages. consisting. are admitted to full tribesmanship. to a common Chieftain but amongst the clans which go to form this unit. but nothing stronger. there is found very often. and the bond is kinship in the male line. that is. The subdivisions of these clans are exogamous. human. in which the proportion in which each tribe returned the tribal religion and language is given in the Appendix. Amongst the Pathans the tribe is more closely knit. as kinship. tribal in and philology. and marrying almost invariably within the tribe itself. owning allegiance. The system on which the tribe is organised varies considerably according to the race and the conditions under which it lives. Historical. that wherever a race can still be geographically demarcated from its hybrid neighbours the ethnic constitution tends to be tribal. each bearing the name of a plant or animal of the locality. not beyond an adjacent and probably kindred community of similar organisation and form of religious and domestic ceremonial. strangers are admitted to qualified membership. and claiming or occupying a definite territory. Where. § 13. on the other hand. or. and therefore not marrying within the section. The Mongoloid tribes of Assam and the eastern frontier are also divided into sections professing blood -relationship. demi-god or wild animal. so a further Table. the tribe is subdivided into numerous exogamous sections. to learn what the conditions are as set forth at the Census. as the case may be. if not usually. to be treated. the tribe is interlaced with the Brahmanical peasantry. tending. towards endogamy within the tribe. and probably the line is in reality less discernible. either by arrangement or capture. Tribe. by fiction. distinctions of race have been practically effaced by centuries of cross-breeding. the region fluenced by foreign blood. bitrary standards of orthodoxy SOCIAL ORGANISATION. It may be interesting. the tradition of blood-kinship. There is not the element of allegiance to a common Chief.Social Organisation. at most. that is. . A. and is thus in comparative isolation from the civilisation of the plains. — In the outline given in the Introduction it was shown most in- that throughout the greater part of continental India. however. A. and what was set down as one tract appeared under the more general title in another. the tribal constitution of the Pathan and Baliich races is of a markedly different type. of groups with a common name.

The crystallisation of certain bodies into definite orders or classes. compelling the latter into servile conditions and drawing upon it for wives and concubines without making any return in kind. there is little in the is not to be found. as a rule. The influence of these races. His whole "social identity belongs to his religion". Restrictions in regard to the choice of a wife and upon participation in meals of a commemorative or other ritualistic significance. has had its day of supremacy elsewhere than in India. again. trait. is a common. Marriage takes place. or blood connection. In other respects. or which has not at some time or other existed. § 14. the pure races of India from that of the great mass of the population. It is with the latter. prescriptions regarding affinity. supplying the vitality and support which neither doctrine nor ritual are sufficiently coherent to provide. and generally promoting the adoption of the freer life of the Highlands in preference to the stricter and more elaborate system which prevails throughout Brahmanic India. for instance. as has been said by a competent observer. are. has been known elsewhere to settle for generations alongside of a population in every way inferior to it. But the internal management of tribal affairs is vested in a tribal Council. but is also peculiar to the latter. though in many cases such dignitaries do exist and are regarded as warlords and representatives of the tribe in dealing with the outer world. not tribal. and amongst them the tendency to become hereditary and as exclusive or aspiring as circumstances allow may almost be called natural. upon the whole population of the western Panjab. within the race. too. Asiatic Studies. "a way of life. "interwoven into the whole of existence and society. and the only object of the above remarks is to differentiate the organisation of. Sacerdotalism. especially of the Pathan. Ethnography.lo 5. and in practice is regulated by Muslim. This sentiment. a code of elaborate prescriptions on domestic and personal conduct which is accepted by all as the ideal. placing every na"tural habit and duty upon a religious basis so entirely that it is impossible 'Tor a Brahmanist to draw a distinction between sacred and profane. A "man's religion means his customary rule of every-day life. Brahmanism has become. that this review is mainly concerned. almost a universal. according to the relative conformity with system which . so to speak. enlarging the marriage field. has had the result of substantially modifying the social structure. moreover. common property. under the sanction of religion. marking it out as distinct from any other civilisation in the world. By its means. of course. in other countries. composed of the Heads of clans or other subdivisions of the main body. Amid the bewildering variety of the complicated civilisation of this last the one and only characteristic which can be said to be universal is the sentiment which underlies the scheme of life upon which the whole of the social edifice is based and its component parts are respectively distinguished and coordinated. though it has there been long ago worn away by other influences. (Lyall. as to enable it to prescribe. however. But in no other case has the position of a sacerdotal class been so firmly established nor has its influence so deeply permeated the whole of a vast community. A superior and conquering race. elevating the tribal.) This omnipresence of the religious sanction and the rigidity which it imparts to diversity elsewhere susceptible of diminution or effacement is not only the most prominent feature of the social organisation of India. Caste. may be said to be the very spinal cord of the main religion of the country. even of the West.

It is necessary. is a question which has been the subject of wide and erudite discussion. "is an endogamous group or a collection of "endogamous groups. This. between things as they are and "things as they might be. "A caste". for the purposes of this review. the members of which "by reason of similarity of traditional occupation and reputed origin are "generally regarded as forming a single homogeneous community. in dealing with the castes of the Province of Bengal. and is not by any means necessarily that by which all. that the members of a caste may only marry within its limits.Social Organisation. most theories of primitive society being apt. practically unchanged in its main principles. must obviously have its roots very deep indeed in the proclivities and traditions of the multitudes living under it. the joint author of the last (1901) Census Report. bearing a common name. A. in the sense of tribe or even . an enterprise from which after longer experience he would shrink. then. however. the most satisfactory. and was applied by Camoens. according to Sir Henry Maine. and by their manifest inability to draw "any clear line between fact and fancy. . Of the many definitions which have been given by various authors. ii which the rank of every group of the society. of the group make their living race. From this it appears. the title of the subdivision being added to that of the main aggregate. It needs but a very short time in the country to bring home to the most casual observer the ubiquity of the institution. or even most. pure or unmixed. He might possibly feel himself in a position to define it. their conquerors. is unalterably settled. to the Pulayan or helots. or whether it existed in an embryonic form amongst the Aryas before their great dispersal. to land the adventurer in a region of mud-banks and fog. but nearly every caste is made up of sections upon whom the same restriction is imposed with reference to their limits. for instance. in contradistinction to the Nayar. on the whole. A system of this description. is a traditional one. "is more especially the case in India. The social divisions which form the units of the system in question are known in the West by the name of Castes. which is common to the latter. the more numerous are the qualifications found to be advisable in describing it. by their passion for wire-drawn distinctions "and symmetrical classifications. 354). and which has not only successfully resisted. which was given them by the early Portuguese travellers. has for many centuries regulated the lives of millions which is absorbing every generation more and more of the tribal population of a lower type brought into contact with it. "Whether it be indigenous to India. 546). in itself connoting segregation. but has even been to a great extent assimilated by so dogmatic and uncompromising a rival as Islam. The occupation. p. where the palaeological data available "in Europe hardly exist at all. Probably it is insoluble. again. from top to bottom. by the sacerdotal "predilections of its authors. It is said to be derived from the Latin word casta. to set forth in terms as definite as the case allows the leading features of the community which forms the main subject of this work. "the constituent parts of which are more nearly related to each other "than they are to any other section of the society". while the historical value of the literary "evidence is impaired by the uncertainty of its dates. § 15. he says (p. Historical. remarks the author of the last Census report (1901. and to make him acquainted with some of its principal exoteric features. which. or as a Brahman would desire them to be". is that adopted by Mr Gait. as the more caste is studied.

or military caste. That influence derives its authority entirely from the Vedic tradition. . and from their character and the occasions they were intended to serve they cannot be expected to furnish a complete and detailed picture of the organisation of the body to which they relate. however. They all refer to a pastoral life and indicate a by no means high degree of cohesion. the community was organised into clans. which is now claimed by most. § i6. or groups of related families which. so it becomes necessary to see what information is obtainable from that source regarding the social organisation of the community amongst whom it originated. accepted. reference must here be restricted to the Suktas of the Rksamhita. again. It sometimes happens. but that to its establishment in the form in which it now prevails. an exception is found in the case of the Rajput. The factor of public opinion. Or. for a moment to the definition. These have in many cases fixed their own circle of intermarriage within the caste on considerations other than those current amongst the rest of the Brahmanic community. what is the influence respectively attributable to each. too. The caste system being an institution essentially and exclusively_ Indian. until perhaps an encroachment comes within measurable reach of their own position. and their interest in it are of the slightest. without cavil. On the other hand. There are apparently ethnic reasons for this peculiarity. that a subdivision by retaining its own title but substituting a fresh one of its main caste. which is based upon exogamous clans or tribes. that at the comparatively advanced stage of progress which the Vedic Aryas had attained by the time represented in even the earliest invocations of the collection. then. have at different times contributed. Nevertheless. and the relations between those who offered the sacrifice and the divine power whose good offices were solicited through it were so intimate and practical. It appears. These compositions must of course be defective in some respects. whilst the acquaintance of the upper classes with the organisation of those below them. in the present day. pre-Aryan and hybrid.? The view now very generally held is that it is the product of no single cause. the question arises whether its origin is to be sought amongst the Aryan immigrants or to be ascribed to those whom they found in possession of the field. assuming that it is the resultant of the contact of the two social systems. As in regard to all else concerning the earlier life of that community. is largely a matter of fiction. the general conditions of life among those peoples were simple. that from the large collection of effusions handed down to posterity a very fair general notion can be formed of the leading facts relevant to the subject under consideration. since the view taken by an aspiring section of a caste of its relationship to the main body is apt to differ from that accorded to it by the other castes amongst whom its lot is thrown. several factors. Aryan. to which reference will be found below. in turn. were collected into tribes. obtains a jumping-ground for a new start in which may impose upon the outer world but not upon the immediate surroundings. the common origin. to which the clan was subordinate. § 17. Various other terms are met with implying subdivision of either tribe or clan. Reverting. therefore. for that society. Of these by far the most prominent is the hieratic influence by which the main principles of the system were fixed and the standard set by which social position is graduated. it may be noted that while endogamy is the chief characteristic of the organisation.12 5- Ethnography. is of some importance in the definition.

The experts closed their ranks against the layman. The mass of the community is collectively referred to as the "clans". and still more. with a race far below them in physical and social characteristics. Whatever may have been the difficulties in dealing with the Dasyus which were at first experienced by the Aryas. after the invocations which accompanied it had ceased to be improvised and the compositions of the older Psalmists were recited in a regular liturgy. headed by a Chieftain. A. strictly secluded from that of its neighbour. It is true that after they had been some time in the plains larger aggregates were occasionally formed by military Chiefs. each being insufficient by itself to determine the future course of their civilisation. 13 Alongside of these sections were two classes or orders. would gradually tend towards a hereditary character. except in race. however. too. in the presence of a vast and fertile expanse of country over which the inferiority of their opponents allowed them to spread freely. Here. The Family. that the duties fell more and more into the hands of trained experts. and the ministers of religion. or "peoples". as a unit. irrespective of the personal separatism which tends to attach itself to a sacrificial priesthood. and were conducted. whether they maintained their numbers by heredity or recruitment. was strongly developed. but they were unstable and perpetually being dispersed and re-formed in the vicissitudes of tribal below these orders . in the second. and became a class by themselves. Historical. for occasionally scions of ruling families officiated. and those who resisted them were either reduced to subjection on their native soil. of north-western India that their social system assumed its unique and special features. and they found themselves. though the frequency of intertribal strife and the migratory life of the communities militated against the consolidation of political authority in such hands. evidently of later development: the nobles. there is nothing in the above more or less hypothetical social organisation of this branch of the people conventionally called Aryan which materially differs from what is known to have prevailed amongst the others branches of whom the early history It was after the Vedic tribes had debouched upon the plains is on record. or rolled back before the advance of the new-comers. as the ceremonial became more elaborate. it may be observed. Its worship was purely individual. in the first place. It may reasonably be assumed. The immigrants came into contact. by a priest acting on his behalf. though the combination of the two led to that result. It seems probable that the ritual had by then reached a pitch of complication which necessitated the employment of trained professionals. that the order of nobles. at least in the stage to which the Suktas relate. That the Aryas failed to take advantage of their opportunities to establish themselves upon a national basis appears to be ascribable to the fact that. So far. and conducted in private by the Paterfamilias conjointly with his wife. The tribal sacrifices were open to the "clans". the superiority of the latter ultimately asserted itself in an incontestable manner. always in the plural. they were any thing but a homogeneous body.Social Organisation. and in their slow onward progress there had been no signs of combined general effort. in the presence of the Chief of the tribe. and there are cases in which the right of the priest was disputed by others. two new factors awaited them. It is obvious. but the performance of this act of faith was not otherwise the exclusive privilege of the sacerdotal class. who conducted the public sacrifices. § 18. especially in the case of tribal chieftains. Tribe was constantly at war with tribe.

Land was plentiful. ministry. as well as for the hybrid progeny of the Arya by Dasyu women. Between these extremes room had to be found for the increasing number of handicraftsmen. to which. There remained. The one term used collectively of the whole of the former community is the "colour" of the Arya as contrasted with that of their foes. which multiplied. was that of the Family. it became very prominent. to itself. that is. What with the absorbing interests of this bucolic microcosm. the tie of race. on this hypothesis. Whatever may have been the strength of this in pre-Vedic times. The worship. when the Aryas came into collision with the Dasyus. In the invocations. the dispersal of the original Vedic communities far and wide under new and more prosperous economic conditions tended towards the development of a parochial separatism. especially if the smaller unit were founded on blood-relationship and settled communal interests. this characteristic is made practically equivalent to worship. organised its members on lines suggested by its requirements. never very strong or well defined. until. in proportion to the increased resources afforded by a settled life. or even a family. would the expansion and re-formations of the Aryan community tend to diminish the influence of the professional. Nor. in the colonisation. At the head of the social scale stood. a period is reached when bodies of other and non-Vedic Aryas appeared upon the scene. and the absence of any specially powerful motive for political combination into larger units. however. the danger of reprisal by the rest was removed as the more adventurous bodies of the Aryas extended their frontier further and further into the interior. This had probably grown into a closed body before the dispersal. and there was no common end which made an urgent appeal for collective action. the gap between the masses and the military dominant class tended to widen. then. and scatter as they . of course. which possibly the presence of large bodies of alien helots may have helped to divert from wider political conceptions. indeed.14 5- Ethnography. This community seems to have been an institution of very early date amongst the Vedic tribes. then. cemented by the possession of a definite tract of pasture or arable land. The village community being left. or Brahmanic. was bound to follow the fortunes of the rest of the community. The stable element. The latter ceremony may easily have waned without affecting the essential daily rites of the household. would naturally be subordinated to that of territorial ownership. as now. the stunted and swarthy alien. at the foot. the dispersal of the tribe and the constant presence of the Dasyu helots at the gate might be assumed to lendadditional value. The necessity of combination for mutual defence against the alien waned therefore into insignificance. basis. and the fortunes of the ruling houses became a matter of comparatively little importance to the village. the possessor of land and beeves. In these circumstances. originally expanded on special occasions to the sacrifice offered under the auspices of the Chieftain for his tribe. The Brahman. and was established upon a clan. was not supplied by the Court and its army. but by the village. contests. but it was attached in the first instance to the person of the Chieftain. and whilst the supply of menial labour was provided by the Dasyus retained in subjection upon the soil of which they had been dispossessed. as has been stated in the Introduction. again. The opportunity for forming detached and independent settlements of this kind was favourable. in turn. and obviously could not be otherwise than dependent upon those on whose behalf the priestly offices were undertaken. The tie of tribe.

In the advance of the Aryas into India neither of these motives seems to have been predominant. as the various bodies of those who placed their faith in it receded further from their traditional race-unity. and to the transfer of the attention of the hieratic order from the fluctuating fortunes of the military aristocracy. whether they were carried on by the Dasyu. they could not fail to bring into prominence the possibility of contamination or abasement of position. but texts from them were an essential part of every ceremony. of gentility dency. The situation could be stereotyped by the establishment of the distribution of society upon divine — — . as mentioned above. it should be borne in mind. is to filter downwards through the society. and the bias in favour of such distinctions amongst the "clans" was necessarily accentuated by the contiguity of the dark races. and had passed. In regard to the former. as it attains a secured position. favourable to the growth of sacerdotal influence. therefore. in Vedic tradition. amongst the priests and the nobles. a class which was competent to render. into the stage of spells. or the struggle for life within the community itself may tend towards a more comprehensive grouping. There were other conditions. did. or the poorer members of the Clan. naturally. some measure of precaution against degradation through admixture with bodies which it considers its inferiors. Manual industries. it would seem. either on racial grounds or by reason of the inherent or conventional impurity of the calling. each section adopting. Whether this sentiment of exclusiveness hardens into separatism or is merged in wider conceptions depends upon the circumstances in which the community happens to find itself during the early period of its settled existence. where the circumstances were evidently open to organisation. A good foothold was provided in the high value placed upon the purity of the family blood. were invariably depreciated by the Arya of the west. as it in the older sense of that term. A. accordingly. the half-breeds. moreover. the foundations of a closed order based on heredity had been laid. They. The value of this qualification increased. Historical. too. for the confluence of the two peaceful currents which had throughout all vicissitudes preserved their continuity the sentiment of family purity and the hieratic administration of the ancestral worship. was to establish an alliance between conventional purity of race or calling with the ancestral religion of which the Brahman was the sole exponent. in turn. on the one side. had taken care to prevent others from participating in that advantage. and in India. In these circumstances. the idea which seems to have been adopted to prevent the flowing tide of impurity from submerging the cherished landmarks of pride of family and of race. the maintenance of which was the predominant object of the Vedic social system. at a very early period. potent only in the mouths of those who had professionally learnt them. (by whom. The ideals and practice of the upper classes in regard to such a question constitute the hall-mark. The way was open. and the evolution within their own community of occupations unrecognised. could not well dispense with the services he alone The language of the invocations had become obsolete. where they were relegated to the servile population. because unknown. Pressure from outside may necessitate a political organisation which reacts upon the domestic structure.Social Organisation. as it seems to have been that of other Aryan communities in their early days. Their natural tenwere.) to the more amenable medium of the incoherent democracy of the village. its exclusive and privileged character was by no means uncontested.

there is no need to "smell Jesuitry" in the history of its genesis. in fact. In this composition. It seems doubtful. would be graduated in accordance with the example set by the class which prescribed or regulated that branch of caste duty. the title of which is derived from the Vedic term for the "clans" in the aggregate. and even the great sectarian movements in derogation of the exclusive privileges of the sacerdotal class left caste untouched. decreed by modern scholars to be the product of the latest Vedic period. As a further security against a rivalry which in after times. whilst a place of degradation is made for the lower orders generally. however. to set their seal upon what they found ready to hand. Caste. as evinced by the form their civilisation had begun to assume. Assuming the above hypothesis to be well founded. The Purusa-Sukta of the Rgveda. had been provided by their descendants. and that any encroachment upon that supremacy would be amply provided against by the establishment of the principle of heredity in determining rank. acceptance of that condition as the inevitable apex of the system they . The sacrosanct position of the Brahman being once established as the pivot of the system. It appears. the development of the latter preceeded on the lines indicated by the code of purity adopted by the priestly order. and were not a convenient expedient for severing the masses from the privileged classes. as it is essential to the preservation of the family or caste purity that the mother of the heir should not be the medium by which any taint can be introduced into the blood. The materials for it. Recognition of the inherent sacredness and spiritual authority of the Brahman became essential. whilst that applied to social intercourse. Ethnography. still less the did not exist amongst which is the subject now in hand Caste-system the Aryas of the Sukta period. Endogamy is here implied. and it only remained for the Brahmans. in due course. is the Magna Charta of the caste system. is merged the Dasyu community. being bound up to a great extent with religious ceremonial. proclaimed the Ksatriya order also — — to be extinct.1 5. It is true that as is now generally admitted. In such an arrangement it is obvious that the leading place in the social hierarchy would be assigned to the Brahman. ordinance. Into this strictly demarcated classification were compressed all the numerous sections of the population existing at the time when the Brahman Procrustes undertook its application to the facts of everyday life. possibly because the standard of purity in regard to function had already been fixed by public opinion. and ended. whether the two lower classes of the Brahmanic scheme ever had more than a literary existence. in which. verging upon that of the early Brahmanic supremacy. The principle underlying the scheme of organisation seems to have received universal recognition. which acquired thereby a position of unparalleled supremacy. that the sacerdotal element in its elaboration was met at least half-way by the inclinations of the lay public. the social position of each of which is thus irrevocably fixed. it is § 19. perhaps through Buddhism. The two first are the Vedic orders above mentioned. though the point is not certain. Then comes a third. the Brahmans. if not nominal. accordingly. and to brand it as nothing more than the full-blown device of subtle and self-regarding Brahmanism. apparently. who were now in a position of power in the interior. in the actual. indeed. that whilst the system upon which Indian society is organised clear is due to the influence of a hereditary priesthood. a divine origin is ascribed to four classes. became troublesome.

and predisposing them to submission to priestly authority. and the marked absence amongst them of the "noble discontent" with their circumstances which spurs men on to efforts to improve them. Historical. or. no doubt. upwards. and amongst them have been included the devout belief in the omnipresence of supernatural agency. or not. and intercourse with the rest of the community. occupation. the most potent factor is the Brahmanic standard of purity. rigid and compressive as may be the framework Indo-arische Philologie. 17 orthodoxy. In function. or food. again. 5. This is the thread upon which is strung the astounding collection of otherwise independent communities into which the population of India is now divided and which multiplies almost every year the number of its units. The constant multiplication of castes. the doctrine of metempsychosis. marriage regulations. retained. in the form in which it chiefly prevails. which. to the excommunication of a section from fire and water for a violation of the caste rules regarding such matters. of course. it may be. whether amongst the village menials or the Hill tribes which have become or are becoming. It is open to question however. They are. on the other hand. indeed. though not without a glance at the ancestry of those who have taken to it. indeed. with race. There is. and fresh subdivisions were formed in consequence. Schism on religious grounds occurred. however. but these involved no change in caste or social position unless they happened Doctrinal in the social to entail the violation of prescriptions relating to the purity of the family or the individual. whether the two last preceded the institution of the caste system. The apathetic character of the people. moreover. It is necessary to make some mention of it. lends valuable support to the notion of predestined lot in the successive births into this world to which all are subject. comparatively easy of detection. A. Other factors contributed. These prescriptions are the operative part of the system. the social gradations are based upon the relative cleanliness of the pursuit. regulating as they do. It underlies the demarcation by race. when as above indicated. with whom detail looms higher than in classes where tradition is stronger and position more assured. as it has continued to do. Be this as it may. This fissiparity of castes is a subject of great intricacy to which space does not allow more than cursory reference here. and are thus well within reach of the discipline of the caste tribunal. also. could not have had much weight balance after the pantheon had been enlarged to admit the claims of popular local deities. they are accompanied by a departure from the social observances of the original body. They are thus of a quasi-public character and the breach of any of them brings the stigma of pollution not only upon the individual but upon the family and the castefellows who come into contact with the offender. 2 . again.Social Organisation. which in its lower grades is closely connected. and the non-Aryan beliefs and ritual had been adapted to the flexible requirements of the Brahmans. food. castes. and the desire to emulate it. Religious differences only lead to the formation of a separate caste. II. in the earlier times. is attributable for the most part either to the assumption by a section of an existing caste of a higher standard of purity than the rest in occupation. marriage. in order to show that. regarding the present as the direct heir of the past. a consideration of some moment amongst the masses. or in the opposite direction. permeating all classes from top to bottom. to the consolidation of the system. is taken into account. as they abandon customs which are incompatible with it.

by immigrants from the Ganges valley. and occupations. and provides. of society imposed by the caste system. of the more representative castes has been included portion of this review. too. having always been fertile in sectarian disputes. the form assumed by the superstructure raised upon that foundation differs a brief description in the latter materially in would If any generalisation be sustainable. that are less abundant. The Brahmanism of Telingana has considerably less of the pre-Aryan element. This combination is of long standing. accordingly. and when settled amongst the latter. in which the Brahlations regarding marriage man takes no part except where one of the more powerful of the local maleficent goddesses has been adopted as a manifestation of some Puranic divinity. where the means of subit. be. different regions. On the other hand. doctrinal schism amongst the local Brahmans has resulted in some instances in separation in social intercourse. Thus. and also where the system was adopted after it had reached maturity among those who were the means of introducing It tends to be weak. The South. they are continually making efforts to get their claim to a higher rank recognised by their actual superiors. little change has been effected by it in their food or their special regustill less in their worship. each of which. seems to have been a factor of some weight in determining the extent to which recognition should be accorded to local customs and beliefs. the caste system flourishes in full vigour. it caste tends to be strong where the population is generally prosperous. cannot be so demarcated as they are under more favourable conditions. if not supremacy. § 20. The inhabitants. The lower orders there occupy a position of degradation differing from that of the corresponding castes further north in that a good many of them do not accept it. probably because there was partial colonisation of the Andhra region through Orissa or otherwise. The subdivisions among sistence strictly . and though caste as an institution is universal. before the Dravida region was reached. It is perhaps still more important to note that the converse process does not take place. like most general statements concerning India.5- Ethnography. though lax in their observances compared to the Brahmanists of the North. and is probably the origin of the Right and Left-handed distribution of castes which is only found amongst the Tamil people. attained by the time Brahmanisation set in. in the south-Dravidian part of the peninsula. too. it does not preclude mobility within the multitudinous cells of which it is composed. therefore. for the increase of their number by accretion from outside. but it has simply been engrafted upon Tamil institutions. With the object of illustrating these features of the system in actual operation. Through this more information may be gained. consider themselves higher in position than the Tamil castes. A section once split off does not rejoin. and the basis of the system which has been the subject of the foregoing review is the same throughout. as far as the masses of the people are concerned. and having a working tradition of former power. them increase accordingly. perhaps. it is hoped. again. requires abundant qualification to meet local exceptions. The stage of civilisation. the artisan castes are here found united to an extent unknown in the present day elsewhere. It must never be forgotten that India is not a country but a collection of countries. and. left in it. avoid inter- . nor do different castes coalesce with each other to form larger communities of the same character. another development not found elsewhere. on the other hand. than can be conveyed by a series of general statements.

as would be done in other parts of India. too. like the Dasyu of the north. and. or by community of function overriding race differences and often determined by locality. conducing to a united front. upon tradition. long settled on an agricultural basis. The above caste. as in Madras. the flood of Islam overran the country before the new regulations had time to gain foothold amongst the people. under different auspices. It is now held to represent the early Aryan immigrants. Still more immature in its development is the caste system. included all the ordinary professions but they were not formed into castes. and even now that process is by no means complete. and visit the mesalliance of a girl upon her individually. of a former position far above that now assigned to them. The Brahman. not by armed force. In their case the development was apparently retarded. which. and the facilities they afford for a subsequent rise in rank on increased observance of conventional purity are unwontedly liberal. A. The subject classes seem to have been left to assimilate their organisation to that of their superiors without tradition or authority to guide them. therefore. and not. therefore. often not without foundation. The same spirit is manifested in the relations between orthodox Brahmanism and the Kol and Dravidian . at length. easily subjected. or racial community. and owing to the absence of a landholding aristocracy of the military order and the comparative weakness of the Brahman immigrants. For generations they have been deposed. the system is an exotic. has given to its caste system a strength and complexity not found in the present day in the less favourable conditions of the upland tracts. later. It took root however. are more than usually indefinite. When. and the population encountered consisted of the wild tribes of the forest or amphibious dwellers in the Delta. and disregards the stricter rules of his order as to marriage. Special arrangements exist for the incorporation into castes of the indigenous population. and was introduced long after it had reached maturity in upper India. if so it may be called. In Lower Bengal. to be approached by missionary enterprise only. but the prosperity they enjoy in modern times induces them to revive their dormant claim. like the Tamil communities. Historical. The greater prosperity of the South. Amongst the lower classes these pretensions are usually based.Social Organisation. Setting on one side modern immigrants from Bengal and the Brahman. Along the East coast the Tamil features prevail almost till they join the Orissa system. as to intermarriage. by pressure of Mongoloid tribes around them. who reached the seclusion of the Brahmaputra valley before the caste system had been developed in Bengal or wherever these colonists originated. The country was occupied by the Aryas or their hybrid descendants in the course of their general expansion down the valley. 19 mixture as far as possible. probably from the isolation and the timid character of the population. first. changes or claims to change of rank are more frequent here than in any other part of India. Kol or Mongoloid. It appears. the official graduation of society was taken in hand by one of the more powerful local rulers. Even the higher classes are lax. The relations between these bodies. from physical features and the titles of caste subdivisions that bodies were formed either by race. has the reputation of being the most bigotted and priest-ridden of its kind. not upon her relations. falls into line with the rest. too. however. as in the Tamil country. which prevails in the Assam valley. to the hold which Buddhism obtained for some time over this tract. afterwards split up by function. there is but one community of even nominal Aryan origin.

and. society is there constituted upon a system untouched by foreign influence. but not. to the loss of social position. The tribes of Chutia Nagpur tend to get merged Bengal system. referred to earlier in this work. as indicated above. These valleys are the only tracts to which the Muslim never penetrated. In Sindh. It is worth noting that in the upper Jamna tract and well into the eastern Panjab caste remains entirely unaffected by conversion to Islam. have maintained both racial and functional divisions regulated generally on caste lines. The Chief is emphatically the fountain of honour. who were themselves organised upon a tribal basis. the Muslim left the way more open to the Brahman. perhaps to be expected from the proximity to its birth-place. the present social conditions of the region longest and most absolutely held by the Moghal regime appear to confirm conclusively the evidence afforded by the relations between Brahmanism and the pre -Aryan worship of the south and centre. indeed. The adjacent peninsulas of Gujarat have been frequently occupied by aliens. Then. tends first. At all events. together with the fertility of the mainthe land. and this seems to be attributable to the combination of two influences. The various tracts which have been mentioned present the most strongly marked peculiarities in their caste systems. to great subdivision of castes. the whole population embraced Islam. upon its social restrictions. In the western Panjab caste is weaker than in any other tract. or fighting man. to the effect that the hold of caste upon the popular mind is altogether detachable from religious doctrine. by the Muslim occupation. the titles of the sec- . Into these it is not proposed to enter except cursorily. the old order was reestablished in full force. again. there is the tribal sentiment. and rests. whom they disdainfully ignored. In course of time. into 5- Ethnography. where conversion seems to lead to more complete breach with the older regime. and the only large indigenous Brahmanic caste left is that of the traders. but in each of the rest there will be found certain characteristics in which it differs from others. as is. but for a totally different reason. the caste system seems to have developed upon what may be termed more normal lines than in any other part of India. Every community above the menial aspires to rise by some means or other to the rank of that above it. and can uplift or degrade a caste or even a family as he pleases. The adoption of a lower class of calling under pressure of need leads. for instance. of course. under the auspices of refugee Rajputs. In the Panjab Hills. the struggle for life in a comparatively infertile country conduced to the mobility of occupation to an extent seldom necessary in the richer tracts to the eastwards. Between the Jamna and the Ghogra or even the Kosi. Caste is also weak in the lower Himalaya. though the traces of the cataclysm have never been quite effaced. which scattered the leaders of society and swept away many old landmarks. especially amongst the functional castes. whilst it takes wives from and eats with. It found a ready acceptance amongst the Rajput and Jat races of the plains. It is held by some. First. and those of the Satpura and Vindhya. The process of evolution was seriously interrupted.20 tribes of the Central Belt. that immediately below it. therefore. with a lightly worn veil of caste thrown over the arrangement. that by the elimination of the Rajput. The rest. to excommunication. however. however. gradually mix with the lower castes of cultivators in the plains. derived from the vicinity of the Pathan and Baliich. and this fact. caste is remarkably fluid. as it would on the Jamna.

too. but of practical importance in the every -day administration of the country. The Courts of Justice. for instance. B. the more minute subdivisions of the community are often more pregnant of suggestion or information than those of which they form a part. It should be borne in mind that the object of the Census is to obtain a record not § 21. in view of the "megalomania" which is probably at the bottom of the whole controversy. the main body. and often the credibility of a witness is decided by a casual detail of caste convention. had from time to time a strong influx of foreign Brahmans. as in the Gangetic region. and with an eye to the known probability of error in the direction of either excessive generality or excessive minuteness of description. Descriptive. strict observance of caste discipline. In the larger communities. Distinctions such as these are illustrated as far as space allows in the following pages of this work. such as caste or tribe. the subdivision to which the individual may belong. It must also be understood that neither the Provincial nor the Imperial returns claim to present anything beyond a partial and very imperfect picture of the astounding fissiparity of the Brahmanic social system in the . The social position and the numerical strength of different sections of the community are essential facts in connection. almost insuperable. Even the identification of an individual cannot be satisfactorily established in the case of many of the more important social divisions by less than two or even three. Brahmanism is in high honour. and. but it must be recognised that from the ethnological standpoint. B. prevails amongst the probably kindred tribes of the middle Indus. in the description of its main constituent parts. for administrative purposes. and along with its isolation. with public instruction or with measures for the promotion of the comfort or convenience of the locality. accordingly. and which cannot be safely left to the evidence of the disputants. is shown in actual operation the system of which the development and conjectural origin have been outlined above. it is obvious must be a task of extraordinary. and must be adequately dealt with in any special investigation. has this. In Rajputana. tions indicating intermixture of races as in Lower Bengal. such as that now engaging the attention of those employed upon the Indian Ethnographical Survey. first.Social Organisation. successive questions. indeed the latter is the more distinctive designation. as the unit of compilation in the returns prepared for local use. as is natural considering the history and character of the ruling classes. have helped to rivet firmly the priestly yoke upon the people. and was adopted. it that only of scientific value in the service of ethnography. Descriptive. Lower than this it is unnecessary. difficulty to reduce to anything like accurate numerical terms the component parts of so vast and complex an organisation as that sketched above. again. On these considerations. 21 and then to The Konkan. provision was made at the Census for the return of social divisions under two headings. too. though the difficulty of making a living in the desert portion of the tract allows a latitude of occupation among the poorer castes similar to that which. where. that the inquiry should go. for the same reason. Regarding the subject in its ethnographic aspect. are frequently called upon to decide questions of rank or privilege in which the relative numbers of the litigant parties are points relevant to the inquiry. secondly.

no classification upon a single a definite principle is possible. Not only so. some of them professing a different religion. there is a marked difference in practice in regard to intercommunion between the greater part of Continental India and the Peninsula. Imperial Table. taking into consideration the diverse and often mutually inconsistent theories held as to the basis and general principles upon which the system rests. and the minute rules in regard to it by which the intercourse between the different sections of the community is. is divided into its respective endogamous sections. and these lines . covers. however. contains different position in the social hierarchy of the neighbourhood from that of the synonymous section elsewhere. as sometimes. in that it raises no awkward questions as to position or precedence. Take. and occupying. the feature of endogamy alone. Even the Provincial groups. This. even though. convey an impression of homogeneity not in correspondence with the actual fact. but no one of them covers the whole or can be made the standard by which the divisions as they now exist can be graduated on the social scale. it is useful for reference on individual cases. is not the case. the items are arranged in alphabetical order. then. Each of these local subdivisions. even were it possible. The somewhat drastic process of compilation. § 22. therefore. With the above qualifications and reserve. happens. undeviatingly regulated. It is as well to admit at the outset that in view of the varied origin and history of the social divisions in question and of the various forms the social system has assumed. the figures to be found in the Imperial returns must be taken as providing as trustworthy information as is now available upon this branch of the subject. subjoined to the general aggregate in the Table. function.400 separate items. none of which intermarries with the rest. creed and policy cover respectively a considerable portion of the ground. consanguinity. would be universally accepted. many others.22 full 5- Ethnography. Race. no such classification. Irrespective of the difficulty of obtaining a formal decision on individual cases. perhaps. owing to prejudice and the general ignorance of the position of classes below them which prevails amongst those who would ordinarily be consulted. It is equally judicious to assume that. and some form of coordination becomes necessary before all these isolated nuggets of information can be got to collectively yield their tribute towards the common object of illustrating the main characteristics of the social organisation of the different regions of India. even after a nearly 2. Every subdivision recorded in a Provincial Table. The criterion which would be adopted would be whether or not certain higher classes would take from the community in question water or certain kinds of food. if accompanied. a form of record which has its advantages from an official point of view. In the Tables. but the main body itself does not recognise any social tie with the body bearing the same name located in a distant part of the country. however. moreover. It might be thought that in view of the extreme value attached to conventional purity. and the project of expanding it to the full limits of the subject inevitably calls to the memory of the expert the concluding verse of the Gospel according to St John. and. if the main body be widely spread. by a brief practical account of the principal divisions. for instance. There. quite a vigour of its present existence. by unanimous public opinion in each locality. a touchstone might be found in it by which social rank might be assayed. and even between province and province. its function ends. as in the Madras list. the same vernacular language may be spoken by both.

The definition of caste quoted above is therefore applicable without serious modification of its essentials to communities of not only Jains and Sikhs. extends far beyond the limits of the Brahmanical religion. is able to exercise. with the Brahman. as a rule. stands. that they afford little or no graduation of the masses respectively enclosed within them. except in the North-west. In dealing with the masses of the population. and who. as a rule. the first fact of which cognisance should be taken in regard to the general arrangement of the castes is the remarkable preponderance of the agricultural element. At the head of the list are placed certain groups of an exceptional character. With. or mendicant orders. it is not intended to serve as a Glossary. § 23. The term function. or to give an account of all the castes and tribes which find place in the Imperial returns. The Brahman naturally stands first. the landed classes stand at the . claim distant connection with the Rajput. by virtue of their profession have abjured caste. important differences of religion being duly noted against them. known as the village community. who. The Rajput. accordingly. B. and is more frequently than not implied in the title of the caste. This expansion of meaning is necessitated by the mobility of occupation in modern times. Descriptive. which is mainly to render the facts assimilable by those who have not been brought into personal contact with the civilisation of India. In the little oligarchy. even under Brahmanism. the basis of that subdivision will be found in function. whose position differs somewhat from that of the rest. again. on the one hand. them may be taken the trading and writing classes. but after. been here marshalled on the lines laid down above. Cultivation is the premier employment of the country. as the keystone of the whole social scheme. so many communities in each class. It will be found that. and to occupy a holding is the main object of the bulk of the rural population. Now. As regards the review itself. overlying in some cases a distant but traceable background of race. but. as explained above outside the Brahmanic system. including that is. race alone is the determining factor. both of which in Upper India. Elsewhere. constitute what are known as the Educated classes of India. for the purpose of this review. Here. it should be explained. however. there are numerous cases where the public estimate is formed upon the origin of the community by whom the occupation is pursued. is an order of nobility rather than a caste in the ordinary acceptation of the term. by the consideration that whilst function usually takes rank in relation to purity according to the character of the service performed or of the material handled. 23 of demarcation are in most cases so far apart.Social Organisation. but extends to that traditionally ascribed to the body in question. and without further internal subdivisions the groups are of little practical significance. The influence of the latter. too. even of the Muslim persuasion. and thus takes its stand upon racial considerations rather than upon the intrinsic nature of the pursuit. in the review which follows. again. but here the community. therefore. though not in the South. and. may be placed the religious devotee. for the purpose of exposition. These instances have been included. but merely to bring to notice the principal bodies under each of the heads into which Indian society has. graduation upon this basis is in general harmony with the current conceptions regarding hereditary purity which prevail in India. though in more than one instance only to re-form themselves into something very like a caste of their own. is not limited to the occupation actually followed in the present day. on the other. as they rise in wealth and in the power which wealth.

a little higher. as it were. As regards the arrangement of the items coming under each head. in order that prominence may be given to the marked differences in the caste system which are found to prevail. as a rule. followed by a small group of minor. except in a few cases where a permanent pied a terre is kept for shelter during the rainy season. § 24. fields is whom hover between the To the village. to whom is assigned respectively a small share of the village land or of its annual produce. Considering that the participation of a Brahman is essential to the validity of all ceremonies of a social character amongst the great majority of the community which takes its religious title from this order. are various tribes of travellers and nomads. but there are a few which include large and respectable communities. as in all but the east of India and the tracts still under the forest tribes. is almost unanimous in pointing to the upper Gangetic region as the place of origin.893. Mixed in with these. bye-products of the hive. it is not surprising that the latter should occupy the first place in the returns both as to numbers and dispersion. and where. as it functional or other. understood in India. nomenclature and custom. except the eastern and western frontiers the Central Belt. though to a great extent native in blood.300). or subsidiary professional castes between village and town. but they are. Special groups. as the case may be. In every part of India. some of and their eponymous means of subsistence. are found the various large bodies of fishers. In placing them after the rural bodies it is not implied that they rank below the latter from whom in most cases they originally sprang. the and the hills of very considerable numbers. or by linguistic divisions. A. cattle-breeders and others. it seems best to deal with the return territorially. outside the normal output. Finally. 5- Ethnography. which in this case. is corroborated by the evidence of physiognomy. and for the next eight or nine centuries the supply seems to have been plentiful and constant. From this nucleus Brahmans found their way in very early days across Rajputana and Malva to the west coast of Gujarat.24 top. minor professionals and menials. that community exists in an organised form. Each of these economic units contains a recognised body of artisans. then. The Brahmans of lower Bengal trace their is Brahman found in . some reference must be made to the bodies not coming within the caste system. some of whom are real castes. In the third are placed the castes exercising functions specially or exclusively the product of city life. such as the more or less primitive tribes of the Hill-tracts. In the south of the Peninsula. and tradition. to the main organisation. and also the Muslim races foreign to India in their titles. Brahmans (14. CASTES AND CASTE-GROUPS. and on lines parallel. the classes included therein are all subservient to the needs of the peasantry. others a nondescript collection of waifs often consisting of "broken men" or people discarded by other communities. the earliest appearance of this class was probably not much earlier than the Christian era. at all events. The greater number of the latter are numerically small. Then. is dedicated the second of the main divisions of the list. detached from either town or village. for they stand.

its stock a little later. according to numerous traditions current amongst the Brahmans of to day. In later times. Oudh surpasses the sister Province of Agra in the relative number of its Brahmans. others in the west Dekkan. he was liable. as the tribes settled.^" Still later. but there seems some reason to think that there was an earlier strain which had become extinct. where Brahmanism reigns in unwonted vigour. but was. to be imported in large bodies to a distant Court on the invitation. In Vedic times he was part and parcel of the fortunes various settlements along the west coast. too. Brahmans abound. when a considerable colony was imported by the reigning sovereign from upper India and acclimatised in the north and west of the present Province. there are about 4 800 000 Brahmans. the traditional seat of the Gaur section of Brahmans still maintains its preeminence. where they first became a consolidated body and established the hierarchy they have since dominated. account for more than half the total number. multiplied and expanded. Of the vast population of Bengal. and Madras. therefore. Special Groups. some of whom took refuge in the seclusion of the Nepal valley. moreover. of course. The Brahman was never organised into a tribe upon a territorial basis. even. Orissa received. his patron. others. 25 origin back to the loth century. The distribution over these large areas is not.Castes and Caste-Groups. again. Bombay and the Panjab each contain between a million and a quarter. and holds a strong position throughout the Dekkan. the Brahman is well represented on the wealthy plains of Gujarat. his principal clients. 2 900 000 are of that order. however. these two Provinces. fled by sea through Sindh or Kathiavad to three Amongst the latter were at least Brahman communities who have preserved a credible tradition of their northern origin. except for a few places in the centre of the Province. not always declinable. In the west of India. The prevalence of Brahmans along the eastern bank of the Jamna extends also for some distance to the west in both Rajputana and the Panjab. or had degenerated below the standard exacted by the dynasty which had established itself on the coast. of the Chief. scarcely any are to be found. there is taken into consideration the incorporation into the Brahmanic order of local communities and of priests and exorcists of the wild tribes accepting Brahmanism. he attached himself to the landed classes. parasitic upon other classes of the community. for "unde vivent oratores si defecerint aratores . roughly speaking. again. The land. of the pious ruler. Between the Jamna and the Ghogra. r . in Rajputana. In the Dravidian tracts. In the Panjab. the greatest relative prevalence of the sacerdotal element is found in the outer-Himalaya. In the former tract there is a large settlement in the so-called desert States of the north and west. from the beginning. The frequent invasions of upper India from the north-west during the ten first centuries of the Christian era are credited with the dispersal of large bodies of Brahmans from Rajputana and the Madhyades'a. A. When. and the results of left-handed unions with the daughters of the land. Further up the Ganges. or produced. is still that in which their numbers are both absolutely and relatively the greatest. but in Sindh and towards the domain of the Baluch and Pathan. Orissa and Bihar stand out above the rest of Bengal. his numbers are fairly evenly distributed over the main linguistic divisions. the capricious exercise of the powers of Brahmanification arrogated to themselves by sundry of the Chieftains. relatively to the population. and it is worth noting that Gonda. the extent to which the Brahman is scattered far and wide is no matter for surprise.

the Sarasvata of the upper Jamna. In every linguistic group. moreover. Kanaujia and Sarasvata. "Three Kanaujia. or are relegated by them to a degraded position. these divisions are of little practical significance in the everyday life of the present time. The Curjara Brahmans. the Karnata. if circumstances turn out favourable to their advancement. in reality. are all northern in their origin. are popularly credited with 84 divisions. to sectarian or doctrinal disagreement. beginning with the ancient partition of the Brahmanic order into the five Cauda. though not irrevocably doomed to remain there. To the former belong the Gaur. may be taken as fairly correct. unique and universally recognised position the of the multitude. The acme of subdivision in combination with ceremonial exclusiveness. but this being a popular expression of multitude in general. though grouped amongst the southerners. though called Brahmans by the public. The Brahmans of the Dekkan are perhaps as little split up into sections as any. The majority of the larger castes thus constituted have a territorial origin. lends greater weight and permanence to a subdivision based on considerations other than those connected with landed property. again. and. the Andhra of Telingana and the Dravida of the Tamil country. again. and the five Dravida. in communities different in origin. especially as all the larger items in that lengthy list have their respective sub-castes. each of which is in turn. indeed. makes such cohesion impracticable. are either not recognised by other Brahmans. the absence of territorial settlement to which reference was made above. of the Central Doab. had the effect of making them perhaps the most heterogeneous collection of minute and independent subdivisions that ever bore a common designation. of Tirhut. but this graduation is not necesrecognised at a distance or where a different language is spoken. Their very dispersal over the length and breadth of the continent. too. the main lines of distribution are geographical. Except in the case of the three first mentioned.sarily backed by the public verdict. Subordinate to these are the local offshoots. viz. the Kanaujia. of the Dekkan. since they are severally partitioned into numerous main subdivisions. is probably reached among the Kanaujia. of Mysore and the neighbourhood. Added to these are the Curjara of the west. there are certain classes which. In spite of the 5- Ethnography. Throughout the local community. From time to time. they have never formed themselves into a single and homogenous body. curiously enough. the Maithila. thirteen cooking-fires". and the Utkala of Orissa. the scheme has to be expanded to admit some new recruits from outside the fold. accordingly. inferior. 79.26 § 25. who. which are very generally attributable to schism on points of ceremonial or food. too. to that to which many of the non-Brahman castes are admitted. in the Dravida country. However this may be. of the South. minutely split up into a still greater number of separate endogamous communities. the stricter observance of caste separatism. of course. except. of whom it is said in their native Province. and has promoted. speaking different languages and eating different food. the rank of each subdivision relatively to the rest is fixed by a convention . the number actually found. South of the Vindhya come the Maharastra. and enlisted to perform some of the ceremonial functions of the Brahman. Possibly. amongst those still occupying the traditional centres of Brahmanism. or Northern sections. It has. but on the coast-strip of effectively . generally well to the north of where they are now settled. from Gonda in Brahmans hold in the estimation Oudh. such as the Gaur. who are usually placed low down on the scale.

In several cases the claim to be accounted a Brahman rests entirely upon the performance of those duties. has been prolific. for whilst to the donor offerings of any kind to a Brahman are held to be productive of spiritual merit. the provision of a meal for a certain number of Brahmans is an essential and costly feature. within the fairly wide limits which he himself has set. depend to a great extent upon function and the means of livelihood accessible. reciting the appropriate texts for pilgrims at a bathing place. is by origin a functional order. whether the tract is prospering. accordingly. where the system is of later introduction. or helping at a funeral. there is usually a plentiful supply of Brahmans of whom it has been said that "they exist only to be fed". the A. from time to time. from a very early period. owing. and he is still entitled to the homage of the rest of the community. But whichever of these he may take up. It was stated above that the subdivision of Brahman communities is often traceable to differences in regard to food and ceremonial. his inherent qualities are unabated. where caste has been affected by the doctrinal schisms of which the clouth since the days of S'ankaracarya and Ramanuja. The Brahmans of Bengal and Madras. § 26. accordingly. it should be noted. and the like offices. to those low in station. is not undertaken by the better class of Brahman. no doubt. the Brahman. because in all formal rites such as those connected with birth. In the present day. as pointed out earlier in this work. The inference drawn from this estimation of temple service is that the divinities in question are those of the non-Arya. probably. In the latter capacity his bare living is assured to him without need to work for it. In the more prosperous parts of the country. in the eyes of their compeers. or whether the Brahman first came . marriage. Strictly speaking. In another direction there are instances on record where the number of it. On every side are to be found subdivisions which. as it is held to be degrading. great latitude had to be allowed. as the community which reverenced them was brought to adopt the social system of the higher race. Special Groups. 27 to the foreign Konkan the subdivision is more minute. expiation or thanksgiving. especially in the latter. Service at a temple. hide a complicated interior under a comparatively small number of main divisions. incorporated from time to time into the Brahmanic pantheon. and remains strain introduced the accredited intermediary between man and the supernatural. only one of the lower class of the order will accept gifts for exorcising evil spirits. It is probable that the distinction drawn between the acceptance of offerings by a Brahman in requital for specific services and those made to him on general grounds has its root in the same tradition. have fallen from grace by participating in the feasts of wealthy but impure clients. The secular pursuits affected by the is Brahman vary considerably acinto cording to whether the caste settled in the locality in large numbers. and left. local Brahmans available for a ceremony of this sort not being equivalent to the aspirations of the Chieftain interested in the quorum has been made up by him by a special creation out of such lower material as was at hand. in turn. but with the expansion of the Arya population in post-Vedic times and the growth of the Brahmanic community beyond the need of the layman for its specific ministrations. These. death. averting the baleful influences of an eclipse or certain combinations of stars. the Brahman is represented in a large proportion of what may be called the upper and middle class occupations of India.Castes and Caste-Groups.

the Brahman usually Brahman has a share in the State appointments to which the "literary proletariat" of India look mainly for their subsistence. a following which is to a great extent barred to them by reason of castescruples in regard to the surgical training involved. probably. Even in the tracts where a serious rival is found in a professional writing class. and for seventy years or more. Wherever they have settled in large masses. the Maratha Brahman has almost a monopoly of clerical employment throughout the Dekkan. and still fewer the practice of Medicine. under the Pesva rule. and with the Haiga or Havlka of Kanara. and the Nambiitiri of the Malabar coast. nevertheless in the vicinity of the Ganges it has proved by no means unattractive to the Brahman peasantry. except that they but very rarely put their hand to the plough. if not the official accountant. and he thus becomes. which probably preceded their advance as a sacerdotal body. though they go as far as standing upon the crossbar of the harrow to lend their weight to that operation. and the whole of the administration was conducted 'by the local and the coast Brahman. the scribe. as a pioneer and colonist or as a propagandist or an exile from another Political employment has been congenial to the Brahman from the when the Purohita. he is the centre of a well-defined system of 'predial servitude. all of whom have settled in fertile country. of course. of the village community. also. or family sacrificer. The Bhiiinhar. his land being cultivated for him by hereditary serfs of undoubtedly Dasyu descent. according to his The Brahman shares. A military career may appear to be somewhat alien to the traditions and inclinations of a sacerdotal class. to which every Indian capitalist. of the south eastern parts of the upper valley. it centre. This is the case with the Masthan of Orissa and Gujarat. A few take up the lower branches of Engineering. he stands quite in the van of his order in intelligence and general ability. Even in the present day. to own land. it may be noted that wherever the Brahman has settled otherwise than as a part of a large general community. as in the desert States of Rajputana. Konkan and Karnatic. Law and Instruction are the more attractive to this caste. Of the learned professions. or in compact local colonies. and to hold against the to their resources. the Dekkan was dominated from Poona.5- Ethnography. Owing to this caste-imposed restriction. Where the pressure of circumstances is very severe. but even sells his labour to other more fortunate occupants. was treated by the Rajan as his confidential adviser in the Sukta period. they have taken to cultivation on the same lines as the ordinary peasantry. when the whole of the military time organisation built up by the Marathas fell to the disposal of the Citpavan of the Konkan. The great chance of the Brahman came. and with the traditions of former supremacy to encourage him. . the general aspiration is inclined. of course. or Babhan. including ploughing. In commerce they have not made their way beyond the universal venture in lending money neighbours. are credited by some with Brahman ancestry. either as an investment or as a possession honorific in the eyes of the lay world. In some other parts of the country the Brahman is the only class besides the trader who can read and write to any practical purpose. and the caste has continued to throw up from time to time men who have been distinguished for their administration of Native States. which endowed them with enough of the Ksatriya qualities to enable them to push forward in advance of the main body of their race. the Brahman cultivator not only does the whole of his own work. as in the Gangetic Doab and Oudh.

too. From the northern parts of this tract there seems to have been an early movement of conquest up the western rivers of the Panjab. as far as the Himalaya and Kashmir. Amongst the Muhial Brahmans of the Panjab. and when war was carried out on very different lines from those of to-day. therefore. but extending from the Jamna including. or other previous possessor. the land they still occupy.000. and even within them. originally. are found in the north of the Central Provinces. especially those north of the Ganges. is being constantly enlarged upon much the same con- . Special Groups.Castes and Caste-Groups. to the Narbada and Satlaj Bundelkhand. and in Bihar. The nickname of Pandy. when. commanders of this caste acquitted themselves worthily. but the principal and most definite migration followed upon the Muslim conquests of the nth and 12th centuries. whilst the personal sanctity of the Brahman private is apt to turn out inimical to the due observance of regimental discipline. as has been stated. again. bestowed upon the rebel troops collectively by the British soldier. into Gujarat. People are returned at the Census under this designation in considerable numbers from all parts of India except the South. the pride of caste has given viray before the taste for the profession of arms. however. and the community is sufficiently well established to maintain its marriage connection at its conventional level. and not in subordination to the foreigner. is no other than Pande or Pafire. they spread into the adjacent parts of Bihar. and showed both resource and courage in the field. in all probability. when the distance from the race-centre makes the operation fairly safe. and is enrolled under some other designation. which drove large bodies of Rajputs towards the Himalaya and eastwards across the Ganges into the Doab and Oudh.000. In former days. Successive inroads of Scythians and Hiinas caused a movement to the south-west.' The presence of so many Rajputs in other parts of India is accounted for by the fact that the title. A certain number. Beyond the above limits the original stock is not found. as under the Pes'vas. about 1. From thence. the whole of Malva. Since 1857 it has been found that minute caste-scruples as to diet and contact are incompatible with the exigencies of modern field service.000. The legendary occupation of Kathiavad from Mathura is ascribed to an attack delivered from the south and east.200.040. the community is unmis§ 27. not. as it is limited in the present day. takeably military in its origin. In this case. but nine-tenths of them hail from north of the Vindhya and west of the K5si.800). whereby was laid the foundation of the predominance of the tribes still in possession. access to which is still obtainable. with the old baronial attributes of landedestate and leadership of an armed force. it has in some cases been materially watered with local blood. the presence of Rajputs in other parts of India seems due to their expulsion from their ancient seats. Rajputs (10. and whose circle.950.820. . and parts of Agra and the Panjab. as well as from Bundelkhand. where the boundaries between British territory and Central India are very complicated. Brahmans were themselves at the head of the forces. accordingly. denotes. and the would-be recruit of this community drops his Brahmanhood when enlisting. derived from function. In the Panjab there are 1. A. With this exception. The Provinces of Agra and Oudh alone account for 3. therefore. the title of the subdivision recruits of this of the Kanaujia Brahmans from which a high proportion of the caste were then enlisted. an order of hereditary nobility. The cradle of the Rajput is the tract named after him. 29 Kol.

In other cases.30 siderations as of yore. and to the number of about 1 80000. who justify their pretensions by the undisputed fact that their ancestry furnished the rank and file of the archers and other infantry of the local potentate. the ancestry of the claimants in question had somehow or other escaped the general destruction. This much appears to be true. but to that of Ksatriya. the chief and his military retainers passed into the rank of Ksatriya. The essentials of the position are the chieftainship of a tribe or clan and the command of an armed force. and this is attributed to the adoption of the ready-made caste-system by a number of different racial stocks without its graduation being authoritatively regulated by a powerful Chief under the guidance of a council of influential Brahmans. For example. with the possession of a substantial landed estate and a scrupulous regard for the strict letter of Brahmanical regulations as to marriage. Instances will be found in latter parts of this Chapter in which the status of Ksatriya is claimed by many castes of far higher position in the present day than those just quoted. There is. These classes. Dalton's phrase. 5- Ethnography. The leading of Chutia Nagpur. for instance. although the majority of them obtrusively avoid any occupation savouring of war. appear under that in the last Census returns. again. the rank of Ksatriya is claimed almost exclusively by members of the labouring and toddy-drawing castes. whither the Rajput never penetrated. in refined into Rajputs" and sometimes do fingers" to conceal the change. in its inception a movement in their favour. therefore. and are the lineal inheritors of the hypothetical Vedic rank. In ]\Iadras. on the adoption of Brahmanism by a large portion of the Mongoloid population of Manipur. domestic customs and intercourse with other classes. Various legends are current proving that whilst the Puranic assertion of the total extirpation of the Ksatriya is true. do not lay claim to the title of Rajput. such claims are remarkably frequent. except as before stated in Bihar. are constantly. the above requisites being established. therefore. in fact. the elaboration of the claim to affiliation to one of the recognised Rajput clans is left to the ingenuity of a competent BrShman with the aid of an experienced bard or genealogist. the Rajput. that there was a long breach between the heyday of the post-Vedic ruling classes and the genesis of the Rajput. In Lower Bengal. The former were apparently staunch supporters of Buddhism. no section of the Brahmanic hierarchy into which recruitment from the outside has been more extensive or to which the claims to membership have been so numerous. The latter is especially the case in the tracts where the caste system has been imposed as an exotic in comparatively modern times. whilst the latter arose with . and certain castes in Oudh and its neighbourhood rose above their fellows. unless it might be in the form of representatives of more or less evanescent dynasties. caste was engrafted upon an already well-established civilisation to which it had to accommodate itself according to circumstances. is redolent of the local soil. implying a position less definite and less likely to be disputed by existing communities. It was on this basis that in the Panjab the Jat was differentiated from the Rajput. Similarly in the South. In the former. and takes rank therefore below certain other castes which have come to the front under the peaceful conditions of a Province where arms have long succumbed to the tongue and pen. and too title families of various Col. again. Kol tribes "being not wait for 'times' effacing often ignore the essentially Rajput system of clan-exogamy in favour of their pristine tribal arrangements.

Castes and Caste-Groups.

A. Special Groups.

31

the forces which deposed that religion in India, and established their position upon the ruins of the States which had professed it. The ground for the evolution of a new military nobility seems to have been prepared by the establishment in Upper India of successive sovereignties of S'aka race. These professed Buddhism, and were thus antagonistic to the orthodox Brahmanism. But after they had carried their arms far into the country, and the Panjab and its neighbourhood became their principal seat of government, they seem to have become affected by the prevailing social atmosphere, with which, as has been stated, the tenets of Buddhism were by no means out of harmony. One of their monarchs, indeed, is claimed as their founder by more than one of the chief clans of the present-day Rajputs. In the continual disturbances which occurred between the first century before Christ and the downfall of the principal Scythian dynasties in the 7th century A D, the Brahmanic powers were wont to invoke the aid of any arm, Indian or foreign, which might promote the defeat of their rivals. The incorporation of such leaders into their ranks could be effected without much difficulty, firstly, through the prestige of a victory in the good cause, and, again, through the fiction, dating from a far earlier period in Indian history, that the foreign tribes which pressed upon the frontiers of Brahmanism were themselves Brahmanical backsliders of the warrior order, who had lost their position by reason of their neglect of the orthodox rites. Upon the hypothesis that the suppression of Buddhism was an act of faith entitling the protagonists to be received back into the fold, it became possible to combine gratitude with policy, and, by the substitution of a new designation, Rajput, for the old one of Ksatriya, to effectively demarcate from the former state of things, the new order established under the uncontested supremacy of sacerdotalism. None of the Rajputs prove their pedigree further back than the 5th century of the Christian era, and four of the leading tribes of the present day, known as the Agnikula, or Fire-clans, derive their origin from a specific act of creation under Brahmanic auspices, whereby the sun and fireworshipping Huna or Gurjara was converted into the blue blood of Rajputana, and became the forefathers of the Sisodia, Cauhan, Parmar, Parihar, and Solahki or Calukya, and perhaps of the Kachvaha lines. Other cases of similar elevation are to be found, and, considering the dominant position held by Scythian communities in the north and west of India for many centuries, together with the affinity between their worship and that of a popular branch of that of the Brahmans, and the common northern origin of the two races, it is not improbable that the upper classes, at all events, of the new comers should have identified themselves with the corresponding classes of those amongst whom their lot had been permanently cast. There are, moreover, special features of the structure and customs of Rajput and Jat and other northern communities in India which distinguish them from the Brahmanic masses of the interior, and may be attributed to difference of race, perpetuated by many generations of resistance to attacks from the outside. The least that can be said is that a race-connection of the above description could not possibly have existed so long and then faded out without leaving substantial traces of its passage upon the people subject to it. It may be added that Rajput dynasties did not rise to power until sometime after the Huna supremacy had been broken in the 6th century, and that the genealogies of the tribes now ruling States start from about the 7th century. The contests with the Muslim

32

5-

Ethnography.

invader of a few centuries later had the effect of consolidating the Rajput devotion to the scrupulous observance of Brahmanic injunctions as to marriage and intercourse with other castes which specially distinguished them from their foreign oppressors; and to the present day, they stand out from the rest of the community in the high value they attach to these matters. Like the Brahmans, they are greatly subdivided, but with this important difference, that whereas the Brahmans may only marry within the subdivision, the Rajput may only marry without it, though within the Rajput pale. The larger subdivision is, in fact, taking the place of the smaller as the circle of prohibited affinity. Conjecturally, this difference in practice may be due to the fact that the Rajput clan is definitely traceable in its origin to a historic leader or family, involving, therefore, a tradition of blood-kinship the more vivid from its being associated with territorial ownership. The tribe or order, again, being spread continuously and in considerable numbers over a large area, with uniform conceptions as to rank and function, the marriage field is a wide one, and the graduation of each unit in its social position has been arranged on considerations which override the normal limitations of caste. The regulations as to intermarriage, therefore, though exceedingly strict, have a wider scope than among most of the other Brahmanical bodies and are in some cases arbitrarily imposed upon itself by the clan on considerations of rank alone. So strict indeed, are they in regard to what has been called hypergamy, that amongst the upper grades of Rajput society, the girl is held to be a burden upon the resources of the family to an extent that leads to reprehensible means of preventing her from reaching a nubile age. The scarcity of brides thus produced, combined with the expenses of the marriage, tend to the formation of left-handed unions with lower castes, the offspring whereof ranks with the mother, or, where numerous and recognised, constitutes a new caste by itself. The latter is the case in the west of India, where the bastards become court dependants. In Orissa, they all rank as Rajputs. In Nepal there is the curious instance of the children of a Hill woman by a Brahman becoming Rajput, and forming the kernel of the large military population of the State. In the Kangra Himalaya, where the continuity of tradition and lineage has been less interrupted than anywhere else, the Chief is a law not only unto himself but unto his subjects in regard to social position and caste, so that the rank of Rajput depends very much upon the royal favour. Considering the part played by Islam in the dispersal of the Rajput ruling families, it is worth noting that in the Panjab, not only have three fourths of this caste embraced that religion, in both the west and east of the Province, but that conversion has had no effect upon the social position of the Rajput. In the east, where Brahmanic influence is supreme, change of
is said to have no result upon caste regulations. In the west, where the Pathan atmosphere predominates, the scheme of social restrictions and prescriptions is Brahmanic, but, as in the east, the sanction by which it is maintained is that of the tribe, not of the caste, and intermarriage and so on is governed by the position of the body in the present day, rather than by considerations of origin, such as are involved in caste. From what has been said above it may be inferred that the func-

religion

tional

scope of the Rajput

is

but narrow.

Traditionally, he rules,

fights,

owns land and indulges in field-sports. In practice, he carries out this scheme of life as far as circumstances allow, but the rank and file of his

Castes and Caste-Groups.

A. Special Groups.

33

order are cultivators, and not among the most efficient of their class. The Rajput has the same objection as the Brahman to handling the plough, and the strict seclusion in which the women of the caste are kept deprives him of an aid in the minor agricultural operations which in the lower castes is often most valuable. In the Gangetic regions the Rajput still enlists in considerable numbers in the "Hindustani" regiments of the British army. He often, too, dons the official belt as a constable or messenger, in upper India and Gujarat. On the whole, however, the general disinclination of the caste to avail itself of the facilities for instruction now within its reach is placing it at a disadvantage as compared with the middle classes, in the modern conditions of Indian life. Only the subordinate grades of official and professional employment are open to them, and in the army,

promotion beyond a certain rank depends now-a days upon educaand the Rajput is losing by the competition of Sikh, Pathan and Gurkha in the profession of his choice, and is far outdistanced in civil avocations by those whom his caste prevents him from acknowledging to be even rivals. § 28. Trading Castes (10,680,800): This is the first of the distinctively functional groups to be brought under review. It is not, however, merely a collection of communities each with its separate designation, like those which have preceded it, but contains some general titles denoting the occupation of trading, but which do not include all the castes following
also,
tion,

that calling in the locality
is

where

it

prevails.

The

leading example of these

or Vania, of upper and western India, under which name are included nearly all the trading classes, but not important castes like the Khatri and Arora in the Panjab, or the Bhatia and Lohana of Sindh. There are grounds for thinking that the exclusion is due to differences of race. The Khatri and Arora, like the Banya, derive their origin from the

Banya

Rajputana, in the larger sense in which that term was used in the preceding paragraph, but the latter affiliate themselves directly to certain clans of Rajputs, whilst the former refer themselves back to the Ksatriya, and give the western region of Multan and upper Sindh as the cradle of their caste. It has been conjectured from the customs and internal structure of the Khatri and Arora, which differ in some respects from those of the ordinary Brahmanic castes, that these communities are descended from one of the S'aka colonies which long held the tracts above mentioned. The Banya, with the exception of the Agarval, who come from Agar near Ujjain, give the now ruined city of Bhinmal, or S'rimal, in Marvad as their original home, and claim descent from the Solanki clan of the Agnikula or Hiana Rajputs, so that, like the Khatri, they are of foreign race. Whether owing to this origin or to the refining influence of generations of sedentary pursuits in prosperous circumstances, the personal appearance of the Banya is decidedly above the average. The western subdivisions, such as the S'rimali, Porval and Osval, which are all closely connected with each other, are largely, and in many tracts, mostly, of the Jain religion, a creed which seems to have commended itself to the mercantile community at a comparatively early period and they allege the acceptance of the peaceful tenets of this faith to have been one of the main reasons for their separation from the bellicose Rajput. In the present day, except in Delhi, where a special casus belli arose some years ago, the Mahesri, or Brahmanic section of the caste intermarries with the S'ravak, or Jain, and the latter, in turn, employ for their caste and domestic mi;

Indo-arische Philologie.

II. 5.

3

34

5-

Ethnography.

Brahmans not in high repute among the priestly orders, representing, as they are said to do, the Maga sun-priests introduced from Iran by the Hiina and other invaders. In addition to the main divisions of the Banya, almost every body is subdivided into "full-scores" (visa) and "half-scores" (dasa), denoting the relative admixture of lower blood. In many castes the partition has to be carried still further, and the "quarter- score" (pafica) represents the minimum of pure descent. None of the subdivisions intermarry, though in the west there is occasional connubium found between the "visa", or highest sections of the respective castes. The Banya engage in most mercantile pursuits, from high finance and extensive foreign trade down to the retail of the most common articles of everyday use, so long as these are not conventionally polluting. They are not as wedded to their native place as most of the Indian communities, and settle, sometimes permanently, in villages where they are strangers both in caste and language. Others, principally from the desert States, habitually leave home for the more favoured parts of the country, and return only after their fortune is made there. The upper classes of the Banya are well educated and often keen sectarians in regard to religion. In some tracts they are entering the law and the State offices, though not in large numbers. The Khatrl of the Panjab, on the other hand, in addition to the trade of all but the south-west of his province, has almost the monopoly of official and professional employment, and has passed even beyond the Panjab into parts of the neighbouring province in similar callings. This caste has
nistrations, the Bhojak, or Sevak, a subdivision of

what the Banya lacks, the tradition of administrative and political success, in which it resembles the Maratha Brahman mentioned above. Todar Mai, the celebrated financier under Akbar, was a Khatri, and has had more than one successor, though not of the same calibre. Then, too, though the bulk of the Khatri are not of the Sikh faith, they have always been connected with it, and both Nanak and Govind belonged to their ranks. In the present day, such priests as are required by the Sikhs are usually Khatrl. In trade, though sharp and industrious, the Khatri does not take
so high a position as the Banya, but confines his operations generally to small local transactions, and does not, as a rule, set up branch establishhis native province. There are, however, a few colonies Bengal, but they are detached, and their position is considerably below that occupied by the caste in its northern home. In some other parts of India there are Khatri returned who trace their origin back to the Panjab or north Rajputana, and were probably driven southwards by one of the Scythic cataclysms, and like others similarly circumstanced, found themselves obliged to take to new means of livelihood, generally silk-weaving. Closely allied to the Khatrf, but occupying a decidedly inferior social position, are the Arora of the south-western Panjab, who, starting from nearly the same region as the others, do not appear to have pushed their way into the fertile tracts of the north, but to have remained on the less remunerative plains along the Indus. In the same direction are the Bhatia and Lohana of Sindh. The former have preserved in their title the memory of their origin in the Bhatti districts of north Rajputana, and claim descent from the predominant Rajput stock of that locality, just as the Banya of Bhinmal does in the west. There is this further similarity, that the Yadava race of the Bhatti looks back to a S'aka founder, in the grandson of Kaniska. There are still a good many Bhatia in the Panjab, where their
in

ments outside

it will not improbably end. the above feature is not unimportant from a political as well as from an economical point of view. and not an unhealthy one. Special Groups. There is this further difference between these castes and the traders of the north. This is markedly the case in Bengal. From a centre at Shikarpur. it is true. that in most cases the former are intimately connected with. Zanzibar and even China. Considering that what with weddings and other ceremonies. Bombay. One result of this relationship. it seems possible that it is an offshoot of the Sonar caste which elsewhere in India makes similar claims and is not unfrequently returned as a Daivajiia or Visvakarman Brahman. which find place in a later paragraph. The figures given against the several subdivisions of the general heading of Banya are much below the reality. the usurer has simply come to the village from a strange country to make his fortune out of the necessities of the natives. nearly the whole trading community appears as a single item. and probably sprang from. owing to the omission in many. they travel far into Central Asia and even to the banks of the Volga. one or other of the great agricultural communities amongst whom they live. One of their subdivisions (the Amil) has followed the example of the Khatrf. an assumption not yet accepted beyond its own members. The Subarnabanik. A. every peasant is at some time or other a borrower. where.Castes and Caste-Groups. Other artisan castes in the South make the same claim. if not where it desires. but moved into Sindh very early in their history^. and so on. if not most. the trading castes differ from those above described in being almost entirely indigenous to the locality they serve. has distinguished itself from its neighbours. and. The movements which are reported to have taken place have been to comparatively short distances. as in other parts of the country. In the Dravidian country. S'ravak. but as the Subarnabanik is prosperous and fairly well educated. of official employment in its it has succeeded in monopolising the pick seems native province. and as a considerable number of its members are still engaged as assayers and money changers and it employs Brahmans recruited from its own ranks. at all events considerably above its present rank. The Lohana. unlike the Khatrl. but. They have so arranged their caste-rules that they are able to cross the ocean without subsequent trouble. and have there remained. their position to improve the further they get from their native country. has been observed viz. with the exception of the subdivisions dealing with specific products. amongst the Telugu traders. that where the business of lending money is carried on by people of the same class as the borrower. such as those from the uplands of the Telugu country to the rich and thickly-peopled tracts of the south-east. a . probably because it claims a rank above that accorded it by public opinion. cases to enter the subcaste. and in upper Sindh most depressed. are of Marvad origin. again. 35 Rajput blood seems unquestioned. and from whom they are still distinguished by little else than function. It is an immigrant body from upper India. also. Like its prototype. to assert in due course a Vaisya origin. the dealings are on a less formal and more elastic footing than where. and taken to clerical professions. and to the substitution of some such indefinite designation as Marvadi. Vais. and are among the most travelled and enterprising merchants of Kach. and it is along the coast that they are most flourishing. There is the usual tendency among those who prosper to adopt the ceremonial and customs of the local Brahmans or to grow more scrupulous in their observance.

Generally speaking. the full strength of these bodies is not ascertainable from the Census returns owing to the appropriation of the same title by different communities. possibly owing to the practice of receiving into the caste refugees from outside who are in disgrace with their own kinsfolk. In the Tamil country the trader is usually a Cetti a title which is nearly as comprehensive as that of Banya. as a rule. the Nattukottai.36 5- Ethnography. and there called Vadugan. Though it wears no sacred thread. thus generally testifying to their local origin. who. with whom the traders share a common tutelary deity. whose proclivities towards the Lingayat faith it largely shares. from the caste goddess. These belong to the west coast. for instance. One division of the Balija. being descended from the Nayak Chiefs of Madura. but acknowledged to be influential with the gods of the village. it is now the habit for the bride's father to send a pair of shoes to be mended a few days before the wedding. In most cases the marriage rules resemble in important particulars those of the surrounding peasantry of the better class. which are not. though much subdivided. Unfortunately. and on the day of the ceremony to pay the cobbler with a betel-nut thrown in to the amount of the bill. not the Vedic. plants or articles of which is prohibited respectively to the group to which Their marriage rules are those peculiar to the South and it belongs. following the modern Brahmanic. and like the Dasyu of the food. As a whole. however. pretension which their form of caste-subdivision and their more intimate domestic practices flagrantly contradict. however. It is a good example of the growing refinement of modern times. shares the reputation of the Bhatia for unwonted enterprise and success in foreign trade and travel. They worship the local goddesses and call in a carpenter by caste to bestow his blessing upon the bride and bridegroom. Their exogamous groups. though settled along the south-east. They have a great number of subdivisions. for instance. or Northerners. The Banjiga is the Karnatic trader. ritual. which is widely spread over the Tamil districts also. The last group to be mentioned under this head is that of the Muslim traders. are . it claims to be Ksatriya. that in order to mitigate the crudity of the above-mentioned act of social intimacy without breaking away from a possibly prophylactic tradition. is of the same stock as the Kanarese peasantry. they are in curiously close relations with the impure leather-workers and village menials of the locality. are nevertheless connected with those of Malabar by origin. § 29. The rest consist mainly of converts of long-standing from the Lohana and other traders of Sindh and Kach. keeps itself apart. and has no connection with his namesake the Banya. are not Brahmanic but totemistic. the Balija are probably an outgrowth of the great agricultural body of the Kapu or Reddi. endogamous. The Komati. the ceremony is incomplete without the formal presentation of the friendly and symbolic betel -nut and leaf to a member of the impure leather-working caste. Like the Komati. Their main subdivision. the Banjiga. however. or Kavarai. wear the sacred thread and are divided into three territorial endogamous subdivisions. The Khojah. It might be inferred from this fact that the latter belong to a race preceding the present occupants of the soil. The largest trading community of the Telugu country is the Balija. It covers several large and a vast number of small subdivisions. derived from trees. of the coast. with the exception of the Labbai. the use of north. of which there are a great number. dispossessed of their heritage.

perhaps. They moved southwards from Sindh into Gujarat and Bombay. but do not intermarry. Both speak Tamil with a few Arabic words interspersed. they have attained a very high position in foreign trade. They are placed in this group because it was as traders that they first visited Malabar. and are noted for the number of the branches they have set up abroad. who claim similar origin. and are apparently of more recent arrival. 37 a wealthy body of enterprising traders converted to the Shiah form of Islam about the 13 th century. starting from petty shopkeeping. moved into Kach and Kathiavad. like the others. and retaining in most cases a fairly clear recollection of the Brahmanic caste from which they were converted. In commerce they have risen to a good position. In practice they are orthodox Muslim. The last named are descended from an Arab colony. like the rest. but in the present day this pursuit is practised only along . Their counterpart is found in the Momin or Momna. about the nth century.Castes and Caste-Groups. About half of those returned as Meman at the Census probably belong to the latter community. and are somewhat remarkable for their neglect of English in an otherwise efficient and well-diffused scheme of instruction. they marry by Brahmanic rites with a text or two of the Kuran recited to complete the ceremony. but the rank and file are content with a successful career in the retail shop. Sunni by sect. In common with the western Khojah. Agha to Bombay from Persia about sixty years an. About half the number of Bohras given in the return belong to this class. are of Sindh origin. like the rest. driven from its native country in the 8th century. Those who are not traders are engaged in betel cultivation and pearl-diving. They also. Special Groups. Mem they have preserved a good deal of their Brahmanic custom and tradition. again. and adjusting their marriage arrangements in accordance therewith. from Arab traders who married Tamil wives at a later date. and there. by the name of S'onagan (Arabia) which they used to bear. These. with a few still on the land. to the rank of the Khojah. On the Malabar coast are the Mappila and Jonakkan. descended from a body ago. The of Lohana who were converted in the 15 th century. and combine the strict observance of Muslim worship with a due regard for the Brahmanic or pre-Brahmanic methods of dealing with the personal or domestic supernatural. a body of Gujarat peasants converted about the same time as the Meman. The last of the Muslim trading classes of the Bombay coast to be here mentioned is the Bohra. known as the Marakkayar. though not. Their connection with Arabia is indicated. The Khojah of the Panjab are quite distinct from these. The Mappila have been referred to in other parts of this survey as . the Labbai. and their present name of Labbai is said to be no more than a local rendering of labbai k. The Census shows under the same title the cultivating Vohora of Gujarat. and who are now chiefly weavers and cotton-goods dealers. though like the Muslim of the eastern Panjab. H. in its various subdivisions. A. in either case. and on the south Coromandel coast. There is a small community living side by side with them. whose family migrated recognise as their religious head H. according to another account. The upper classes engage in foreign trade. and. and about two thirds of the Khojah are of the Panjab section. are converts to the Shiah faith from the commercial classes of the chief towns in Gujarat. the Arabic for the familiar phrase "here I am". or. though they too are converts from the Brahmanic mercantile classes and mostly profess the Shiah tenets. Khan.the chief Arabian colony on the western coast.

as some think. it is alleged that the Malayalam is improved by the change in faith. and settled in Bombay and its vicinity. felt the need of clerical ability to help them through the labours of administration. applied to the Arabs who married native women. to converts to Islam. Writer castes was in all probability . and the bulk of the Mappila inland are landholders and cultivators. generally the Kayasth and other writer castes in the social hierarchy has long been a matter of heated controversy. In what may be called the primary distribution of rank according to function no caste are much subdivided The position of . and there is no intermarriage between the Kayasth of Bengal and his caste-fellows of Bihar and the north any more than with those of the west coast. from the Kayasth caste. especially in Travancore. was. Probably the original status of the convert was lower than in the north. or. into smaller endogamous sections. A similar colonisation was begun by the same agency in the Dekkan. as it still is. the old Brahmanic designation for all foreigners hailing from the west.750. was introduced into Gujarat § 30. Prabhu and clerk were synonymous terms in those parts. furnished several most efficient ministers to the Moghal regime the principal supply. In the present day the main stronghold of the Kayasth is in Lower Bengal. to have recourse to the Brahman. as usual in India. as well as to the extraordinary development of memory and oral tradition fostered by them. In remarkable contrast to the experience in the Panjab in regard to such conversion. Here they were found so useful by the early merchants and officials that until a generation or so ago. In both capacities they have shown themselves thrifty and energetic. but the local Brahman was there too numerous and too well-established throughout the country to leave room for a rival. and is possibly the Malayalam rendering of Yavana. the coast. the Tamil word for bridegroom.. forsook the tableland for the coast. under the name of Prabhu. and were unwilling. Their chance came when the Muslim conquerors. the caste of the Writer is referred to under the same name as it bears in the present day. Even the local bodies of this British territorial. The Jonakkan are no other than Mappila returned under a title given along the coast. however.300): The profession of scribe or clerk unusually late in establishing itself in India owing to the jealousy with which all instruction was monopolised by the Brahmans. writing as a profession appears in inscriptions of the 8 th century A. as mentioned in a former paragraph. Distance. they have identified themselves with the native population. D. In language and in many of the local customs of marriage and inheritance. especially the fishermen. however. having established themselves permanently in the country. In the writing castes the very material they wanted was at hand. and a few generations later. Their name is either an honorific soubriquet. by the Muslim Viceroys and naturalised there. into which they were introduced from upper India. The community is recruited from some of the castes along the coast. of whom the Mukkuvan have in some families the curious rule that one of their children should embrace Islam. The Khatri. from the upper Ganges. shared by some other classes in the neighbourhood.38 5- Ethnography. and the offshoot from the main Kayasth branch. It may be gathered from the data available that the calling was in anything but good odour amongst the Brahmans and that the castes exercising it occupied but a low position. (2. which. has entirely divided the two communities. on sectarian grounds. Setting aside the art of inscribing rock and copper.

the Kayasth ranks within a place or two of the Brahman. Their immigration. of the Maratha country. there is. but did not ennoble the community in which they were born. whose appearance and customs confirm their assertion of relationship to the Khatri of the Panjab. occurred as late as the 14th century. by tradition. The upper grades amongst them. when not kept in the hands of Brahmans. the sacred thread. as in Bihar. Literary qualifications which may well set off a Brahman. where the clerical professions are by no means the monopoly of the writing castes. were duly honoured as individuals. the probability of racial difference between them and the Indian masses of the north and east which is lent. physique and locality of origin. are strict in their observance of Brahmanic ceremonial. the accountants of the village. in the case of the Khatri and their offshoots. and connotes an inferior social rank to that of the rest of the order. In Gujarat. stand on a different footing from the writer castes of the north. and the company they were classed with in private life on the other. occasionally at least. and practically. grew more apparent as. There is not. with their Tamil congeners. It is very probable. are. such as those mentioned above. that those nearer Bengal affiliate themselves to the Kayasth of that province. a small caste which supplements the clerical staff of the Central Provinces and Berar. In Lower Bengal. Special Groups. by themselves. The disproportion between the ability of the writer castes and the value of their work on the one side. A. therefore. Intermediate between the Brahman and the Karnam comes the Vidhur. By origin the Vidhur is Brahman on the father's side. Similarly constituted communities are found in the Konkan and other parts of the INIaratha . a still less numerous community called the Brahmaksatriya. indeed. whilst the rest remain in closer communion with the corresponding groups of the Telugu country. what most are still. In the parts of the country. They are not only writers. however. It is no wonder. in their case. though not avowedly. it is true. but also holders of considerable landed estates in the most prosperous parts of the province. a branch of clerical work which. Distinguished members of the writing class. where the Rajput is a casual exotic and the weight of Brahman opinion is insufficient to appease the jealous ferment of an inchoate social system. the Kayasth is a respected caste high up in the middle classes. and began with being. under the British system of administration. to another caste. however. of little value as a passport to the esteem of a public deliberately illiterate. the more southern of which retain traces of non-Brahmanic marriage rules. The line taken as that of least resistance is the usual claim to Ksatriya lineage. like the Dravidian traders. 39 place could be assigned to a body which was not then recognised as distinct from others. where Rajputs are found in strength and Brahmanic influence is strong.Castes and Caste-Groups. therefore. above the warrior. therefore. that efforts have been strenuous and frequent on their part to establish themselves upon a social footing higher than that now recognised by the arbiters in such matters. their prosperity and influence increased. but maternally of a lower caste. and their position is in many respects higher than that of their compeers in the north. and wear. but nothing more. in addition to the small colony of Kayasth. But. These last. Another nominal offshoot of the writers of the north is the Karan or Mahant of Orissa. they appear to have arisen out of the cultivating castes. is relegated to the lower grade of writers or even. This community is considerably subdivided into endogamous bodies.

however. accordingly. according to the strict theory of duty set forth in the treatises dealing with the Perfect Life. or Rajput. others with only local renown. tion § 31. country. according to its title of Vaidya. it ought to be dedicated to the practice of medicine. a place is found under this head for a caste difficult to grade elsewhere. leaving little room. however. Ballal Sen. Although this injunction is substantially inoperative. to the visitation of the chief centres of pilgrimage. the orders began. that from all parts of the country. for the lay mendicant. but most attribute their creation to his successor. whilst the climate affords opportunities for nomadic existence. The object which these bodies were originally formed to promote was the extirpation of Buddhism. the vast number of popular saints and deities. But whilst the lower grades of the profession are laxly recruited and the members thereof take their calling very lightly. outside the ranks of the maimed. a function which in the present time is retained in working order by the Chieftains of the Panjab Himalaya alone.40 5- Ethnography. Finally. the blind and the leper. to open their ranks to members of other castes. S'ahkaracarya. the celibate. or ascetic. in order to pursue an undisturbed course of contemplation preparatory to quitting the present existence. it is incumbent upon every Brahman thus to break with his former ties as he feels old age creeping over him. and then split up into two sectious. if extended as it often is. there is in all the principal orders a body formally initiated and put through a course of instruction in certain tenets of doctrine and morality which they are in turn sent forth to inculcate upon the community at large. some universal.755. On reaching upper India. which. a position inferior only to that of the Brahman. and the do- . Life is easily sustained in the tropics a pleasant upon this frugal diet. thanks to the local obnubilation of the Rajput. Nowadays. there are other considerations which tend to swell the ranks of religious devotees in modern India. appears to have exercised with drastic results the regal function of making and graduating castes. who mitigated to a considerable extent the exclusiveness of their recruitment and the austerity of their regulations. therefore. Religious Devotees and Mendicants (2. Looking only at the lower side of the case. It is no matter about one in a hundred of the population has thus taken to the road. and the most renowned occupant of the throne.900): The abdicaof worldly position and the relinquishment of all possessions and family ties. in due course. is in itself an inducement to many to earn their living by invoking a blessing in the name of one or other of these objects of veneration upon the households within the area of adoration. a task begun by the great leaders of the Brahmanical revival. receiving in return a handful of meal and a pinch or two of condiments. Some are said to have been instituted by the celebrated S'aiva reformer. belonged to this caste. It is only found in Lower Bengal. brings these classes into con- tact with their co-religionists for surprise. Ramanuja. is a proceeding which has been strongly attractive to the higher ranks of the Brahmanic community almost from the post-Vedic organisation of society upon sacerdotal lines. it includes both members of other learned professions and landholders. Confined at first to the Brahman and Ksatriya. This high rank is due to the fact that one of the most powerful dynasties in this part of India between the nth and 13th centuries. Most of the great orders originated in the South of India. their constitution and practice were altered by Ramananda and Caitanya. though. Indeed. where it occupies. the halt.

and judging from the number of women returned under the various titles. such subdivisions appear to be in the majority. and under each head are included members of the Sikh. as they have been called. but undoubtedly taking its rise from some religious organisation of the lower classes. the former are in excess. there are many large establishments of the nature of monasteries which supply the bulk of the higher grades of itinerant teachers. regardless of caste or race. mestic. for some of the Mahantas. in the Dadupanthi Naga of the State of Jaipur in Rajputana. have been noted money-lenders on the strength of the funds and endowments of their charge. part of whom came under the levelling influence of Caitanya. were soon subdivided into the exclusive and the catholic branches.Castes and Caste-Groups. It is shown in combination with the Jugi. which is specially applicable to Muslim devotees. have their monasteries and settled organisation. but itself a heretical order. In Bengal. terms used of Brahmanic devotees in general. Even in these. and contesting its right to wear it against the local Brahmanity. the functions of the fraternity are not restricted to religion. A. the JogI or Yogi community is divided into those who have a right to the title for the by profession and initiation and others who have assumed it convenience of their calling. The former. In upper India. an order differing from the rest in its origin. for there are in the aggregate 90 women to every 100 men. owing to the loose way in which the principal designations are applied. but also most of those returning themselves as Bhava or Sadhu. however. The Atlt. Rajputana and Gujarat under the name also of Raval. indeed. Special Groups. In former days. too. and conjecturally not called into existence to combat schism. reputed to have come from the south-west. a country associated to some extent with the expansion of the ascetic movement. of whom there are two main subdivisions. indeed. probably on account of its then Jain or Buddhist proclivities. it is said. proscribed by the orthodox. nearly 450. as in the case of the Vaisnava of Bengal. or Abbots. trade upon the reputation the other JogI have acquired . Under the title of Fakir. for instance. however. bodies of these devotees used to be formed into irregular forces. Still more misleading is the return under JogI. since being recruited from all classes of the population. excluding certain castes which bear a name also borne by non-ascetic bodies. again. Nor. the latter school being the more modern.000 Brahmanists and Sikhs are returned. Jain and Muslim creeds along with those of orthodox Brahmanism. as they are in the population at large in that province. and now said to be "assuming the sacred thread en masse". In upper India. 41 The orders which admitted the lower castes too. are given as identical with Gosavl or Sannyasi as well as under their own heading. A remnant of one of these bands still survives. which exhibited in action the same fanatical ferocity as is now associated with the Muslim Ghazi and in the middle of last century with the Sikh Akali. VairagI or BairagI covers not only the Vaisnava and some of the Dandasi. the latter who are returned in the Panjab. The branch which takes to family life forms separate endogamous communities. a class of coarse-cotton weavers in eastern Bengal and Assam. to state accurately the numbers falling under each head. a general title. they are of no ethnographic importance. again. is it necessary' to set forth in detail the sections of the orders. with many subdivisions. It is not proposed to enter here into the doctrinal differences between the various fraternities further than to mention that there is the usual main division of the principal bodies into S'aiva and Vaisnava. It is impossible.

surrounded by a definite area of land the prescriptive right to which is invested in it. In the greater part of India. no doubt. to the rest. then.400): Castes of to be more powerful and more prominently demarcated from the rest in the track of the great racial inroads from type may be expected . The village community. Although. buys a drum and calls himself a Jogi". as it falls within the scope of this review. The completeness of the organisation varies considerably in different parts of the country. but in the course of time that exclusiveness crumbled away. in turn. congregated. The village. The staple staff of artisans and menials is remunerated directly from the soil in recognised proportions of the harvest. and new comers were admitted to the land. on to a single site. the peasantry dwelling alongside of them without traditions of a status or calling other than that which they now this enjoy. for obtaining supernatural powers of divination by dint of contemplation and mental abstraction. consequently. under two heads. so much threshed grain from each landholder. it is true. the castes which hold their land as a military or formerly dominant body. This is perhaps attributable to the fact that though the genesis of the great orders took place in the south. though on an inferior footing. then. in most cases. and are therefore dealt with apart from those to whom that designation The latter can best be considered is conventionally more appropriate. then. § 33. first. In European Russia. it was in the north that the need of their propagandist efforts was most pressing. The village exists for the agriculturist. has assumed a form not to be found in other countries. B. the system of rural aggregation bears a considerable resemblance to that of India. the village as a unit not only of population but of land.702. is an agricultural community on a self-sufficing basis. or on the Malabar coast. "any rascally beggar who pretends to be able to tell fortunes or to practice astrological or necromantic arts in ln)wever small a degree. and the exercise of other callings therein depends upon their necessity or utility to him. but where it exists. the occupants of the soil formed a close corporation based upon kinship or common descent. its main features are much the same. these tribes live mostly by rough methods of tillage. depends upon the relative isolation of the village from other sources of supply. they cannot be counted amongst the landed classes. and is far less bound up with the ethnic evolution of the country.42 5- Ethnography.000 Muslim returned as JogT in the Panjab and its neighbourhood are thus accounted for. Considering the Dravidian origin of most of the ascetic orders and the traces of the South still preserved in their customs and nomenclature. but has far less weight in the social organisation. in the above sense. for the original purpose of protection. and this. The 43. where the insufficiency of arable land and the frequent flittings of the population from spirit-haunted or unlucky locations are adverse to so stationary an institution. Originally. Even the mendicants who there ply their trade in the name of religion hold no reputable position in the community. and those chiefly of the lower class. it is remarkable that hardly any are now found in that part of India. Military or Dominant (23. § 32. nor has it taken root amongst the more or less migratory tribes of forest tracts. The village. is not found in the comparatively recent settlements east of Bihar. and. Landholders.

An important point in connection with the subject immediately in hand is the close connection between the Rajput and the Jat. the position of cultivators. though his origin is doubtful and the limits of his caste wanting in definition. Brahmanist. by way of Sindh and the Indus. In Southern India the title of dominant is applicable to several Dravidian communities which rose into prominence with the dynasties of which they constituted the chief military forces. and the Ahom tribes. a line drawn from the Gujarat peninsulas. In Orissa. the Rajput has been dealt with in a former paragraph sufficiently for the purposes of this review. In the circumstances of the two castes in the Panjab in the present day there is much to support this view. but is probably of much the same origin as the other Dravidian communities of this class. whilst the rest of his tribe remained Jat in name and in their traditions and practice. therefore. and his name has been there bestowed upon any cultivator of that religion. the Jat places religious considerations beneath tribal in his domestic arrangements. On the INIalabar coast. Others hold that the Jat belongs to a later wave of immigration than the Rajput. and looks up to the Rajput. Reverting to the castes of upper India. on the other hand. As stated above. is said to have come from the north. the Jat is in the first place a cultivator. he has succumbed to the prevailing influences. of foreign origin. B. and though the Jat no longer becomes a Rajput. where the tradition of political supremacy is still green. However this may be. the Rajput being a Jat leader who. and just under half. The Village community. 43 the north-west. whilst in the west. and the Jat has nothing to gain in public estimation from either Brahman. and the upper Ganges and Jamna valleys. and on disbandment. Like the Rajput and other great communities in the north-west. one fifth Sikh. Rajput or Pathan. through Malva. marks off the domain of the Rajput. to the Ganges. or Rajbansi. It has been conjectured by some that the difference between the two communities is social. he does the same to the leaders of Muslim society. the Khandait makes the same claim. The Jat par excellence is the peasantry of the Sikh tracts. Jat and kindred tribes. who ranks next to him both in numbers and position throughout the Panjab plains. so it appears from the Census that one third of the population bearing this name are Muslim. In the Jamna tracts this is not the case. again. his physique and social position are lower. the Koch. and the sub-Himalayan tracts from the Jehlam to Nepal form their general limit on the north. In the . the Maratha may be included on historical grounds in this category. There is no question here. and the women of his family share to the full his may be said to loidic population. the same tribe is found Rajput in one village and Jat in the next. whilst the Rajputs were still in Rajputana and its eastern neighbourhood. Whether because the Jat arrived there direct from Sindh and remained at a distance from the seat of the predominant body of his tribe. bound himself and his family to the strict observance of Brahmanic rules and thus attained the pinnacle of orthodox repute. Rajputana. whatever his caste. whilst the Salt range of the Panjab. not racial. the Nayar. Eastwards of the settlements of the Pathan and Baluch which will be treated of in a later paragraph. y/ JJ occupy a somewhat similar position amongst the MongoDekkan. and entered the Panjab from the west. after being successful in the field or on his estate. East of Bihar.Castes and Caste-Groups. Along the Jamna. the northern stock has now been fused. or whether by reason of admixture with inferior Rajput blood. though now thoroughly Dravidianised. either reverted to or assumed.

the latter being the verj-^ tract in which they were in the south. and are thus merged in the general mass of that order. and even there in but small numbers. Returning to the Panjab. of whom they are said to have been a branch. where those returned as Giajar are traders from Gujarat. The Khokhar. It is held. however. who have been there for at least 600 years.44 5- Ethnography. however. in which they are not so expert. not merely a combatant. where it is recognisable only in customs and in the titles of some of the sub-castes. In the first named tract. they retain Brahmanic names in their genealogies. The caste is now generally affiliated to the Gurjara. They are not now found south of the Vindhya. In the Panjab they consider themselves a subclan of the Panvar Rajput. and became Rajput during the Brahmanic revival. In the plains they follow their traditional occupation of cattle-breeding. downfall of their dynasties. They spread very widely over the west and north-west. with cultivation. but a disciplinarian. Though the Avan are nearly all Muslim. and claimants to Mughal blood now that the influence of Islam reigns supreme in this region. but it is only in the submontane portion that they can now be called a dominant tribe. and return themselves in considerable numbers as a clan of that great caste. and one body of Gurjara obtained a dominant footing in the western province which Their connection with it. a caste as to whose descent there has been much controversy between the pro-Aryan and the pro-Scythian. The Gakkhar in the north of the Salt Range plateau to are similarly situated to the Avan be little doubt but that the three tribes are all of allied Scythic origin. The Sikh Jat is also a born soldier. Next to the Jat in rank. They have not spread beyond the north-west corner of the Panjab. though equally of the faith of Islam. that a Gurjara element underlies all the chief cultivating classes of Gujarat above those traceable to a distinctly Kol origin. combined. comes the Gujar. Jat when the Sikhs rose to power. retain traditions of a cognate origin. and equally efficient on the snow-clad ridges of Afghanistan and the steamy plains of Tientsin. and entered India either in company with or at the same time as. and use Brahmans as their family priests. and to have belonged to one of the numerous Scythic bands which gave the Jat and other castes to the country further east. They are said to have come up from Marvad or upper Sindh. after the is now called after them. indeed. they have left their name behind them in several places. have maintained more fully the tradition of Rajput origin. was dissipated into innumerable channels of castes. though in the present day they are found under this title only in the western peninsula to which they have given their name. a tribe which was settled in the neighbourhood of the Caspian. again. Among the tribes belonging traditionally to this part of India may be counted the Kathi. it has the authority of their almost universal reputation. In Kathiawad they preserve the tradition of migration from Blkaner and Mijltan. Others. who. There seems . the south of the Salt range tract is the present home of the Avan. claim to be Jat. the Yetha or White Huna. and probably akin in origin. Even though philology may not support this derivation. Their unrestrained devotion to the horned beast is such that in some parts of India their title is derived from the Sanskritic term for Cowthief. as stated above. again. it may be. The greater portion of the Giajar settled in the Panjab and along the Jamna. enthusiasm in the pursuit of the family calling. where they share with the Janjhua Rajput and the Khokhar the predominant position among the peasantry. with a considerable colony in Oudh.

The Village community. the Sumro and the Sammo. are also a once dominant tribe of agriculturists of Indo-Chinese descent. It is conjectured. and its extension. Their respective numbers are by no means accurately represented in the Census return owing to the wide-spread practice in this province of giving the general title of Sindhi as the name 01 the tribe or caste. Some go and pass at once into Rajbansi. to the middle of the i6th century. but keep green the remembrance of their original occupation of cowherds by breeding horses and cattle. or embrace Islam if their claim be not allowed.100 Koch. More than a them are now Muslim. and 292. further. and a rude representation of that luminary is affixed to all their formal documents. successfully resisting the expeditions sent against them by neighbouring Aryan potentates. but the prominence of snake-worship amongst Taga. . are Scythic tribes connected with the rulers of Taxila at that period. on the contrary. or Bodo in origin. The Ahom of the more eastern portion of the Assam valley. the Koch is Mongoloidic. the great cattle-breeders of upper India. though their position is now higher than that of the latter. of the Assam branch. indicates considerable admixture of local races. Their degradation from Brahmanical rank is attributed to their addiction to third of as in the case of the Babhan of the south-east. In Bihar. for a time. chiefly in Bengal. In Sindh. beside those already mentioned. and has long been Brahmanised under the designation of Rajbansi. B. in the Assam valley. already mentioned in connection with agriculture. and were driven into exile through Sindh into Kach by the Muslim invasions. The latter portion was separated from the rest towards the end of the i6th century.115. where the lineage of the local leading families is known. which can be described as dominant. though it seems to be generally agreed that it has Brahman blood. Lower Bengal as above stated. They also retain their ancestral sun-worship. the only dominant caste beyond the Rajput is the Babhan or Bhialnhar. to wit the Khandait of Orissa. therefore.700 Rajbansi. It is not improbable that they are of the same stock as the Ahir or Abhfra. D. which satisfies the aspiration of the local peasantry. who will be referred to under the head of Assam Hill tribes. They are now principally cultivators.Castes and Caste-Groups. two Rajput tribes of agriculturists. There are two distinct sections of the population owning to the name of Koch. as that of Rajput crowns the ambition of the Chieftain or large landowner in other parts of India. that these. together with the division of the caste into the "Score" and Half- Score" sections. which forms but a small proportion of the population. and now belong to Islam. who drop their own title on adopting Brahmanism. was never colonised by military occupation. and succumbed to the Muslim. West and south of the Brahmaputra it is said to be of K5l-Khervarl origin. 2. Brahmans. Its origin is doubtful. too. 45 found by Alexander as a foreign nomadic body. the only caste. In Assam. The respective numbers of the two are. and its rank and file are recruited from all the Bodo and Mikir tribes of the valley. Their claim to this position rests upon the long existence of the Koch kingdom of Kamarupa. and the only caste which may be called dominant is the Koch of the northern territory bordering upon the Brahmaputra. into Bengal. is the Taga. There is one more caste belonging to Bengal which may be here mentioned. as did the other shortly afterwards to the Ahom. East of the Panjab. thus placing nearly a quarter of a million of the inhabitants beyond the possibility of identification. a community of the upper Jamna. successively occupied the dominant position on the lower Indus from about 750 A.

Gwalior. a Kul . probably. the principal landed class in the Dekkan. which entails a difference of cultivation and consequently of diet. a Dekkani not intermarrying with a family in the Konkan. and practically in Indore and several other states. have been originally a body of local militia enlisted from tribe. The Khandait is divided into two sub-castes. as elsewhere in Bengal. a claim to the caste of Rajput was subsequently advanced. Recruitment admittedly takes place from below. and were apparently not rebuffed even by the highest of the Rajput Chieftains. secludes the women of his family. on the strength of which form of flattery. by officers imported from upper India. but it did not obtain prominence until the leading families were welded into a military body by the Bhonsla. becomes in due course a Maratha in title. and the dominant power in Baroda. like the Jat. Elsewhere in this work it has been stated that recent anthropometrical observations have given rise to the conjecture that there is a Scythic element in the population of the Dekkan beyond that which can be attributed to the dynastic influence of the various Ksatrapa Chieftains who maintained their power there long after the dissolution of the Huna sovereignty in Central India. have the belief that the Maratha are of Persian descent. and that the Citpavan Brahmans of the Konkan were their sun-priests. with hypergamous tendencies not always ignored by the older families. and puts on the sacred thread for special occasions. too. renounces widowmarriage. has not been practically acknowledged. though the leading clans of the former still enjoy special consideration. possibly because the political atmosphere has changed since the beginning of the i8th century. so that. there was not improbably some distinction between the masses and the dominant classes based upon race. without leaving any enduring trace of its passage. § 34. not Brahmanic. and commanded. probably endowed the other the peasantry and village with estates for military services watchmen. Amongst the Marathas as a whole the only barrier of that nature is geographical. Both Maratha and Kunbi are distinguished by the totemistic. the upper classes may have assumed a distinct position without imposing the impassable barrier which exists in the north between the Rajput and the rest. who. and by their worship of the same local deities. A community which once carried its arms not only into Orissa but up to the very walls of Calcutta. . have not taken firm root in the soil. and the broad-acred grower of millet disowns the tiller of the petty rice-patch. has affected the physique. character of their exogamous subdivisions. as in Rajputana. marries his daughters at an early age and within a narrow circle. In the greater part of this tract the military and dominant element in the landed classes to They seem the Bhuiya. S'ivajl donned the sacred cord and took the title of Ksatriya upon his enthronement. and any KunbT who prospers above his neighbours. or cultivating peasantry.46 5- Ethnography. in spite of the identity of language. However this may be. The Dravidian country remains to be considered. The origin of the Maratha is obscure. The kinship. The climate. and within a generation. introduced in the 7 th century and formally adopted into the local hierarchy. The former hold a good position and rank next to and but little below the Rajputs. In the present day there is no definite line drawn between the Maratha and the Kunbi. is the Maratha. however. his successors made a claim to definite Rajput descent. The Brahmans of upper India. Some of the customs of the latter commended themselves to their subordinates. one comprising the landholders.

the insignificant. and were ousted from the plains successively by the Cera and the Cola dynasties. but they still furnish a strong contingent of watchmen. or landed proprietors. The popular version of this inclination runs: "The Kalian became a Maravan. for whom they fought. It is conjectured that the Kalian are an off"shoot of the great Kurumban. The bulk of them are cultivators and labourers. the line of demarcation between the military castes and the others is more easily traced than amongst the Telugu masses. and enabled them to maintain to this day their old customs untainted by Brahmanism in their essential features. In the piping times of the pax Britannica. Their neighbours to the south. so that. The Velama of the north Coromandel coast are an offshoot of the great Kapu or Reddi caste and closely connected with other agricultural bodies of the neighbourhood. which spread downwards from the uplands of Mysore. who were settled in the extreme south of the Telugu country by the Vijayanagar Chiefs. in . to get merged in the ranks of the former. and as its ceremonial is the touchstone of respectability. They wear the sacred thread. The reputation thus acquired helped to keep the Kalian in independence. too. The Village community. The acknowledged head of their tribe is the Raja of Pudilkottai. but no alternative has been found. The explanation seems to be that the formerly dominant classes obtained their position by predatory. in preference to taking up the invidious position of innovator in the community of their birth. that the immigrant peasantry of the south rank higher in the present day than the castes once dominant. and settled on their lands. the position of a special subdivision is often found to rest upon the military recruitment of a former dynasty. but there seems to be this noteworthy difference between the two regions. Brahmanic influence is permeating the masses. which happens to be the Tamil for thief. prowess under the weak governments of the past. and having adopted Brahmanical regulations more strictly than the rest. in memory of their former colonisation of Tondamandalam or the Pallava country. as he advances in prosperity. called by them the Tondaman. and Telingana. It is not improbable. especially in the south. The principal tribe coming under this head is the Kalian. that they are the remnants of a body of mercenaries from further north. They have amongst them. rather than military. or cowherd race of the south. seclude their women and employ Brahmans as their family priests. and really differ in race from the Dravidians with whom they are now permanently associated. In the Tamil country. a duty which serves them as the pretext for the levy of a prophylactic subsidy from the householders thus subjected to their protection. it is scarcely to be found. the more aspiring remnants of the earlier civilisation affiliate themselves to a body already in full touch with the refinement aimed at. seem to have the best claim to the distinction in question. and retained with their independence their original religion and customs. indeed. however. and the Agamudaiyan is now a Vellalan". and the interpretation is unfortunately justified by the history and habits of the caste. there is the tendency for a landowner of the latter. however. It is probable that the original meaning was different. Some of the tribe expelled in their turn.Castes and Caste-Groups. The Razu. is B. setting aside the Chieftains and Zamindars. are generally considered to hold a somewhat higher position. several wealthy and influential Zamindars. the peasantry introduced by the latter. They are undoubtedly superior to their neighbours in physique. the Maravan became an Agamudaiyan. 47 In the Karnatic. therefore. and are more scrupulous as to ceremonial.

not by reason of its numbers. The customs of the Nayar are. as pointed out in the . for the growth of special products. that not more than three latter title are true Nayar. and in many ways it comes near the Vellalan in practices and beliefs. Peasants (36. there has been a considerable influx of labour from Mysore and the coast. nor. but that fraction is at the top. not only artisans and traders. § 35. no female of the northern section may cross the river which divides Kanara from Malabar. that which intersects the exclusively to the Nayar. It has its own peculiar customs and institutions. as in the case of the Rajputs. The Agamudaiyan again. and of high ethnological interest. are closely connected with the Maravan. the Agamudaiyan is the only caste of the three which has been substantially Brahmanised. It may be remarked in passing. It is fourths of those returned under the is completed by the addition of the Kodagu. with uncertain traditions as to its original home or the route by which it reached its present secluded domicile. and employ for the purpose priests drawn from the lower castes. The endogamous limit is hypergamous for the female. with whom they intermarry under rules which in the Brahmanic system would imply hypergamy in favour of the latter. like the Kathi. then. but for ceremonial other than that of the temple. and either within or below the subcaste for the male. and. which. but. The distinction between the two is so strictly enforced that though Nayar males may circulate freely over the whole country. and the Kodagu now constitutes but a fourth of the population. The exogamous unit is based on descent from a common female ancestor in that line. Maravan. the division being evidently based upon the notion that pollution lies in the south. that in many of them may be found traces of polyandry. as observed above. therefore. in The exceptional which. but includes. have been assimilated by indigenous castes of lower rank. again. Nevertheless. and at one time got possession of the whole of the Pandya or Madura domain. The Nayar of the north and those of the south form separate communities. but it is not within the scope of this review to enter into them. are amongst the earliest inhabitants of this tract. There is some connection. Crossing the Peninsula. and has managed to maintain its position and language in its native uplands against all latter district. they call in Brahmans. under subdivisional names. a community of northern race. This group or dominant tribe comers.251. at present unascertained. and for many generations lorded it over the rest of the population. no longer consists of military landowners. however. but even menial castes such as the barber and washerman. Since the tract has been opened up by European enterprise. Like the latter they worship own gods and demons. Inheritance is through the female. between them and the Kalian. They furnished a strong body of militia.100): In nearly every part of India this group is the largest. The community. Their head is the Zamindar of Ramnad.48 5- Ethnography. and that these belong to at most three subdivisions of the tribe. peculiar. a distinctly dominant class is found in the Nayar of the Malabar coast. to whom the Tondaman and other local magnates do obeisance when they meet. perhaps because that region is further from the caste-cradle. who thereby justily the arrogation to themselves of the title of their superiors. of the little district of Coorg. as formerly. includes the bulk of the rural population. together with those of the landless labourer and the are village menials. who have found it worth while to devote their services their probable. tracts Rajputana and the Panjab. because it has had a history.

and is noted for growing rice wherever the land is sufficiently depressed to allow of the collection of sufficient water for the purpose. B. The Kambo. The Village community. 5. Islam sits very lightly upon the Meo. in consideration of which the castes thus engaged have been relegated to a lower social position than the field operator. H. The Raut. and he observes the Brahmanic festivals impartially with those of his own creed. They are inferior in physique and mode of life to the cultivators of the higher valleys. they are mainly of the specific hill type which prevails from the Indus to Sikkim. outside the ranks of the dominant. whether the so subdivided that the saying goes that there are 360 sorts same number of Ghirath clans. and though recognised as a connection of the Candel Rajput. Rathi and Raut. which call for mention here. 4 . and caste is The of rice and the whilst one of their two main subdivisions has become more Brahmanised than the other. it is proposed to subdivide this group here into the cultivating castes. Some of these. The caste is of local or Kashmiri origin. one of the most skilful cultivators of the province. and latter is not a somewhat elevated Kanait. Of the latter some are conventionally impure. turmeric and turnips. occupies a lower rank. but its position is higher. In the Panjab castes of this class are numerous. It is probably connected with the great gardening caste of the Arain. but since its larger settlements were broken up into detached villages it has sobered down. for instance. such as the bitel-vine. they are said to be more skilful than honest.Castes and Caste-Groups. In accordance with the general scheme of exposition. never occupied by the Muslim. such as onions. but are merged into the lower Hill tribes. is more often associated with the Kanait. is found along the Satlaj and in the east. The latter and the Ghirath are the chief cultivating classe3 of these hills. and those who devote their efforts to the growth of special products. 49 preceding paragraph. is the dominant caste of a portion of eastern Rajputana and a small tract in the south Panjab. It is open to question. the military tribes have retained their grip on the land. the Thakar. and pretends to be the progeny of Rajputs by Hill women. or ]\IevatT. and though they may have a tinge of Rajput blood. ignoring the fasts of both. It is no doubt a branch of the forest tribe of the Mina. One of its sections has taken to trade and the clerical professions. however. In the sub-Himalayan parts of the Panjab and the outer ranges there are a few interesting agricultural tribes on the borderland never occupied by the Jat and the hill country of the Rajputs. are undoubtedly related to some of the Rajput clans on the one side. The Meo. The Kanait are a more distinctive community of this race. but having become Muslim and acquired land. He continues to worship his old village gods and to employ Brahmans as his priests. in which. where he has crossed over the Jamna into Rohilkhand. Formerly it gave much trouble from its unruly habits. though the Muslim minority in it claim to be ISIughal. it has set up for itself. or necessitate the destruction of life or extensive and intimate dealings with manure. in the wider sense of the term. imparted by refugees from the plains. The Ghirath is found principally in the Kangra valley. but in these respects he does not differ from the bulk of his fellow converts in the neighbourhood. and in the plains of that Province there are but two others. whether the Thakar is a low Rajput or a high Rathi. on the other. there seems reason to think that they belong to a very early wave of Indo-arische Philologie. or to roots and vegetables and other market-garden produce. both repugnant to Brahmanical tradition. who is located nearer the plains that the rest.

but in so fertile a tract. and is not only much subdivided in the tracts where it is apparently of one race. again. and of the south Ganges-valley in the north. The KurmI is by no means a homogeneous body. but their number is not far short of half a million. There is another community of the same name. assuming the latter to belong to the Central Belt. which has received an infusion of other northern blood since its settlement in the Himalaya. escaped Rajput overlordship. as in the Panjab Hills. the poppy and even vegetables. They rank below the former. this is probably only the Sanskritised version of some older name. the Kurmi is the most widely spread. the occupation of market gardening has diverted an unusually large number of subdivisions from field work. at the reputed sources of the Ganges. not. and though the word is found in the form of Kutumbika in some early inscriptions. The Khasiya do not figure separately in the returns. They inhabit parts of Chutia Nagpur and the Central Provinces. the Khasiya have long been thoroughly Brahmanised. The Lodha is a caste of inferior position and probably of earlier settlement than the KurmI. of royal favour. The title corresponds to that of Kunbi. Brahmanic and Mongoloidic Himalayan. the . such as that of Kul. possibly Aryan. as they are all included under the general head of Rajput. Owing to the fact that their territory contains the two celebrated shrines of Kedarnath and Badarinath. but not eat or intermarry with them. Of those who have clung to the elder branch of the profession. The cultivating classes of the Central Provinces are those of the Dekkan in the west. who have been combined with these in the Census return. with a large substratum of the more civilised forest tribes in most parts. the great peasant castes are more or less connected with each other by origin. The derivation is uncertain. in which sense it is still used. though now entirely distinct. a Dravidian name for a cultivating landholder. and are even more exclusive in their intercourse with outsiders. Oudh and Bihar. such as that of tobacco. the Khasiya of Kumaun and Garhval. possibly because the Koerl have succumbed to the lucrative attractions of special cultivation. Further to the east. and are found nearly all over the Upper Provinces and a little way into Bihar. but is used on the borders of the Central Belt as a sort of occupational title for those of the Kol tribes who have been long settled as cultivators and have thereby thriven beyond their ancestors. have long been formed into a separate caste. however. and themselves subdued a lower and more primitive tribe.50 5- Ethnography. In the Gangetic Doab. northern immigration. and is here the result of the acquisition of wealth. and takes a lower place in society accordingly. In the Chattisgarh districts. especially along the Ganges and to the south thereof. The Lodha are specially addicted to the cultivation of rice. They are now the tenants and labourers of the Rajput landowners. belong to the same stock. probably the Dom. Closely allied with the Kurmi by origin. from whom it differs in both physique and habits. though sometimes called Nagesia. The Kisan. though the transition from a lower to a higher grade is more easily achieved than in the plains. but like the Koerl. But the section which inhabits Bundelkhand and its neighbourhood is probably nearer the original stock. are the Koeri. who will drink. their relatives. The community which goes by a somewhat similar name in Nepal is distinct. and of admittedly mixed origin. and are of the Kol race. well provided with large towns. but not of the Vedic branch. and not only in the Dravidian country. used in the Dekkan and western India.

they do not constitute a caste in the strict sense of the term. It is doubtful which occupation is the earlier amongst them. In the preceding paragraph the Koch has been mentioned as the prevailing caste in the western portion of the old Kamarupa territory. The usual tendency to specialise. but from their appearance. Outside the ranks of the forest tribes. an immigrant caste. accounts its agricultural sections far above those which fish. to which its claim has been acrimoniously disputed. is becoming. as is to be expected. in establishing itself as a separate caste of higher position than the body from which it rose. but in Sylhct. Kalita. In Orissa. a designation of social rank. The Kirar and thus lagged behind the rest in Brahmaniare admitted to be Rajputs of a low class in the Jamna On repudiated by the Rajputs of Central India and the Narbada the Orissa border. like Koch. It is supposed to have abandoned cowherding. and there is some ground for believing that the tribal ancestors belonged to some military clan fertility Kavar which settled sation. one of the principal sections. it has succeeded where in Bengal it failed. and has framed its subdivisions accordingly. though the is probably an offshoot of the country has enabled it materially to improve its position. the Kolta are in occupation of the best it lands and prosper accordingly. B. the Kaibartta. has invented the name Mahisya for itself. it is surmised that they are immigrants who spread over the Delta. the foundation of the population is a more or less Brahmanised community of the local stock. from the country round Midnapur and took to fishing for a livelihood as their numbers increased. either by absorption or as distinct units. tribe. as in the Central Provinces. for they probably entered the valley before the caste system had been fully developed in Bengal. but are valley. some became Khandaits. The Sadgop is most numerously represented in and about the same tract as that which the Kaibartta regard as their early home. and in such parts of the Brahmaputra valley as it has reached. the only other agricultural community which need be mentioned here. and lower communities are assuming it. This caste. 51 of the last named group. as well as the Kirar. whilst the Casa.Castes and Caste-Groups. in Bengal. and girls of the Kayasth and Vaidya castes are given. as is not uncommon. is accounted a subcaste of the great Kaibartta community. of the southern or Bengal valleys. Mongoloidic in the other. and subdivisions are being formed upon the normal lines. a superior marriage field. Some of the larger landed proprietors are said to have become Rajputs. The enormous population of Bengal furnishes. In the Assam Valley. as the Kaibartta . Kol-Dravidian in the one case. Though the Kalita are mainly husbandmen. Less numerous but of higher position in the present day are the Kalita. too. their into conflict with the wilder tribes. however. albeit under protest from outside. many of them. The Village community. a good number of large cultivating bodies. is the Halvai-Das. to well-to-do Halvai-Das. valley. Its prosperity has brought it. or more correctly. claims Rajput origin. as was above pointed out. Next generation will possibly see a still further advance sanctioned by the somewhat fluid public opinion of the two Provinces concerned. is not absent. nourishing claims and aspirations which would be futile in an older Brahmanic society. in the hills. but they held on to what they had got. for they exercise all the crafts and occupations which are elsewhere relegated to endogamous functional bodies. This. As they found keen scent for the best settlements brought them necessary to spread. The most populous of all.

according to the vaticinations of their chief sacerdotal advisers. and is in occupation of the most fertile tracts of Gujarat. except for the domestic larder. Naturally. owing probably to the superior abandoned purity of their traditional occupation. The Namas'udra employ a special class of degraded Brahman of its own. the one great cultivating caste is the Kunbi. has the custom locally peculiar to itself and the Bharvad shepherd. the latter of which put in their claim to Ksatriya lineage. Here the caste is known by its old name of Gujar. Round Calcutta is found the fishing and cultivating caste of the Pod. whilst others have taken to trade and handicrafts. It is much subdivided. The Khadva Kanbi. but those who only act as teachers remain unpolluted. one of the main subdivisions. it has its lower and upper endogamous subdivisions.52 5- Ethnography. lower than those above mentioned. a caste in Orissa to which the name of Casa is specially applied. as its name suggests. of celebrating its marriages only once every ten or eleven years. an ancient domain of the Ahir. The Kanbi is almost entirely agricultural. it has many points of resemblance with the Gujar of the Panjab. the Bengali for "low".Mahant. but ranking below them. In the Dekkan and adjoining tracts. stands very low in the social scale. but its subdivisions are those of the modern caste of the coast. but women in the family way join in perambulating . however. The only alternative occupation generally recognised is silk-weaving. so that not only are infants in arms duly betrothed. the superior body. is strictly prohibited. to which one of the subdivisions is devoted. The more prosperous Sadgop are said to be dropping the plough and employing labour on their land. and. but some have acquired considerable estates. but its position and general constitution are fairly uniform. and Nama. like that of Kurmi or Kunbl. The corresponding caste in Gujarat. to include the rest. they are sometimes called Casa. and eight of its main subdivisions are functional. Most of the caste are cultivators. The Census was made the occasion of an attempted severance of the caste into S'iidra. and is distinct from the Dekkani in origin. and its barbers and washermen are also members of the caste. and custom as in language. and never eat and seldom intermarry with each other. much the same in position as the Kurmi. It failed. mentioned above as the local writer caste. Fishing. or cattle-breeders. Like other Bengal agriculturists. Like the rest. There is. Along with the tradition of early immigration from the north. § 36. which has been included under the general title. however. It is of Kol or Dravidian origin. fishing. It appears to be considered to be of Deltaic origin. calls itself Kanbi. however. The Candal or Namasudra. is the largest caste in eastern Bengal. which has been already treated of in connection with the Maratha. A branch of the Kanb'i is settled in the north Dekkan. a general term. Like every caste spread over a wide area it is much subdivided. like the Candal. with the reputation of making the most of them. so rare an opportunity has to be seized irrespective of the ages of the children. The agricultural section stands out from the rest in rank. and whilst admitting members of other castes to its lower ranks. The Gahgauta is a small but respectable caste of north Bihar. thus paving the way for a higher endogamous subdivision. passes in the upper into that of Karan or . as the Brahmans who minister to it are avoided by their fellows. on the way to establishing touch with the Kayasth. in favour of agriculture. and next to it comes the boating division. The caste stands higher in rank than the Kaibartta. and more lax in their diet.

chiefly in the north of the province. caste is supposed to be merged in the general title. caste is recognised almost as fully as amongst the orthodox Brahmanists. and whilst there are considerable colonies of the northerners in the Tamil country. 53 the nuptial altar. though occasionally the upper classes introduce Brahmans as priests. Under the same name. like Halu. the original converts of Basava. In the Karnatic tableland. In Gujarat there is a coast Koli. . driven westwards by the advancing Muslim or by colonists from Telingana. On the coast of Kanara the land is held to a great extent by Havlka or Haiga Brahmans. the castes are remarkably well demarcated by the linguistic divisions. and a large landed class. The Koli in its various subdivisions is probably an early dark race extruded from the plains by the Kanbl.Castes and Caste-Groups. and 1. system. whose rules of exogamy they have adopted. and though this rule was followed to a great extent at the Census. or Dharala. however. In the first named tract Koli is a general term for the menial classes. indeed. the cultivating castes are found under a few general headings. denoting immigration. There are also many the first sect. The Village community. Each of the subdivisions is really a separate endogamous caste. Under the Lingayat or Lingvant. In the Dravidian country. Jain. The principal ones are the Gangadikara. and the Malhari branch are apparently the descendants of a wild tribe of the south western Belt. in practice. such as Vakkaliga and Lingayat. The community. The Paiicama and Caturtha Jains and the Lingayats mostly employ their own priests. The Vakkaliga of Mysore correspond to the Kanbl of Gujarat in being subdivided under a general name meaning simply cultivators. amongst whom most of the artisans are included. Most of them have totemistic exogamous subsections. The general tendency in the present day is to assimilate the Brahmanic organisation under the Jafigam. with a few later additions the functional group. the cowherds. the reverse movement appears to have been very trifling. endogamous and distinct. suggestion refers to a time anterior to the founder of the in supersession of the usage of centuries. generally a boatman or fisher. falls under three heads. the impure castes of village menials. and the third. On the Sahyadri. There are other sections either functional. it is found from the Panjab Himalaya to the Sahyadri Ghats. the arm-bearers. who cultivate the bitel-palm largely through predial low castes. so far as it is found in the west. but the rest are orthodox in their relations with the Brahman. In or near the hill country the Koli approximates to the Bhil. There has been a movement. as a whole. and. the Nonaba and the Sada. but the movement on the whole is almost exclusively Kanarese in its extent. and . Each section has an amazing number of subdivisions. are thereby made man and wife. Some of its clans intermarry with the lower Rajputs. if sex permit. subdivided into the mythical four Varna of the Purusa-Siikta.350.700. Irrespective of the latter refinement. or geographical. the former in Mysore. There are a few Lingayats in the Telugu districts. not to mention the Kol of the Central Belt. called either Talabda. the others further north and east.000 of the latter. on the understanding that their future offspring. the second of which is mostly Lingayat. the Locals. As to the relative number of the Marathi and the Gujarati sections of this caste.000 of the former. B. there are probably about 2. their reputation is lower. lastly. since nearly every one of the local Brahmanic castes has its Lingvant subdivision. to get the whole community recorded as VIrs'aiv. though perhaps more settled in habit.

in the Tamil country. the Kamma and the Telaga. as they are of a pastoral character. the number was substantially diminished. Their practice is Brahmanic but their exogamous divisions totemistic. where that term is honorifically used of the headmen of a village. The actual numbers are less than the figure returned owing to the use of their title by other and probably lower castes out of their native district. Of the main divisions. and were till recently recruited for the native regiments of the British army. and their subdivisional titles being also those of a pastoral character. where they are now settled. of making the tie "as loose as it can be". nevertheless. The Kamma. Further east. probably referring to woollen blankets. all of which much resemble each other and come probably from the same stock. the caste bearing the same name derives it. By careful filtration. into two geographical sections with quite different customs. They were introduced into the Tamil country. The wide diffusion of the community so called prevents it from being a caste. The Tottiyan are the descendants of a military body like the Telaga. Each subdivision is in turn split into endogamous sections. As their second title is Kambalattan. by the Vijayanagara Chiefs. The Kalingi are both cultivators and temple-ministrants on the Telugu seaboard. like the Nayar. like the Kapu. the sacred thread. formerly the ranH and file of the militia of the Tulu Chiefs. are widely spread. and owing to the accretions from lower castes as they rise in the world. The Telaga were once a military caste. Their neighbours. They wear. but are not recognised by Brahmans as of that order. from the Sanskrit for cow. The chief caste that can be termed specially agricultural. apparently correctly. which eat together but do not intermarry. it is constantly increasing. The name Vellalan. consequently. and have marriage rules of their own. They are divided. is the Banta. or warrior. are often found in colonies in the south far beyond the Telugu country. corresponds in its generality with that Kunbi or Casa in other parts of India. and only differ from their neighbours in being somewhat more fully Brahmanised. and all are connected in some way or other with the land. the Gauda. but now they are cultivators of a moderately high position. the residue is very large. The rest observe some of the Nayar or Malabar customs as to inheritance. A third has had to be formed for the reception of the people expelled from the two others. . with the tradition that they were imported from the north for the latter purpose before Brahmans had reached Andhra territory. that estates.54 5- Ethnography. It is unnecessary to point out that in such circumstances the endogamous sections are many and minute. Some of the caste own large earned by military service under the Muslim conquerors of the 14th century. They have a Jain subdivision which keeps to itself. in the sense of a homogeneous body. which have the effect. The principal agricultural castes of Telingana are the Kapu. cultivators belonging to the fishing and toddy-drawing classes. their cures and charms for snake-bite bear a high reputation. in south Orissa. with traditions of immigration from the north. The rest of the Kalingi employ their own priests. They are reputed to have more than 800 subdivions. and merely implies a cultivator. but in compensation. as irrespective of the four great geographical sections. Locally they are much dreaded for their magical powers. are probably settlers from above the Ghats. it is said. over 900 subdivisions were recorded at the census. though less so than formerly. The Kapu or Reddi. it may be inferred that their original occupation was that of shepherds.

the care of the bitel-vine has no disgrace calle. present location in the 8th century A. Apparently. is only used south of the Vindhya. and settled along the Ghaggar river. but with a far greater inclination to accept Islam. the Senaikkudaiyan do what most of the BaraT avoid. like Jat in the same tract. are so far below the rest that none of the other subdivisions will eat with them. then probably of an irrigational capacity it has long since lost. but in the west the title is purely occupational. below the Nayar. § 37. and is strictly Brahmanistic in customs and religion. The majority of the castes coming into this category are branches of the great agricultural bodies. round Arcot. in view of the inferiority in rural esteem of the produce they cultivate as compared with cereals and other crops grown on a large scale. D. as stated above. The community seems to have come up the Indus from Milltan or north-west Rajputana. under their respective headings in later paragraphs. based. upon its occupation. on the other hand. or are field labourers who have occasionally got hold of a small estate. the Baral is much subdivided into endogamous sections. therefore. Here they are not only garderners but general cultivators of considerable reputation for skill and industry. This caste has the further peculiarity of belonging to the Lefthand in the local distribution. who have taken to growing the bitel-vine. under the name of Kavandan. Thus. The attached to it. Barui or Barl. Apart from linguistic distinctions. The Village community. are all derived from the KurmT. The Kodikkal. and most of them hold a good position in society. stands highest. It settled in This may be partly due to the use of vegetable manure no doubt. its cultivation is undertaken by the ordinary agricultural classes.d its . and Brahmans are not employed.. that is. They are. . and in the north is applied to a lower caste of different occupation. as they are amongst all the other Vellalan bodies. Thence they spread across the Jamna into Rohilkhand. Reverting to the market gardener.'. instead of making them over to another caste for the market. As the areca-palm only flourishes in certain localities. however. In the Malayalam tract. their marriage regulations have not passed away from the old Dravidian type.. thereby grouping itself with the artisans. Castes and Caste-Groups. In the Dekkan and Karnatic there is a small caste of Brahmans. In the greater part of India the bitel-vine is grown by a special caste called Barai. another bitel-vine growing caste is only a subdivision of the Vellalan. KachT and Murao. and partly. They will be found. In contradistinction to the growth of roots and vegetables. as stated above. The last title. militate against its respectability. the Tirgul. a position which does not. 55 of the old Pallava kingdom. the cultivating castes belong to bodies having other traditional callings. Mappila and Nambutiri Brahman. sell the leaves themselves. In the Tamil country. apparently. Specialised cultivators (5. the Tondamandalam. the Arain of the Panjab is a true caste in the north and east of the Province. to the consideration that the presentation of a little packet of the leaf with areca nut is an important formality in social intercourse. only. B. and they are sometimes considered a separate caste. the Araln are of the same stock as the Kambo the Mall. and northwards into Jalandhar. and the Bar! are said to be immigrant from Central India. which is still one of their principal seats. akin to the higher caste of the Kambo. or prevent the Brahman from sharing with Vellalan the priestly ministrations required in the caste. however. separated from them. The Kongu.700). too. who are found in and about Coimbatore.968. and the Sainl belongs to the Mali.

the lack of wide stretches of open pasture has prevented the formation and maintenance of a strong and well-organised § 38. the supply of milk for the home is. by all Vedic tradition. who are entirely Muslim.500). are lower in position than the Araln. another branch of the Mali. and are supposed to have entered India long after the Vedic Arya. and also because. who is said to take his name from the radishes he grows. Some sections of the Kachl. a term which was applied by some Sanskrit authors to all tribes of the lower classes throughout the northwest.965. leaving roots to his poorer relative the Murao. now located in Mysore and the south Dekkan. south of the sphere of the Mall. however. Under this name they are spread in considerable numbers all over Rajputana. They stand high in their calling and seem to be living down the taint of the garden. In upper India they go by the name of Ahir. and founded dynasties which were overthrown by the Gond in the firstnamed tract and by the Kirata in the last. for instance. too. Furthermore. do not intermarry with the vegetable -growers. . the upper Gangetic valley and Bihar. The Kachl has taken in upper India to the poppy and leguminous edibles. commendable. and in upper India the cattle-breeder ranks almost as high as the cultivator. the grazing area is getting restricted and a good many of the formerly roving castes have settled down to cultivation. These are taken next to the agribecause they occupy a very similar social position. This seems to be one of the few castes which have moved northwards from the Tamil country. In the former tract a good many of them are Sikhs. the only specialised cultivator in addition to those already mentioned. Those who grow flowers. however. the use of the ox in agriculture now vies in importance with that of the cow in domestic life but the supply of the indispensable bullock cannot be kept up without surgical operations repugnant to the conventional notions of purity and respect for animal life. turnips or turmeric. is the Tigala. the Abhira. but they have retained neither the customs nor language of their origin. the south-eastern Panjab. with the expansion of tillage. and their numerous subdivisions are frequently based upon the produce to which they are respectively devoted. Ma liar of the north-west. where they are as much general cultivators as gardeners. To the east. but the sale of dairy produce as a trade entails relegation to a lower position. were powerful in the Satpura. They have long branched out into all kinds of garden cultivation. the south Ganges valley and even the lower portions of Nepal. Cattle-breeders (11. abstain from cultivating the sugarcane or chillies. The leading tribes seem to have been of western origin. The SainT. or cowherding tribes. culturists .56 5- Ethnography. The prominent place assigned to cattle in the Suktas and the universal veneration of the Brahmanic community for the cow bear testimony to the antiquity as to the honourable character of the calling. In the Peninsula. and the latter draw a distinction between themselves and the branch which grows onions. though they appear from the names of their subdivisions to be a branch of that caste. Then. are found in the east Panjab and in Rohilkhand. The wandering life arouses suspicions of unorthodox feeding and intercourse generally. derived from the Abhira just mentioned. again. In old times. but the more prosperous claim Rajput blood. The Mall get their name from the garlands it was their mission to prepare for the decoration of the temple deities and to throw round the necks of honoured guests at social ceremonies. This is not invariably the case. Malva.

are thoroughly local castes. They are said to have migrated to these regions from the plains of Kach. of course. are as much agriculturists as cattle-breeders. too. though everywhere he is admitted to be company for the higher peasantry. the Gauli. but is claimed by the Gaura and other cowherds of Orissa. or as some think.000 persons. also. achieved a dominant position anywhere in modern times. and now breed both cattle and camels. may be. They occupy a comparatively low position. Krsna. confined to the Ahir of the north. and some of them even become shepherds. the Go 11 a. a question of policy. of the Gujar. As they are mentioned in the Nasik cave inscriptions. so a number of distinct and generally not very large subdivisions are grouped under the general title of Goala. Many of them. According to the Census. but wandered to the coast. with the GopT. of the Ahir themselves. the cultivator generally breeds his own cattle. Two other cattle-breeding castes of upper India may be mentioned. and only one caste devoted to this occupation appears in the return. The two last mentioned castes which in 1891 numbered about 350. in regard to intermarriage. Assuming their connection with these parts. The other caste is the Rabari of Rajputana and the Gujarat peninsulas. do not appear at all in the returns for 1901. In the Tamil country. to the east. They are of Marvad origin. In the Chattisgarh country. Except in the Panjab. and further south. with a side-glance towards the village cattle. however. This is the Kannadiyan. and near the large towns confine their attention to the dairy side of their occupation. having become Brahmanised. which has no trace of immigration either in nomenclature or tradition. or milkmaids. cast back to Mathura and . after its expulsion from Mathura. In the north they confine their trade to camels. which are too apt to stray into the Ahir's herd without their rightful owners' knowledge or consent. the Ahir enjoys but a poor reputation as a husbandman. but the Jat and Gujar treat them as equals. especially the last named. so they have probably been compiled under Ahir or some other general title. Traditional descent from the Mathura Jaduvansi is not. The Gauli of the west Central Provinces and north Dekkan. it is true. recruited from many local castes of lower origin than the pastoral bodies of the north. the very tracts inhabited by the Ahir before they entered Hindustan. they must have been long established in their dominion. and the Jaduvansi line. west Rajputana and Kathiavad. a small body. another cattlebreeding caste of long standing in that region. where they are amongst the most successful and enterprising cultivators of the Province. In the Dekkan. as just mentioned. to near Saugor. represent this industry. once ruled the Satpura from Khandesh and the Sahyadri. of the Vraj district. This. in the Panjab. however. Oudh and Bihar. but. 57 pastoral community. The Village community. B. and even by some far to the south of the Arya pale. found its second home. headed by Krsna himself. is the descendant of the tribes which. a basis will be found for their invariable assertion in the Gangetic region that the cradle of the Ahir is Mathura. Alongside of them is the Govarl caste. and were only expelled by the Gond in the i6th century. The same may be said. comes the Ravat. which has been converted to Islam. an offshoot of the Ahir. about half the total number of Ahir are found in Agra. except. the GhosT. Few legends are more wide spread in India than that of the dalliance of the most popular of Puranic deities. The GoUa of the Telugu and Kanarese tracts. They have never. at Dvarka and in the north of Marvad.Castes and Caste-Groups. as in the case of the Gujar in those parts. of apparently upland origin.

Then comes the brass and coppersmith and next the carpenter or other worker in wood. In the Gangelic valley. partl^^ because he has to use bellows made of oxhide. The blacksmith follows in a lower place. not out of doctrinal questions. the latter being held to The above verge upon the task of the potter. on the decline of Buddhism. called the Pafickalsi. even in Vedic times. which is impure. led a revolt against Brahmanical authority. An exception is found. This cohesion seems to have been promoted. not certain. The fifth place in this hierarchy belongs to the stone-worker. detached from the rest of the community. . Kamsala in Telugu.58 the Gopi. exept in the south. or whether. thus encouraged. in societies moulded on archaic lines such as those of the lower Himalaya. like bricklaying is done by an outsider. if not honoured. Handicrafts and mechanical § 39. and are usually grouped together.rated in occupation: sometimes the carpenter becomes a blacksmith. nomadic during the open season. to live in hamlets of their own. a purely functional body. tended to be forgotten or ignored. because his is a dirty calling. and forced. the Brahmans took this means of setting the schismatics back into their now . them are settled in villages. artisans used formerly to be excluded from the main village site. by sectarian influence. It is like the leather-workers generally held that this movement arose out of the levelling doctrines of the Buddhists or Jains of the south. The goldsmith comes first. the unlucky colour. if not It appears that in this part of India the initiated. is a more modern and probably castes are not always strictly sep£i. albeit he may be a Brahman or ]\Iuslim. and the masonry. and the official now responsible for sending off the remittances is still occasionally called by that name. partly. the division between them and agricultural occupations is very marked. and scavengers. the differences between the two which are acrimonious and often turbulent. such as the right to have the marriage-escort preceded by drums place. too. Then followed the great Southern schism of the Right and the Left-handed castes. Village artisans and servants. Throughout the greater part of India the castes of the artisans are graduated according to the material used in the calling. and Pancala in the Karnatic. because the metal in which he works is black. which had been largely adopted by the lower classes but whether the artisans. IMost of is still 5- Ethnography. In the Dravidian country the five are found merged in a single group. is factions. called the Kammalan in Tamil. stand out from the rest. five trades. no doubt. From at least the date of the Maa) Combined crafts (1. The occupations then fall into subdivisions.900). again. which. and to this arts have day. and partly. As their work grew in importance. in the worker in the precious metals. and allowed certain privileges in the way of social display which had before been reserved for the higher classes. as a rule. which was probably amongst the servile classes. and does not intermarry with the others. always held a low place in public esteem in India. habharata. a trade tolerated. In jNIysore it used to be the duty or privilege of the GoUa to guard State treasure in transit. in Mysore. in which the artisans arrayed themselves en masse against the Brahmans and few others.263. In the present day. but one section. there may be some association between the village and the nomad blacksmith. but on points of what may be termed processional privileges. their origin. except in Bengal. who is probably of Kol origin and shares the reputation of the gipsy tinker and farrier of Europe. and they were admitted within the walls. arise.

to religious doctrine with the to another without any alteration of social status or loss of right of intermarriage. and at the ceremonies connected with the erection of a building he is allowed to wear the sacred thread. The Tattan (goldsmiths). a somewhat similar grouping in the case of the Kamar or metal-working castes. that in stone-worker have always been in great request some of the inscriptions this craftsman is invested with the title of Acarya. and take a far lower position. to carry certain a quasi-religious signification. anti-Brahmanist. There is. They are amongst the_ impure castes and do not erriploy their own people as Brahmans. stands above the rest. which though the Panckalsi nowadays use it of each other. Others say that in the Tamil country the divisions do not generally intermarry. B. but above the Sahyadri and in the south. and is now welded into a sort of caste. not ordinarily conferred on any but religious or literary instructors. and in this case the democratic teachings of Jainism and Buddhism had the further backing of the propaganda of Basava in the north Karnatic. except for the comparatively limited population of the Malabar coast. irrespective of the peculiar constitution of the community. Authorities differ as to the homogeneity of the Panckalsi. to exceed a conventional maximum number of pillars to the marriage-booth. For some time past the Pafickalsl have claimed descent from Visvakarman. By some it is said that the occupations are interchangeable. The Village community. assuming all the attributes of the sacerdotal order. and all ceremonies are performed by priests of their own body. its sanction by the outside world has to be secured through the Brahman. but that this is not the case in the Telugu country. None of the Five groupedsections employs Brahmans or acknowledges the authority of that order. and Mus'ari (coppersmiths). where all five certainly eat together. and that families or individuals pass from one an earlier section. therefore. This body apparently started with a variety of functional groups of different origins. In consequence of the use of the general title Kammalan instead of the subdivision. however. Castes whose technical skill and circumstances have raised them far above the class from which they sprang have often shown the tendency. intermarry. especially by the goldsmiths. and call themselves Visva Brahmans. Kollan (blacksmiths). The As'ari. or carpenter. In the Malabar tract the five stand on a different footing. above all. is . the number of stone temples and images' is so large and their use so ancient. 59 to have a mounted convoy in attendance. subdivided according to the metal used. the Hephaestos of the Brahmanic pantheon. The Kanarese branches follow the rules of the Lingayat community. It is needless to say that whatever title or practice may obtain currency within the community. and bearing the general title usually given elsewhere to the worker in iron. who naturally will have none of it. and are said to intermarry. or teacher. of emblems embrace a new scheme of reform which combines weakening of the barriers which prevent their equivalent rise in social position. as stated in and trumpets. with the result that most of the Paiicala became Liiigayat and. The legend in which . since a similar claim is put forward by various artisan castes in other parts of India. is a reason for dealing with the latter apart from the corresponding castes of the rest of India. that the functions of the so much so. who is the housebuilder of the coast. it is impossible to give the numbers of the Paiickalsl exercising the respective trades included under it. in Bengal.Castes and Caste-Groups. In this respect the Southerners do not stand alone. The stonemason is not an important coast artisan. and this.

not apparently without a certain degree of recognition. but the carpenter stands higher. consisting mainly of simple repairs such as retyring cart-wheels or reshoeing the plough and to that of the other artisans. but in the north is often a Muslim. The Lohar seems everywhere constant to the latter. According to one popular saying. In this tract the Sonar does not seem to be putting forward the same pretensions to be Brahman that he does further south. mentioned along with the Traders. so on. consisting of Rajputs who. are apart from and above the rest. It is the Lohar and Barhal. In the Gangetic region the caste.100) and d) Blacksmiths (2. and forming large endogamous sub-castes out of its numerous minute exogamous sections. e) Masons (51. The social graduation of the subdivisions is curious.300). The Niyariya. the Sutar does the village ironwork. In the east of that Province. The latter. indeed. or Dhuldhoya. the Tarkhan and the Lohar are the same caste by origin. as the Brahmans which serve his subdivision are not in communion with the rest of their order. must have something against him from days of old. and in the Dekkan. In the western Panjab it is the same.400). b) Gold and silver workers (1. under the name of Sekara. again. from stress of circumstances. and the bell-metal craftsman stands above the goldsmith. He is usually allowd to be Sonar in blood as in occupation. probably famine.6o the the 5. and intermarries only with the worker in brass. The goldsmith is very often a pawnbroker and money-lender as well as a manufacturer of the ornaments which constitute the main capital of the peasantry and indeed of most Indian middle classes. in that the worker in iron stands first. In the Maratha districts. There is also a body of Lohar in the south. but still holds a position superior It is said to be closing up its ranks. sub-sections are formed which do not eat together or intermarry.362. and when both occupations are followed. who refer themselves back to Visvakarman. There seems to be a general tendency to make these two functions interchangeable even though the castes remain distinct. whilst those who perform similar functions for the rest of the Kamar are under no such interdiction. thus confirming the general view as to the non-Aryan foundation of the caste. throws back to the Gijjar or Vania. Kamar same as that by trace their descent from Visvakarman. but. along the Rajputana border. is a parasitic caste upon the Sonar. both above and below the Sahyadri. indeed. and who have a joint sub-caste called Ojha claiming to be Brahmans. were driven to adopt this means of getting their living. he so regretted having made a nose-ring for his own mother without sufficiently adulterating the metal that he cut her nose off to recover it. or carpenter. and lives by extracting the gold out of the refuse of the latter's shop. though he holds himself higher than the wealthy Subarnabanik. and in both capacities has acquired a very indifferent reputation for straight-dealing. but along the Jamna the caste is wheelwright.500). is both carpenter and blacksmith in some parts of the north. is said to be a composite one. which is subdivided to an astounding extent. and considered a subdivision of the Barhai. the Sutar. and though called Lohar.290. or their Svarnakar. too. even when the goldsmith is Brahmanist. though not to the full extent of their desire. The Thavl of the sub-Himalayan region. is an offshoot of the carpenter. Ethnography. In the west. to the inevitable Visvakarman. ranking with the former. c) Carpenters (2.688. is very much which the iron-smelting Asura of the Kol race justify origin from the same ancestor. The Khati. as the dwellings in those parts are chiefly .

is is of local origin. boat-building. This discrimination between the different branches of the craft is found elsewhere. The mason. they are bound to devote their time to the needs of their clients. wares are conveniently portable. B. The barber. and the making of oil-presses and. In the sub-Himalayan tract. The carpenter who undertakes the repair of municipal conservancy carts. irrigation-wheels. but belongs to a functional group recruited either from the carpenter and lower menial castes. and selected the branch which is least associated with impure materials. and in those of the cognate bodies called Kasar. more homogeneous than most castes. They seem to be. true castes of this trade. During the cultivating season. except casually. considers them high enough to be shaved by him. and Bogar or Kannan in the south. as just mentioned. bedsteads. to sacrifice his position. but during the rest of the year they make carts. too. does not. more usually the latter. In the Karnatic the Caturtha and Paiicama Jains have a good deal of this trade in in their hands. the demand for the former is extensive. in most parts of upper India constitute a real caste. In the north they hold a better position than in the south. in the plains. and they do not deal. therefore. Kansara and Tambat. At the periodical gatherings at the great centres of pilgrimage. however. probably. having traditions of Banya origin. is considered degrading. such as boat-building (one of the lowest). 6i and of stone. owing. in any place smaller than the local market town. but dispose of them to special traders for sale to the public. the caste has developed into masons as well as workers in wood. and other articles which are charged for in the ordinary way. however. whose function is one of the touchstones of rank. all independent of each other. the business is brisk. has. and are rarely found. they belong to the earlier and darker tribes. The workers in brass and copper appear among the Panckalsi. to the indirect connection of these articles with the destruction of life. especially of the larger sorts. such as the Gaundi .Castes and Caste-Groups. Some have established a body of priests of their own. Once established. the Raj. as a rule. The large caste of the Sutradhar in Bengal. possibly because their trade has fewer ramifications. for example. but now much subdivided into functional groups taking rank a good deal according to the nature of their work. at a price either cash or kind. or occasionally from others.800). in the west. as each family requires its own complete set. their occupation enters largely into village life. Both carpenter and blacksmith belong to the class of village artisans remunerated by customary shares in the year's harvest. probably akin to the Kaibartta. to obviate the risk of contamination by contact with other castes. wheelwright. for the porous earthenware which was formerly in universal use. The Village community. the booths of the brass and copper vendors are well to the fore in the fair which and as the is always held as a subsidiary attraction on such occasions. f) Brass and copper workers (206. The manufacture and provision of these articles are in the hands of the Kasera and Thathera castes upper India. but will not undertake their pedicure. in the articles they make. which is the last craftsman to be dealt with under this group. since there is no more distinctive mark of the prosperity of a tract than the substitution of metal vessels. builder. At the same time. for an obvious reason. and can claim considerable antiquity. turner and painter. on the whole. is a carpenter turned mason. when the title is not merely functional. There are. but they are urban rather than village castes. whose members have been driven to manual labour.

and condoned in consideration of their skill and utility. Perhaps the best instance of this position is found in the Tanti of Lower Bengal. §40. considering the character and utility of their function. the origin of the craftsmen being obscured by promiscuous recruitment. always found a ready market in Europe and the Levant. No wonder. in fact. when a wide-spread failure of crops reduced or stopped the purchasing power of the peasantry. which found its way by devious . at the seaports of the gulf of Cambay.541. largely consist of members of the salt-working castes whose occupation. were. In their case.62 5- Ethnography. The weaver. and it is only in the coarser lines of material that they hold their own. He represents. from the beginning dealt with no fabric but silk. who subsequently became the helots of those to whom cotton was unknown before they exchanged the steppes of the north for the more genial temperature of sub-tropical India. This js doubtless due to the fact that the latter originated amongst the pre-Aryan races. Since then their market has been seriously curtailed by the competition of European machine-made goods. though below the peasantry. he is not entitled to a customary share of the harvest. in the Tamil country. among the first to feel the pinch of famine. that the occupation of hand-loom weaving is one of the most widely distributed in the country. rests with the Kumbhar. as recent experience has proved them to be still. therefore. In its palmy days the craft reached a wonderful pitch of skill and refinement. especially under the patronage of the Delhi Court. "gossamer" and other choice muslins. such as the Khatrl or Patve of Gujarat and Central India. The making (jf bricks. Before the end of the i8th century they were reported by British officials to be "a timid and helpless" folk. when sufficiently wealthy. intermarry. who enjoy a rank much above that of any other weaving-caste. The weaving community seems. owing to the impurity of the material used for the kiln. nevertheless. the highest rank to which castes of that origin can attain. so to speak.000). or Potter caste. to have been anything but prosperous. The weaver is not one of the menials who is. Weavers (9. was probably introduced from the north-west. and even then. that is. on the village staff. but the country in which they are now found is not a cotton-growing tract. which comes into a later group. and do so still. is far above the village menials who do field-labour and work in leather and other impure materials. the art of weaving which has long been lost. With one or two exceptions. and in parts of the Gangetic valley. The people of India were wearing cotton garments in the days of Megasthenes. from the lime-burners and manufacturers of saltpetre. however. and the weaving industry. which monopolised the whole of the Dacca output of "flowing-water". since the manufacture of salt was undertaken by the State. has been seriously restricted. and Kadfo of the Dekkan and Gujarat. It is not known whence they came. and even. The stoneworkers of the south and some of the masons. the weaver castes occupy a low position. In Gujarat. who. but is paid for what he makes and sells. and the probably kindred caste of Pattunijrkaran. who have lived down their probably pre-Aryan descent. with castes like the Kayasths. Even the staple everyday fabrics made far beyond the imperial ken. accordingly. and forms the traditional calling of castes containing nearly ten millions of people. There are other cases of weaver castes of superior position. the Malabar and the Coromandel coasts. there is no question of evolution from any lower Deltaic tribe. the caste has been formed by separation from the agricultural labourer.

Like the Panka. for the Tantva of Bihar. In regard to the evolution of the weaver from the servile castes. they sprang. where she holds the popular favour. with its exogamous totemistic structure. In the Central Provinces the Panka has joined the Kablrpanthi sect in considerable numbers. in a detached hamlet. according to the nomenclature of their subdivisions. and also cultivates. low in their habits and trade-skill. B. Julaha of the cities have the reputation of being a specially factious and quarrelsome body "Eight Julaha fighting over nine hukkahs" say their neighbours. together with the Julaha. but. In nearly all the other parts of India the differentiation of the artisan from the menial has been more definitely carried out. does the coarse weaving of the tract. To the south of these castes. The Panka. who worship Mata Bhavanl. the Kapalr of Bengal. they are classed with the lower menials of the village. are the Domba. the sectional affix is falling into disuse. They mostly belong to the Madras territory. is closely related to the Panka. a good instance is found in the east of the Central Provinces and the adjoining Orissa hills. and. Both castes work chiefly in the coarser fabrics. a caste allied. as embodied in the popular saying a Julaha (or Nadaf) this year. and with it . a practice reciprocated by the Ju- — . I shall be a Saiad". but others pay their respects to both the orthodox Brahmanic deities and to the popular Muslim saints of the locality. who are silk-workers. a tribe of hill weavers. is often held to be a subdivision of the latter but its members are now not weavers so much as cultivators. a tribe of Kol or Dravidian origin. the chief Brahmanic weaving caste of Upper India.Castes and Caste-groups. The Kori adhere more closely to their ancestral practices. In southern India the weaver castes. to the Camar. either as an occupant or a field labourer. from their name. are now quite detached from the leather-working caste from which. seem to have long acquired a higher position than in the north. as in the case of the Perike and Janappan of the Dravidian country. and the Dhor of the Dekkan. of itself. and next year. with the further inducement that the founder of the sect was himself a weaver. though varying in rank. across the hills. the corresponding division of the Muslim. laha. or leather-worker. Some of the Kori sections are of the Kablrpanthi sect. who use cotton. members of which are found detached in the Dekkan and Karnatic. The Ganda. as they have been hard hit by foreign competition in the finer class of weaving. where the process is still going on. and perform the same unhonoured functions. but also breed the worm. from Malva to the south. the customs with which it is associated. The place of the Kori is taken by the Balahl in Rajputana and Central India. 63 routes and with many halts. but in many villages it is not admitted within the site. In the case of the Julaha. The Korl. rank far below the TantI. But the mere restriction of their operations to the more valuable products is not. like other impure menials. and has to dwell. The Village community. another weaving caste of the same region. village watchmen and drummers. nor do they share the Kablrpanthi views of the others. On the other hand. like the rest. enough to raise the caste above its fellows in the eyes of the world. the handling of jute or hemp seems of itself to keep a caste to the bottom of the craft. it is possible that they may appertain to the great Dom tribe of the north of the Ganges. if the harvest be good. like the leatherworking castes of the neighbourhood. but mostly inhabiting the plains. a Saikh. The — — . indeed. possibly because the chances of rising in position in the Brahmanic world are not to be compared with those "Last year I was offered by Islam.

but lost ground under the competition of the still more skilful Pattunurkaran. the Jugl. Brahmans are employed in the caste ceremonies and the Kosti as a rule. In parts of Bengal the latter process alone is honourable. Most of the other weavers of this part of India are of Kanarese origin. with linseed and the castor-bean for burning. are higher than those who prepare the oils used for burning or lubrication. has been mentioned in connection with the ascetic body of a similar name. The Togata. in token of her disapproval of lives.600). and the subdivisions are named accordingly. to a detached hamlet. Oil-pressers (4. because the occupation is undeniably a dirty one but there are degrees even in impurity. In the present day. By dint of clean living. whereby they produce a fabric which combines fineness with the strength and durability of hand-loom work. A caste of Bengal weavers. who use the press. share. §41. and used to be relegated with the rest of the Kammala with whom they were classed. In most parts those who only press sesame. but it is not affiliated to the leather-workers. The Kosti of the Maratha country holds. . she drew a trenchant and celestially outspoken analogy between the form of press and the human body. centration of Brahmanic displeasure. however. Though suffering like its fellows from European competition. or oil used in cookery. They are endeavouring to evade the results of foreign competition by weaving British yarn. and the employment of Brahmans.64 5- Ethnography. like the Sale of various subdivisions. the caste till recently had stuck fairly closely to its traditional calling. and this blindfolded and unfortunate agent is everywhere the proverbial type of dull and endless toil. very largely Lihgayats. the single bullock is the rule. it was difficult to adopt means for giving them fitting relief work. very like the poorer Kunbl. it is true. the oil may be allowed to drip through a hole in the press or may be baled out of the receiver with a little ragmop. . Along the coast the coco-nut is the chief oilproducing material. The material most extensively used in the interior is sesame. are not found in their native country at all. they now occupy a respectable position. Finally. or Tamil weavers. like the Kaikkolan. Wherever oil-yielding seed or nut is grown there is an oil-press in every village of average size. those who yoke two bullocks to the press take precedence over those who use only one. The Sale have long been settlers to some extent in the Tamil country where they wove silk with much profit. thereby entailing an unusual con- The Kaikkolan. according to whether they work only in white or add a border or fringe of coloured silk. from their sedentary life. The famines of recent years caused much distress amongst this caste. Generally. Its origin is unascertained. and are probably. The castes engaged in oil-pressing do not everywhere take the same social position. their rank is low. an ancestor with the Paraiyan or menial caste. but have permanently settled in the south. however. indeed. But sometimes a distinction is drawn between those who get out the oil by boiling the seed and the majority. In the Dekkan and Central Provinces they are found in different grades. Its low position may be partly attributed to the pretensions it has made to higher rank.517. and. the Mysorean term for weaver. lower in position than the above. in turn. A good many are returned simply under the general title of Neyige. The Devaiiga and the Togata are other sections of the Kanarese weaving community. the reason being that when oil procured by the former was presented to the goddess BhagvatT. a middle place between the silk-weaver and those of servile origin. Amongst the latter.

is employed when the kiln is not in operation in carrying grain and other produce. and some. do not intermarry with those who use a mould or make images. In Madras. Sekkan or Vaniyan. ^ . the potters someIndo-arische Philologie. is the only other of the settled or village castes which makes use of that useful. undoubtedly low. and one of the divisions has separated into a distinct body. the B. and in the first named province attains to considerable wealth and importance. though both are subdivisions of the same caste. the consumption of earthen platters being in some parts enormous. The po§ 42. and numbers of the Tell are taking to cultivation for a living. and though. the Oasab or butcher. The Kanarese castes are more subdivided. and kept down. Those who work on the wheel. again. or Kus'avan. he is one of the castes which has crept under the comprehensive title of Nayar.800). wear the thread and generally follow the customs of the upper castes of cultivators. as above stated. In most parts of the country. The Village community. and Gandla. The Dhobr. 5. where it is sition of the but is in general use. however. both Telugu and Tamil Kusavan wear the sacred thread. In the south of the tract. In Bengal. His donkey. too. but employ Havika Brahmans when available. Elsewhere there is a distinction drawn between the artificer who only makes large vessels. in Telugu and Kanarese. and some sub-divisions employ Brahmans. but in India foulfeeding. staff. the Tell who mops out his oil will have no intercourse with the Kalu. the saddle-animal of S'ftala. The Potter is one of the recognised village return for his customary share in the harvest is bound to furnish the earthenware vessels required for domestic use. In other parts of upper India. the Bengal potter seems to enjoy a better position than his comrade of upper India. are served only by Brahmans who are out of communion with their fellows. and escapes therefore the condemnation inflicted upon the scavenger. is above that of the helots. In the northern region he is ranked with the impure.Castes and Caste-Groups. the oil-presser is often a grain-dealer or shop-keeper. he is not called upon to touch the lowest kinds of filth. The oil-presser in Malabar stands on a different footing to the rest. In the Dravidian country the caste is known by the name of the oil-press. and accordingly stands to his work. Some are Lingayats. as in Bengal. but on a low plane. nor do they employ Brahmans. Where the caste is much subdivided those who use the bullock for carriage are superior to the patron of the humbler animal. too. The Telugu and Tamil castes employ Brahmans. and him who squats on the ground. 11.521. Ganiga. both ranking with the Julaha. whilst others have priests of their own community. In neither case do the oil-pressing castes wear the sacred thread as they do above the Sahyadri. The trade is one which has suffered considerably of late from the competition of mineral oil for burning purposes. and varies in its demands upon the worker according to the customs of the province or tract. the goddess of smallpox. Where bricks are in use the potter undertakes the kiln. Gujarat and the Dekkan. In the Panjab the Tcli is IMuslim. the Brahmanist Tell is respectable. Potters (3. His occupation goes back to the time of the Vedic Suktas. Kumbhar. he has to use fuel collected from sweepings and other refuse. or washerman. 65 method adopted. whilst elsewhere metal is substituted. Hence. in the Tamil districts. and in Kumhar. except for water and storage. including those of Bihar. As in the case of the weavers and oil-pressers. animal. This is made manifest by the association of the caste with the donkey. or Jotipan.

and occasionally she acts as hair-dresser and manicurist to women. he often acquires quite a well-to-do position and is respected accordingly. In Bengal. but as the south is approached. down the coast. all these qualifications and duties go to make the barber a much esteemed member of the village hierarchy. It is this practice of surgery. Still and acts as drummer generally. together with the essential function of gossip. In the Telugu country they are even in request as cooks. Barbers (3. is much better in the east than in other parts. moreover. important parts of many Brahmanic ceremonies. . is exclusive and particular. or out of the land or its produce. they are usually addressed as Bajantri. and that but rarely. though other castes can come to the rescue of a person afflicted by such ailments as are known to yield to charms or spells. The NaT. in reference to the other branch of their profession. which relegates the Barber to a social position much below the esteem he enjoys as an individual. though his mediation is essential to the announcement of good tidings in a formal manner. the barber caste of Orissa. but as their connection with preparing the mourners for a funeral renders that name unlucky. and as Nayar priest at funerals. the accompanying. on a regular annual stipend either from the individual householder. as well as that of the Bhandarl. presents. Shaving and the paring of nails are § 43. feast offerings and other emoluments. In some tracts of the west. and both he and his razors are mentioned in the Suktas of the Rgveda. The Brahman. where the Jhlnvar's wife takes the office. the work of shaving is left to a caste called Velakkattalavan.300). Ambattan. There are as many proverbs about him as about his confrere in the West. drumming and the conduct of funerals. Nor. An exception must be made in favour of the Marayan of the Malabar coast.698. Meanwhile. a duty which is imposed upon a caste which is presumed to be below the bad luck likely to accrue from so doleful a task.66 5- Ethnography. but which calls itself Nayar. it is to be feared. who in the north of the tract is the barber of the Nayar. Mahgala. Under this further transformation. or Hajam. The Mahgala are the barbers of the Telugu districts. Indeed. together with a quite exceptional acquaintance with the esoteric affairs of all the families in his village. In most parts of India except the Panjab. one of their traditional occupations in that region. the caste ranks next to the Brahman. of distinguished strangers on their arrival in the village. the provision of music before processions. and what with fees. sheds his occupation to some . or musicians. there is a social limit below which a barber will not shave. Napit. times hold land. and give themselves the name of Attikuricci or Ambalavasi. as a whole. therefore. The barber is everywhere credited with vast experience of the outside world. the barber's wife is the midwife or monthly nurse. and in others take service in large households. each caste has its own barber who will attend to no other. extent. The arrangement of marriages is the work of an expert and trustworthy go-between the formal communication of domestic occurrences (except deaths). is usually the only person in an average village with any knowledge of surgery. Everywhere. too. will he ever consent to carry round the news of a death. and will not eat with Nayar: but no more will the Nayar eat with the Ambalavasi. the position of the caste. the Marayan have passed into temple-service. The caste. or where a Camari is employed. however. ministers to him without reluctance. the latter occupation is alone the custom. with a torch if necessary.

Boating and Porter castes (6. At the same time. the first stage is usually the restriction of the ancestral connection with the water to boating and sea-faring. on the coast and along the larger rivers. under the title of Veluttedan. to its The last qualification is may be due rarity. § 44. but in Agra. generally speaking. Of the large and numerous castes which look back to fishing as their traditional occupation comparatively few now exercise that calling as their principal means of subsistence. In the south washerman is generally placed next below the Barber castes. and holds itself superior to the rest. and pays the penalty of the convenience. and west of India. it is usually a lucky omen if on leaving home one catches sight of a Dhobi in . In the north and east. the Dhobi belongs to the town rather than to the village. nowadays. In this process of refinement. The Kanarese washerman is the Agasa. in the localities just named.400). the privileged position thus conferred upon the castes in question became assured. again. the washerman is one of the hereditary village staff. Fishing. In the one region. it may be connected of uncertain signification. the Vannan. He is moreover associated in these parts with the donkey. like the Dhobi of Hindustan. In the Telugu country. however. and the Dhobi ranks no higher than the leather-worker. B. It is probable that in the days when the latter mode of communication was the only alternative to walking or riding it fell to the bearers to provide the means of quenching the thirst of their fare in mid journey. such as packages and large jars. In the Panjab there is a similar connection between the Dhobi and the dyer. have a subdivision which will wash the clothes of the lowest classes. It seems. as belonging to the tribe of his employers. to be connected with the Vela ma caste of agriculturists. who often describes himself. Bihar and Bengal. or.600). and these are localised. or through the women of the family. and gets his share of the crops like the artisans. In Malabar only the women of the caste do washing and the men work as tailors. or travellers by palki. water brought by those castes or subdivisions which no longer catch fish is accepted without by the highest classes. except in South India and the Dekkan. at the Census and otherwise. Except. a function which he is not called upon to perform elsewhere. of course. the handling of soiled clothes is a polluting task. and in some of the north-central districts of the Province the two castes are returned impartially by either trade. Those communities which have abandoned fishing have become. In Bengal he has even to take a part in the marriage-rite of the superior castes. This difference arises from convention and custom. At all events. The Nayar have a caste of washermen to themselves. like the Kumhar.Castes and Caste-Groups. It with a popular saying that the Dhobl's outer garments belong to his patrons. the fisher castes took to the porterage of such burdens as can be conveyed by poles across the shoulder. however. clean clothes. at the tank in the mornings. 67 the Washermen (2.825. in Bengal and in the Panjab and parts of the Karnatic. The Village community. In the many tracts where fish is not a staple food among the masses and where there is an insufficient opening in the boat and ferry line. which regard themselves as superior in position to those who remain faithful to the net. indeed. and the next cavil . As water is the element above all through which personal contamination can be conveyed.887. either in person. In most parts of upper India. his position is far lower. In the south. or Vannattan. § 45. the Cakala have a subdivision which occupies itself exclusively with dyeing. all but the wealthy do their own washing. Oudh. separate subcastes.

or agricultural section of this caste. Elsewhere. to the extent of parching grain and preparing sweetmeats for the them in shops. Above the tract occupied by these castes. they do not catch fish but buy up and retail the haul of the Kaibartta. and selling of India to which the comparatively recent date. living by fowling and the sale of jungle-produce. possibly descended from some sub-Himalayan Dom. appears to be of a north-Gangetic origin. and is found mainly along the MahanadI and its affluents. because he is allowed inside even the women's apartments in the execution of his domestic duties. with a few others of similar trade. though probably of the same Vindhyan origin as the Malo and Tiyar. sinks wells. The Kahar is often tribe like the a cultivator in the east. step forward was the admission of the caste into domestic service in the house. is distinct from the Talabda. such as Tiyar. being Arabic. The Tiyar comes between the INIalo and the Jaliya Kaibartta. which appears to be the nucleus of the caste. of Telingana. or cook of the Panjab. the Kandu and the Bhatiara. however.^ holds an almost equally low position. There is a colony of this caste in east Bengal. is largely engaged in cultivation. or ploughing division. The Jaliya or Mecho Kaibartta of Bengal. All these are closely connected both by rank and functions. one of whose main subdivisions is called Koli. A great number of the fisherman are returned at the Census under the general title of Mallah. Malo. to the extent that he can bear water to all. still higher in position. but to the west. and with it comes the Jh Invar of the Panjab. and receives his share of the crops. must have been conferred upon them at a community east at large. has two separate sections. The Malo. though manifested only by subdivision of the main caste. makes . the freshwater fisherman and the porter or servant. above the Delta. the Kevat has not abandoned the traditional occupation. and takes his stand. The Kahar or Jhinvar is a valuable member of the permanent village staff. all of which. for instance. One of the castes thus split up. of the west coast. above the sections of the caste which carry loads or engage in domestic service. It seems probable that these all spring from some Kol tribe of the north Vindhya. is divided into a village or settled section. are now. or fisher. the Kahar. also found principally in north Bihar. which spread from the hills down the rivers. entirely distinct castes. the fisherman basis is found in the Bhadbhunja. for all practical purposes. In the Central Provinces. the chief fishing community of the coasts of that province. The Kevat in Oudh and Bihar. accordingly. is by far the most important of the group. The latter are numerous and varied. which. along-side of a separate caste of that name. where. Kevat and the like. he fishes. the Patni. and is called Machi. The Bhol. and a nomad. or hunting section. which fishes and engages in service and porterage. whom they therefore consider their inferiors. Though low in relative rank he is pure. one of the subdivisions is called Mahra. Thus. again. stands lower than the Haliya. as well as above those who still live on the river.68 5- Ethnography. The Boya. and enter all but the inner penetralia of their houses. with their endless subsections. The Koli. or Dhlmar. The same distinctions are found in some form or other among the great fishing castes of the Ganges valley. too. Its subdivisions include many who are else- where returned under what are usually considered to be distinctive caste titles. in parts of Hindustan. Indeed. This was followed by the recognition of the fisher caste as public cook. the separation has been equally exclusive. in the north and above remarks mainly apply.

clans. their origin is identical. He has a special branch of cultivation under him. and some of its members hold land. whilst some of the castes specially devoted to these trades are also connected by descent with the fishers. though probably. both fisher and cook. as has been mentioned above. who. and on the west coast. in turn. or Ambiga. and the Moger make use of the Havika. the Cain ranks low. originally functional bodies. the growth of water.nuts (trapa bispinosa). It repudiates. On the west coast there are two bodies of salt-workers now driven to other trades. which is probably an occupational body. provides the water for the refreshment of the peasant in the field. for frequenting places of pilgrimage. in turn. further south and included in it. 69 baskets. § 46. or fishing. The latter.Castes and Caste-Groups. however. or Nuniya. roving tribe of hunters and haunters of the scrubjungle of the lower hills. the Boya. The Luniya. the shoulder-pole and palki not being customary in those parts. The Bind. Rehgar. a wild. B. too. but it is not yet organised on the normal lines. the midwife of the Jat and Rajput. stands higher in rank in the west than in Bihar. a lower caste of the Sindh waters. stone-workers and lime or salpetre makers. Down the Indus. The Village community. are field-labourers. in the southern parts of the upper Ganges valley. Salt and Lime-workers (2. touches the Cain and the Gohrhr. in addition to the fishing or boating sections.600). form a link with the coast castes of the Moger and Mukkuvan. and the same may be said of the Mohano. some of whom are returned as sections of the Mallah. too. Soregar. ori- . which go to sea. There is a similar distinction between the Tamil caste of the S'embadavan and their subdivision the S'avalaikkaran. Some of the trades have become the attribute of a caste. which is said to be a branch of the great labouring caste of Palli. has but a poor reputation. There is also a keen demand for his services as village cook. The Kharvl of Gujarat are sailors and tile-turners. or settled. in its lower sections. is. and not to eat or intermarry with him. is. They are supposed to be connected with the Karnatic Kabbera. not entirely undeserved. carries burdens and above all. the seafarers being reputed to rank higher than the freshwater people. because in the hot weather the village usually gets its meals from a common kitchen or oven. for instance. The Kevat. Stone. Another Telugu caste. with the object of cutting the knots in waistcloths which in India serve the purpose of a pocket. the Besta. The latter was once subdivided into the Mina. like the rest. is the nearest to a real caste. the Machl is a fisherman only. since in many parts of the country the latter have been compelled to take to such means of livelihood. as the Luniya. The Machi is the counterpart of the Jhlnvar in the west of the Panjab and performs the same duties. in the village tanks. however. but apart from the barrier of a different language. The S'embadavan call in the local Brahman. mentioned above. to wit. These may be taken as subsidiary to the fishing castes. North of this tract. however. the dividing line of occupation now leads the field- worker to repudiate the fisher. and the Bind. and the Vana. and the Mugayan. is probably akin to the Irulan. His wife. In the Telugu country. though with untainted reputation. which fish only in the river. is merged into the Bind. with the exception of carrying burdens. The more prevalent fishing caste is the Palle. whether he fishes or labours in the fields.043. The majority of all these castes. but the rest do not trouble the priest of any community other than their own. however the Cain.

whilst the Uppiliyan and Kaduppattan. though the material in question is abundant. derives its name from the saline character of the soil. on the other hand. are largely engaged in In lower Bengal landholders or labourers. of the west coast. it takes a lower place. the rest of the community belonging apparently who still. the Bhandari is replaced by two similarly cultivation. are in being earth-workers and carriers by bullock. from the snare then used. therefore. the noose in question used to be identified with that used by the T'hag in strangling their victims. but in the west. adheres more closely to its traditional calling. which burns shells into lime.JO ginally 5. and being thus an intoxicant. according to some. the Baitl. still finds room for its traditional making of salt along the Bombay coast. is an offshoot. or. probably in reference to the belt by means of which the palm is climbed. however. originally of the same trade. it is the custom of the cultivators to tap their own trees or to employ the ordinary field-labourer or lower village menial to do the work for them. to the Kharol or Rehgar of Rajputana^ a position to keep up their eponymous trade. Ethnography. It is here. and the "toddy-habit" is more extensively established in the tract where it resides. Between the lower artisans and the field-labourers may be taken the castes which live by tapping the palm for its juice. § 47. belong to a branch of the salt-workers. Its members cultivate also to some extent.765. a name derived from a noose. or lime-burner and the Soregar saltpetre-maker. valley. Further south. now a separate caste. They occupy but a low position. and akin to the Arakh and Khatik castes. probably because its opportunities are greater. which is not to be confused with the Barber caste of Orissa. and the date flourishes in Telingana and the Gangetic greatest strength. and to a minor extent in south east Panjab and in the Agra Province.400). ranks among the impure.. The Cunari. In Oudh. and are stone-workers. The Pasi is probably of very early pre-Aryan origin emanating from the Vindhya. In some parts the Agria is held to be a subdivision of the Luniya. partly again because the toddy they provide is often kept till fermented. like the Agria. even where there is the greatest field for their labour.. where the Pasi has a bad reputation. too. which. a Rajputana caste. They also distill spirit from forest produce and sugar in the State distilleries. The tree-tapping castes. both on the coast and by the Sambhar lake. Where this caste is in force it ranks with the lower grade of cultivators. In Bengal. though the product of their labours does not pollute those who make use of it. the Patharvat. already mentioned as low fishing or boating castes. now differentiated by occupation. where the caste is addicted to wandering in the jungle for hunting purposes. Toddy-drawers (4. The chief caste of this is the Pasi. partly by reason of their origin. The Bhandari. In Bihar it ranks with the Bind or Cain. either as description in the Ganges valley . Further down the coast. where they are not separate castes. since restrictions upon the extraction of toddy were imposed by the government. it is thought. from the Uppara of Kanara. have added the profession of hedge-schoolkeeping to their means of subsistence. in some parts of India a body of numerical importance. The Agria. that these castes are in and on the Gujarat coast. which are classed among the urban and dealt with separately. Along the coasts the coco and palmyra abound. is relegated to the impure articles of consumption. This is the case still more markedly with the distilling castes. but there seems reason to think that it is a distinct caste.

or old. however. and the Kadamba is undoubtedly of great antiquity in dynasty of Mysore sprang from one of its subdivisions. however. and have managed to get some of their community into good posts under the Government. The southerners are poor. but not intermarrying with them. are the Christian converts from the caste. It means a native of Ceylon. 71 localised castes following the same trade. They are divided. this restriction may have a solid mundane basis. and in the inscriptions of the loth century the caste is called Iluvan. This caste has the curious custom mentioned in connection with the Nayar. just above that of the menial class. a title rejected by the rest of the community. Both names are derived from the military services rendered to the Tulu chiefs by the ancestry of the communities in question. signifying a span-long noose. and more closely connected with their traditional employment. Numbers of the caste. which apparently corresponds with S'anan. when it asserted by force its right to enter the temples of the Maravan caste. Paik. the tree-tapping caste of the south-east. an upland caste. and claim to have come from the south. The name S'anan is san and nar. has not survived amongst the S'anan. the Paik and the Billava. with field labour as the alternative. Furthermore. The name Billava means archer. employing their own priests. probably a sub-caste of the Tlyan. share. the S'anan. where the Paik call in the Satani. therefore. the Tandan. whereas the Billava. the customs of Malabar in religion and ceremonial. the Kandra of Orissa. substituting the sub-title of Namdhar. Curiously enough. Still further south there is a smaller body. is found principally in Tinnevelli and Madura. the northerners and the south-Malabar Tiyan. By some. B. The title is not found in the early Tamil dictionaries. which is now used to designate one only of the three. are a Tulu caste. the only said to be derived from sympathisers with the claim. was once applied to all. it appears that the S'anan. who are sometimes called by it in south Malabar. They speak Kanarese. thereby corresponding to the name of the Pasi of upper India. and the Cavada. some of them now claim to be Ksatriya. There are probably as many cultivators among them in the present day as tree-tappers. on the score of its Ksatriya origin. corresponding to the Dhanuk a labouring caste of upper India. into two distinct bodies. their name is derived from Pai. though it is spread to some extent over most of the Tamil district. The northerners are wealthier. The Paik were the infantry. The general position of the S'anan in society is that of the lower field labourer. were prohibited from living within the village site. The caste came into great prominence in 1899. they address each other by the name of S'enan. whose claims are of comparatively recent date. like the weavers.Castes and Caste-Groups. and the Tiyan. the spirit worshipped by tree-tapping castes. The Village community. better educated and more enterprising than the others. and on the strength of the tradition. like the Nayar. were employed in its army and afterwards settled as a semi military peasantry or labouring class upon the land occupied. an island. also derive their name from dvlpa. In the Telugu country . and. The name Ilavan. The south of the Peninsula is occupied by three large treetapping bodies. outside those who put it forward. The occupation of the caste southern India. As those on the south are far better off than their kinsfolk on the other side. probably connected with each other in origin. The tradition of such an origin. a Gurjara Rajput clan. indeed. illiterate. further to the south. for that of Hale. In former years. moreover. of prohibiting its women from crossing a certain river. The third of these castes.

seems to indicate the more appropriate title. again. but the derivation of Idiga. by the severance of this class from the less fortunate of the body in which it was born. The separation seems to have taken place on functional considerations. by the Pasi or similar castes. § 48. Brahmans are called in for its ceremonies. and the vast numbers of holdings which require more hands upon them than can be furnished by the occupant's own family. Its position. as in the Central Provinces and Rajputana. is a little lower. and the Coromandel coast the tree-tapping castes are fairly strong. there is the constant transition of the landless labourer. The rapidity with which crops come to maturity in the tropics and the shortness of the time available for each harvest produce an urgent pressure upon the labour supply. by thrift and industry. or Gaundla caste is also one of the same locality. already mentioned. Field-labourers. still persists. except for funerals. In the other parts of India there is either not enough occupation for a special caste of this description.400). and it ranks with the petty cultivators or more respectable field labourers. as on the Malabar coast and amongst Brahman agriculturists wherever they are found. The castes which come under heading are but a fraction of these whose members make their living to a great extent by field-labour. to the position of petty landholder. which refers to the date-palm. The Gamalla. or the work is done. there are some important operations which are not lawful for the cultivator of high caste. the Segidi and the Yata. are two small castes. the permanent employment of menial hands for the purpose.72 5- Ethnography.158. in spite of its title. On the coast just below Orissa. to the goddess of toddy and intoxicants generally. with whom it still sits down to meals. whilst the upper edge of the group overlaps that of the humbler landed classes. Thus almost all the lower grades of the rural population contribute a certain quota of agricultural labour. from whom they receive special gifts or privileges beyond the mere remuneration of their labour. from the verb to extract or draw. These are procured from the village servile classes. (16. after an interval. however. It is sometimes returned as Indra. which are under the Satani. There is to be taken into account the universal prevalence of agriculture. entailing. Finally. on a voluntary basis. like that from the climbing-loop in other cases. the rest of whom have their own special caste functions. which are toddy-drawers by tradition and mainly in practice. the practice. and to deal with the rest this . and though the status of the labourer has been changed under British rule. They pay special homage. The latter also weaves mats and baskets from the palmyra-leaf. and whole castes were assigned to certain families or estates in a district. In former days the system of predial servitude was widely spread. or patron. and has a subdivision of the name of Idiga. In some other parts of the country the labourers are distributed by families. therefore. which is the principal body amongst them. not unfrequently accompanied. Thus. is an offshoot of the great Balija class. Then. which is met by the temporary diversion to the fields of numbers who during the rest of the year follow quite different occupations. though the Idiga eschew spirituous liquor and employ Brahmans of good position. the lower is merged in the general body of the impure or servile castes at the bottom of the village community. Even the normal demand is very great. however. each ascribed to a certain employer. In the group now under consideration an attempt is made to include only the upper stratum ot the castes traditionally dedicated to field labour. The Idiga.

but long settled in the plains as landless labourers. but stand higher. but no recruits are accepted from below. for it held a tract of the valley against the Rajputs. The Bagdi probably rank a little above the BaurT. like the Boya and other villages. will have no communion with his kinsman. and this is one of the reasons why the Rajvar. into one settled in carrying loads two sections. or Dravidian through the Ceru. like that of some of the corresponding castes in the Dravidian country. This is not the case. The name is said to mean rat-eater. tribes of their calling. however. is undoubtedly a fallen caste. and the fact that the most esteemed subdivision in Bihar is that in domestic service. There has been a good deal of controversy as to the latter caste. Brahmans are occasionally called in. a habit the caste still retains. a few holding land. at least. a caste spread over the Jamna valley as well as north Bihar. belonging to the dark races of the Central Belt. but labours for its bread or acts as village watchman. and workers in the indigo fields. as being more particular in their diet. That the two are both pre-Arj'^an is certain. and doing fieldwork. they are the village trumpeters. or. its congener. It must be admitted. the position is apparently higher in the latter tract. however. but. Reverting to upper India. for in the Agra province. to draw the line accurately. but whether the descent is from the Kol through the Bhuiya. is still in a state of practical servitude on the farms of the latter. who fell at an early stage into the hands of the cultivating Brahman. the Dubla took to free labour. seems to indicate that the peasant section also is one of "new men". and employ degraded Brahmans for their ceremonies. that of the Dhodia or Dhundia. that it is almost impossible. it may be conjectured that the Dhanuk were once a local militia. The INIusahar has not yet been organised on ordinary Brahmanic lines. whilst the Dub la. B. which means Archer. but most of the ceremonial is carried on without sacerdotal aid. the other . the Arakh. In the west of Bengal are found two castes of K51 origin. and their wives share with those of the Barber the office of midwife. Some of them have acquired holdings. They have retained a good deal of their tribal organisation but have settled down to cultivation and labour. From the name of the caste. According to their own account. they belong to the same stock as the Musahar. in view of the different standards in force.Castes and Caste-Groups. The Village community. hewers of wood. They are described as being just "on the outskirts of Brahmanism". and to a great extent born on the premises of the employer. and might fairly entitle the caste to be ranked with the minor landed classes. for the most part. for instance. low castes of labourers of Kol descent. as tenants. is undecided by the authorities on the subject. and retains much of its primitive form of worship along with its tribal subdivisions. a small offshoot of the PasT. 73 separately. Amongst the Dhanuk. elsewhere. and was only subdued by the INIuslim in the 14'^ century. It is true that in the great "cotton years" of 1863—66. they found it more ^advantageous to revert to what is now called hereditary service. In Bihar and the east of Oudh are the Rajvar and Musahar. which is rapidly passing from the labourer into the occupant. a tribe of Kol origin left on the plains. The Musahar are divided. Both castes admit into their community members of higher castes who are in need of such a refuge. The Rajvar stand the higher of the two. They are carriers of burdens. who does not indulge in this diet. 'In Gujarat there is a similar case. but have not yet risen above this grade. reduced in circumstances. It still ranks above the other PasT.

south of the Vindhya. They occasionally call in Brahmans for their rites^ . but were reduced to predial servitude when the Vellalan entered their country. for the most part. but bearing in his physical appearance manifest signs of his descent from a similar dark race. who have been driven away by the plough and resent the intrusion of the alien peasantry. as in Kanarese the Tamil P becomes H. viz that the Musahar is alone able to keep off the older gods. which they bring for One of the reasons given in Bihar for employing men of this caste to watch crops in the fields is worth noting. therefore. In the south of India the landless labouring classes are particularly strong in number and assertiveness. It is the same. to whom the name of Vanniyan was given by the Brahmans. too. West of the Musahar is found the Bhar. and when a village area has once been brought fully into cultivation. but was ousted by the Rajputs when they in turn fled before the Muslim. Dravidian Labouring castes. were once a dominant tribe under the Pallava dynasty. They are now mainly agricultural labourers. too. labouring castes of the south Tamil country. of course. as far as the Dravidian country. and owns no connection with the others down the river. or smoking the same hukkah. but it must always have been of unsettled habits. The title Paraiyan. by a strict demarcation of the various operations in the field. and is employed upon the estates of Rajputs. but the field labour generally. appears to belong to the same group. the Dhakar. and by denoting the pipe of each caste by a differently-coloured rag tied round it. but superimposed at different times one upon the other by various waves of conquest or migration. and their relative positions are hard to define and must be treated as doubtful pending the results of the investigations of the Ethnographic Survey. now holding a higher rank than his neighbour. has fallen into the hands of the leather-working and impure castes. others engage in trade. which seems to be of fairly good position.74 5- Ethnography. It is advisable. retains the rites customary among the KorT and Camar. haunting the jungles and collecting wild produce. The contamination which follows upon the use of the same implement. but the caste now so called is referred to in contemporary records under the name of Pulayan. The latter. still used of the corresponding community on the Malabar coasts Some weight may also be attached to the similarity of these two names with those of the Palli and Pallan. is avoided. drinking out of the same vessel or of the same water. though some have acquired land of their own and sale into the villages. is not found in the standard Tamil dictionary of the ii'^ century. As the tribe has no tradition of migration. both here and in the Panjab. and some sections of the Koli are the only castes which can be said to be specially field labourers of a superior grade. and employs Brahmans where his northern namesake uses no priest at all. The Bhar of western Bengal seems to be of higher position. § 49. There is apparently some reason for believing them all to be of one origin. The Palli. In Rajputana there is a small caste. Their position has thus varied more than that of the corresponding helot tribes of the region absorbed by foreigners from beyond the north-west of India. to deal with them apart from the rest. it is probable that it was formerly in a better position than now. by the use of differently shaped lotahs. The Bhar is said to have once held the land on which he now labours. as even now its favourite occupation is breaking up fresh land. the Bhar is inclined to leave it for the nearest virgin soil. for instance. The Holar or Holeya of the Karnatic.

and above the scavenger. The names of their subdivisions. in spite of the similarity of the name. public opinion may crystallise round one of the nomad castes. in the course of time. indicate that they may have belonged to the great Kurumban tribe and thus have an ancestral connection with the Pallava and therefore with the Palli. Low as he "le certain days of the year. They follow the regular demonolatrous worship of the older Dravidians. in the social hierarchy of Brahmanism. or in finding a waif for whom no recognised place exists within the fold. of the Tamil country. they have of late put forward the claim to be considered Ksatriya. a low caste ministrant. Now. morne Chandal" will no more admit the polluting presence of a Brahman into his hamlet than the latter will allow Some of the most the Paraiyan's shadow to fall upon his water-pot. The Pallan. They use their own priests in the propitiation of the evilly-disposed goddesses they worship. disputed though it may be. and don the sacred thread. and there is no caste but will unhesitatingly designate some other as ranking below it. In treating of it it is advisable at the outset to get rid of the notion set on foot by the Abbe Raynal. Possibly. the Paraiyan is a caste the position of which is at all events clearly defined. festivals again. the men of the Palli go to one side and the women to the other. as in the greater part of the south. mentioned above. celebrated and exclusive temples are thrown open to the Paraiyan on it cherishes. and for the time he lords At certain goddess. own to no connection with the Palli in the present day. connected with S'iva or a local caste who takes his seat alongside of the image . and recruit and eat as circumstances dictate. It is said that in the Right and Left-hand distribution of castes in the Tamil country. especially those it is one of this it over the Brahman. that the Pariah is an "outcaste". conduct which brings them into collision with both priest and peasant. even dominant. conjugal relations being suspended whilst the factions are in active opposition and resumed when peace is temporarily restored. They are lower in rank and rarely engage in pursuits other than field labour. The Village community. the scavenger fills this situation in the village life with which this review is at present concerned. before the Nayar enslaved them on their estates. The Pulayan. and it has a past which with those above him. Every community has its place. These rank above the tanners and leather workers generally. or that there exists such a thing as an outcaste anywhere in India. B. They have a tradition of better. There remains the great community of village menials of a type more pronouncedly impure than the castes mentioned above. The best known section of this group is the Paraiyan or Pariah. such as inheritance through the female line in the north and through the male in the south. a subdivision of the main body. 75 but their customs and rules are for the most part purely Dravidian. Ethnographic inquiry. according to their tradition. albeit without the village. In a good many respects they follow the customs of the Nayar. they call in the Velluva. is a labouring caste of north Malabar. therefore. has never yet succeeded in touching the bottom. On the score of their former position. and occupy a tract to the south of the latter. past and present. called Ceruman in the southern portion of that tract. who know nothing of their past. days.Castes and Caste-Groups. and if they use priests from outside. whether a separate caste or. excluded from everyday communion is. an origin in the Cera country. The title of Ceruman denotes. Meanwhile. however. One of the relics of their servile condition is the practice of still bringing their children to be named by their employer.

The sub-castes of the Paraiyan. to show that the caste was once a most important element in the population. a member of the corresponding caste. and a section does. even the Brahman. indeed. the caste which. certain low but responsible offices on the village staff must be filled by Until recently. without being named after their performance on that blatant instrument.76 in the procession. and in an inscription of the nth century. All this tends. A good many of them have. All these Dravidian labouring castes employ barbers. the place of the Paraiyan is taken by the Mala class. in other parts of India. castes. before even the Pulayan are mentioned. or ties the symboHc marriage-thread round its neck. which are dedicated generally to the same functions as most of the castes just reviewed. Not that there is any lack of theory. blow the trumpet for the Left. the Mahar of the Dekkan. washermen and generally priests. to the Mala of Telingana. it is subdivided into the weaving and the ploughing sections. when Paraiyan. indeed. however. his own son. in a few tracts. Two castes of western India may be here mentioned. . On the other hand. some of them holding but a low position. affiliated to any factional distribution of other do they weave to any great extent. nor the Holeya occupy almost the same position. As before pointed out. at all events. In the Karnatic. except that they are not. The IMahar. and when there is a dispute about a boundary. on the lines of the Dasyu of the Siikta period. the establishment of a special section for their reception. The distinction. indicate the practice of most of the more reputable handicrafts. and credited with the possession of hillforts and considerable power. a drum. as stated above. whereas in the east it seems to remain as a subdivision. in closer communion with the genius loci. of their own community. the name of which resembles that of the Mahar of the Dekkan. In the Telugu country. and in the earliest records available. had to obtain the formal consent of the Paraiyan to a marriage in his household. partly. One of them. of course. Ethnologically. 5- Ethnography. who has to walk the line with a pot of water. probably the earliest in which the name Paraiyan is used. and similar acts have been mentioned in connection with the rites of castes dealt with in a preceding paragraph. however. the group presents features of very great interest and importance in respect to its origin and history. the weaving branch has split offices. its present name is comparatively modern. in which community weavers abound. it is a Paraiyan. conjecture and analogy. in these tracts between the depressed castes and the rest of the village community is more definite than in the south. the custom began to wane. older on the soil. off into an entirely separate body. because racial differences are greater or have been less obscured by time. and influential beyond the conception of those who only know it in its condition today. no doubt. and much remains to be done in sifting the different strata of a people of whom so little is known in comparison with what has been ascertained concerning the servile classes in upper India. like the Paraiyan of to day. on his head. but the general tradition among the modern Paraiyan is that the caste was formerly a weaving one by calling. or. joined the Lingayats. act as the drummers of the Right-hand. was called Eyinan. of course. is probably allied. however. In another direction. and entailing. was excluded from the villages. the leather-workers. Some have derived the name from parai. which performs the same In the case of the latter. attributable probably to their origin amongst such classes as the Holeya. which are very numerous. their great rivals. or a clod of his native earth.

and leave sheep and goats to their inferiors. so that the sacred texts could be heard. has its own priests. and enjoys a notable prestige amongst them for knowledge of the boundaries. The Village community. the Dhed is credited in a local proverb with having profited above others by British rule. Either on account of this adaptability or because of the thrift displayed by the caste in its various callings. holds a low but important and useful place in the village staff. a lower caste. when the market for leather is brisk. and sometimes with a suddenness which attracts the judicial attention of the local authorities. who. a modern practice. and perhaps even now in some tracts. even if it be only to skin and to drag the carcasses away for burial. moreover. except in the south. too. . In the north of the province.300). others draw the line at cattle. and these. like the Paraiyan. This group.Castes and Caste-Groups. and. however. Leather-workers (15. with the fiction of the impure listener being out of earshot. But there are grades and privileges involved. and took to working under the new regime at the machine-made article. The INIahar is as a rule. as was stated above. and receives shares of all the main crops. Formerly. and the Dhed was until recently. belongs to a far earlier race than the Maratha peasantry. as well as with strictness in the observance of the rules of the caste. The caste. When factories were established in Bombay and the chief towns of Gujarat the Dhed lost much of his custom. mortality amongst the cattle is apt to increase materially. the Mahar had to wait for a ceremony amongst the higher castes. a weaver of coarse cotton goods. But though the castes in question remove the hides. in some places. it is only special sections of them which tan or curry them. In the south a special sub-caste has been formed of those who have taken to domestic service with Europeans. and even there he is not regarded as one of the old stock. North of the Narbada. "]"] for instance. Usually the hide is the perquisite of the menial. he is apparently what he claims to be. is not forbidden to indulge in the flesh after flaying. B. and those who take to trades separate themselves from their fellows. This is. a considerable piece of the land. the menial work of the village is done chiefly by the BhahgT. on the other hand. Some touch no bodies but those of the cloven-footed animal. Indeed. is not one of the recognised community of the village. Though the caste employs only low caste priests it is credited with great orthodoxy and assiduity in its religious duties. § 50. an immigrant against his will from Rajputana. whilst others took to day labour. and has no special knowledge of the boundaries or of the idiosyncracies of the local gods. or when dissension is rife between the peasantry and the village menials. and then bring his own party up to just beyond the prohibited range. by whom they are supported. The Dhed caste of Gujarat. though the tradition of the movement is no longer definitely retained. enforced by local councils. The caste. In fact. and to have waxed fat and kicked accordingly against his Brahmanic betters. a labourer. cannot be well distinguished from that which precedes it. and for influence with the goddesses of cholera and small-pox. and leads to the discovery in the thatch of the servile hamlet of the materials for an extensive study of rural toxicology. here again following the same lines as the Paraiyan.028. but near the larger towns as often or not a Des'asth or local Brahman is called in. It is the function of all the impure castes to deal with dead cattle. the families of this caste are often found attached to the estates of the larger Kanbi or Rajput landholders. -introduced since the labour market on railways and large public works brought grist to the Mahar mill.

like the Dhed of Gujarat. the women of this class should be renowned for their good looks. but in the tract where it is most numerous. On the other hand.78 5- Ethnography. The caste subdivided minutely by function. the main body of field labour. so much so. the Camar community is generally organised — into distinct sections. especially in towns. whilst the offspring of such mesalliances go to form the "fair-skinned Camar". endogamous sections. that special arrangements seem to have been thought necessary by the Brahmanic organisers of society to meet the results of intrigues and illicit connections between them and men of the upper classes. the demand for labourers along the railways and in the chief commercial centres of upper India is said to have had the effect of depleting to a considerable extent the supply available for the village field operations. and receives its share of the harvest like the other village menials on the establishment. but throughout the rest of the country these classes are now generally held to represent the Dasyu or darker tribes. however. Some work for individual patrons. In this capacity. Indeed. hold themselves aloof from the rest. In the latter capacity. the caste has to do whatever they are within. between the east Panjab and Bihar. and returns with a full pocket and something of a "swelled head". from the Census. lines in The development of the leather industries upon European some of the large towns of the north. usually rise to a position superior to that of the tanner or currier. and by similar movements amongst Dravidian races and others. bid by the peasantry They may never. the families which take exclusively to leather-work as their profession beyond the simple requirements of the cart. and ultimately. such as Cawnpore and Agra. In the central and eastern Panjab a good many of the Camar are Sikhs by religion. Comparatively few seem. leaves home when he pleases. In parts of Rajputana and the southern Panjab. To this day men turned out of their caste on this account find refuge in some recognised mixed body. the strict bounds of tradition. and the Camar. it is not exclusively a leather-working caste as its name denotes. are generally split off into a separate caste. The great Camar caste is found all over the country except in the south. in a recognised order of precedence. though of course they occupy a position different from that of the Jat. the tanning branch sinks below those which only labour in the fields. except in the north. It supplies. locality and traditions as to origin. to have embraced Islam. take up their residence in the village or pass anything directly from their own hand to that of one of higher caste. in the south and the great delta of the east. of course. but more often each is assigned to a certain association of landholders. the Camar does the coarse weaving undertaken further east by the Korl. has attracted a large number of Camar away from their native haunts. displaced by the Arya and Scythian invader north of the Vindhya. There is the possibility. irrespective of social subdivisions. plough or water-lift. but this is due to the use of the title of is into endless . It is a noteworthy fact that with centuries of such degradation piled upon them. as just pointed out. of course. that in the very north of India some of the helot classes may be descended from early foreign races who were overwhelmed by subsequent invaders and reduced to servitude. the subject of more than one proverbial admonition on the country side. and all under the regulation of a caste-Council which is said to be strict in its enforcement of ceremonial rules. Furthermore. where the caste furnishes virtually the whole labour supply of the village.

reduced to servitude by the later comers They resemble the lowest castes of the plains. The leather work. may have been imputed to it by the Brahmanic censors of the new regime when it was established upon priestly initiative at a later date. the Camar is held to be lower in rank than even the Brahmanised section of a converted forest tribe which has abandoned the cruder elements of its daily diet. and thus more likely to propitiate the local gods than the more reputable but more recent arrivals now in occupation. and many of its members still use those vernaculars. but elsewhere they put it on to the Koli or Canal. generally entirely distinct. 79 in the west of the Panjab. added. Both Mang and Madiga employ their own priests. The Village community.Castes and Caste-Groups. In the Dekkan and Telugu country. that its name does not occur in any of the older inscriptions in Tamil. the Camar gives place to the Mang or Madiga. In other parts of India. and represent the Mocf by converts. usually in the larger towns. B. but only do the leather-work and tanning. It is an immigrant body. The degrading character of the occupation. The Madiga takes a prominent part in the festivals of the S'akti worshippers. It does not appear. or Khalpo. moved south. the Mod is the subdivision. but is quite unconnected with the northern communities of the former name. From this as well as from the part it plays in the marriage ceremonies of some of the higher castes. but are rather higher in social esteem because they are largely weavers. South and west of the Vindhya. both of which names are apparently derived from MatangI. probably of Dravidian origin incorporated into the Brahmanic pantheon as circumstances demanded. and leave the dirtier offices of the village to lower castes. it may be inferred that the caste is one of the earliest of the uplands. Even in the west Panjab the Camar or Moci do not perform the same duties in the village as the Camar of the east. vulgarised by Europeans into Chuckler. In some parts he gets Brahmans of a low grade to serve him. as a rule. By reason of the connection of the caste with the exuviae of dead cattle. the caste goddess. All are of about the same class as the Camar. too. as leather entered into the clothing of the early Vedic communities long before they could have reduced the Dasyu to servitude. The latter do the leather work in some parts. but. which is engaged in shoemaking. therefore. more or less. who perform much the same duties as the Camar of the plains. from the menial offices. is detached. too. It is probably. Where the Mang is found alongside of the Mahar in the Dekkan there is always rivalry and occasionally strife. In the Tamil country the principal leather-working is the S'akkiliyan. too. an offshoot of the Madiga. in acting as pipers and drummers at village processions. Garuda or Dasari. so that the task of tanning and preparation must have been performed by members of their own race. and is not intimately bound up with the village staff. the caste is still known by the names of Cambhar. however. especially all earlier tribes of the locality. therefore. a synonym of Kali. as several of its subdivisions bear Telugu or Kanarese It may be titles. In the lower Himalayan valleys of the Panjab there is the Megh caste. The Camar of other Provinces is a Brahmanist in his faith. that this was always the case. from the south or west. they are only called in to nominate the most auspicious day for important domestic ceremonies. but the Mahar takes precedence of the other in the village. some even being subdivided under that title. where they are nearly Muslim. such as the Koli and Dagi. of much the same order as the lower masses of the population of the locality. thereby taking a higher position than their agricultural fellow. caste .

where tribes of hunting and fowling propensities have settled down to village life. It tends. which the old counsel to set a thief to catch a thief has been more widely and conscientiously put into practice than in India. or containing the broken ground. It may also be noted that the leather-workers are here. and in 1891 some 207. for there is constant bickering between the S'akkiliyan and the Paraiyan. possibly none. the duty is performed by a local caste in which it is not the traditional or even the principal mode of getting a living. In the latter case. In several of the older lists of the castes of a locality. it is probable that the rest are included in the main Camar caste. But even in the open and well-cultivated plains the need of a nightwatch over cattle. but as in 1901 they were reduced to iioo. although the underlying notion of blackmail may be absent. that is done by the village Camar. but draw the line at dealing with skins and leather. there may be found opposite a title. In Rajputana the Bambhr seems to be the shoemaking branch of the latter. to be ultimately crystallised into a sub-caste. as was mentioned above. this caste does a good deal of the village labour. however. as in the Dekkan. "Thieves and watchmen". Among these are the Barvala and Batval. a S'akkiliyan girl is always selected for the part. and in the former tract his shoes are said to be inferior to those of the Camar of Bihar. again.900). This seems to have been the case with the Dhanuk of the Ganges valley. frequent in India. grain and other movable property is generally recognised. the terse description. though chiefly watchmen and messengers. The combination is obviously appropriate in tracts interspersed with hills and forests. to become hereditary in the families which take to it. too. There are few countries. he does not generally make any but the roughest kinds. rising in rank as their calling entails greater skill or more costly materials. and though he can cobble shoes. The Mahar of the Dekkan. who. Watchmen (3. the Moci of the towns are divided into functional sub-castes. and. such as that of saddlers. has recognised subdivisions of watchmen and the guardians of the village gate. shields and scabbards. importing with it its traditional rivalry with the village serf. embroiderers of saddle-cloths. however. In the case of more than one of the castes already passed under review it has been pointed out that a portion of the community in question was avowedly detached for night work of one sort in order to counteract the enterprise of its comrades in simultaneous operations of another. but in Bengal.639. and in those stages of Sakti worship at which the presence of a living representative of the Female Energy is necessary.So 5. in . public opinion being in favour of the labourer. as in the west Panjab. makers of leather buckets for ghi (clarified butter). § 51. if associated with a recognised dole out of the harvest. There are also castes which are traditionally watchmen without any association with the predatory classes. in which the facilities of both functionaries for evading observation are united: or. remarkable for the beauty of their women. It is only the simpler leather work. also perform many of the menial offices which in the plains are left to the Camar. always tending towards endogamy within the craft. In several parts of India. again. of the lower Himalayan valleys of the Panjab. The Mod takes up the higher branches of the craft.000 of them were returned. of spangles. Ethnography. like all else in India. They are not allowed however. as in the north. though the branch of the caste which has found its way into the eastern Panjab is treated as criminal without the saving grace of occasional watchmanship.

or that of the west. used to be the terror of Central India. They are affiliated by some to the INIutraca. II. and in Jaipur. Amongst these maybe counted the Khangar ofBundelkhand. a larger caste once no doubt the guards of the frontier of the Vijayanagara dominions. In some cases it is returned at the Census under this name. 5. advisable. in token of the acquiescence of the former owners of the soil in the new order of things. to which reference was made in connection with the Meo. the Chief has to undergo the same operation at the hands of a BhTl. or of the Central Provinces. but employing Brahmans on occasions. They are now watchmen and labourers. and it is possible that the military traditions of the Muttiriyan are due to this relationship. The latter retains its old customs and religion. which is Gond. from their prowess in archery. for a Mina to complete the enthronement ceremonial of the Chief of Jaipur by affixing upon his forehead the mark of his caste. and in former days constituted a local militia in conjunction with the Panka. A more important community of this class is the Mina of Rajputana. and the Mahar. Their kinsfolk. The Ghatval of Bihar. does not employ Brahmans. and were country. like the Dhanuk. the Muslim and more settled branch of the same tribe. is sufficiently prone to petty theft and burglary to make its enHstment as Kotval or watchman. and the connection therefore may be no more than is suggested by similarity of name. and has a share in the general name of Mallah. But it is most probably an offshoot of that wide-spread and incoherent tribe known as the Bhuiya. is employed as the special guardians of the palace and State It of Jaipur. and. and subdivided into a cultivating and respectable section. Of the two sections into which the tribe is divided. The Mutraca. although not one of the regular criminal tribes. and carried its raids far south of the Vindhya. to reside B. the formerly the rulers of a considerable portion of the present state Even now. used to be the custom. in Bengal. In the Dravidian within the village site. As it still Indo-arische Philologie. again. just as in Mevad. the Caukidarl. which is Bhil. or watchmen. " . The INIina are spread all over the east and north of Rajputana. has Ambalakkaran of the south-eastern Tamil districts. though a section of them has been impregnated by Rajput blood to an extent which encourages them to claim to belong to that order. are from the Telugu country. There remain the castes which are constituted watchmen more from apprehension than from an a priori confidence in their efficiency. The Village community. position amongst the agriculturists of the east. the Muttiriyan. and one which furnishes watchmen and labourers to the villages. now numerically insignificant.Castes and Caste-Groups. have risen by the adoption of Brahmanic rules from a hunting caste to an established village position as watchmen and cultivators. dominant a section treasure. however. but it is totally unconnected with the watchman caste of Bardvan. in this 8i respect are on the level of become a separate caste in consequence of its having appropriated to itself the guardianship of the low passes through the hills. It is no doubt one of the early Vindhyan tribes a portion of which has been Brahmanised by enlistment into local forces and contact with the Rajputs by whom the tribe was dispossessed of its hill-strongholds. they occupy a if not of Alvar and Bhartpur also. The upper section has no social intercourse with the watchmen. keeping up much of their old religion and customs. There is no doubt that the Mina are of early and pre-Aryan origin. The Kandra of Orissa derive their name. are said to have passed through a militia stage before settling down to the guardianship of the village. moreover.

who. a title which is said to represent the Marathi Ranvasi. entailing its employment as watchmen. In the Maratha country. The Dosadh used to furnish many reMuslim armies of Bengal. it considers itself higher in rank than the other sub-division. . who are still hunters and in the jungle phase of existence. By the age of seven. that in honour of Rahu. According to the caste reputation. and in Marvad some rank as village menials of the impure grade. and it used to take its brides from the latter without returning them. the cultivator has advanced in prosperity and refuses to recognise the older section either as its superior or even as its equal. Possibly they come of the same stock as the Buya. one section of which pursues the same calling. It has undoubtedly a strong strain of Mongoloidic blood. "fearless ones". the functions of this individual are more necessary than effective. the halo thereby acquired renders him a prize in the marriage market for which an unusually high dowry has to be offered. but it is peculiar in the extent of its (ormal recognition of members of higher castes who seek admission to its ranks. and were formed into militia by the Muslim Chiefs of Mysore and Haidarabad. Now. or the Vedan of the Tamil country. Another peculiar tenet of this caste is that meat is not to be eaten unless it has been killed by a Muslim. A similar caste to the Dosadh is found in the Berad. Almost the same can be said of the Bhil. In the south of Rajputana the Mina hold a lower position than up north. especially near the Sahyadri range. In Bihar and along the Ganges as far up as Mirzapur. under the sub-title of Vasavo. indicating They stand higher than the Bedar. in which capacity they served till a comparatively recent period. however. the Dosadh has but a poor reputation for industry. also from the south. ligious They address each other. It employs degraded Brahmans for ordinary purposes. Now. however. This community is very mixed. whilst it is much addicted to crimes against property. serves as watchman. the Ramosi boy must have stolen something or he is disgraced. It belongs to a large and widely-spread Dravidian tribe now divided into numerous separate castes. They are now watchmen and petty cultivators. as many of its sections are thieves and wandering pilferers. but at the chief festival of the caste. the Jarigam priests of the Lihgayat. the large caste of the Dosadh undertakes the duties of watchman. In the neighbourhood of the hill tracts they are also hunters and fowlers. These were originally hunters and fowlers of the Karnatic. known as the Ramosi. who did his best to sever the more reputable of his subjects from the contaminating influence of their turbulent fellow-tribesmen. however. In this it was supported by a former Chief of Alvar. as Boyali. in Gujarat. The rest of the caste get their living by porterage and day labour. the place of the Berad is taken by a kindred tribe. and they employ the Satani caste as their priests. and everywhere their reputation is the basis of their employment on the village staff. a name applied to his tribe in the western Satpura. of the south Dekkan. and it is said that a considerable proportion of Clive's army at Plassey was composed of this caste. the demon of eclipse. officiates. or Bedar. Their faith is Brahmanic. or one of its own number cruits to the forestdweller. of the semi-Dravidian type. with a Gosai for their reand moral instructor.82 5- Ethnography. and employ by preference. Telingana parentage. If caught and convicted. exercises its traditional functions of guarding the villages. which has settled down to cultivation. the Zamindarl. The Mai of western Bengal is largely engaged to watch crops and villages.

again. The Village community. like the wives of several of the low castes. Amongst other duties may be mentioned one of great importance in a land where fuel is scarce. In the Sikh tracts many Cuhra have joined that faith and after conversion continue to perform only the less offensive parts of their traditional duties. In north Gujarat. also. they were subject. Yet even here there are gradations of rank duly recognised within the community though not affecting its intercourse with the outside public.700). refuse to associate with the convert. those who serve private houses hold no intercourse with those employed on public latrines. The MazhabI. the Cuhra is called Jat like many other menial castes. the Rangreta. B. too. The great differences in the physical appearance of sections of the caste do not indicate a different origin of the respective communities. he finds that these functions can be thrust upon the Dom. One of their subdivisions. For this reason.Castes and Caste-Groups. but a varied recruitment from higher castes of "broken men". the collection. as the Sikh Cuhra is called. has risen in position by taking to leather work exclusively. This Scavenging castes of at all events the village castes of India. and does most of the unskilled labour. but has to be brigaded in separate regiments. makes a capital soldier. Elsewhere. and. In spite of the Rajput titles of the sub6* . with their eye on the traditional calling. Further east. where there is no question of a lower caste. a tribe of probably quite as early origin.647. perhaps. the Bhangi or Mihtar caste of the upper Gangetic region is sulDdivided to an unusual extent. In the west of the province the Muslim sweeper known as Kutanan or Musalli. the Bhangi will handle a corpse. digs graves but will not touch night-soil. The sweeper. § 52. but later enslavement to Brahmanic supremacy. to perform duties connected with childbirth which no higher class will undertake. It may be borne in mind that these latter functions are confined to towns. or Brahmanic Bhangi. domestic servants. the Mihtarani sharing the reputation of the Camari for good looks. and the main endogamous sub-castes are strict in regard to the limitation of their respective functions. Occasionally the Sikh intermarries with the Lai Begl. others have become watchmen. and act as hangman. sweepers of roads. that is. Some of these sub-castes draw the line at carrying loads and playing pipes and drums. 83 group includes the lowest whatever may be their position relatively to the immoral and foul-feeding nomad. the caste is a recognised member of the village staff and belongs to the Bhangi community of the Gangetic region. is the only caste which will convey the tidings of a death to those whom it may concern. and plasterers of walls with cowdung. reduced or compelled to have recourse to occupations repudiated by the community to whom (3. In the east. drying and storing of cowdung for burning. kill a stray dog. ranks below all but those who remove night-soil. Judging from the nomenclature of the subdivisions it may be inferred that the caste was originally formed out of a number of local tribes. as the other Sikhs. except where the women of the household are strictly secluded. and resents the title of Bhangi. Further to the south. the Bhahglo is one of the principal village menials. even in religious ceremonies. In the Central Panjab the Cuhra does much the same work that the Camar does where the latter is in full strength. the custom of the country renders their offices unnecessary. She is also called in. In the west. caneworkers. or Mazbl. A section which keeps pigs. and amongst these last. the impregnation of the sections undertaking domestic service with the blood of their employers through illegitimate connections.

nor is it homogeneous. and the only one which touches night-soil. Probably both are of the same stock. As in the north. throughout the caste. It will probably be found that as elsewhere endogamous sub -castes are being formed. and containing gangs said to be expert and artistic burglars and thieves. It was remarked above that in the § 53. but they can only touch the outer walls. It community for is one of long settlement on the land there. this caste has the provision and control of the village music at times of festival. The BhuTnmali is found in the north and east of the province. The Dom is at his lowest in the Bengal Delta. the blessing of a Bhangio tends to a safe passage. In the Kumaon and Garhval Himalaya. basket-making. such as the Paraiyan or Mala. There are Doms and Doms. but the practice of making use of them is spreading round Calcutta. It is not. The caste does not. to do what no local caste would do» In Bihar and its neighbourhood to the west. of course. the Dom seem to fall into two sections. In Bengal and Assam the chief castes of sweepers are the Bhuinmali and the Harl. In the former they Dom . the marriage of the widow to the younger brother of her late husband. borrowing its name from upper India. Between these come sections working in cane. Further west. the BhangI is strict in his religious observances. this 5- Ethnography. if not at the bottom of the social scale. One section has taken to private service. Both are subdivided into functional sub-castes which donot intermarry. the and Ghasiya. Here.84 castes. The Harl has preserved much of the non-Aryan customs of his original tribe in regard to marriage. however. and is singular amongst the widow-marrying classes of India in prohibiting instead of encouraging. the village sweeper^ but his ordinary trade is that of cane -work. the Harl in the west and centre. to worship from the outside court of the temples. but is only allowed. call in Brahmans. though the Brahmans in question are put out of communion by their fellows. the occupation most widely spread. The Mihtar. is the lowest section. is. and often take to cultivation. The Gangetic region there were functions which even the scavenger caste would not undertake. This last is. too. tapping palms and carrying torches at weddings. then. though each householder does the steps and inner walls of his own dwelling. with a little scavenging thrown in. it is true. Musicians and porters stand highest. In this part of the country. and before crossing the Mahl river in a flood. the other more or less nomad. separating the sweeping and labouring families from those employed in municipal or private conservancy. instance who points out the boundaries. a Kol or Deltaic tribe of early settlement. sight the Bhangfo. and the Haddl in south Orissa. on the whole. and except this caste none will touch the wall of another owner. As the Dravidian country is approached the village scavenging is more and more done by some of the menial castes mentioned in a preceding paragraph. in fact. mat-weaving. not far from it. as a rule. there being the Dom at hand to perform them. is of one of this caste carrying his basket brings luck for the day. or Haddi. The smearing of wet cowdung upon walls is a frequent occupation of the Bhuinmali. the Dom lives by agriculture and village handicrafts. Some stray tribes seem to have penetrated across the Central Belt into the north Telugu country and the Karnatic. a scavenging caste by tradition. whither the caste is said to have been imported from upper India. and labour. is found a caste which. at least. as on the Ganges. One settled down to village life. the Panjab Dumna is often.

It has been held. between the village and the specially urban castes. musicians. weavers. are now an entirely separate community. the Dom of Dacca. and stand intermediately. and judging by the forts and strongholds called after them. exorcists. and. and the lower artisans . and to have been severed from its parent stock at a comparatively recent date. Subsidiary Professional Castes. The caste keeps much to itself. . and in India the connection is peculiarly intimate. the Ghasiya have entered private service as grooms and elephant-drivers. but it appears to be an independent offshoot of some Kol tribe of the Central Belt. and especially -avoids the leather-worker and contact with dogs. Both these bodies have the appearance of belonging to the Kol-Dravidian race. Bards and Genealogists (782. It is now generally believed that the Dom were settled in force along the southern Himalaya at a very early period. — and metal-workers cane-workers and leather-workers. In the neighbourhood of the larger Kol tribes the Ghasiya occupy but a low position. Basor). exercise functions which are intimately connected with certain phases of the domestic or religious observances of at least the upper and middle classes of the Brahmanic community in most parts of the country. The Ghasiya is still divided into its totemistic exogamous sections. may be taken with it in view of its kindred position and occupation. have acquired characteristics different from those of the Dom of Bihar. § 54. such as the Khasya and refugee Rajputs and Brahmans.Castes and Caste-Groups. when settled. The community is divided racters into four groups. and. Subsidiary Professional Castes. both in occupation and social position. like the Dasyu encountered by the first Vedic immigrants. though not so directly concerned with the every-day life of the masses as those dealt with in the preceding paragraphs. which. possibly through the admixture of local blood. it eschews the menial offices imposed upon it in the hills. The Dom still on the hills were enslaved by later comers. 85 are coarse weavers. In spite of efforts to get them to work themselves into a better position they seem to have no aspirations beyond their traditional occupations or a little petty cultivation. There is a small community called the Ghasiya. as it were. These ancient professions are usually found more or less linked together. to be a sub-caste of the Hari. From the earliest times chants in praise of the founders and heroes of the clan have been recited to tickle the ear of the ruling Chief when sitting in formal assembly or heading a procession through his streets. acrobats. however. low as it is. It must be noted that the Diim of the Panjab. finally. and perform on drums and trumpets at festivals with other menial functions. and in the Dekkan. mendicants. Still more essential were they in battle. in Bengal. and tend to establish separate castes of cane-workers (Bansphora.500). This comparatively small group comprises a number of bodies which. In the plains. dancers and bad chagenerally. field-labourers. and keeps up the worship of the field goddesses and other genii of its native haunts. they were in a dominant position. though probably not connected with the Dom by origin. porters tailors. whatever their nominal connection with the Dom. C. In the same way. to encourage the fighting members of the community to emulate or excel the deeds of . C. long separated from their native country up the Ganges. and labourers. The Dom of the plains. But in social intercourse they disown the nomads.

under the name of Magadha. but this branch of the caste is an exotic. the person of a Bhat has always been considered inviolable. actually performs the duties of bard. therefore. and. On the other hand. There is evidence on both sides. developed others in India. 5- Ethnography. there is the fact that the Bhat is a distinctively Rajput institution. The inviolability of the Bhat. The Bard. and as his office. like that of Brahman. A question has been raised whether the caste takes its origin from Brahmans who in old days secularised themselves in order to act as Court poets and panegyrists. like all to become hereditary. In the course of time. the genealogist more or less split off from the bard. His functions are chiefly exercised among the Rajputs. curacy and knowledge that this register is accepted as final in any question of affinity or relationship.86 their ancestors. a Brahman is never known to drop his exogamous subdivision by Gotra. introduced. and in Gujarat some of the leading Kanbl families. In modern times every one of these incidents is entered by him in his register. Such is the reputation of the genealogist for aclogist. but to the inexpiable guilt of destroying the only recognised authority upon pedigree. are the subject of most minute and complicated regulation throughout the community from top to bottom. naturally. and in the east of Oudh. The annals of such enterprise with the personality of the principal performers became. and the apprehension of the vengeance or reprisals that would infallibly follow such an outrage. utilise his services. the pedigree of those he served is in all its ramifications from father to son. therefore. It is true that the Bhatrazu of the Telugu country are subdivided into the Brahmanical gotra. In every tract in which the Bhat is found. but in the Panjab some of the Jat clans. or whether the function devolved upon a member of the Rajput clan to which the Bhat was attached. the Brahma. may be attributed not only to the character of herald or privileged messenger or forerunner of Chiefs. too. except for the colonies in Telingana and eastern Bengal. that sub-caste of Brahman which is native to the locality. of which the Brahma Bhat is the higher. The imsuch knowledge can hardly be overrated in a country where licit and the prohibited degrees of affinity which form the basis of arrangements of marriage or adoption. and even before such "vahl" were customary. is only found where Rajput influence is supreme. tended was transmitted sort of Herald. the community contains two sections. assigned respectively to a certain member of the fraternity. and took the higher rank at Court. In Rajputana. Even in Gujarat. and has not kept up either its traditions or its occupation amongst the once military Dravidian castes to which it was attached. On the other side. and sometimes of genealogist. The principal caste coming under this head is the Bhat. or Birm Bhats are treated as Gaur Brahmans. no Rajput ever thought of disputing the decision of the genealogist upon these points. each of the ruling and leading families keeps its own genea- The rest of the community is divided into circuits. where . sometimes called Bharot in Gujarat and Rajbhat in Bengal. in the course of invasions of the Andhra region from the north. through Orissa and probably from Bihar. with that marvellous accuracy of the all memory which portance of marked feature of the Brahmanic intellect. whilst the Bhat are subdivided according to Rajput custom. As a rule. the special study of those whose duty it was to set them to verse and directly connect them with the patrons before into a whom they have to be recited. Again. who annually visits each family in order to learn what domestic occurrences have taken place since his previous visit.

a bard and genealogist of a lower type. not as a matter of caste. 87 the Bhats are numerous. the link being said to have been the joint trade of ass-breeding. as elsewhere. of course. as amongst the Jats of the Panjab. There is an old and long obsolete connection between the Caran and the Kumbhar. The Caran caste is subdivided into geographical sections with numerous exogamous sub-sections. the Bhats in regular employ dress as Rajputs and have Rajput names. occupies with reference to the Bhat. on purely social considerations. extending even down to 1861. In this respect they fall into line with the Caran. and numerous cases are on record. The Banjara of the north have. as a rule. Caran live by transport on pack-bullocks. the male Bhat. where the caste is exotic. but. even when he is exclusively a bard or genealogist. and only a minority now live by it. In Rajputana itself. At other times he is in request only in connection with marriage ceremonies. the former do not take up permanent posts.Castes and Caste-Groups. has gone down. but are engaged for the occasion. The Bhat there still practises the profession of genealogist. Even in the west. of their . It is possible. and it is by cattlebreeding and transport by pack-bullock that the Caran mainly now gets his living. in which he takes the part of herald between the two houses concerned. In regard to the distribution of the work of the caste. it is said. Most of the western. though a good reciter has still a high value. But in the eastern districts. but many of them have adapted their operations to the new order and ply along the main feeder roads to the chief stations. however. in fact. the Bhat has been reduced even to the trade of making leaf-umbrellas. the Bhat does not enjoy by any means the same position as of yore. though it wears. dress and customs. the Brahma-Bhat usually takes upon himself the duties of poet and reciter whilst the others look after the pedigree. In upper India. a large subdivision called Caran. as among the Bhat. whose range lies between Kach and Rajputana. grain and piece-goods to localities remote from the railways. Subsidiary Professional Castes. and. The Caran who are thus engaged bear a striking resemblance to the Banjara of upper India and the Dekkan in appearance.* The families in permanent employ as genealogists intermarry with each other only. however. it ranks much lower than in upper or western India. and his wife that of the female. and acts also as go-between in the preliminary stages of the family arrangement. lost through the migration of the latter. Some of the Rajputana Bhat acquire herds of cattle and carry salt. In these days. or Kach. too. and in Gujarat. In eastern Bengal. like the Bhatrazu of the south. Here again their trade has suffered by the extension of railways across the desert tracts. The Caran shares with the Bhat the reputation of personal inviolability. and each member of the fraternity has his circuit which he visits annually. a popular genealogist has considerable influence as counsellor in the households of his clients. C. the Bhat has been obliged to leave his traditional profession to a great extent for trade and cultivation. The profession. They have thus acquired a physical appearance far superior to that of the cultivating and cattle-breeding sections of their community. that this misty tradition may account to some extent for the inferior position which the Caran. but the relations have now passed into the stage of violent but unexplained hostility. all their sections trace their origin to some part of Rajputana. the sacred thread. undertakes the care of the pedigree of the male line. or potter caste. and it is possible that there was of old some tribal connection between them and the Caran of the west. The name seems to connect the caste with grazing.

cymbals and different sorts of drum. whilst the families ambitious of a rise in society engage. apparently. and officiate chiefly in the families of the lower agricultural population and for the impure castes. especially where agricultural prosperity connotes the necessity of an improved family tree. it is said. but the accredited genealogist for that race. Their women also dance and sing occasionally. from at least the 15'^ century downwards. On the whole. the Mirasi is a popular and well-paid feature of every fair and large wedding. Even in the open market. strange to say. and do not associate or intermarry with those similarly engaged among the impure castes. The curse of a Caran. as the Dom are. though still amongst the lower classes out of communion with the peasantry and artisans. Those who are genealogists in permanent employ of a definite circle of clients hold their office hereditarily. out of that of obtaining the guarantee or escort of one of these castes for every caravan or transport train from the coast across Central India. are reprehensibly familiar with spells and charms. like Balaam. but only therefore. wounds upon their own persons. . whose ghost is particularly vindictive and malevolent. and in north Gujarat. Ethnography. and curse the foe. The only other caste which it is necessary to mention under this head is that of the Dum or Mlrasi of the Panjab. killing one of their girls or old women. lute. The women of the caste. or inflicting serious. it is true. even fatal. the Bhat. like the Bhat in the eastern parts of India. position and attainments. The musical attainments of the MirasI are considerable. the sacredness of the office of an authoritative repository of the family pedigree and achievements seems to be the more probable source of the conception. others play the flute. was powerful against one's enemies. musicians. pipe. The members of this community are both minstrels and genealogists. however. The Caran. They are almost all Muslim. This practice arose. in order to fix the guilt of certain acts upon those opposed to them. Their Brahmanic name of Dum may have some relation to the former accomplishment. and a member of the caste used to be engaged. and no important document of this sort would be accepted as valid without the "dagger" and signature of a Bhat or Caran at the foot of it. The profession is by no means unremunerative. to accompany the army of the Chief to battle. the tombs of some of them are worshipped like those of the local goddesses. to some extent. as stated in the preceding paragraph. and the refusal or inadequate requital of his demand is followed by often witty and invariably outspoken burlesques of the genealogy of the ill-advised recusant. But the Dum as they exist in the present day are far above the Dom alike in appearance. a criminal vagrant tribe of the province. the MirasI. In earlier times. Some Jat families employ them.5. and the name of Mirasi is derived from the Arabic for inheritance and may thus be taken to refer to their work as genealogists. In eastern Bengal. Unfortunately. But the origin of the notion of the inviolability of the Caran is as obscure as in the case of the Bhat. is a shameless blackmailer. of patrons of their own sex. has the reputation of being a violent and turbulent character. as above remarked. is said to vary his stock ridicule of the manners and customs of Europeans for the delectation. Some only sing. the Jaga Bhat. both castes were the professional securities for the per- formance of a contract or the repayment of a debt. too. who there resembles the Mirasi rather than his own namesake of Rajputana. is the Sansi. In this capacity they are much below the Bhat.

chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and in Central India.300). In the latter tract the Josi. especially Saturn. as for many generations the Josi has almost monopolised the sweets of State appointments in Kumaon. In the Dravidian country. The Kanisan. alone. His function does not entail any separation from his subcaste. In most parts of India there are specialists in exorcism and protective spells. a much lower grade in the profession. though they may not have been yet formed into castes. and of a lucky day and hour for each domestic ceremony is so great in the eyes of the Brahmanic community that the duty of casting the one and of ascertaining the others is usually entrusted to none but a Brahman. owing to the prevailing demonolatry. through the influence they acquired as court astrologers to the Koch and Ahom Chiefs. endowed with salary and estate by the Chief. too that the Josi is a community of very mixed descent. they settled down into a rank inferior to that of the Brahman is Agroha stock. He lives by palmistry. This may be due in part to his worldly success.Castes and Caste-Groups. of life. by its popular abbreviation. and to the Brahman in the upper. exorcism and omen-reading. with last C. and accepts remuneration for averting the evil influences of eclipses and of the phases of certain maleficent planets. which is the usual twin calling. so that this class of astrologer does not figure in the census returns. the astrologer of the Jamna valley and Rajputana. Panan and Velan combine exorcism not only with devil-dancing. and flourished on them. but it is not returned at the Census. to 89 depreciatory visitation. The importance of the horoscope. in the lower Himalaya and in the north Dekkan. there seems to be a caste for the purpose. probably falls to the priests of the different communities of the lower classes. The subdivisions of the caste indicate. who of the unclassed for taking to an unorthodox course of the Brahmaputra valley. tightly magnate on the Bard's Astrologers and Exorcists (205. This seems to be admitted in the case of the Dakaut. The determination of a lucky day. and intermarries with the Kanaujiya and other sub-castes. or birth-letter. are said to have been cast out by their Bengal fellows for undertaking the duties of familypriest to the carpenter caste. but with herbalism also. references the ancestry of any local whose purse-strings may have been drawn too § 55. there are a few small castes which appear to be somewhat specialised in these arts. where. who is so returned. which requires variety of treatment. A distinction must be drawn between the Josi of the plains of upper India and the same caste as found in the Kumaon hills. Possibly it has died out. In Bengal. In many cases he is maintained by the village for the purpose and remunerated out of the crops. however. and if connected at all with the Brahman. since it is frankly admitted there that people did not think it . Subsidiary Professional Castes. is an institution in parts of Bengal. The Ganak moved into Assam. too. JosT. called the S'ilari. however. whatever his position before his migration. the profession of exorcist is widely spread. but have long been settled in the lowlands under the protection of the Nayar. and in most Native States the Jyotisi is an honoured official. The averter of hail. Probably all three castes are descended from the hill tribes of the neighbourhood. again. There is. or rather. for instance. called by the same name. is only one of the degraded sections. The Ganak. has acquired the status of Brahman in his present home. and generally pandering to pre-Aryan credulity. In the Kumaon tracts the duties fall to a special section of the Dom. On the Malabar coast.

is surmised to be was made above. but there is one subdivision considerably above the average of the latter class. or perhaps the certainty. the Mahabrahman. of contamination to be incurred in disposing of the offerings made in the course of these services. still held in reverence. a fraternity of Tamil religious mendicants. presides over monastic and temple establishments. in the south. like the reason. ministration in a temple was held to be a duty Brahman. Generally. these semi-priestly castes are themselves of low rank. a origin. employ their own ^caste-fellows for priestly duties outside the temple. though repudiated by the Sarasvat Brahmans to whom they have attached themselves. Brahmans are found to perform the necessary offices before the god in the great majority of the temples of their creed. who have been mentioned in connection with the Banya. rise far above the rest. wizard who could power to of his patron without having the his neighbours. Notwithstanding these drawbacks. but who are recruited from the lay castes of the vicinity. All these. for the The Garpagari S'ilarl. The Valluvan. however. in the Telugu country. only to be undertaken by a degraded. they seem to have all the position of the order among the people to whom they minister. subdivisions of Brahmans. it though. Temple it services. The Bhojak and Sevak of west Rajputana. and still lower. The PujarT and Bhojki. It is worth noting. are included under the general title of Brahman. is generally considered to be a branch of the Andi. albeit degraded by their connection with the Jain worship. the never in cash. too. a) Priests (695. Outside this designation are some small classes who claim to be Brahmans because they perform temple service. of the Panjab Himalaya are cases of this kind. again. There is also the risk. The Pandaram. . call only keep hail off the crops it down upon those of distinct caste. The distinction. as is of the Maratha tracts is a on the wane not.90 worth while to maintain a 5- Ethnography. castes. without any after-thought regarding his powers of maleficence. however. which is educated to a certain extent. for instance. it was pointed out. who takes part in funeral rites. lies probably in the divergence of the worship of the non-Aryan deities of the existing pantheon from the old Vedic sacrifices. The impure good many of the lower agri- cultural castes. Some of the Dasari. In treating of the was mentioned that whilst the post of priest in a family of a pure caste was one which could be occupied with credit by a member of the sacerdotal order. by all orthodox Brahmans. Equally low in the estimation of the order is the Brahman who subsists upon the fees and offerings of pilgrims at the great centres of religious resort. of which mention in the Dravidian country. perhaps. and do service in temples and with respectable families of any caste below the Brahman. same want of confidence now felt in the exorcist is here due to his inefficiency even as a protector of the crop.400). or at least. once the priests of the Pallava dynasties. are held to be Brahmans. and. at least in theory. wears the sacred thread. whilst a few castes. that these exorcists of the forces of Nature must be remunerated in kind. and officiates as priests to the great Vellalan peasantry and the castes immediately below and above it. § 56. now officiate for the Pallan and Paraiyan and have lost much of their former position by so doing. The real reason for the lowness of their position their foreign and. however. one of the lower. Like several low castes in various parts of India. officiate for not only their own body but for other castes of similar or slightly superior rank. .

or put in charge of a circle of villages. however. since his canonisation. the local rendering of Tamil. but in Gujarat they are generally superior to the latter in education and physical appearance. which locally arrogates to is. whilst in the north on the contrary. in the Derajat. The Tambala. It seems to have been called into being to satisfy the desire of the converts of Basava to retain priests for their Dravidian forms of worship after they had split from the Brahmans. besides their employment by the castes above mentioned. however. living upon doles from every class of the population. each of which they visit in turn. is often returned simply as Sekh. C. are either stationary in monasteries. the Lingayat community in the inland districts. In the outlying parts of the Karnatic. there is one caste requiring notice. indeed. unless they belong to the pure section. Muslim or Brahmanist. again. and here they enjoy the custom and confidence of far higher castes. Tiruvalluvan. Subsidiary Professional Castes. which rite they perform in supersession of the barber on the lower Indus. and receives his annual quota of threshed grain from each household. which. The former. is due to their having been sent up from the south by the great reformer.Castes and Caste-Groups. Along the Pathan frontier. there is a body. the Valluvan is on the staff. It is conjectured that the sacerdotal functions of this caste were superseded by those of the Brahman. many Jahgam are returned as Lingayat ur as Virsaiv Brahman. when the latter found his way into the Dravidian region. and where they have taken to cultivation are still quite in the upper line. incoherent and multifarious. . As they are mostly worshippers of S'iva. called the Garuda. and belongs to the Mahg caste. In some villages. The Bharai is the special guardian and ministrant of the shrine of the popular Saint Sakhl Sarvar. though possibly fairly accurate in the their aggregate. a small caste of templepriests in Telingana. They haunt the centre and submontane parts of the Province. S'ankaracarya. The secular Jahgam. It may be remarked that they do not ever intermarry with the castes to which they act as priests. but the it is difficult to judge from the crowds that throng to his tomb. The GarudT of the Maratha country is of a lower type altogether. The only other occupation with which they are associated is circumcision. the Valluvan have to look to astrology and herbalistic medicine for their living. imparting doctrine and counsel. In some parts they eat with their clients. In the Panjab. which serves the leatherworking castes as priest. Bharai are of the former creed. hold almost the rank of Brahmans. is often a trader or money-lender. of the Indus. and live by conducting pilgrims down to the shrine at Nigaha. like so many others in the west. Whether he is. that the term Jahgam is used of any Lingayat. In the tracts where Lingvantism is most powerful the Jangam are subdivided into the usual monastic and secular sections. Now. The true priests of the latter. who is said to have married into a Veljajan family. a caste of considerable influence in the Karnatic. The Census returns of this caste. in turn. to labour on the Coromandel coast. A small caste corresponding somewhat to the Valluvan. From one of their subdivisions it might be surmised that they are the descendants of a superior class driven out of Rajputana. the Jahgam is not unfrequently a wandering mendicant of a religious type. the Bharai. are defective in detail. It is said that name. 91 the Valluvan have produced a widely popular poet. It is said that some of the Bharai have taken to music and call themselves Mirasi. it is said. are the Jahgam. In the south Dravidian districts. is found in Gujarat and the north Dekkan. many have joined.

but they are generally from the Mali. however. and there are about 8. (135. There are certain castes in almost every part of India. its patron. The entrance -qualification. Most of them have other and more secular avocations.500). That these professions should be placed immediately after those connected with temple-service is by no distinct . Formerly.900). and the marriage-coronet must contain the prescribed flowers and no others. too. b) Temple-servants (300. Such are the Phul-Mall. the term may include the highly educated Maulvi of the city mosque. such as umbrella-making. deck it with flowers. In Bengal there is still enough of the traditional work for left to justify too. but those who are redundant in this capacity. in connection with the caste of Gurao. but as nearly the whole of the caste is in the present day occupied in gardening or agriculture. and is the subject of many biting proverbs along the frontier. generally connected with leaves or flowers. § 58. the title of Ulama. therefore. the Satani does the work of the Gurao and a good deal more.92 itself 5- Ethnography. and the like. growth of flowers and the making of garlands. The Gurao also make the leaf platters required for caste-feasts and other banquets on a large scale. The small castes above mentioned are generally found south of the Vindhya. as well as the lower classes. which is accredited to certain temples. Singers &c. are required by convention for certain occasions. or the learned. The curious transformation of the Barber into the temple servant in Malabar has been already mentioned. particularly those the temple. or garlandmaker. On the other hand. Dancers. for it appears that this caste was brought into being to aid the propaganda of Ramanuja. and acts as priest to several other castes in a good position. It is still necessary to be specially brought up to the trade. § 51. The Balija community generally employ the Satani. usually those of S'iva. Hugar. enjoys as low a reputation for piety as for erudition. does not serve temples. and the Kazi. which are dedicated to offices within the temple other than those of actual worship. the preparation of leaf-platters for Brahmanic festivals and garlands for ceremonial use. It is not. the Satani called in Brahmans for their ceremonies. lest mistakes be made which would be ruinous. more closely with religion than a mere temple servant. One god has to be decked with flowers which are abhorrent to another. They wash the images of the god.000 of the Marayan who combine that duty with the manipulation of the temple drums when required. take to umbrella and garland making. a task which in upper India is performed by the BarT. In other provinces. but of late their own priests have come into favour. Phularl. and as a functional body. it has been reviewed already under the head of special cultivation. and keep the precincts clean. It is associated. who may or may not be erudite in the law he administers. The caste most widely spread of all thus engaged is the Mall. the a separate subdivision to perform it. where the post is permanent and hereditary. a caste. the caste has taken to cultivation and the lower grades of State service. and where not engaged in temple service. and those of the caste who are brought up as priests are fairly conversant with the Puranic authorities of their sect. In the Telugu country. The Tulu caste of Devadiga is not found outside Kanara. however. appears to be only the knowledge by rote of a sufficient number of texts of the Kuran to serve as spells or curses for the practical purposes of life. the Satani is Vaisnava. but especially in the south. certain flowers. In contradistinction to the Gurao. are the work of special bodies. however. who.

It is worth noting that owing possibly to this connection with the popular pantheon or. and most of the more primitive forest communities have their reel or square-dance with its traditional figures handed down as a tribal possession. is not only tolerated. also. sing without the plastic accompaniment. so anomalous as regards sequence as it may appear at first sight. as in all countries where inequality of purse is the rule. and so on. but. Gandharp. It may have been gathered from what has been stated above. the dance in India is a performance by trained professionals. C. In fact. There are. there are the Naikin. to ments referred . and the Kalavant. danced among women. like the Hetaira of Athens. associated with professional dancing. and ignored by sional accomplishments or ceremonial observances. whose musical and terpsichorean attainments are of the lowest. alongside the functional titles of Tavalf. and only nine women have returned themselves under the specific name there given to them. Paturiya and so on. and. Recruited as they are from all castes. is usually connected with religion or mythology. In the west. the rest of the community. as an ancient and recognised grade in Indian society. whose diction is often quoted as the standard of Hindi or Urdu polite conversation. now as of yore. every grade to be found amongst them. besides some of those above mentioned. Naik. an appellation even more applicable to the dancing castes of the north than to those in the south. the courtesan is not a degraded member of Indian society. from the ragged nomad in her filthy little reed-booth. as in other oriental countries. In the Dekkan there are several of comparatively small renown and endowment. well versed in alike classical and popular poetry. The subject of the ode. In Brahmanic circles there are recognised dances. but habitually refer to them under the title of "danshoer". Kasbi. dancing and singing. Rasdharl and the lower ones of Kancan. and the performers are dedicated to him and form part of the establishment of the temple. the sword-dances of the Khattak and other frontier tribes. where the accommodation for this class round the chief temples indicates the extent of the community in old of the semi-religious type. honorific or the reverse. again. Even in the Tamil country. which is spent in the practice of the ancient mystery everywhere. In the Dravidian region the dancing takes place within or before the temple. the old Dutch travellers when introduced to these bevies. go together. since the former have no connection with religion beyond the dedication of the individual to the worship of a certain god. but respected. The religious establishabove are all in the south. there are found the semi-religious designations of Ramjani. With these exceptions. especially of S'iva in his many forms. that the two arts. in honour of the god. The women have their off-time. to the highly-trained singer of the great city. dancing and singing are profes- and only among some of the wilder tribes is the dance a form of private recreation. and comparatively few and those only of the highest rank. of course. if she be of the Brahmanic faith. a few highly heterodox tripudiations associated with the rites of some particular sect. 93 means In India. did not mince their words. of a character which may be called posture-singing. as some think. In upper India. to the more distant tradition of communistic marriage. except amongst the Muslim. There is. under a number of titles. or illustrating by gestures the words sung by the performer. Besya. of course. it is not worth while to dwell upon them here otherwise than cursorily. Brahmanic and Muslim.Castes and Caste-Groups. Subsidiary Professional Castes. generally of a religious significance.

The large proportion of Brahmanists coming under this title may be taken to be grocers returning their professional. A few take out licenses for the sale of opium and intoxicating preparations of hemp. The daughters follow their mother. and Holeya. The whole caste. that these castes are not finding their entirely confined to the towns. and is usually a Muslim. he rises in position. The grocer of the upper Gangetic region generally belongs to the Kasar. salt and other commodities which their Bengal conis same . present to him the sacred light. the breed is apparently from a fairer stock.or Kesar-vani orKasaundhan castes. The majority of the castes coming under this head are here placed not on account of any ethnic distinction between them and those already described. and are way back to the village as communication grows easier and the convenience they represent gets to be the object of a more effective demand. The latter but scantily represented in the Census returns. with the impure castes. but on the coast. Their sons become musicians. and is reputed to be well acquainted with all local medicinal products. Ethnography. It is the duty of the DasI to fan the god. Under this head come the retailers not only of spices and condiments but of perfumery also. and occasionally marry into respectable castes. The Gandhi or Gandhabanik of Bengal is generally a druggist as well as the vendor of condiments. inheritance. though the main field for their labours. conduct. indeed. or artisans. There is only one institution of the sort common in the Tamil region. Owing to their Brahmanic connection. pays homage in the spring to Gandhes'vari. as in the south. the number returned is far below the actual. All these dancing and singing castes have their strict rules about initiation. the caste is known as Bogam or Sani. of course. or bastards of the Havik. are but offshoots of larger bodies still unaffected by the influences of the city. in place of their caste. Both now sell grain. the functional name of the Banya who sells the former in one part of the country being the as that of the extractor and seller of scents in another. The Gandhabanik also sells drugs. both somewhat low branches of the great Banya order. but the actual sale of such articles is left to a Muslim assistant. therefore. Urban Castes. Grocers &c. The latter derives its name from dealings in brass or bell-metal. enforced through a caste Council.94 times. like the Tlyan. they do not consort with the Kammalan. and to sing and dance before him when he is carried in procession. and when he sells sandal-wood and other fragrant articles which enter largely into domestic worship. § 59. the goddess of perfume. often of considerable skill and learning. and is widely scattered in small numbers. It should be understood. and the observance of caste re- gulations. or Pancayat. In the Telugu country. Both here and in Telingana. girls 5. who belong to the Left hand. name. The Kanarese Devali are mostly ascribed to a god or to temples. instead of that to which they were dedicated when they wedded the god. but merely in consideration of the generally urban character of their occupations. artisans and domestic servants. since many of the give the name of the caste in which they were born.000). § 60. Most of them. (825. and the former probably from saffron. indeed. a manifestation of Durga. the recruits are from the Palli. nor. like the larger communities. D. They it is may be there that they find at present conveniently grouped as shopkeepers.

in Oudh and along the upper Ganges. is entirely distinct. but cultivate through hired labour. the latter takes a higher place. and is almost equal to the Banya. or public cook. are of the Jhinvar. Towards Agra. but the names of the subdivisions of the two castes indicate former relationship if not identity. except in the Panjab. one of the sub-castes is connected with the Kayasth. and the Bhathiara. The Bhathiara is only found in the Muslim tracts. that both the castes originated amongst the fishing and porter community. It is a composite body with a good many endogamous sub-castes. accordingly. One of these shares the name of the Godiya. It seems probable. however. Grain-parchers and Confectioners (1. This. however. the Gandhi is not a separate caste. into both Brahmanic gotra and totemistic exo- . the caste is supposed to be connected with the Banya and in the Dekkan with the KunbT. freres avoid. like the Bharbhiinja. the Bharbhiinja. a view that coincides with the known facts further west.Castes and Caste-Groups.200). D. exclusively engaged in the traditional pursuit of confectionery. Both these are important functionaries in town life in Bengal and upper India. but are in comparatively little request south of the Vindhya. is exceptional. the Bharbhiinja is often held to be only an elevated branch of the Kahar. and even to grain and lime. some. The Tamboll is the caste which sells the leaf in almost every province except in the south. It was stated in connection with the growers of the bitel-vine that the importance of the "bid" or "bira" in society was held to entitle those connected with it to a quite respectable position.645. where the diet and rules connected therewith are different. is often Muslim. and. In those tracts it ranks lower than up the river. though without any other connection. except in the larger cities. in upper India. In Bengal some of them hold land. and have been reinforced by occupational subdivisions formed locally to meet a demand for their services. Occasionally the Tamboll extends his dealings to snuff and tobacco. where the sellers of vegetables are all Muslim and have banded themselves into an apparently endogamous community. another caste of confectioners. In the Dekkan and west. but merely a petty trader of the Vania caste. the Nanakpanthi doctrines. The origin' of these castes is not clear. Subsidiary to this group may be mentioned the Kunjra. is considered to be a sub-caste of the Kandu. where it sticks to the shop. but in upper India it appears to be a branch of the Baral or grower of the vine. except. and with the Kandu. the confectioner caste of Orissa. In Bengal and Bihar. where both the Bharbhiinja. a fishing caste of quite a different part of the country. in fact. The grain-parcher is of more mixed origin. perhaps. and in some places the latter sells the leaf he grows. 95 Both employ the same caste of Brahman and follow to a great extent the teachings of Ramananda. work in stone. and is considered equal to the middle-class peasant in position. therefore. the Mayara caste is like the Kandu of the north. In Bihar. In the north. recruited from various bodies and is subdivided. It is not a caste. and the same relationship appears in the communities of Bihar and the Dekkan. and is corroborated by the existence of sub-castes connecting the community with the Gohrhi. and others parch grain. the sweetmeat maker. like the Gonrhi. The Halvai. but of its numerous sub-castes. above that indicated by the ancestry or wealth of the castes in question. Urban Castes. or green-grocer of the north. or waterbearing caste. § 61. or grainparcher. In Bengal. properly so called. On the other hand. since the Brahmanic rules of living do not admit of the common oven. or Guria. and in Bihar.

though breeding pigs in the north. even south of the Vindhya. Customs differ in this respect in different parts of the country and amongst different castes. Otherwise. of upper India is almost exclusively Muslim. Others deal in haberdashery. which. and that which deals in mutton holds itself above the beef-butcher. No such credit. It is not to be supposed. curiously enough. so that it is obliged to make its purchases through the intermediary of one of the lower Brahmanic castes. the skins of which are tanned by its household. anathema to the Brahmanic world. with subsections and regulations as to marriage and the like. There is a certain connection between these two apparently incongruous occupations. The Ramaiya. which. they all tend to become such. Beef and pork. bangles. the consumption of mutton and goat is considerable. Butchers (701. hailing from Marvad or the neighbourhood. seems to be a true caste. It is allowed to wear the thread and to take offerings at eclipses. is attached to the sale of meat. The caste is much scattered and is only found in strength in the Bijnor district of Rohilkhand. glasswork. § 63. is an example of this tendency.100). wherever the caste-system is strictly maintained on the northern Indian model. except in the towns. and this community. or Bhatra. and acquired the vegetarian habit as they got acclimatised to the tropics. a Muslim body. they will have nothing to do with the cultivation of the sugarcane or the preparation of molasses. the only butcher caste not Muslim is the Khatik. The Kasai. though . or Qasab. there are several small castes which go round with beads. In connection with this group of castes it may be remarked that the upper and middle classes of Brahmanical society. and most of them are Sikhs by religion. but in that capacity. But the Ramaiya always regard themselves as natives of the Panjab. and this rule may have a good deal to do with the consideration which is allowed to communities of such mixed or dubious origin as those which purvey these convenient provisions. In the north. especially.96 5- Ethnography. and in that capacity travel far and wide. are prohibited from eating anything but parched grain or sweetmeats when on a journey away from their domestic cooking-place. In Vedic times. or oilman. from this that Brahmanists are universally either vegetarians or fish -eaters. Even if they were not castes at the outset. and in the Panjab is merely a functional branch of the Tell. and in some places is "boycotted" by tradesmen. of the east Panjab. the Arya were apparently accustomed to eat meat. and having conceded to it the rank of a low Brahman. the stock-in-trade of the rest of the caste. and so on.800). come from the hand of those nearly related to them. but in the middle classes. though the mediation of a professional salesman. In the south. only slaughters sheep and goats. Nowadays. soap and mirrors. is chiefly in the hands of a flesh-eating community like the Muslim. is comparatively rare. of course. small hardware. however. are eaten by none but the lowest of the community. far from its original home. They are by tradition petty traders. gamous sections. The Bisatl. § 62. the Khatik is merely the professional title of the Muslim mutton butcher. naturally. This last is. the Ramaiya tell fortunes and invoke upon almsgivers blessings which have the reputation of being effective. indeed. Further east there are subdivisions. especially in the Dravidian country. however. Pedlars and Glassworkers (424. independent of the communities to which they originally belonged. if not made by themselves. Some of those castes have betaken themselves to husbandry.

The Gujarat DarjT. but they to not seem to be made by a special caste. In the Dekkan the S'impT is often a travelling piece-goods dealer. Throughout upper India the tailor's craft is exercised by a composite body. It seems as if the Dekkan tailor were more allied to the lower trading classes than to the rest of his craftsmen. too. is a separate community. takes the place of these castes in the Dekkan and west. the Balija colony of those parts. a) Tailors (867. It appears that through the Subarnabanik they have some connection with the goldsmith castes but they deal exclusively in the armlets made from the conchs brought from the Gulf of Manar. Its work is badly paid. as in the Panjab. but in some places. seems to have sprung from one of the lower classes of traders One Indo-arische Philologie. But the caste is not popular. generally a Muslim. In the Gangetic region the Darji regulates his life on the model of the upper Brahmanic castes. any more than it used to be in Europe. too. thus showing a considerable laxity in their faith. D. and each caste has its own distinctive form of head-gear. and one of the principal sub-castes bears the name of Kayasth. In the Tamil country it is called Valaiyal. He also traffics in small pecuniary advances. and is the subject of similar depreciatory proverbs. It is subdivided according to the general nature of the work undertaken. The Curihar. Turbanmaking. and certainly he follows the traditional employment less than any of them. 5. indeed. a northern caste. . and the Lakhera. nearly half of which is Muslim. but the Darji rarely looks out for more lucrative employment. The Manihar is strictly the maker of spangles for the adornment of glass bangles. belonged to this and several of the sections of the Darji and similar castes are named after him. Similar armlets are used in other parts of India. Namdev. going from village to village with his pack upon his pony. where they are called S'ankhari. and this is perhaps the reason for his figuring in bad company in the village rhymes. In the west. If any caste can be said to produce the tailor more than another it is the Dhobi or washerman. caste. 97 employing Brahmans as priests and Brahmanist barbers in daily life. who also works in glass. the patron of the craft. but both travel about with their goods and do not keep shop. as being the occupation of Ibrahim (Abraham). too. a sub-caste of the Balija. of the popular religious teachers of India. Both. II. makes the same sort of ornaments in lac. and amongst the Muslim. the turban-folder is a separate community. and ranks high amongst the Darji. The Cudigar. is probably the Curihar of the north settled in the Dekkan. and in each large city the tailoring body is governed by a craft-guild. tent-making stands high. or Pator. who follows the same trade. where the latter article of attire is more elaborate than in the north. from many sources. and is taken as a subdivision of the Kavarai. The general style of dress amongst the peasantry in the greater part of India renders the craft unnecessary. which peddles silken necklets and cords. like the Patva in other parts. In the Dravidian region. Urban Castes. and is then split up into more minute sections. judging from the titles of the subdivisions. under this head may be included the makers of conch armlets. not all of the lowest. so the caste is mostly congregated in the cities. the caste make the bangles themselves. recruited. In the Panjab the Darji is merely a functional name. the corresponding caste is the Gazula. § 64. who are a caste only in Bengal.800). is honourable. Artisans. of low position.Castes and Caste-groups. Finally. The repairer and darner is at the bottom. ^ . The Kancar. On the Orissa coast is a caste called Patra. are for the most part Muslim.

but here. no doubt. considering the restricted social field of the acceptance ot these doctrines. bangles. to which locality he claims to belong. though alleged to be addicted. the work being done in the Telugu country by Maratha Rangari.98 5- Ethnography. spangles. of west Rajputana. to helping himself too freely to some of the material entrusted to him to make up. c) Cotton-scutchers (760. again. § 67. and in the Panjab. In the Dravidian country there seem to be no special dyeing castes. or even the Persian. and those who have remained in their former creed follow the teachings of Namdev. workers in indigo. are chiefly Muslim in the north. Nadaf. asserts his origin to have been through a Vania caste of the west. Plain white with a simple coloured border is the usual colour worn by the women in both theTamil districts and in lower Bengal. Rangari. the Chipa stands higher. The Bhausar of Gujarat. admits his connection with Rajputana. Elsewhere. and the Bhausar works impartially in all. the Dhoba. where the Chip a is an offshoot of the Dhoba or washerman. and the Lilua works in the local material. the Dekkan S'impi. Pinjarl. as a functional body. though he leaves indigo to the Muslim Rangrej. and even in villages the machine is often to be seen enstalled amid surroundings of apparently the most incongruous simplicity. Those who follow the occupation of cleaning cotton are mostly Muslim.600). the S'impi. § 66. as in similar cases of other castes. which is the monopoly of the Galiara sub-caste. In the Dravidian districts there is no special caste of this sort. as above indicated. except in the Panjab. d) Distillers and spirits-sellers (1. and the growth of the fashion of wearing cut-out garments have tended to the advantage of the town Darji. In Gujarat. The Muslim engaged in the occupation began. and in upper India claims to be descended from some Rajput or kindred tribe in Malva. and will not acknowledge relationship with the Chipl of his present province. Behna. The traditional connection of these castes with the provision of a forbidden article. b) Dyers and Calenderers (495. Like the S'impT. In the Ganges valley a good many of the Chipa are followers of Namdev. In the north. too. it is said. but are now. Dhuniya. where the calling has become the work of a caste. and keeping to their own sectional divisions. too. but. to the abhorrence of the Brahmanist of those parts for the unlucky colour. calenderers and dyers appear to be connected remotely with the DarjT castes. closing their caste to outsiders. like the Tailors and Dyers. except indigo. or Nilari. have not altogether abandoned their Brahmanic customs or worship. though not disowning the Chipa of Agra. blue. under the functional title of Penja.000). or Brahmanic. In the Panjab this is due. § 65. and is strict in his religious observances. the dyer is usually a Muslim. like the Vania. the women wear blue in preference to any other colour. The introduction of sewing-machines. The Bhausar. the tailors in the cities being all Muslim. who occasionally does the work of dyeing in madder. like the goldsmith.725. In Bihar there is not this prejudice. a fact which indicates something more than merely sectarian sympathies. The calico-printers. In the Maratha country. has a Jain as well as a Mahes'ri. the taste is in favour of more varied colours. he lives after the manner of the upper middle classes. The Muslim.000). They are mostly converts from Brahmanic castes like the TelT or oil-pressers. those who do not engage in it keep shops for the sale of haberdashery. sub-caste. caste-marks and so on. and lives much on a par with the trading classes. and follow the traditions of their neighbourhood in this respect. places . The Rangrej.

too. who will sweep for them. with functional subdivisions. The households of the Christian or Muslim. If the former. Others of the caste engage in the boating trade. there is a caste which lives by rice-pounding for large families. have to maintain barbers and washermen of their own. and must be served by Muslim or members of the impure castes. as already stated. On the other hand. Urban Castes. and laid the foundations of the well-known State of Kapurthala. D. the SunrI have been unable to conquer the prejudice against them. On the other hand. and in most cases are in practice inseparable 7* . is forming a separate caste calling itself S'aha. who ply in the streets or from house to house. and have elongated their name into Kakkezai. bread and vegetables.. in Rohilkhand. again.Castes and Caste-Groups. according to the water-bag they use or the beast of burden they employ. articles which the ordinary Khatri considers beneath him. are examples of these. The majority of the castes which traditionally engage in service about the houses of those above them belong. the Kalal is found in comparatively small numbers as a distiller. before the rise ofRanjit Singh. but not them very low liquor. in fact. and. they are known generally as Bihisti. are usually converts to Islam. Even the Bhuinmalr. those who have taken to trade severing themselves from those who stick to the traditional calling. Hence a good many of the Kalvar of the province use the title of AhluvalTa for their caste. The water-bearers. but here he has to compete with the local ParsI in both making and selling spirits. and being ambitious of a commensurate rank in society. however. since the Nai and Dhobi decline to serve them. belonged to the Kalals of Ahlu. in Gujarat. but will only ply on craft which are manned exclusively by their own comrades. perhaps. In spite of the rise in their worldly circumstances. § 68. or takes licenses for the sale of intoxicants. of the Banjara. and of Gola. and the Gola certainly of a Rajputana caste. gave the caste a great lift. again. created as the need for their services became pressing. In some parts of India. refuses to accept food from their hand. the Kiita. Bengal the castes are both composite. The castes which distinctively belong to the group under consideration. In upper India there is the same subdivision of the Kalal caste.800). But the Kalal in Bengal will make. in order to sever itself as far as possible from the branch which still deals in liquor and serves in the State distilleries. 99 in society. are those which have grown up under the protection of the households they serve. to the fishing and porter communities. in or of the fisher caste. irrespective of caste. e) Domestic servants (698. salt. and form a caste of their own. In the south. The Sikh connection of the Kalal or Kalvar. a work which elsewhere is done by the women of the family. but both are probably branches of some larger body. in the Panjab. whose touch does not contaminate. whilst in the Panjab and its neighbourhood the caste is older and more homogeneous. the Bengal Suhri is said to have reached quite the top of the tree. whereas in the north the caste does both. are on a different plane. timber. little above the oilman. etc. since the regulation of the liquor trade has been undertaken by the State the restriction upon sales has thrown a good many of the caste on to other occupations in which they have prospered far more than if they had kept to distillation. In all probability. The trading branch in those parts deals in boots and shoes. in the west and central Panjab they have preferred to throw in their lot with the Pathan. or Saha. and one of the most powerful leaders of that faith. The small community of Kuta. sell. In the wholesale trade in piece-goods.

The Khavas of the western peninsula are of the same origin and position as the Gola. The link was in some cases closer than in others. the Khandait keep Casa girls. But the bastards became a caste by themselves. with endogamous sub-castes determined as above.. for instance. but the title ofS'udra is dropped in the next generation in favour of that of Kayasth. some of the former have moved south and set up for themselves in Gujarat as rice-pounders. etc. as just remarked. and some of them are generally included as part of the dowry when their young mistress is married off. the Telugu Velama and landlords of other castes have a similar institution. and in their eyes there is nothing to be gained by abandoning it for another. § 69. or private property. or. the whole body being known as Sagirdpesa. though now severed owing to their connection with the landed interest. In Bihar. though. in some parts of the province as Ghulam or Bhandarl. known by the non-committal title ofS'udra or S'udir. though amongst families which are still attached to Kayasth households intermarriage with members of the latter caste is not uncommon. Kayasth. recruits are taken from Paraiyan and other low castes. bring them up in domestic servitude. group naturally Carriers (897. used to receive the daughters of lower castes around them. In the south Tamil country. tacitly though illicitly still subsists. . The position they hold is recognised and established. the Tottiyan have families on their estates which are already a caste. and are crystallising into a caste. and also the general tendency of Indian communities to look upon what has once been as pre-ordained and hereditary. The two great divisions into which this falls are those of the pastoral tribes and the Gipsies. there are corresponding communities which are gradually forming themselves into separate castes. The Gola and of Rajputana are of this class. and the males were allowed to marry usually outside the household. In Orissa. Nomadic Castes. especially in the Dravidian region. independent but precarious. The caste is nominally endogamous. but rank considerably above the latter. The girls serve the Rajputnl. In this case. and are employed in posts of confidence which give them much influence in the neighbourhood. the tie between them and the family they serve retains a great deal of its former character. however. The Rajput families. are apparently of the Banta caste originally. from them. In Eastern Bengal there is a larger caste of this sort.100 5- Ethnography. living on the bounty of their pro- tector and Cakar employed in duties about his estate or Court. too. also domestic servants in local families.800). They are descended from comparatively low castes which sold themselves to the Kayasth. the members of which cannot marry without the consent of their lord. and is perpetuated voluntarily by both personal attachment to the household and the benefits derived from the protection afforded. and the offspring ranks according to the caste of the father. the results of which are known as Khasa. The Kotari of Kanara. a relationship which. as has been remarked above with regard to the predial serfs. In the south. E. as Khandait. It must be remembered in connection with all these domestic classes that the status of slavery in which they originally dwelt no longer exists nevertheless. and practically own the offspring resulting from the relationship. known as the Parivaram. The bulk of the former have been already mentioned in connection with the function of providing the vast number of cattle required by the village .

The Caran. In community for the either stationary. in this respect. but were displaced by Rajputs. with its branch known as the Lavana. fully up to the work and worthy of confidence. is one of the names most revered amongst the Banjara even as far as the Dekkan. who engaged large gangs of Banjara to accompany their forces from north to south. mentioned in connection with the duties of Bard and Genealogist. indicates by its connection with salt a trade from the coast or Sambhar lake. In the tracts where the gangs are organised for travel.Castes and Caste-Groups. and were driven out of their native country. the old system of Tahda. and to some extent adopted the vernaculars of their neighbours. but this refers creed of Nanak. as in Oudh and upper India generally. It is not certain how the Banjara came to be settled in Rohilkhand and its neighbouring Tarai. Nanak. ioi plough and for milking. again. their women especially being remarkable for their powerful physique. a hypothesis which is borne out by their appearance. the partition is said to . and for some generations have been scarcely distinguishable from their Kunbi neighbours. a title which has led. rather than to the more exclusive doctrines of Guru Govind. which are very numerous. to the the peasantry. akin. The Lavana. These. It is said. for the most part. are to a great extent cultivators. The traditional calling of the tribe has been greatly curtailed by the extension of railway communication. the British armies in their earlier campaigns trusted to the Banjara trains for their commissariat and forage supplies. is. but their own tradition is that they belong to northwest Rajputana. In their present capacity. and carrier by pack-animal for the whole of is the great bullock-dealer upper India. Lambadi orLabana. but acquired land. and colonies of it have settled in the Dekkan and as far south as Mysore. are when they move. though the farthest region to which it ascribes its origin is Miiltan. and no Tahda is allowed to journey over the sphere allotted to another. another section. is that of the west rather than of Hindustan. They also once settled in Oudh. In upper India some of the tribe have settled down to trade and money-lending. especially where it can be combined with the rearing and sale of stock the Panjab. Other branches are found in Central India and the Panjab. they emerged into notice from their Tarai home. The Vanjarl of the Maratha country. to whom it is probably latter. The colonies above referred to appear to have been left in the south after expeditions by various Muslim leaders across the continent to the Dekkan and Karnatic. sinewy race. too. Lambhani. Nomadic Castes. The settlers seem to have made no attempt to regain the north. or. by one of the humours of the Census. The use of bullocks as a means of transport is an ancient custom in India but it received its great impetus from the Muslim invaders. or gang-circuits is retained. a desert origin. however. under the name of Turkiya. In the Dekkan. indicate in some instances. and found the Naik. One section has been converted to Islam. They are usually a tall. E. The it shares the habits of the Banjara. to its being numbered amongst the Osmanli and other Turks. indeed. a good many Banjara are called Sikhs. too. merely camp for a few months of the dry season on recognised grazing grounds not far from their village. Similarly. Their dress. The titles of their subdivisions. or gang-leaders. that the primitive customs and beliefs of the tribe are more carefully maintained by the Dekkan than by the North-country Banjara. and one of their sub-castes bears the distinctively western appellation of Caran. but a good business is still done. too. indeed. however. and. undoubtedly a nomad in some of its sections.

But it appears to be nothing more than one of the older divisions of the main community. They have no connection with the caste of the same name along the Jamna. in the women of the Tanda. They are now a small caste by themselves. there are still a few bands of the once noted Pendhari freebooters. is sometimes treated as a separate caste. In the Karnatic. which performs in the lower Himalaya the duties of carriage undertaken in the plains by the Banjara or Lavana. however. mentioned above amongst the cattle-breeding castes.600). they stand. under its various designations. There is a small caste. and are exercised by several communities of considerable numerical importance. and some of its divisions derive their origin from Maratha shepherd clans who came north through Malva and Gvalior.265. but there is no longer any bond between him and the wandering gangs. exposed to all weathers in jungles and other unhealthy localities. The chief shepherd caste of the Ganges valley is the Gadariya. of which tract they say they are natives. the Banjara is the only caste in which the women are said habitually to take the big walking-staff to their husbands. but its home is alleged to be in the latter. however. and the old in . Strange diseases make their appearance only to be accounted for by the last attribute is acquired. the ThorT. exceptions. and give little or no trouble to the police. his reputation as a cattle-doctor. They are admittedly wellborn. perhaps. the Pendhari were no more than a collection of all sorts of foreign Muslim disbanded from the Delhi army. The name of the caste is said to come agency of witchcraft. on the whole. accordingly. In that Province it ranks higher than in the west. now engaged like Banjara in the carrying trade. or at best. In Central India and the north Dekkan. or Lambhani. and is not often found alongside of the Banjara. such as the GaddT of the Panjab Himalaya. even as far as Mysore. both sheep and goats. Originally. which is Muslim and a branch of the Ghosi. These two occupations go together. They are also credited with being very skilful and industrious cultivators of the upland regions affected by them. and these are altogether lower in rank and pursuits. But there is another caste of the same name which is allied to the Aherl. They are connected with the latter. who are of the same stock as the Khatri. as it is called in Bihar. The Lavana. He maintains. Shepherds and Woolworkers (4. plane than his comrade occasionally called SSkali. § 70. There are. go considerable risk of their lives. One of the chief shrines at which the caste worships is in the last named State. being mostly fowlers. and rank but little below the Hill Rajputs. They have a Chief who rules a small State in Malva.102 to 5- Ethnography. be not unconnected with predatory excursions by the lower class of Banjara. they weave the wool of their herds. mat-makers. This course of a wandering life. which has kept to the west and south. though on a lower in the north. and the Lambadi. Their social rank varies a good deal. lower than the breeders of horned cattle. Like all the shepherd classes. for instance. In compensation. and linked together for the common purpose of raiding villages and travellers. if not identical with them. into strong homespun and blankets. or Gareri. and apparently ply their trade in the same tracts in north Rajputana. in spite of alleged descent from the Jadav family of Mathura which some of them claim. as well as that of an expert in sorcery and witchcraft. the title Banjara is unknown. along the Indus. but. and state that they were driven from northern Rajputana by the Muslim and took refuge in the Kangra and Chamba hills. it is said. pursues its avocation alone.

103 from the Sanskrit name of the country. The Dhangar are now. belongs. an occupation which a few of them though most devote themselves to sheep and still follow in the south. In those parts. or cattle-dealing. The latter are hunters and dwellers on the outskirts of the Nilgiri and other forest ranges. the details of which are doubtless of considerable ethnological interest. is used for sheep in Kanarese. too. Nomadic Castes. Some of the Dhangar return themselves as Hatkar. and took to cultivation.Castes and Caste-Groups. There are two sections. The Bharvad is also connected with the Rabarl. the shepherd castes generally. one of members the derelicts of a Scythian inroad. behind when the Kurubar of the open country swept down towards the south-east. Unfortunately for this tradition. By some of the modern of the caste the name is derived from Jadav. to which belonged the Kadamba dynasties of Banavasi in Kanara and the Pallava dynasties of the Tamil country. it should be mentioned in connection with the above derivation. It has been connected with "dhan" wealth. as those who use the name are almost his all blanket weavers. of their use in the provision of clarified butter. mingled with elaborate ceremonial. The or wealth Laksmi. connecting them with IMathura and the Krsna legend. a large tribe which is thought. E. hardly to be distinguished from their Kunbl neighbours. material. 15 or even 20 years. however. Kurubar. In the south. already mentioned as the . is far above that of the latter. of the eastern portion of the Central Belt. is one of prolonged and uproarious revelr)'. that is. or Jungle. however. In some cases. Their present" rank. as in the south Dekkan. and they are received by respectable castes. the names of their subdivisions in some cases connect them with the Paraiyan. The occasion. a MarathT-speaking community. and are regarded as not quite assimilated into the community. the Hatkar may by now be a the present day. name of the Kurubar. is by some identified with the Dhangar. or par excellence. indeed. which left them in Sindh and the west of Rajputana. Gandhara (or Kandahar) from which the animal was said to have been introduced into India. that is. the caste is called Kurumban. it is stated. the pecunia. however. as may be reasonably supposed. to the Mer. Judging from physical appearance. The Tamil shepherd is the Idaiyan or those who live by the "middle" group of the village lands. a pure and popular article in the household. The Dhangar of the Maratha country. Even now. This caste shares with the Khadva Kanbl the peculiarity of celebrating its marriages only at long intervals. in view. the peasant habitually refers to his cattle as Dhan. whereas the Dhangar does not always make up own The derivation of the caste title is uncertain. a once dominant tribe of the south. Even in way and Dhangar build their shrines in the same same sort of unhewn stones as the Kurubar of the Karnatic. The Bharvad of Gujarat. a title for which more than one definition is available. goats. the of the subcaste. and are They are probably the remnants left still in a very unsettled condition. or Oraon. too. the pasture. The Holkar Chief of Indore belongs to this caste. except the Gaddi. have much more Kul or Dravidian blood in them than the western cattle-breeder. the pastoral and the Kadu. to have pushed its way up north from the Karnatic. and still enjoys hereditary grazing rights in parts of the Dekkan and some of the best of S'ivaji's celebrated "Mavali" troops were Dhangar. such as 10. mainly on linguistic grounds. the Gaclariya and. the shepherd sections have elaborate rites and forms of worship alien to those of the rest of the villagers. apparently.

or the wielder of the Bel. they have raised the standard of their diet. the shepherd earns a good deal by the sale of the manure of his flock.300). north and south. and with the exception of a few details and ritual. do not keep up their own peculiar customs. In the Dravidian country. there is a noteworthy gap between the pastoral castes and the rest of the nomads. camel-breeder of Rajputana. are migratory. It is by the name of Od or Odia that they are known north of the Dekkan. and their language. and seek jobs upon large undertakings. and seem to have worked way up by stages. working together in their own gangs. up to the Panjab. and an occupant pays the shepherd for penning for so many nights upon the sites selected for the purpose. and Vaddar in Telugu and Kanarese. and have the usual reputation of wanderers for remarkably potent spells and charms. in the manipulation of which standard they show marvellous resource and ingenuity. they are called Ottan in Tamil. and sell the results. with a little cultivation thrown in. and no unskilled labour can touch them in the output. This caste too. and abide by their quarries.284. especially Mata. which ensures them respect. except for their dirty habits and their addiction to rats and first. They are adepts with their large spades. In the south. amongst some castes. called Mannu. which do not eat together or intermarry. the durability of which exceeds the means or desires of the wearer for purification. or earthy. the utilisation of the product is more complete. The first. Nearly all these castes. they seem to have given up their traditional pursuit and taken to weaving coarse cotton wrappers. In upper India it is the practice to sweep the place where the latter was penned for the night. either on the flat or in well-sinking. the Vaddar are generally found in two subdivisions. as it was from that region that these gangs are said to have first emanated. like to their native country. In the Panjab a good many have been converted to Islam. under various manifestations. and now Orissa. Earthworkers and ^Vell-sinkers (1. has a Telugu basis. In the south. formerly Odra. return the year. where they are most numerous. or mattock. Amongst other refinements. They worship goddesses. these last would occupy the place to which their skill and industry entitle them. and abjure pork. other unclean food. they have assimilated the local religion. one of their favourite meats in the south. for instance.104 5- Ethnography. viz. In addition to their dealings in woollen fabrics and. They are practically of one origin under various titles. are the subject of proverbs commenting upon the stupidity of their men and the slovenliness or dirt of their women. the provision of sheep and goats for slaughter. There is one other caste which shares with the Odia the work of the navvy. too. Socially speaking. Vaddar. In the upper parts of the Jamna valley. and it seems probable that it is a branch of the . § 71. The others. or stone quarriers. works at both stone and earth. Here. but settle in the Province. who are stationary. until they found a supply of work which maintains them throughout many of the migratory tribes. by the piece. especially those on quarry work. The derivation usually accepted in the south is from Oriya. The Odia reached gradually the their Panjab through Rajputana. The last attribute may be due to the practice of wearing homespun woollen garments. Their appearance shows that they belong to the darker race. the Beldar. and higher section are the Kallu. Thus they do not. of whom the navvies or earthworkers by profession stand Indeed. though modified by distance into a variety of local dialects.

he carries on his head the earth excavated. A subdivision undertakes the care of razors.Castes and Caste-Groups. Beldar being merely a functional title. who devote themselves exclusively to working in bamboo. Nomadic Castes. On the other hand. with a view to a further visit by night. for its removal. but they are chiefly small subdivisions of a larger such as the Bavariya. The Khumra is another small Muslim caste of upper India the function of which is to quarry and sell the querns or millstones for domestic use. A few other castes have taken to earth- work tribe. in India between these castes and those. or saltpetre-maker. the Takarl or Takankar. is a Muslim caste which travels throughout the open season grinding knives and scissors. equally low and impure. his only rival in this class of work. too. who traditionally follow other callings. There are a few small castes § 72. They are hewn at the quarry and hawked about on pack-animals. the two communities are considered to be identical. Bamboo-^A^orke^s (295. or Khaira. The caste is affiliated to the great tribe of wandering hunters. and speak a dialect resembling Gujarat!. which may be fairly termed travelling artisans rather than gipsies. and at other times plies in the cities. the girls of the castes in question are usually engaged in ministering to the sexual pleasures of the lower classes and even of those of the upper who dare to run the risk of excommunication from their caste. sub-caste. the shoulder-pole and carrying two baskets at once. In the east. not only in India but wherever these nomadic tribes have established themselves. (37. Like the Odia. In the Panjab. Knife-Grinders etc. and will not degrade himself by putting the basket upon his back or shoulder. Beldar holds the higher position and employs a better class of Brahman. which. on the contrary. The Saiqalgar. probably from Gujarat. in Bihar and its neighbourhood it is thought that the Beldar is a branch of the Nuniya. corresponding to the Saiqalgar but of lower origin. but he is now in sadly reduced circumstances. The Kora. and is wor- . The making of mats. The roughening of the face of the stone after it has been in use a long time is in Central India and the Dekkan. is an offshoot of the labouring caste of the Bind.200). there § and weavers' combs is an occupation associated with a gipsy life. is closer to his tribal associations. as their profession. in turn. and the Brahmans who minister to this caste are put out of communion by their kind. 105 for the Beldar of Bihar and Oudh has an Orl and also eats rats. moreover. as its members keep aloof from the PardhI. In old times the Saiqalgar was the armourer and polisher of weapons. despises the Beldar for not using the All the same. but the TakarT is said to utilise the time he spends squatting on the premises where he is employed in scrutinising the extent and disposition of the moveable property of the household. a sub-tribe of the Munda race. and seems to have entered the Dekkan from Gujarat or Central India. Brahmanist by faith and nomad by habit. E. The Kora. since to is no stigma attached to them personally nor is their calling held be a mere cover for criminal means of gain.000). or hunting tribes of the south. There is a more or less definite line drawn. or S'ikllgar. and generally connotes an inclination towards burglary or at least petty larceny. to be mentioned later. the work of another caste. detached locally. The Beldar of Bengal works to a great extent in the coal-mines. a plant which in several cases has become the totem of the whole tribe. called BavarT or Vaghri. Odia. for example. however. The Khumra's conduct is above reproach. brushes 73. The Ghisadi is a small Brahmanic caste of the Dekkan.

whither they penetrated by way of Central India. and where settled in the are often Lihgayats. The Kanjar. But. and claim to be Oriya by origin. The Turl just mentioned branch of the Munda. for instance. In the south. The Dharkar of the south Ganges valley are also not far removed from the forest tribe. worshipping the tribal gods under auspices. as just not usually. and give themselves the name of Bansphora. winnowing fans and the reed-mats used for their own tents and the tilts of the peasants' waggons during the rains. also are of § 74. amongst which fortune-telling is one of the more respectable. and make leaf-platters like the Barf. it is said. not wandering like the rest. a degraded Brahman of non-Aryan origin. shipped accordingly at the annual caste gatherings. as has been already mentioned. the great gipsy tribes are . and enjoy a reputation even worse than in the north. tie between the communities is very loose. but are credited with similar descent. a form of accretion which generally arises from illicit connections with women of the caste. They are considered a much less settled and civilised community than the Bansphora Dom. are often. worshipping the local goddesses. In the Dekkan and south the Burud and Medar are similar castes. the subdivisions which have taken to this work are generally settled on the outskirts of villages. and with some regard for Brahmanic precepts as are practi- exogamous Brahmanic Burud is Dekkan Telugu or Kanarese origin. whilst others never go far from the villages. at best. most of the cane-workers of eastern and northern India belong to the Dom. the Ojha. some of whom appear to be specially attractive even to those far above them in rank. In Bengal. who are a branch of the great Munda tribe. the cover for less reputable means of livelihood. Most of the castes are Brahmanist of a low type. they haunt the Jamna valley and the east Panjab. As in all castes of this description. They are said to reserve a certain number of their girls for marriage within the community and to prostitute the rest. and is probably an offshoot of the northern community. in token of their profession. employing Brahmans and prohibiting their widows from remarrying. and the general mentioned. The Medar are chiefly found in the eastern Telugu districts. with another member of the caste is formed to bridge the interval. Thus all the larger bodies are much subdivided.io6 5- Ethnography. and are gradually asserting themselves to be Balija. and employ the Baiga priests. but gangs are found to the south. some of which are settled. a temporary connection Jail. ot upper India. They also cut querns like the Khumra. Most of them admit recruits from higher castes. Mat and Basket Makers if (348. owing. or otherwise. and not troubling the Brahman. but have settled round villages. In upper India they admit outsiders into their community after payment of scot and submission to initiation. or. to the frequent absence of their husbands in the seclusion of the district If the incarceration be for a long period. They have subdivisions which never wander. and keep up their tribal customs and divisions. In the Tamil country the corresponding caste called Vedakkaran. These callings. has a section which has never emerged from the jungle or hunting stage. the Bansphora are said to be derived from the Patni.500). or fishing tribe of the cally a functional feeding with other castes. and stretch the skins of small animals for drums. With the exception of the Turi of Bengal. the women enjoy a position of much authority. and make their living by the manufacture of weavers' brushes. others wander during the open season and settle near villages for the rains. The to Dom. Basor. As a rule.

The KaikadT are probably a north Dekkan branch of the Koraca. on the other hand. as part of the establishment. and dances a special set of figures in honour of a goddess at weddings and private entertainments. They have the tradition of having once held a higher position in the north. another gipsy tribe. but their habit of travelling with a considerable herd of pack-animals and sometimes pigs. § "jQ. and is generally upon the village staff. though the difference is not great. There are others. a hunting caste. or Buffoon. The DhoH of Rajputana.200). The Dafall. The Thori of Gujarat are few in number and probably allied to the Vaghri. the Yerukala. however. for instance. of the Ganges valley. however. Nomadic Castes. like the Koraca. and wander about for their living. and takes brides from the Nat.Castes and Caste-Groups. so far as outsiders are concerned. E. Drummers (206. using the ass as their means of transport. perhaps. and performs comedies at weddings or other festivals before any village audience subscribing for it. renders them unwelcome visitors in the neighbourhood of the village crops.000). The Gondhali of the Maratha country is an itinerant balladsinger. One of the larger subdivisions of the Koraca derives its title from the carriage of salt from the coast. (48. Of the two. Indeed. The former expel spirits as well as extorting alms. These used to be considered identical. whose name is sometimes retained as well as that of the trade. This caste stands much higher than the Bhand. which suffer from their depredations. They have considerable repute as fortunetellers in addition to their skill at reed and cane work. are Muslim. Korava or Kuravan and the Yerukala. in both customs and intercourse. mainly because of the peculiarly offensive manner in which he gives vent to it. In the Ganges valley. with a sort of religious flavour about their performances. who plies his trade about the mansions of the great. of Telingana. which is said to have got the name from the variety of the ways in which it picks up its living. is merely a functional body in the Panjab. so it is not unlikely that the Bahurupiya are really of the latter blood. They are superior to the northern tribes in regard to the chastity of their women. The Bhavalo of Gujarat. but gives none in return. like the Bajania of Gujarat. who are more strictly professional upon this instrument. and with even greater freedom of speech. The Bahurupiya. and live about in small tents. the Bahurupiya is a sub-caste of the Banjara. In the Panjab the caste is recruited largely from the Mirasi. but are now a purely local institution. the 107 Koraca. § 75. and owing to confusion of nomenclature. are Brahmanist functional . and still travels to some extent in that line. like the jesters of old. are the more respectable. a hunting tribe from the north. their full strength has not been recorded. is an acting caste. for instance. The company is often attached to the village. and the NagarcT. Mimes etc. They make and sell bedsteads and mat-work. and the caste going by that title is a division of the JNIahtam. like the Kanjar. The INIahtam too. and no doubt they come from the same Telugu stock. They are now separate. are connected with the Labana of the Panjab. the illtemper of the Bhand is proverbial. or the caste of many faces. Owing to the subdivisions of these castes and the uncertainty as to their origin the figures obtained from the Census are probably far from accurate. though their facilities for divorce inside their own body have on several occasions been brought to the notice of the Civil Courts of the Madras Presidency. The ceremonial drummer of a village or temple has been referred to as usually belonging to one of the resident low castes.

The small section of the Go pal. love-philters and the means of procuring abortion. but has quite respectable sub-castes in Bengal. as the same caste may be criminal in one locality but innocent in another. In addition to their acrobatic and similar performances. together with their possession of secret preparations of repute as aphrodisiacs. In others the women are kept for the tribe. horns and are only found in Bengal. . Nat is usually held to be a caste. but all connected. Their jungle origin is indicated in a good many cases by their knowledge of roots and herbs as medicines. is cattle when instance. bears a very bad character along the Jamna and in Oudh. where it has several sub-titles. there are the Dombar or Dommara. the greater portion of these communities live by the manufacture of horn articles. necessarily. snake-charmers and the like. under the general title of Nat or Bazlgar. and quite distinct from the nomad of the same name. The Bediya. They hold themselves above the Dom and village tanner. for Dekkan. is a notorious cattle-lifter. but almost invariably feed on vermin or carrion. in Bengal. of the Telugu country. of the exceptional. recruited Turaha blow § 11- from the village menial and scavenging classes. if only to fix the lucky day for their ceremonies. and act as professionals in this art for other castes.800). denoting different performances. the opportunity occurs. 5. where many have accepted Islam. Kabutara. at least in upper India. (235. and do not prostitute themselves to outsiders. for all of which there is a certain and constant demand amongst the better classes. for instance. each with a different name. In one of the sections. The Bais simply a fowling caste in the Panjab. There are. the Bazigar is a subdivision of the Nat. however. and. They are not by any means all criminal. It is difficult to say how far the former is the designation of a caste or of a function. In the Panjab. like Badi. In the Gangetic region. In some cases this general condemnation must be qualified. This. About three fourths of the Nat are Brahmanists of a low type. as the Koraca do in the south. etc. again. Thieves (133. though most are credited with the propensity to break into houses and steal fowls and indeed. Along with the above may be taken the castes which have little or no means of livelihood except stealing. again. where it is most numerous in that capacity but the Bavari or Bagariya of Central India and the north Dekkan. Except in the Panjab. Occasionally they obtain the good offices of Brahmans. Further to the south. § 78. who are identical with the Kolhatl of the Dekkan. the women are experts in tattooing. a good many of the clans say that their original home was amongst the Gond tribes of the eastern parts of the Central Provinces. different grades amongst them and the distinctions are strictly maintained.io8 castes. is always under the eye of the police during its travels. both sharing the occupations and traditions of the Nat of the north. Another variya. for instance. tumblers. by hunting the wild pig and by prostituting their women. . Then. the Nat or Nar is a caste of trained musicians and dancers of much higher position and accomplishments. but most will admit members of higher castes upon payment of a caste-feast or other means of establishing a footing. In some of the subcastes of Nat only the men perform. with their own special deities and forms of worship.500). Sapera. their appearance is that of the dark races of the Central Belt. Ethnography. and Bazlgar the branch of it which takes to juggling and tumbling. The Jugglers and Acrobats There are numerous bodies of jugglers.

where their calling has proved so lucrative that several have become large landholders. no doubt. another travelling fraternity of the same pursuits. 109 sub-caste. though owing to its subdivisions it is difficult to ascertain the latter. sell roots and herbs. and thus obtain information conducive to burglary by their husbands. especially as this is the only function of the Sansiya which does not bring the caste into unfriendly contact with the police. with the Sahsiya. In the thieves' latin of all these criminal tribes of the north. the thief par excellence. is allied to the so-called Rajput section of the Sansiya. the only tribes of this class are the small communities of Bhamtiya. of the north. along the upper Ganges and Jamna. They thus enjoy much influence in the tribal councils. and still keep up their worship of Yellama. but one large section asserts its Rajput origin and keeps aloof from the rest of the tribe. Habura and the like. It is hardly necessary to say that their religion is of the most simple. since they return themselves as Sanadh Brahmans. They are settled in some strength in Poona and its neighbourhood. In the Dekkan itself and the Karnatic. generally owing to devotion to a girl of the tribe. but it seems to be rather more Brahmanised in its customs and is less given to crimes of violence. the Saiisiya women are said to be parasitic attachment of the chaste in their relations with outsiders. as they travel in disguise over the length and breadth of the country. owing to the natural timidity of the caste in applying for the protection of the law. Nomadic Castes. The women. When a question arises in connection with pedigree it is said that the word of the Sahsi is accepted in preference to that of the Mirasi. and that they feel bound to call in outside spiritual aid only in cases where the ghost or demon of the locality has caused serious illness or bad luck. of their home. The small caste of the Habura. but their object in so doing is said to be merely to get access to the inside of the domicile. and. The Sanaurhiya. In contradistinction to the practice of the Nat. and is credited. They are of Telingana origin. these councils practically regulate all the affairs and disputes of the community. and keeps up regular Rajput sept divisions. such as the Bediya. and the same feature is noticeable in the slang of the north Dekkan tribes of this class. the Mai. each family of which has its Saiisi genealogist. and very staunch in their defence of their male relatives when trouble is imminent. The railway has been the making of them. The Sansiya stands in curious relationship to the Jat tribe. It resembles the parent tribe in its care of the women and disregard of the rights of property. habitual pilferers. sprung from outsiders who have been admitted into Saiisiship. The exploits of the last-named community have given it a celebrity which is not justified by its numerical strength. It is not easy to trace the origin of this degraded caste to the undoubtedly pure and foreign body. however. cutting purses and slitting up bundles and carpet bags on their way. as if the western Vindhya had been the nucleus of errant criminality among the Kol races. is closely connected with the Kol race. E. A few of them have been converted to Islam. like the European gipsies.Castes and Caste-Groups. but not further advanced in crime. Ucli or Ganticor. They are a composite community . On the other hand. do not appear in the Census returns. it has been found advisable to form a subdivision to meet the case of the half-breeds. indeed. the Earth-goddess. In upper India that relationship is obscured if not contradicted by the affinity of all these castes. with the parentage of the whole Bediya community. it is interesting to trace the strong element of corrupt GujaratI found throughout.

but outside. but as the south is approached. as a rule. Along the Jamna. and like the BhTls. where it has long is said to have come from Mevad and subdivided into three sections. and in the other undoubtedly tends towards that of the petty criminal. Their head-quarters are in Bundelkhand. whilst in another part of the country it is still in the jungle or nomadic stage. The same caste may have a branch in one province entirely devoted to settled village life. the Moghiya. Their own traditions point. a tribe found both in the Panjab and along the Jamna. is similarly divided. and relationship to the Bhil or other Kol tribe is claimed. Along the Jamna. not badly looked upon by their neighbours when they are settled. as usual. without any indication of their parentage. and are received on terms of equality by the peasantry and others. as in the case of the Vaghrl. The higher castes are. Several of the tribes take their name from some implement of their trade. one has taken to cultivation. It is. In the north they are hunters and reed-workers and occasionally settle down to life in connection with. and employ the Panre Brahman of their former residence.600). It has all the appearance of Kol descent. been established. usually the net or noose. admitted on payment of the cost of a feast. This is a group which in one direction is merged in that of the lower cultivators and field-labourers. who will not venture into the town. has not yet risen to the level it reaches further from its native haunts. the village community. or more correctly perhaps. The Bavariya is a particularly varied community. The Aheriya. however. crimes of violence.no 5. and the Phansi-Pardhi. the hills of Malva and the west assert their influence. One of the subdivisions. with a few of their more wealthy members established in the chief towns to act as receivers of the goods obtained on the journey. even in the Panjab. is often considered a separate caste. there seems reason to think that most of the hunting castes of the present day take their origin amongst the dark race of the western Vindhya. Valaiyan and Bavariya. and the goods deall recruited from all sorts of castes. but it seems to be no more than the Central Indian variety of the main body. without any suspicion of criminal tendencies. and though foul in their diet. In spite of their dark complexion and non-Aryan appearance generally they are not connected by their neighbours with any of the local hill-tribes. but now caste regulations. and its living by the noose. So far as upper India is concerned. § 79. however. the other to vagrancy and petty crime. only one of which still gets Of the rest. but concert a meeting in the open field with a Sonar or other respectable member of society. their reputation is that of potential burglars under the guise of mat-makers and collectors of jungle produce. Ethnography. The Bavariya of the eastern parts of the upper Ganges valley are apparently quite distinct. or even by eating with the members of the tribe. fairly well Brahmanised. They assert Rajput origin and came from Baisvara. . Hunters and Fowlers (977. with whom the bargain is made. of the west. Here the caste It is Ajmer. including one prohibiting bound together by the usual livered accordingly. but they are mostly on the move in disguise. for the expedition with which a large body could be got together from many different quarters. though it keeps to its own worship. their character deteriorates. They were formerly renowned for the well-planned gang-robberies they effected at long distances from their homes. Herein they differ from the Sansiya. to north Rajputana as their native country. however. They are all by heredity good trackers.

endogamous or exogamous. say that they are kinsfolk of the Sansiya of the Panjab. They are still great hunters and bird-snarers. and is claimed as kin by the Aheriya. ot Bundelkhand and the neighbourhood. and is almost exclusively occupied in hunting and fowling. The Baheliya is another example of the same name being borne by separate communities. and came from north Rajputana. The same may be found in said of the Satlaj Mahtam. and to have made its way from the east. The Vaghri makes his catch of birds. So many are now resident in villages that they are no longer to be counted amongst the nomad tribes. and their criminality is confined to petty thefts and an occasional gang-robbery. The Vaghri of Gujarat. they are not amongst the impure. the caste is said to be akin to the Bediya. and the conversion of one of its members to Islam makes no difference in his social position. however. and though unattached to most of the ordinary Brahmanic forms of worship. which seems to be a branch of the Banjara or Labana caste. naturalised in the west. They profess Brahmanism. namely the Sahariya. who are apparently the Baghri of Central India. The other side of the Vindhya presents but few hunting tribes. In Bihar. a name now reserved to a tribe of the south Orissa hills. it is affiliated to the Bhrl. They are now. where they are numerous. Nomadic Castes. but applied by Sanskrit writers to any of the Dasyu tribes of the Central Belt. but preserve withal much of their original habits. mentioned above. the Savara. or Bhula. In Bengal. In spite of their occupation of fowling. and. and the others are settled cultivators and labourers. the Baheliya. takes them in cages to the house of the trader. The Sahariya do not wander about the country more than is necessary to give them a good supply of the jungle produce which they live by selling. hi and melt away imperceptibly as soon as its purpose was served. whereas the hunting Mahtam reached the Satlaj from Rajputana. There is no tradition amongst them of having immigrated from any other part of the country.Castes and Caste-Groups. Comparatively few of them are Muslim. but will not hold In the Ganges valley. whilst in the west. Beyond a common darkness of colour and similarity in feature. with a good reputation for industry and quiet behaviour. In the present day. One other caste of the Vindhya belongs to this group. there is no link between the two traceable in the present day. and organise expeditions far away in Bengal and the Panjab. In the latter capacity. is said to belong to festivals and employ the village Brahman for their own sacrifices. who set a very high value upon animal life. In that part of the country they are subdivided according to function. The caste seems to be subdivided on totemistic lines into a number of exogamous sections. It is said to derive its title from the valley. There is another community of the same name in the submontane tract of the Panjab. is called a sub-caste of the Dosadh. and those mostly of northern origin. they have struck out a new and lucrative line of business with the Jain and other Vania. they observe the orthodox social intercourse with the latter. again. There is thus no connection between the two. a hunting caste of the Panjab. The caste is peculiar in having no subdivisions. knowing that the merit to be acquired by the latter process . and there offers to kill them or let them be ransomed. Portions of both sections have changed their religion to Islam or the Sikh creed. E. according to geographical sections which do not intermarry. chiefly Only a section of them still live by their traditional use of the noose. this caste the PasI. but worship chiefly their local demons without the intervention of Brahmans. they use the railway.

though not quite in the ranks of the criminal castes. has a bad reputation among villagers for theft. The PhahsT-PardhT. are from the caste in Malabar bearing the same title. and the Vettuvan worship Kandi-amman. too. instances are given over and over . There is. however. who perform their ceremonies and regulate the caste generally. though both are jungle-haunters. They have their own priests or clan-elders (Bhuva). or tribal deities. but there seems reason to think that all these castes are connected in some way or another with the Vedan. this caste is credited with a good deal of the crime against property. selling the crop. and worship a tribal god of their own. They also keep fowls. Vettuvan and similar bodies. and rent fruit and other productive trees by the year. worshipped also by but. that except in the west. The former stand higher than the latter. this peculiarity more primitive tribe. a sub-caste of Ambalakkaran bearing the name of Vedan. and the whole body claims to be descended from a Vedan. these castes are more settled and likely to rise in position than any of those found in the north. In the north Dekkan. as stated above. have the same abhorrence of contact with the Brahman that the Paraiyan have. Linguistic evidence seems to indicate a Gujarat! origin. The Kuriccan. In the preceding portion of this work. the goddess of Kandy. therefore. saying that they were imported by the Kongu Chiefs to assist them in the conquest of Kerala. outweigh the cost in the mind of the orthodox. the corresponding castes claim to have come up from the south. too. What the connection really is has not yet been ascertained. confined chiefiy to the Vainad. where they are occasionally found in the capacity of village watchmen. The Berad or Bedar have been classed with the watchmen. however. It would seem. the assimilation of their forms of belief into the religious system of those who have dispossessed them of their territory and position. § 80. seem to be really a branch of the Vaghri who have made their home in the Maratha country. The Vettuvan hold their heads higher. The Vettuvan of the interior. a distinct level of the rest. and add the title Vellalan to their caste-name. and that the members or families which continue to follow the traditional occupation are being gradually relegated to sub-castes below the general the Irula. indeed. Hill Tribes. and so have the Tamil castes now so engaged. It can be easily inferred from what has been set forth in the course of this survey that the importance in the ethnology of India of the pre- Aryan inhabitants can scarcely be overrated. again. Valaiyan. but it is not certain that the sub-castes which operate in that region are not from Central India. The Vedan say they were originally natives of Ceylon. or snarers of bird and beast. Another small hunting caste in Malabar is the Kuriccan. There is. After that. the majority of which belong to the hunting or fowling order. on the one hand. The Vaghri. and the Valaiyan say that this same hero was the founder of their caste also. F.112 will 5- Ethnography. Up to a certain point all the hunting castes in the Dekkan assert their origin to have been in the north. on the other. is found in the dialects of tribes far separated from that province. but a good many have settled down near villages. the gradual extension among them of the foreign forms of speech. as well as their seven Kannimar. Most of them wander during the fair season.

about as far as the little State of Bhor. in their constitution. It is convenient to treat of these tribes according to the tracts which they inhabit. II. 8 . Southwards. showing the extent to which that system and the racial constitution of the population at large is permeated from top to bottom by the Dasyu element. and have preserved in a modified but still distinguishable. the Central Belt. It is also unnecessary. Jaintya. strength and geographical distribution of the more representative of these bodies. Then there occurs a gap in the series. and in the dorsal range of Assam itself. come but slightly within the scope of this review. shape their independent tribal existence. The tribes of this tract may be taken first. the hill country passes along the south of Shahabad and Mirzapur. wholly or in part. made up of the Garo. more or less escaped absorption. F. 5. It becomes necessary therefore. Contiguous to this western abutment of the Belt. The above tracts are the present homes of the remains of the Kol and Dravidian tribes. customs and beliefs. customs and beliefs. and probably allied to them in race. skirting the plain of Chattisgarh. 113 again of the incorporation of communities. and continuing south as far as the lower Godavari. but also by reason of their more intimate racial connection with the masses of the plains. with their detached continuation separating Travancore from the east coast. AH but three or four of the larger tribes believe themselves to be autochthonous. not only because they form the largest division. Into these subjects it is impossible to enter in the detail they merit in a review of this description. § 81. to the south of the Narbada. All that is here attempted is a cursory sketch of the position. along the Kaimur range and the Vindhya. have traditions of dominion over a much larger tract than Indo-arische Philologie. if not to the tract they now inhabit. is inhabited by a few small tribes of the same character as those further east. Almost parallel. ethnographically speaking. Each differs from the rest in some important respects with regard to organisation. to give some consideration to the remnants of these primitive communities which have. or Western Ghats. which. as the south Dekkan is cultivated almost up to the edge of the Ghats and the next locality in which the more primitive tribes are found is the Nilgiri. and. Hill Tribes. to Mevar and the Aravalli. Khasia. it follows the ranges which separate Orissa from the eastern parts of the Central Provinces. are the Mahadev and Satpura ranges of Berar and Khandesh. It comprises the great plateau of Cutia Nagpur. Brahmanic . as they have been treated for the most part by experts. in order that their place in the Indian Kosmos may be duly appreciated. at least to one within a comparatively short distance. so far.221. with an extension to the north across the Santal Parganas to the Ganges at Rajmahal. Naga and Mikir hills. between the Brahmaputra valley and the Deltaic plain. The remaining group inhabit the Himalayan southern ranges. It is obvious that in the present day the chief interest of these tribes is found. and the rest are still the subject of inquiry in similarly competent hands. ending in the forests of east Gujarat. The most important of these. again. The hill communities of Mongoloidic race are found chiefly in the ranges separating Assam from Upper Burma. (a) Central Belt (9. in works devoted to such investigation. being chiefly resident in Nepal and Bhutan. All the larger tribes. is what has been called in this work.Castes and Caste-Groups. is the line of the Sahyadri. into the social system. countries beyond the census limits.900). in both extent and ethnographical interest. but there are a few characteristics general throughout the whole. Westwards from Cutia Nagpur.

Among the more Brahmanised tribes there is the outward acceptance of some manifestation or other of a member of the Puranic pantheon. In a few of the wilder tribes the whole village is apt to the locality or its deities to be flit when untoward events have proved unpropitious. On the outskirts it is different. and becoming merged gradually into the conditions — of the plains. in the case of petty Chieftains. They then leave it fallow for some years. whilst others habitually work in cane or make tooth-sticks and brushes. with the accompaniment of spells. where they bear an excellent character for industry and docility. or wash the river sands for its minute yield of gold. moving off meanwhile to another patch. Great advantage has been respectable Rajput families taken by others of the opportunities of earning good wages on the teagardens of DarjTling. who have long passed out of the tribal into exogamous later. and the huts or houses are built more solidly. as before remarked. the village site is so too. § 82. the latter being borrowed from an orthodox community of the plains. totemistic as a rule. the village is migratory. the people rely during the hot weather entirely upon what the jungle contains. Where the tribe is free from such outside influences it employs priests belonging to its own or a neighbouring community. It was pointed out in the introduction that whilst in physical characteristics and general customs these tribes appear homogeneous. At the other end of the scale are found in several tribes landed proprietors of considerable wealth. a few tribes on the plateau of Cutia Nagpur having attained to a fair degree of skill in their calling. however. there are sections which are far more Brahmanised than the rest. still pursue the primitive and wasteful system of clearing a patch of jungle.114 5- Ethnography. marry into at a distance. Some communities. berries and other produce for sale to agents from the towns. however. The usual form of religion is that of the worship of nature or spirits. In every large tribe. cultivation being permanent. again. where an autumn crop only is raised. and making use of the plough. again. and in some. the belief in the efficacy of the older system remains unshaken and it is worth noting that the older the tribe in the locality the higher the reputation of the priests it furnishes. make it their regular trade to collect lac. but in the more open country. . the tribal population is breaking away from its traditions. tussar-cocoons. Where this is the practice. The heart of the jungle. In all the large tribes there are sections which live almost entirely upon forest produce. but from the practical side of devotion and propitiation. has hitherto proved almost impervious to the efforts made to improve the inhabitants by land grants or other means of inducement to them to work themselves into a higher material condition. In regard to occupation. witchcraft and exorcism generally. and in most cases the statement is supported by evidence such as that of ruins. after . endogamous sections following contact with Brahmanical castes. within a certain range. names of places and castes and by identical forms and objects of worship. the Tarai and Assam. usually with the tendency to separate under a different title. and in several cases the more important sacrifices are performable in the archaic fashion by the head of the family only. The bulk. and there. or consists merely of detached hamlets. and who. Most of the tribes are much subdivided divisions. burning the vegetation thereof for manure. smelt iron. into the caste stage. their present one. and raising two or three years' harvest off it. the greater part of this population lives by cultivation.

and most of the plateau. but now the only large tribe known by their special designation except the Brahmanised Sahariya. As regards the detached communities further north. in Bengal. and the south of the Ganges valley. appertain to the Kol-Khervari tribes. Thus. and in this case adopted by the tribe itself. and the people intermarry with the Munda of the uplands. Pliny and Ptolemy. In the form of Bhuinya.Castes and Caste-Groups. whereas the Male use . . it must be noted that the generic designation of Kol is not returned as the title of a tribe except in the Central ProDravidian type. however. modified by the influence of more powerful alien surroundings. Munda and Bhumij. Towards the east of the tract in question. a still more powerful tribe. and it is remarkable to find tribes like the Oraon. Kol probably derived from origin. the name given to themselves by most is primitive tribes. the menials and guardians of the boundaries. the Ho by transliteration. or northern section of the inhabitants of the Rajmahal hills. the On amongst the Kol-Khervari peoples. These were once undoubtedly in possession of a considerable territory south of the Ganges. linguistic grounds. Bhumij. Occasionally it means the hereditary landholders of the village. which itself is said to have come from the same home. a title which appears to link them to the Savara. except in the tracts immediately adjoining the plateau. that an ancient and wide-spread title has been applied to two different and distinct communities. and isolated amongst a population speaking either Oriya or the hill-vernaculars of the Savara of today are grouped a tongue nearly akin to that of the Oraon. and that the southern Savara like their neighbours. implies connection with the soil. It must be noted that the Male. in the same way. and also the name of a loose and scattered tribe in the south-eastern part of the Belt. it may be generally put that the Dravidian element is indigenous in the south-east. or Sabar. Hill Tribes. Central India. where the Munda language is still current. It is possible. vinces. The community is almost entirely Brahmanised. it is both a generic title. and now lives in western Bengal and the districts of Manbhum and Singhbhum. centre and a portion of the north-east and that the north. also a common appellation for the lower races in India. of the south of Cutia Nagpur. the Gadaba. mentioned above. immigrant in the south. especially when to do so they must apparently have outflanked the Gond. or Suari. of the ancient speech they fall dian. and connotes in most cases in which it is applied the clearers of the village-site. the Kol and the Draviof most of the southern tribes this distinction is obviously attributable to the contiguity of the Andhra or Telugu population of which they form the northern fringe. and often call themselves by their name. The tribe to which the name of Bhumij is now given is a branch of the Munda which has spread from the central home of the race to the eastwards. Ho is held to mean Man. and the Mal-Pahariya and their neighbours of the hills bordering the Ganges speaking tongues which support their assertion that they reached their present localities from a tract as far distant as the Karnatic. are also called Savariya. elsewhere. In the case European geographers. Of these. therefore. are Dravidian by race. Munda former meaning a headman of a village. is located far to the south. covering a considerable number of castes of different standing and origin. in 115 into two different categories. there are traditions of immigration. west. In various forms it is found from Gujarat to Assam. In regard to the latter. F. the terms used are Ho. As the tribe advanced into the and Bhumij are terms of Sanskrit .

and is so returned in the Central Provinces and Baghelkhand. but no one else does. In all the above tracts the tribe is comparatively Brahmanised and has lost much of the organisation and worship it has retained in Cutia Nagpur. These. The priests. of course exogamous. to which belong more than one of the local Chiefs who have been accepted as equals by Rajputs. from which it may be inferred that the Kharvar is regarded by its neighbours in that direction as being of an older stock than themselves. on payment. and differ but little from their Brahmanic neighbours except in more extended respect for sorcery. and the middle classes employ S'akadvlpi Brahmans and retain only the more important of their tribal ceremonies. from which they spread northwards and down into south Bihar. Ethnography. and the Aryan vernacular of the district is used by them. are probably the oldest. Here their rank seems to depend much upon their connection with the land. Bhumij and the Munda call themselves Ho. Even amongst these classes the influence of the Baiga. but in the rest of their settlements they have taken to simple cultivation on the ordinary lines. On the other hand. again a not uncommon feature of the Kol race. or Pahan. like the others. or even a lower tribe. The respect shown by the Kharvar for the Khar grass. and have become a steady agricultural community of a somewhat undeveloped type. The Kharvar appear to be without traditions of immigration from further than the south east of the Cutia Nagpur table-land. or tribal priest. and with interesting rules as to prohibited food. but a more efficient and active deity is found in the Mountain god. They have the tradition of having once lived in the plains of south Bihar from which they were expelled by Savara of some sort. The less advanced adhere to their tribal gods and employ their own Laya. The chief object of worship is the Sun. Those who hold large estates claim to be Rajputs. and in the Baghelkhand tract of Central India. where the Kol is a branch of the Munda. are further parcelled out respectively into totemistic sections. or priests. Physically. and intermarriage between them and the Ho of Singbhum is now unusual. of unusually heavy dowries. of the three cognate tribes. and in the propitiation of the local gods in preference to those of wider fame. The latter are of Cutia Nagpur. sections of the Kharvar now employ a priest of the Korva. they have taken the greatest care to prevent strangers from sharing the land with them. Indeed. as is the case with most of the larger tribes of this tract. are members of the tribe.ii6 plain 5. The tribes returning themselves as Kol are found for the most part in the Mirzapur district along the Ganges. in Jabalpur and Mandla in the Central Provinces. on all occasions. seems to indicate that they were once a totemistic . landholding class in favour of Brahmanism of a somewhat strict type. Here they live after the fashion of their ancestors. the names of most of which prove an origin from intermarriage with other tribes of the vicinity. The Munda are subdivided into numerous tribes. sometimes called the Larkha Kol. but having got possession of a more fertile region. they are the finest of the race. which they say they take their name. The tribal worship was abandoned by the all this was changed. as they are the highest. In the wealthier families the practice is growing of calling themselves Rajputs and dropping their ancestral connection altogether. is by no means extinct. The Santal. and had to take refuge in Baghelkhand. the reputation of the tribe for supernatural powers is such that a section bears the name of Baiga. The Ho. however. One of the most civilised tribes of this group is the Kharvar. again.

The jungle section on the produce of the forest with a little simple cultivation of the migratory sort. in imitation of the Brahmanic high castes of the neighbourhood. The totemistic subdivisions of their poor relations. however. They intermarry with the Munda on unequal terms. The tribe is not autochthonous in its present locality. the wealtier Santals. prove their connection with both the general INIunda race and perhaps more especially. in diet. The largest of the Kol communities is the Santal. with a most intricate subdivision of clans and with mystic pass-words current amongst them. and the Santal are gradually taking up land in that direction wherever they find they can keep on laterite soil and within the range of the Sal tree. except. the Santal have kept up their elaborate tribal organisation. available against both man and beast. They were the last to leave the plain for the plateau. This eastward movement is still in progress. It is said that a generation or two ago. however. Their tribal worship of the Sun and Mountain. lest undue influence be brought to bear upon it. The aversion from alluvial soil manifested by all the tribe.000 of this tribe were returned at the Census. Hill Tribes. by a term signifying Headman of a village (Manjhi). perhaps the Ceru. though their immigration does not seem to have been from a greater distance than the south-east of the Cutia Nagpur plateau. and the tribe holds itself to be superior to all around it. Each family. combined with frequent intermarriage with high class families of Rajputs and others. claiming the name of Cohan-bansT. When any stranger settles within sight. and peopled the Santal Parganas about the middle of the 19th century. A small section. moreover. they move off. has its own domestic god with the addition of a secret god. One branch took to cultivation and settled life. which is said to be to them all that the bamboo is to the inhabitant of the plains. who call themselves. The Santal is also one of the people most willing to leave his home for temporary engagements on the tea-gardens of Assam and the Tarai. still keeps to the jungle and breeds tussar moths. too. In spite of their wanderings. like the INIunda. and only divulged to the eldest son of the house. 117 branch of a larger community. the larger tribe taking brides from them but giving none in return. whilst those in IManbhum remain amongst the most shy and The former affect the highest regard for purity and greatly restrict their intercourse with outsiders. for doing which they are deemed impure by their relatives. From thence they spread eastwards and northwards in succession. a habit which is sometimes unkindly attributed to their own filth and disregard of social decency. The Kharia keep uncivilised of their kind. whilst others attribute it to the fact that the uplands afford better outlets for expansion of cultivation than the already well-peopled riparian tracts of the great valley. the name of which is kept a mystery to the women of the household. and are accepted as an orthodox Brahmanic caste. have in fact made the larger body of the Ceru a different and distinct community. using Munda or Oraon priests. Long periods of settled life. and have the same tradition of having been ousted from dominion in the south of Bihar. took to . but no traces of this have been ascertained. F. in the interior. where over 40. a tendency welcomed by their neighbours. who regard them as the possessors of exceptional powers of magic. The latter are even more thoroughly Brahmanised than the Kharvar. according to some. with the Kharia. is strictly maintained. by its unsuitability to their favourite tree. to their live own worship. is accounted for.Castes and Caste-Groups. These last say they came up to INIanbhum and Ranci from the Orissa State of Mayurbhanj.

judging from the names of its subdivisions. too. must have split off from the main body on taking to work. as stated above. but the important offices are performed by the elders of the tribe. and employs Brahmans and abjures the food dear to the rest. with a few scattered amongst their kinsfolk elsewhere. the most important is the Oraon. Sacrifices are offered to the god of the mountain and to the snake and then consumed by those who make the offering. converts to Christianity from the tribe of late years. Of the immigrant tribes of the plateau. They inhabit the recesses of the Orissa hills. The Juang. which has been picturesquely described by Dalton and other visitors to their haunts. and on being expelled by the Muslim. that the Munda contributed a section to the Mahili. and it is remarkable to find the caste amongst the indentured labourers in Assam. but forms a single endogamous community. eked out by hunting wild animals and collecting fruit etc. Ethnography. This practice is marrying off their girls at a very early age. or Patua. This course appears to have been correct.ii8 5. which. which. whilst the Birjia are residents of the uncleared forest. and settled in the south of the Ranci district. who have hitherto alleged divine warrant for the leaf-apron. According to the tribal tradition. The Binjhia and Birjia have usually been considered to be one tribe. Akin to the Santal is a small tribe called Mahili. They are held to belong to the Agaria. probably because it is so small. but are said to be acquiring some appreciation of Brahmanic deities. They keep village priests. is apparently ofKanarese origin. They worship the forest and village gods. The practice of clothing themselves with leaves. the Oraon once held a good portion of South Bihar. but at the last Census it was considered better to tabulate them separately. as the larger community of the Binjhia is a Brahmanised cultivating caste. the other going up the Son and occupying the north-west corner of Cutia Nagpur. The are now found chiefly in Manbhum and the Ranci district of the plateau. but the remarkable feature in the new departure among the Santals is that after a few years' trial the practice was abandoned and the tribal custom of There have been a good many marriage in the teens was resumed. is said to be yielding to the taste for cotton wrappers. One subdivision only has advanced well into the religion of the plains. or Kurukh. most of the information available about the language and religion of the tribe is derived from Danish and other Missionaries working amongst them In their own worship and in the periodical great sacrifices the SantaL relies upon the Naiki. or iron-smelting tribe whose customs they follow. covering the districts of Ranci and Palamau. Both language and customs indicate their close relationship with the Kharia and Munda. deemed degrading by the Santal. even amongst the women. speaking Oriya. The main body are now settled in the latter tract. where they liv'e from hand to mouth by the cultivation of small patches. and. The latter. is not subdivided. common enough amongst the aspiring families of the lower classes. such as carrying loads and making baskets. one following the Ganges to the Rajmahal jungle. are perhaps the most primitive of all their group. As they are greatly in request as labourers they are also found in the Census returns of Assam and the Jalpaiguri tea districts in considerable numbers. § 83. seems. or priest of his own community. Their religion has been described as a mixture of "Animism half-forgotten and Brahmanism half-understood". indeed. Having dwelt side by side with the It latter . separated into two branches.

they have dropped a good many of their own customs and adopted those of the indigenous tribes. which enter into the daily meal of the others. or Hillmen. and their priests are Naya. Hill Tribes. through the mediation of the headmen of the villages. The Male of the upper hills. though it seems that they were in the . The Male gave a good deal of trouble in the early days ot of all had managed to preserve their independence government against the attempts of the Muslim to coerce them. called. though more civilised than the Northern. The advance of settled government and systematic land administration has not conduced to the prosperity of the Oraon. the Telugu for hill. the Male. and where the two are in the same place. late in the 1 8th century. One subdivision is considered by the outside world to be a trifle purer than the rest. The Southern community. but there The Raj-Gond. and even he gives place to the headman at the more important ceremonies. the Oraon introduced the plough into the plateau and were the first to take to regular cultivation. gradually dispossessing them of their lands. In regard to however. of the Mal-Paharia. F. it appears that two sections have been formed. as in the matter of diet it draws the line above rats and lizards.Castes and Caste-Groups. and the other. as in the case of the Kond or Kand tribe. As to the other branch of the Oraon. The largest and most widely spread of the tribes of the Central Belt is the Gond. who are still entrenched in the hills of Rajmahal. the Oraon yield precedence to the elder tribe. with a Nagpur strong northern settlement in the Satpura and the south-west of the Cutia plateau. established a strong dominion on the ruins of the Gauli dynasties. and worships the Sun. and are said to be homogeneous to the extent of not having even exogamous subdivisions. and their worship. 119 Munda for many generations. for want of a more definite title. The judicious handling of them by a popular local official. a title which like that of Kol. They regard the Munda as their predecessors. of their gods. however. whilst the prey upon the less educated. The only semblance of a priest amongst them is the Demano or Diviner. but differ from the latter in setting up a post to symbolise that luminary. The Oraon employ no Brahmans of course. has been extended to a number of almost distinct communities. who is little or no tradition of their earlier wanderings. are far less affected by Brahmanic contact than the others. erecting some symbol Munda abstain from anything of the sort. There seems to be little doubt but that in spite of the antagonism between the two in the present day they belong to the same race. which entails the occupation of an abnormally large tract of land to allow of the frequent fallows necessary for the recuperation of the vegetation. Earth and Tiger. pacified them into the abstention of raids upon their neighBritish rule in Bengal. who lose ground before the more cunning castes which follow those symptoms of civilisation. they keep themselves apart. It has been already pointed out that their language approximates to the Kanarese rather than to the adjacent Telugu. According to tradition. Some authorities trace the name to Konda. § 84. and they certainly cover the hill-country from Orissa westwards. pushed up the Narbada and Kaimur. They share with the Mal-Paharia the worship of the Sun. very like those of the Munda. one. the lower and more Brahmanised community. but his attempts at inducing the tribe to take to industrial pursuits were not successful. as they bours. is still more or less in the jungle stage. using closely allied dialects of the Oraon-Kanarese language. They cultivate on the wasteful system of jungle-burning.

without any affix. or Kond. next to the Gond come the Kand. and have for generations intermarried with families of that order whose circumstances were in need of reinforcement from some landed class better off than themselves. The Kand have attracted a good deal of literary notice. in practical dealings with the supernatural. which held out against all comers. It not possible to give the numerical strength of all these sections of the great Gond tribe or race. and the Chieftains still holding petty States. but on that occasion also the value of the figures is diminished by the large number of unspecified entries. claim to be Rajputs. In 1891 some detail was given. and claim to be an independent Brahmanic caste. and live more in the forest. But the comin its structure or munity habits. neighbourhood long before that opportunity occurred. is everywhere acknowledged. like the Raj section of the Gond. the tribes are far less Brahmanised.120 5- Ethnography. § 85. the usual division into the hill section. from ChattTsgarh to Orissa. In the Cutia Nagpur States the Gond hold their land on military tenure. and are found chiefly in the Bastar State and the district of Cauda. but the deriis vation of both this and the ordinary title is uncertain. The majority of the Maria are probably the wildest of the Gond. to the east of the Gond tract. or Bottada. partly due to their former practice of human is sacrifices and supposed advanced religious views. and that of the plains. Of the Dravidian tribes. The Kand resemble the Gond in having pushed up northwards from the southern outskirts of the ranges forming the abutment of the Central Belt to the south-east. Pathari. The Ha lab a. originally from the Bastar State. The main body calls itself Kuyi. From the Kaimur the Gond passed eastwards into Baghelkhand and the hills along the south of the Ganges valley. meaning headman. it is said to drop their designation for that of Koitar. much subdivided and by no means uniform There is. and the further they get from the jungle the more strenuously they disown connection with the Gond. like Munda. The Koyi are less civilised than the Koitar. In the south-east of the Gond country. as at the Census the use of the general title was very extensive. which is adopting both the language and religion of the Oriyas and Telugu respectively. are nearly all Brahmanised. descendants of the former Chieftains. are the old tribal worship and customs. and were being transformed into Nagbansi Rajputs even by the 4th century. and leading up to the title of Gond. with their kindred. but on the outskirts of the hills they are beginning. Underlying the prevailing beliefs. however. when the Bhonsle overran their country and completely dispossessed them of their power except in the hill fastnesses. for instance. a fact which seems to indicate that they were in possession before the present rulers. All the northern and central GoncI are more or less Brahmanised. have settled to a considerable extent in the plain of ChattTsgarh. The Maria form the principal section. which is untouched by Brahmanism. Pradhan or Ojha. but the Bhatra. the efficacy of the local priest and exorciser. some wearing the sacred thread. a more advanced section. and whilst Brahmans are consulted as to lucky days and are brought in to perform social ceremonies. The upper classes. As their main occupation is the distillation of spirit from forest produce their claim is not encouraged by the higher grades of the community to which they affiliate themselves. A further point of resemblance is the adoption of the . The zenith of their rule was from the i6th to the beginning of the i8th centuries. Here they are now known as Majhvar or Manjhi.

the whole of the village land is held in common. the Gadaba language is classed with the Savara. but those on the plain have taken to Telugu. probably. is gradually detaching It is itself from the hill-dwellers of the tribe and employing Brahmans. may be placed midway between the Gond and the Kand. and very expert against game with their bow and hatchet. and is simply a low caste of the ordinary Brahmanic type. are considered locally to be a branch of the Poroja. one section working as carriers and labourers. whilst observing the orthodox rules as to marriage and diet. with no traditions of migration or former supremacy. Gond blacksmiths. who are probably the southern branch of the same tribe. the detached body of the north-west has lost all trace of its primitive religion and language. The Savara of the southern outskirts seem to be inclined to branch off from their hill-comrades as they have done on the Bengal . and their subdivisions confirm this view. They are very tenacious of their tribal rights over the land they have once cleared. The tribe therefore. The Jatapu are said to be Kand who have become in most respects Brahmanised. those who have left the hills establish them upon both totemistic and Brahmanic lines. they once possessed a considerable dominion in the south Ganges valley. The tribe has no tradition of migration. 121 name of the dominant tribe by bodies of artisans and menials who minister to the former. the metal-working. on the contrary. and keep to their totemistic § 86. as in the case of the Nayar but on a smaller scale. and bear the same title as among the Kand. It is curious to find even in the present day small communities bearing this name in the very north of the Central Provinces and Bundelkhand. as southern Kdl-Khervari. The wilder Savara have functional classes. at least where the two communities live alongside of each other. all mutually unintelligible to the rest. drummers and cowherds. Those residing in the hills speak Kand. There remains the Savara tribe. and conforming to the ordinary local customs. such as the agricultural. borrowing the former. Their headmen act as their priests. an offshoot of the main Savara body which has settled in western Bengal. Elsewhere it is treated as a mixture of Kand and Oriya. and Kand blacksmiths The tribe lives by agriculture of the usual rude kind. to whom they sacrifice animals through their own priests. The Kondu-Dora. but all the Kand are also keen hunters. and lives by cultivation. Hill Tribes. Sauria. F. so that. Grierson to be Gond. have lost hold of their hills and are no more than a Brahmanic caste. exogamous clans. but their language is held by Dr. their old language and Telugu. The Gadaba. of which the greater portion is now found in the Orissa hills and the adjacent wild country. Similarly. have never given up the old tribal gods. The alternative designation of the Male of Rajmahal. and in some cases. apparently belong to the same stock as the Kand. The Jatapu. It has been already pointed out that assuming this tribe to represent the ancient Suari or Sabarae. under the Central Provinces and Madras. however. has also been ascribed to some connection with the Savara. the meaning of whose title is uncertain. ThePoroja. but information is not yet available as to the social distinctions implied in this distribution.Castes and Caste-Groups. In the Linguistic Survey. from some neighbouring tribe which preceded the Savara in the valley. Be this as it may. again. worthy of note that whereas the Savara in their native haunts seem to be without exogamous subdivisions. speaking a mixture of there are and potters. They are said to have separate dialects of Oriya. the weaving and the cane-working.

The few of the tribe who have risen to the rank of landed proprietors affect Brahmanism. the permission to retain his arms proved too strong a temptation to be resisted when the institution was first established. the Bhil tribes are divided. The Western branch of the K61 tribes of the Central Belt differs considerably from those just reviewed. who in the forest. originated. The link between the western tribes and the rest is found in the Korva. In some of the States of Cutia Nagpur. he maintains his respect for the old pantheon as being more intimately and practically bound up with daily Hfe than the Puranic manifestations. into a Hill and a Plain section. side of the hills. in Kanara. especially those of theTadvi clan. under its western title of Kur or Korku. it is said. This phase soon passed. and even on the outskirts thereof. the Korku are divided into clans. Probably this name. even on the methods adopted by the inhabitants of the plateau. The Bhil worships the wood-spirits.922. keep to their former practices. for other tribes get their priests from them in all cases where village or local deities have to be appeased. who have to have recourse to professionals for the large arrows which they use with considerable skill at short ranges. except in the heart of the forest. a tribe Kol in its language. and in the west. The name of Bhil is generally derived from a Dravidian word for bow. much of his tribal religion. or peasantry. a few in the west. as in the case of the tree-tapping caste. and by repute one of the earliest settlers of the western parts of Cutia Nagpur. Like the rest of his race. and. but the rest of the community. probably. and to gradually incorporate themselves with the Kapu. and the women especially. The Korva. the principal of which is called Muvasi. Further to the west. and set up as Rajputs. The Bhil has lost his tribal language. however. do not appear to aspire to more than a rudimentary form of village settlement by themselves or than the duties of watchmen in the larger villages of other castes. and spread east and west. is modern compared to the age of the community. The latter. and were driven out by the Rajputs . In the latter capacity. erects posts to them in the jungle. were wont to descend in force upon one of the villages exempt from their services. and the Bhil watchmen. In former days the Bhils held a good part of the country north of their present hills. at least. § 87. even though the latter be brought down to suit his requirements. owing. but it certainly is applicable to the Bhil of the present day. with that marvellous power of rapid concentration which distinguishes the tribe. however. the Korva smelts iron and makes his own weapons and implements. and there is doubtless some connection between the two. like the Kol of further east. is seldom without his weapons. Some of the eastern Bhils have been converted to Islam.122 5- Ethnography. generally of the tribe. perhaps. Billava. sacrificing fowls and other offerings through a priest. and the Bhil is now a recognised part of the establishment ^n the eastern villages of Gujarat. but their observance of its tenets are very half-hearted. worship their ancestral ghosts and propitiate the malignant spirits of other people. Towards Betul and the Berar hills. except. but this art is lost amongst those of the Satpura. (b) Western Belt (1. to their having been driven into tracts which allow but little room for cultivation. this title is applied to the Bhils of the same range. In the west. whose duty on other occasions is to discover the witches who seem to be peculiarly active in this community. in the Mahadev Hills.300). That they are amongst the oldest established tribes seems certain. or at all events its interpretation.

123 under pressure of the Muslim. seem to be merely a superior class of Bhil. F. They are by repute even worse neighbours than the Bhil. you feed a hundred. where they live on the skirts of the forest. and have not taken. The Nayak. "By killing a caste-mark wearer. They resemble the Dhundia in having taken to regular cultivation. especially in the south of Rajputana. moreover. with colonies in the forests of east Gujarat. The Naikada are found along the south-west border of Rajputana and Central India. now a separate tribe. . and not a separate tribe. also. mentioned in con- nection with agricultural labour. The Gamta." There is a small tribe of much the same name. as it is distinct from the Bhil. there is little to distinguish them from a low caste of Brahmanic cultivators. an accomplishment much appreciated at weddings and other festivals. which are both Bhil clans locally separated from the main body. The Dhundia of the open country pay them respect at all formal ceremonies. which is unconnected with the Koll. and have the grim saying. as representing their own worship of nature and the forest. The only advance they have made is to engage under the Forest officials to cut and transport timber. Hill Tribes. and seems to be the elder branch of the Dhundia caste. is taken from the title of MuvasT. and the Tadvi and Pavada. but look upon the murder of one of that order as an act of merit. The Chodra of a little further north. or Gamit. Inter alia. or Mavaca. Even now. They pay homage to Mata and Hanuman. but settled at some distance from the Naikada. but they have the tradition of having immigrated to their present home from the south of Rajputana. the Patella in the same region. like the rest. In fact. In regard to the relationship of the Bhll to the Korku. however. and probably of mixed origin. a tribe of south Rajputana and Central India. they are terribly skilful and persistent on the local drum. more than one subdivision which still live in or near the forest. an instance of which was given above in connection with the enthronement of a Rajput Chief. but not in it. Akin to the Bhil are the Dhanka. which has been classed with the cultivators. as observed above. but not only repudiate the services of the Brahman. by which they are called. though showing no disposition to abandon their primitive cultivation and their dependence upon the jungle for their livelihood. which nearly touch them on the north-west. For many years. to either agriculture or seafaring pursuits. they receive the respect due to their former repute.Castes and Caste-Groups. it may be noted that the name of Mevas. and on several occasions have only been kept down by force. the connection between the two is said to have resulted in the formation of the Bhilala. called Nayak. whence they were expelled along with some Rajput clans. they have been at peace. contains. though sharing the tastes and mode of life of the latter. The great KolT tribe. and which. instead Naikada of working the jungle on their own wasteful plan. The is probably one of these. who have left their mark upon certain clans of Bhil. They are only found in the south-east of Gujarat. by the Muslim. with the addition of cutting firewood from the forest for sale in the open country. Beyond their worship of the village boundary-gods and their avoidance of Brahmans. and settled in the Khandesh Satpura. is the name of the western branch of the Korku. but do not eat or intermarry with them. which is given to some of the Bhil tracts in the west. have kept up a good many of the tribal customs which the others have sloughed off. There is strong reason to think that the tribe was reinforced by the incorporation of refugee Rajputs. are in appearance and customs much the same as the Dhundia.

The tribe resembles the lower class of Bhll in appearance. They hold the same tribal beliefs. The tiger is an object of special regard. but still in the forest. None of these three tribes strays beyond its native haunts. The bulk of the tribe also deal in jungle produce. The lowest of them. or. The Trula. though they have no traditions as to their origin. The others have the name of Villiyan. . The third tribe. they are divided into the section of the plain and that of the forest. They have their own gods and forms of sacrifice. as in Cutia Nagpur. and worship the mountain and tiger gods. except in locality. and are not adverse to permanent cultivation. are apparently also of the same stock if not belonging to the Coromandel Cencu tribes. the Ghat-Thakur. they never take up land on a permanent tenure. It is worth noting that whilst the principal demon of the locality is worshipped by the other tribes it is reputed to be controlled by the Katkari. called for distinction. are now resident along the coast. a tiger god recognised by the lower Brahmanists. by which it means the forests of south Gujarat. the members of it have a strong physical resemblance to the darker tribes of the north and east. without reference to Brahmans. not only because the latter are foul-feeders and remarkably dirty. do not consider them as altogether impure and enter their houses. says it came from the north. but in their domestic rites they make use of the Des'asth. and though they cultivate on a rude system. The Katkari stick close to the forests. Both sections worship the Kannimar at an ant-hill in the jungle. some of the race fled into the jungle. The Thakur are settled in their own villages and possess land and cattle. these goddesses being probably the earliest of all the Dravidian pantheon. the Katkari or KathodI. northern Sahyadri are through their industry The three or four small tribes of the almost contiguous to those just mentioned and possibly are connected with some of them. those of the Varll who breed cattle. The general conjecture is that after the downfall of the Shepherd dynasties of the south-east. § 89. a difference implying the older settlement of the latter tribe. as the Kadu-Kurubar mentioned under the head of shepherds. Other tribes steer clear of the Katkari. (d) Nilgiri etc. at least. They share some of the gods and ceremonies of the Katkari. (226. some of their community being fairly well-to-do.124 5- Ethnography. the Thakur.300). live in villages and work on the land. They are superior in appearance to the Katkari. their weapon of choice. generally as subtenants upon the half-share system. but lacks the independence and joviality of the predatory communities. stands still higher in society. The Toda and Kota belong to the tablewhere they have since remained. too. which derives its name from the catechu it extracts in the forests. so called from being supposed to have come from the country above the Ghats.600). who inhabit the broken country to the east of the Nilgiri. or local Maratha Brahman. (c) Sahyadri (367. Like the Kurubar or Kurumban. in turn. who are the same. evidently derived from the bow. The former are more or less Brahmanised. The Varll (uplander). To the former belong the Kuruman of the western slopes. The comparatively small tribes of the Nilgiri and the vicinity consist of descendants of a fugitive branch of the Kurumban race and of communities the origin of which is uncertain. § 88. rising in position and they are said to be gradually and peaceful habits. but also because of their reputation as sorcerers. The latter. with the addition of Vaghoba. though except in being a little more cleanly.

It may be noted. also. known as the Eastern Ghats. like Bhumia and its synonyms. being a specimen of what may be called "stall-fed aborigines". with a similar fame as wizards and casters of spells. who treat them as considerably purer than the menials of the village or farm. The two have the same tribal deity. and according to the tradition among the former. with considerable areas of cultivated land.Castes and Caste-groups. their sole wealth consisting of their stock of buffaloes. It is not improbable. the first claim to the soil. though having turned out more adaptable to new circumstances they appear to be more prosperous. F. and till recently but little was known about them. and face elephants and tigers with success. as weU as of a section of the Yanadi. that they both moved up to the seclusion of the table-land from the Malabar forests in the neighbourhood of the Wainad or possibly even from Coorg. or Arayan of the hills. 125 land of the Nilgiri. the descendants of a race once holding dominion over the surrounding plains. further north. that they come from no great distance from their present seat. The Yanadi themselves Anadulu. The Kanikkar of Tra vancore are thought to be. and have well-built villages. most of whom live in as wild a state as the present conditions allow. are more settled than the Kanikkar. as well as in their picturesque houses and mode of life. however. Both apparently belong to the difference in physical appearance between the Toda and most of the surrounding population. The Yanadi and the Cencu are connected with each other. or autochthonous. In the low ranges along the Coromandel coast. and has been to some extent cherished as a valuable asset. live in the forests east of the Malabar district. but their reputation for practical sorcery deprives them of the sympathy of the residents of the coast. but the two tribes understand each other. The Kota speak a different dialect. It is probably. that Cencu is the title of a subdivision of the Gadaba tribe. but the Kota admit their inferiority to the others. and their language has been described as "old Kanarese spoken in a gale". but it seems to have closer affinity to Tamil. the tribe has received abundant notice. All these tribes have been the subject of inquiries in the course of the Ethnographic Survey. The title appears to indicate. a few wandering tribes are still to be found subsisting by hunting. and worship without Brahmans or apparently priests of any sort. The Toda are essentially a pastoral community. the collection of fruit and the sale of firewood to the villages round. named Cencu. and that the same name is given to the Irula in the uplands of Mysore. as in not labouring for hire. and this seems to be in harmony with their position in relation to the Brahmanic castes below the hills. Hill Tribes. § 90. whilst the invocations more resemble Malayalam. also the seat of Government for the greater part of the year. like the Kurumban. on which they have been isolated from pre-historic same stock. and then trust to hunting and the sale of jungle produce for the rest. There is some justification for this interest in the striking time. the Cencu took refuge amongst the Yanadi when driven from call their home in the west. but driven to the hills by invaders from the north. In the ranges south of the Nilgiri are found several small forest tribes. In some respects they bear a striking resemblance to the Toda. Other hilltribes with the same title as the above or one closely resembling it. They live by rude cultivation on the wood-ash system for a part of the year. Owing to their residing within an easy morning's walk of a popular hillstation. They are skilled in archery. with the Sanskritic strain omitted. . The Malayarayan. therefore.

126
It is

5-

Ethnography.

not improbable, therefore, that the tribes may be connected, and came from the north, the Trula having settled in the forests of the transverse range uniting the eastern Ghats with the western, at the Nilgiri. Another hypothesis is that the Yanadi may have been influenced in their but the ethnology of all these tribes religion by the immigrant Cencu rests largely on vague surmise. It used to be held that the languages spoken by the Yanadi and Cencu were separate dialects of Telugu, but it appears from recent inquiry that they are nothing more than the rural vernacular spoken with a peculiar drawl and some differences in pronunciation. Both tribes by preference live by what they can pick up in the jungle, and sell fruit, honey and firewood in the villages of the plain. The Cencu, too, occasionally breed cattle, and the Yanadi tell fortunes. Both consider themselves above the leather-workers and lower menials
that
all
;

of the villages. § 91.

Assam

Tribes. The racial movements which have taken place

of India were cursorily set forth in the Introduction. Owing, no doubt, to the comparatively recent date at which successive settlements have occurred, and also, to the natural isolation of some of the tracts, which have thus been unaffected by alien inroads, the racial concentration coincides, as a rule, with the geographical position. There are exceptions,
in this part

of course, as in the Central Belt, where a tribe has been cut off from its fellows, or the new-comers have been unable to effect a continuous occupation, but in most cases the tribes in question can be dealt with in groups which are geographical as well as racial. The general results of the Ethnographical Survey of Assam have not yet been published (1909), but several valuable monographs upon particular tribes have been prepared by local officers specially qualified for the task, and some of these have been utilised in the last three Census Reports. The numerical strength of the tribes, however, which it is the

main object of the Census to discover, is not altogether satisfactorily represented by the returns, partly because of the variety of language current amongst these communities, which has the result of giving to many of
the
latter

a

title

unknown

within

their

own

body.

The

influence

of

Brahmanism, moreover, upon the numerous

by which it is here surrounded, turns the scale adversely to accurate ethnographic nomenclature. Members of a tribe who decide upon conformity with Brahmanic observances are apt to signify their breach with the past by adopting the name of an existing caste, with or without a qualifying epithet. Taking an example from one of the larger communities, a Kacari does not make use of that name, but calls himself Bara, and when he is dallying with the outworks of Brahmanism, he is a Saraniya, or a Saraniya Koc. Once the plunge taken, the prefix is dropped, and he becomes Koc. In due course, if he thrives, he dies Rajbansi. As the same course is followed by the Lalung, Mikir and Garo tribes, the identity of the convert is lost in an all-embracing title, once racial, but now sunk into nothing more than the designation of a loosely knit and heterogeneous Brahmanic caste. Thus the remarkable variation in the numbers returned for a tribe between one Census and another is attributable to little more than additional care in the discrimination between local terms, and, on the whole, the later enumeration may fairly be taken as more correct than its predecessor. There are other causes of variation, but they are exceptional. One tribe suffered more severely than others from the serious
less civilised tribes

Castes and Caste-Groups.

F.

Hill Tribes.

127

epidemic, called the "black disease", which ravaged the valley a few years back another, the bulk of which resides beyond the frontier, may have sent more or fewer immigrants into British territory; elsewhere, the
:

Census was extended to tracts in which it was not possible to conduct the operations ten years before, and so on. Even now, there are tribes of considerable importance dwelling in the north-eastern and eastern hills,
which have not yet been enumerated. The information available, then, extends to the main Bodo group of the Brahmaputra valley and the Garo Hills; the KhasI of the hills bearing that name; the Mikir, similarly identifiable to the east, the Naga and the Kuki-Lushei, to the east and south, and to the small San tribes in the north-east. It is imperfect in the case of the Naga and the Cin, and also as regards the Himalayan tribes skirting the northern edge of the Brahmaputra valley. Of all the tribes comprised in these groups not more than two or three claim to have been always where they now are, and &ven
it is probable that it is only the tradition of immigration from the north-east which has been lost. The different waves of migration which landed most of them in their present home took place at such long intervals and from such various sources that there are few general characteristics common to the Mongoloidic population in the aggregate. In regard to religion, most of them profess the belief in one deity above the rest, but as he is passively benevolent only, the tribal worship has to be directed chiefly to the propitiation of local agencies which are actively malignant. This object is attained by the sacrifice of some animal, varying according to the occasion from a fowl to a buffalo, with a pig as a good working intermediate offering. The tribes of the valley have

in these cases

in some cases a levitical clan of priests, but generally, the officiator at the ceremonies is a medicine-man, either elected or hereditary, belonging Occasionally, especially in the eastern hills, the to the tribe or clan. village headman presides. In many tribes there is a belief in a future state, mixed with the possibility of the return of ghosts of deceased members of the tribe. Those who have seen a good deal of the everyday life of these bodies testify to their sound notions of tribal honour and morality, though in regard to strangers their institutions are apt to prove repellent. Amongst all the Naga tribes, for instance, and some of the Kuki and Cin, the custom of collecting the heads of members of other communities is only kept down where the British Government has established itself firmly, the inclination towards this form of vanity being as strong

Other tribes used habitually to raid their neighbours for girls to be kept as household slaves, the offspring being formed into a separate community, as is the case in the west of India. The village and its constitution, too, presents many interesting points of difference amongst the wilder tribes, and whilst most of the latter are content with the rude jungle cultivation which prevails amongst the Kol tribes, others have struck out a line of their own, and grow superior crops, in one case by means of an elaborate and almost unique system of irrigation.
as ever.

and boys

Some
as
its
is

tribes are divided into exogamous clans, mostly totemistic, so far known at present; others live in village communities, each under own ruler, independent of the rest. These, it may be assumed, are

closely stockaded and in a good situation for defence. Others acknowledge the sway of a local Chieftain owning several such villages. The unregenerate tribesman of the valley, builds his house on a platform and enters

128
it

5-

Ethnography.

by a ladder; whilst on conversion, he builds on ground-level and goes by a door. Omens, divination and witchcraft prevail throughout. § 92. (a) Bodo (817,300). Dealing first with the Brahmaputra valley, the principal tribe still in occupation is the Bodo, or Kacari. It is now chiefly found along the northern bank, from the western limit of the Province to the Darrang district. Formerly, however, it possessed territory far to the east and south, and in the latter direction it is still the principal population of the Hill Kacar tract, received, it is said, as a dowry from Tipparah, in the palmy days of Bodo dominion. The Bodo are undoubtedly of trans-Himalayan origin, but it is uncertain by what route and stages they reached the valley. It is said that they first rose into power in the north-east of the latter tract, and spread down the river and across it as they approached the plains. They have no traditions, and belong to the peoples of whom it has been said «their languages are their history*. Upon that basis, they are allied to the Garo, Mec, Rabha, Lalung and Tipparah tribes, and also to the Koc. In the present day the Bodo are a sturdy, independent, and remarkably clannish community of labourers. They have none of the objections of the hill tribes to seasonal migration, and frequent in large numbers the teagardens of the upper valley. Their tribal subdivision seems to be different in the Hill country from what it is in the valley. In the former exogamous sections are strictly maintained, but in the latter, such as there are seem to be weakening in vigour, and though nominally kept up, and the clan name still descending in the male line, marriages are no longer regulated in accordance with them, nor is the totemistic prohibition regarded,
in

except, perhaps, to the extent that the tiger clan are not allowed to abuse that animal when shot, as the rest do. The number of the tribal population is considerably more than the figure here quoted, sinc^e many of the converts to Brahmanism, as above stated, do not retain their tribal name, and whole villages in Upper Assam are inhabited by pure Bodo, though that title is not returned by a single family. Across the Brahmaputra, mainly in the range bearing their name, are the Garo. These claim to be autochthonous, but their tongue and customs indicate a close relationship to the Bodo and to the Lalung, a neighbouring tribe on the east, of the same race. The Garo are not found far from their hills, but a few thousands have made their way into the adjacent district of Bengal and across the river into Goalpara. The tribe is much subdivided. There are
four main clans, each of which has
religion the
pitiating
its numerous exogamous sections. In Garo resemble the Bodo, and have the same system of prothe malignant deities through the Kamal, a non-hereditary priest,

corresponding to the Deori of the others. The Lalung are now found on the north slope of the Jaintya hills, spreading into the valley bordering the Mikir country, with apparently a tendency to advance still more to the eastwards. Traditions differ as to their original home. Some clans say they came from the south bank of the Brahmaputra, others that they are wholly Jaintya, and have never lived anywhere else. They do not appear to have been in the low country when the Ahom invasion took place, in the 13 th and 14th centuries. It is said that they are succumbing to the influence of Brahmanism, but if this be so, they must either change their name on conversion or the enumerators at the Census must ignore their tendencies, as they are recorded as wholly Animistic in their beliefs. There is no doubt, however, that they are dropping their tribal language

Castes and Caste-Groups. F. Hill Tribes.
in favour of that of the lowlands.

129

The number

of

exogamous subdivisions

very large, and it does not appear that they are usually totemistic as a rule, but are named after some peculiarity of the founder. The Rabha is a tribe certainly of Bodo blood but whether a distinct community, allied to the Garo, or merely a branch of the Bodo, alongside of whom it is chiefly found, is not determined. Some have thought that the Rabha was a name given to a half- converted Garo or Kacari, and it is certain that there are Garo who have become Rabha without passing into Brahmanists, just as the Kacari passes into the same community without proceeding to the grade of K6c. The converts constitute a sub-tribe by themselves. On the whole, the Rabha hold themselves to be above the Bodo, but marry girls from the latter. The Bodo, on the other hand, does not marry a Rabha without some purificatory rites. The special dialect of the Rabha is said to be dying out in favour of Assamese, and the people who join the Brahmanists call themselves Koc, so the tribe is on the way to extinction. The Mec live mostly in the Tarai on the west of the Brahmaputra, partly in Assam, partly in Bengal. From their comparatively fair complexion and Mongoloidic features they are affiliated to the Bodo, though they have no tradition of ever having lived out of the Tarai. They intermarried with the Koc Chiefs, a fact which seems to support the theory of Bodo relationship. Towards the west, in Bengal, they are chiefly Brahmanists, and divided into two endogamous sub-tribes, one of which intermarries with the Dhimal, a tribe of different race, possibly Kol or sub-Himalayan Nepali. The Assam Mec have kept up customs much resembling those of the Lalung. A small tribe, akin to the Garo and Bodo, called Hajong, inhabits the southern slopes of the Garo hills, and has made its way into the Surma valley. This descent into the plain appears to have resulted in the formation of two clans, the
into

which the tribe

is

split

up

is

upper, which remains true to

ways of life, and the Brahmanised have also abandoned their tribal dialect in favour of a corrupt form of Bengali, the others speaking one of the varieties of Garo. Detached from the main body of the Bodo is the Mriing, called Tipparah by the Bengali, and now inhabiting the hills near the little State called by the latter name. A few of them are found in the Siirma valley, but most of these are said to be immigrants of quite recent arrival. Formerly the connection between the tribes was closer, as the Chiefs of Kacar and Tipparah intermarried. Now, the only link is that of language, as the bulk of the Mriing are Brahmanised, the Chief claiming to be a Rajput, and the nobles to belong to the Rajbansi order. The tribe is much subdivided, some clans holding an position far above that of the labourers and rude cultivators of the interior. Many of them are much fairer than any of their neighbours, and this, with their Mongoloidic features and Bodo speech, seems to connect them with the Brahmaputra rather than with the hills of Arakan. Last of the tribes coming within this group is the formerly dominant community of the Cutiya, which, however, repudiates the connection with the Bodo indicated by their language. They are said in the ancient Assam histories to have come down from the north-east, and to have founded a kingdom in that corner of the valley afterwards expanding southwards into Sibsagar and Nowgong. They came into contact with the Ahom, and were dethroned in 1500. Before that date they were in part Brahmanised, and their community is now divided into the Brahmanic, the Ahom, the Borahi, or porkits

tribal

community of the

valley.

The

latter

Indo-arische Philologie.

"
II. 5.

§ 93. is not known to . a tie. and Lakhimpur. are much less advanced. and the fourth. in order to help him against the invading Khamti. but have long been separated politically as well as geographically. Though few of these. The more Mongoloidic appearance of the remnants of the Deori clan seem to indicate that they have kept themselves freer from intercourse with the Bodo and Ahom than the rest of the Cutiya. though standing out for some generations. rather than by religious conviction. are now. a stronger race. and occupied in upper Assam the same dominant position which the Bodo held lower down the river. It is found in the Sibsagar and Lakhimpur districts. on social considerations. they may be briefly mentioned here owing to some alleged connection between them and the Bodo race. and settled on the outskirts of the Naga hills. by the Disang. Brahmanism. and seems to be receiving recruits from the hills to the north of the latter and from Darrang. and it is conjectured that it was the pressure of these northern kinsfolk which drove the Miri to the lowlands. The principal object of their worship is Durga. who reduced them to a servile condition. and the Deorl. (b) The Himalayan tribes (48. who was enthroned in place of the numerous evil spirits to whom the tribe paid homage before their conversion. It is advisable to note that the name of Miri which means Middlemen in Assamese. In any case they do not entrust their principal sacrifices to other than their own tribal priests. who only visit the plains for the purpose of trading. The Miri say that they were invited down by the Ahom Chief at the end of the i8th century. Sibsagar. enlarging the is the habit of lodging a whole family under building as the numbers increase. They are no doubt of the same origin.I30 eaters. keeping secret the instructions of the Gosai and paying their annual fee to that functionary. however. Even now. it is said. has now succumbed. The Miri is the only tribe which has settled in British territory to any considerable extent. which is closely allied to that of the Bodo. The Deorl have remained in and about their original seat in the extreme north-east. their tribal Nowgong. in a separate community. and their women folk work with them in the The Hill Miri. or Levitical body. because the change of faith has not induced the settled population of the valley to intermarry with them or to accord them any better position than before they paid toll to their spiritual adviser and renounced beef. The two first have been for some time almost completely converted to Brahmanism. The BorahT are a lower class and were the first to fall before the Ahom. language. the services of Brahmans are not called for. are good cultivators. have descended into British territory. 5- Ethnography. At present the majority of the Cutiya are found to the south of the Brahmaputra.000). and the sacrifices are performed by the Deori and his assistants. They have preserved their original type in spite of considerable defections from the tribal religion. One of their social peculiarities worth mentioning one roof. They are now apparently almost extinct as The Cutiya have lost. and is almost confined indeed to the observance of the initiatory injunction of offering prayers. They field. until sometimes more than a hundred persons are thus sheltered. which has long been severed. Their professed Brahmanism sits very lightly upon both priest and layman. and those who have nominally accepted the guidance of the Gosai. affects them but superficially. along with their religion. All the Miri are connected with the Abor. it is said reverting. however. and have a somewhat different worship and belief from the others. and those not the more important.

Both tribes speak of themselves by their clan. § 94. the tribe valley. to the greater accessibility of the Jaintya hills from the plains on the south. where his convictions were modified by a persuasive Gosai. On the other hand. and differ considerably from the surrounding tribes in customs as in speech. each forming a little republic under its own head. who chanced to be com- The latter — — pelled to serve a certain time in a British jail. and the meaning of which is un- known. and sold for the same purpose to their kinsmen. with two smaller communities of the same tract. They are a warlike community. The religions present the same general features. The Daphla. appear to be the remnants of a wave of the Mon-speaking race. it is thought. they appear to have received a greater admixture of foreign blood. The Sainteng show less disposition to change. though mainly of the old faith. the Daphla. and the woman is the head of the family. The Abor have not yet settled to any great extent within British territory. they have two subdivisions. with a faint and dim notion of a future state in which husband and wife rejoin each other. languages it was pointed out that these two. whom they kept as household slaves themselves. but have more than once made raids therein. and is thus appropriate enough. The former reside in the western portion of the range bearing their name. In the sister hills. F. Their clans are very numerous. The KhasI. itself. are divided into petty States or independent groups of villages. but are remarkable for the unanimity with which they combine into a tribal whole for purposes of resistance or plunder. and the Abor and Daphla have not been reached even by the light touch of the Miri form of Brahmanism. for instance. Inheritance is in the female line. each of which is known to the Assamese by a title implying plunder. has a few members who are reported to have been converted by one of their Chiefs. They used to be keen on the capture of girls and boys. No money or gift passes on marriage. on the west. and in addition to their general title which is not used by them. On the contrary. The Aka. in which case she belongs to her second. though sharing the religion and customs of the KhasI. without any more general designation. whilst the Sainteng share In treating of with the Lalung the Jaintya portion of the same range. Hill Tribes. and the young couple do not set up house until a child is born.Castes and Caste-Groups. though generally thought to belong to the Abor-Miri race. and a few have become Brahmanists. who appoints twelve local officials to carry on . The religion is the usual propitiation of evil spirits. They have no traditions of any other home. left stranded by the main body. have the same titles for their sub-tribes. and show but little tendency to settle in the lower ranges. and all three speak much the same tongue. and to some extent. who call themselves Nyising regard the Abor as the leading meaning of both terms being unknown tribe of their race and the Miri as poor relations.500). due. These tribes belong to the same stock and speak the same language. The numerous exogamous KhasI clans. The Aka. they are in close relations with the Tibet authorities on the other side. (c) The KhasI and Sainteng (159. a tribe adjacent to the Daphla on the west. which resulted in punitive expeditions. the country is altogether under the Chief of Jaintya. differ considerably from both of these in appearance. Of late the Khasi have been converted in considerable numbers to Christianity. 131 any more than that of Abor is recognised except in the means Independent. unless a widow has married again. are based upon descent from a female ancestor. again. who live the other side the of the Miri.

The largest tribe. an appellation so common amongst forest tribes that it affords no guide to identification. though theoretically less in authority.800^. some containing as many as 800 houses. From the language.132 the village affairs. The traditions it has regarding its former home are vague and valueless. apparently from the Manipuri. The sacrifices to them. exogamous. however. but his example. to the south. § 96. is as popular as ever. (e) The Naga tribes (162. and their tribal designations are seldom those by which they are called by their neighbours. but a subdivision of the population thus concentrated. They are peculiar amongst their kind in these parts in not congregating in large villages. but do not. Kol or Mongoloid. Whatever may be their connection with the Naga or other races. in 5- Ethnography. to observe certain restrictions in diet when out of their own village. They are subdivided into several large sections which may. after having spent some time alongside of the Kuki and other tribes. are more active. The Mikir are excellent agriculturists in their own line and keen traders in disposing of their crops. is the Angami.300). tribal devil- as just mentioned. called Tengima by its own members. like almost all hill-tribes. as outside aid was called in to take part. himself is The Chief a Brahmanist. § 95. the Mikir stand second to the Bodo and above the rest of the tribes here mentioned. no adequate account of them is available. They are conducted by priests who are selected from the elders of the clan. drive. carried with extraordinary . it is said. they themselves deny any relationship with their neighbours. The large size of their villages is probably the result of their adoption. whilst a later section doubled back northwards. The communities themselves know of no general title. but it probably occupied the low range which goes by its name after leaving the Jaintya hills. up to the Naga hills. meaning simply Man. Physically. whether men or women. (d) The Mikir (87. they abstain from making use of milk. and carefully stockaded and guarded against attack. and until this is given to the world. Their chief god is benevolent and powerful. of the system of permanent cultivation by irrigated channels. The Mikir call themselves Arleng. A large amount of information about them has been collected in connection with the Ethnographic Survey. but in building a few large houses close to their fields. and generally work mischief. but of late a certain number on the southern limits of their tract have begun. The unit of the tribe is not. but his subordinates. accordingly. are more frequent. some affinity to the Naga race. This name is applied by the outside world of Assam to a collection of tribes occupying a considerable hilly region between Manipur and the south bank of the Brahmaputra. though in habits it is supposed to have and appearance it might well be affiliated to the Bodo. It is settled along the western ranges of the hills. called Khel or Tepfu. the village. It is probable that they reached their present locality from two directions. They are great breeders of buffaloes. intermarry. and said to be derived from a single ancestor. The Tengima reside in unusually large villages. This tribe inhabits the lower portion of the Khasi range on the north-east and has spread over the plain to the east. has not been contagious. and the annual which every male takes part. Faction-fights between these bodies are frequent and used to be bloody. Until recently they had resisted the temptation to embrace Brahmanism. One branch came down from the north-east. but. as far as is at present known. and is one of the communities said to have come from the south. The villages are set upon a hill.

though they have not notions of what happens to the soul when it leaves the formulated their body. were being pressed hardly by the Lusei. . but they elect a headman for each village to manage its affairs. The villages. superior. The Ao Naga tribe came from the north. Hill Tribes. They differ from the hills other Kuki in having no Chief. The Ao are really two communities. and probably the other tribes. The existence of exogamous clans is probable. they are spreading eastwards. near Kohima. The victims were treated well. The Sema. like castes. sought the lower hills. In Kacar they are beginning to mould their diet upon Brahmanic lines but not so as to interfere materially with their ancestral habits. the two tribes have much the same beliefs and practices. the Cungli and Mongsen.200). endowed with considerable authority and privileges. neighbouring tribes used to be a regular custom. in contradistinction to the Sima. The Rangkol. They are subdivided into eight social grades. their neighbours. are a quiet and industrious people. over a wilder country. but the nomenclature obtained at the Census throws no light upon this point. with the all-important difference that they intermarry with each other and with other tribes. trees and rocks. under the adjacent tribe. the Luyang. with the exception of the Manipuri and Lusei. The Lhota. As to the large number of tribes in this group which live in the interior and south of the hills. They have the usual vague supreme god and a future state. which they convey themselves to the river for sale. worship one chief and several minor deities. as in the valley. for their barbarism and ferocity. on the contrary. of course more or less suppressed. (f) The Kuki tribes (200. being evilly entreated by other tribes. are in practice independent democratic units. which speak different dialects and intermarry. Almost the same remark applies to these. skill F.200). The enslavement of members of north-east of the in their hills. little information beyond their titles is at present available. In habits they resemble the Rengma. each having its own exogamous sub-sections. The beginning and the end of harvest are celebrated. and is settled to the are inferior to the Tengima in physique but their buildings and villages are. nevertheless. village. and select one of their own clan to serve as priest. This tribe came from the south east. and has occupied a considerable tract round its present settlement. though they adhere to the old method of cultivating on burnt patches of jungle. east of the Mikir. though nominally governed by a headman. when they were usually sacrificed. and the Mayarang. who were driven north by others of the same race. if anything. Their worship is devoted to the propitiation of the spirits of nature. or Sima. except when paid over as fine or ransom to another village. and cause illnesses. where they alone of all the Naga have taken to something approaching the life of the population of the plains.400) seems to have absorbed the others. Beyond a few special tribal customs. In the Kacar are found some called the "Old Kuki" (67. with elaborate festivals. 133 tribal belief in a and labour round the slopes of the hills. They manage. who. has a hereditary headman. but are distinguished even among the Naga. in turn. or Chief. the Khumal. the Ningthauja or Meithei. They used to prey upon the lands of the Ao. to grow a good deal of cotton. now. § 97.Castes and Caste-Groups. who inhabit pools. but having been headed off under British control. The principal tribes of the former are the Rangkol and the Bete. The population of Manipur is divided into four tribes. A section of the latter. The men and way of life. of which the Meithei (69. The Sima are more akin to the Tengima than to any other of the local tribes.

It seems. but is laid out differently. the then Chief. who is entirely independent but has recognised duties towards his fellow villagers. always with reference to connection with the eponymous founder. The Brahmans who first entered the State upon their mission of conversion were given wives of the class of Kei.600). to whom many of them act as cooks. they have 300 deities of the old worship who are still propitiated through the native priest. Like most of the Kuki. Navaz. however.000 Manipuri found on the record are bastard Bengali enumerated in Kacar and its vicinity. § 9^. This people. into which body their descendants also married. The tribe is not given to head-hunting for the mere sake of the trophy. Since then. the religion of the Lusei does not materially differ from that of the tribes just mentioned. whom they drove out some sixty or seventy years ago. however. and seems to carry into his warfare the qualities which makes him successful against wild animals. like those of the Naga. Each village is under one of these petty Chieftains. The result is that at the Census only 33 of the inhabitants of the State returned the tribal name. The clans and subdivisions are many. or Maiba. not only have most of the Meithei become Ksatriya. The monarch thereupon embraced their creed and was invested with the sacred thread. are still in existence. however. and now to constitute a sort of receptacle for anyone degraded from the Ksatriya class. but the rank has been conferred by the Chief upon a plentiful supply of recruits from the surrounding Kuki and Naga tribes. whilst the 33. the Lusei is a keen and expert hunter and snarer. and transfer allegiance to another village. and in return receives a certain share of each man's rice crop. a Chief of the Lusei had subjugated most of the hill villages around him. that a Loi who embraces Brahmanism and has never been degraded from any other position. and in every house hangs the basket containing the household god. Long previous to that date. They also observe the great Krsna festivals in their native country. for he rarely attacks except from ambush or by a surprise. may be made at once a Ksatriya. or Naga slaves of the Chief.134 5- Ethnography. and his descendants are said to be the progenitors of the present numerous Chiefwho rule the tract. and with him a large number of his people. or Kuki. in front of the house of the Chieftain. and seem to consist of the descendants of an individual. Nevertheless. where a small colony of them appears to reside. are of the same race as the Thado. who call themselves Dulien. was persuaded by some Brahmans at his court that he and his subjects were Ksatriya of the Lunar race. The only remedy against a too despotic headman The village itself is is to flit. and the original families of the clan have their own dialect. Except in detail. but cuts off the head of his enemy in order to prove to the women at home that he actually killed tains . by the inhabitants. for the convert is most particular as to diet and intercourse with his inferiors. The connection of the ruling family with the Jadav clan has naturally attracted the Manipuri Ksatriya to Mathura. the centre of Krsna-worship. stockaded.(g) The Lu§ei (63. so that the sacerdotal caste does not bear any special title to respect in the eyes of the local Ksatriya. by whose trade or nickname the section In 1720. called by the Muslim title of Gharib is called. The Loi clan of the population seem to be descended from the Mayarang. and is used as a general title The exogamous sub- divisions of the tribes. the streets radiating from a square in the centre. but they seem constantly to be being absorbed or reformed. The Loi are the helots and labourers of the State.

By 1500 they had subjugated the Ciitiya and forty years later. who stand at the head of the San community of Assam. and. they withdrew when the Burmese entered Assam. and the other in the Naga hills. they accepted the invitation of the Ahom to settle along the Dihing. The Nora belong to one of the tribes of the Ahom which elected to remain on the east of the range when the main body crossed into Assam. still more by the Khamti. They did not make direct for Assam. in consequence of a dynastic dispute. alike in creed and language. but halted on the way. The portion of this great race which has found a home in British India is but small. as many are set down simply as San. They have been mentioned more than once in connection with tritial religion and language.600). The Phakial also belonged to the Mogaung kingdom. Their decline set in on the conversion of the Chief to Brahmanism. Amongst these are the Khamtl. settled in two bodies. however. or Kacen. From these it appears that they left Mogaung on the Irawadi about 1228. Both. They recovered from a severe defeat at the hands of the Koc. a very complete series of histories of their career. and others as Buddhist. The Aiton.Castes and Caste-Groups. South of the Lusei Hills. obliged several small bodies of different tribes to cross the Patkai. however. Finally. They encroached. getting possession of the valley as far west as Gauhati. Hill Tribes. and crossed the Patkai into the north-east corner of the province which now bears their name. without any tribal title. another tribe of the same origin. All the above tribes are Buddhist and have their own priests. one near the others of their race. with . The break-up by the Burmese of the Mau San dominion on the upper Irawadi. and were only released on the arrival of a British expedition in 1825. They intermarried with their captors and are accordingly looked down upoiT by the Nora. . are gradually becoming Brahmanised. of comparatively recent settlement. they came. having settled in the valley. sent for them to join the colony. though professing Buddhism. § 99. and were finally scattered about 70 years ago. F. however. that the Nora. Being probably pressed by the Singpho. with one exception. got into trouble about their practice of raiding for slaves. many returning across the hills to the Irawadi. they were taken prisoners and enslaved by the Singpho. from which. having abandoned their tradition and practice in regard to both. and settle east of Sadiya. on the Brahmaputra. the tribes almost entirely belong to Burmese which this review is not concerned. and had to leave when the Burmese overran their country. A few years later another colony appeared and settled in the same tract. a small band of refugees from the San court of Mungkong. 135 him. Turung brides are taken by the others. They have preserved. the Kacari or Bodo dominion fell to them. From this they were ejected about a century ago by the Singpho. The Khamtl were originally connected with the Ahom. and repulsed on several occasions an invasion by the Muslim. about 1760. the only tribe of long settlement and political importance. who will be mentioned later. however. and it was with the permission of the Ahom Chief that the former obtained a foothold in Assam. The Census figures for these small communities are anything but accurate. from one of their halting places in the north-east. and came into Assam for safety. and afterwards near Jorhat. Turung. there are the Ahom. Discontent arose races. and later. to near Goalpara. but none are given in return. where they now are. (h) The San tribes (4. On the way. They are also called Khamjang. Nora and Phakial. It is said by the Turung. and as they were oppressed by Kacen.

and the third comprises all who are bound to render services to the Chief. About 340 are returned under their tribal religion. So few families of the great Kacen race are found within the borders of India. The Limbu touch the Kirata tract on the west. Some rebelled the government was withdrawn down the valley. and there they have remained. The Lepca. Nowadays.800). along with a tribe known there as Jimdar. or are serving in the Gorkha regiments in Assam. that the latter had not reached the upper valley by the 13 th century. though one of their subdivisions down from the Chinese frontier. who would limit the territory associated with that ancient title to the tract between the Dud-Kosi and the Tambor river. the Ahom are all nominally Brahmanists except about 400. and it is said to be only a matter of time for the whole tribe to be absorbed into the various castes of the valley. but it would not be allowed to them across the Nepal frontier. but have now conformed. The Khambu . who form a separate community called Doania. It is curious that whilst the little that remains of the sacred writings of the Ahom is in a language closely resembling that of the Khamti. It may be inferred from this. a pretension which is not allowed by the Yakha. or. has been appropriated by the Khambu living in the Darjiling territory. that is. but the Doania are inclining towards Brahmanism.136 5- Ethnography. claim to be the original is said to have come and Li mbu assert themselves to belong to the Kirata race. This title. and some changes in diet are gradually adopted. the Burmese were called in. It seems that the Ahom were divided into classes but whether these were endogamous or not is uncertain. perhaps. The Singpho (1. The Limbu are amongst the earliest inhabitants of the country where they are still found. however. and the rest belong to Nepal. The middle class is divided functionally. The main feature of interest in connection with them is that the offspring of their alien slaves. and the Lepca on the east. that the only reason for mentioning them is the reference made above to their interception of bodies of immigrants on their way to Assam. and ended in absorbing the whole kingdom. where no Census has been taken. within this group only a few are settled in British territory.600). in power towards the end of the i8th century. under their Assamese designation of Singpho. amongst those who would not follow his example. or Rais. Of the tribes coming § loi. Both are Buddhist in the main. as they call themselves. § 100. In the present day the distinctions based on occupation and on service formerly rendered are dying out. Almost all of the former class are concentrated in Sikkim. and from their appearance Their petty Chieftains were it seems that they are originally from Tibet. or "the Men". the Khambu on the north. as the limits of that country are here understood. where they live themselves. stood out for some time longer seat of than the rest. The priests. Himalayan (Nepali) tribes (218. until the British took possession. the Rong. The highest class comprises the Chiefs family and six or seven others of rank. The whole tribe has become to a greater or less extent Brahmanised. . About a century ago a small colony of the northern Kacen made their way into the same corner of the valley as the rest of the Irawadi races had done. Darjiling and the immediate neighbourhood. the Ahom were never Buddhists. now outnumber their former lords and masters. when the Gorkha occupied inhabitants of Sikkim. whilst the Nepali subjects are either sojourners in or about the same locality. There were also Levitical or priestly families. the spiritual authority of a Gosal is acknowledged. as in the case of the Cutiya.

They profess Brahmanism. common to all the tribes of the neighbourhood. Buddhism is professed by the whole tribe. and have half-assimilated a good deal of Brahmanism which is obscuring the Buddhism they brought with them. though. and if a Lama be not at hand. after a stout resistance from the Limbu. their worship is carried on by any layman who has mastered the procedure. Murmi and other Himalayan Mongoloids are admitted into the Limbu ranks after certain ceremonies. The Limbu have their own priests as well as using the exorcists. and it is possible that these are the descendants of the semi-Chinese band introduced along with one of the Sikkim Chiefs from across the Tsan-pu. but employ no Brahmans. They seem to have some faint reminiscence of Buddhism in portions of their worship. They rank as a pure caste in Nepal. moves off to fresh woods. without reference to the claims of the Yakha mentioned above. A certain number of the Limbu have entered into close relations with the Lepca. The Lepca probably represent two different immigrations from Tibet or its eastern frontier. Amongst the clans. but the sections are now amalgamated. trees and village gods are not neglected. or Bijua. At the same time. so that this title has been merged in the general tribal designation at the Census. in Nepal the order may be different as regards the Yakha. the Lepca is working a little more steadily than he was accustomed to do before the British occupied Darjiling. veil of Buddhism of the Himalayan type. such as Hayu. whilst the Khambu and Yakha may be adopted without such formalities. Probably their real creed is that of old Tibet. They indifferently profess S'aivism when amongst Brahmanic castes and employ the Lama at a higher altitude. in which he can burn enough vegetation to manure his patch of rice or maize. intermarrying with them and eating their food. of the Tarai. however. The Murmi have been long in their present locality. Thami. two stand above the rest. and their Lamas are all from Tibet. These last. and serve an ancestral deity through Home. 137 Nepal. and Danuar. the Khambu. but he still objects to remaining more than a few years in one locality. Hill Tribes. where those who own land call themselves Jimdar. Their kinsfolk and neighbours. and may once have passed through a phase of that creed. The Tibetan strain is much more marked in the Murmi than in most of the tribes hitherto mentioned. They intermarry with a beef-eating tribe of Khambu from the north of the main range. and do not intermarry with other Lepca or with Limbu. but will eat with the Kirata and Lepca. stones. But though the Brahman officiates for them at the festivals of his creed. the usual name for the tribe is Tamang Bhotia. indeed. irrespective of the quarrel about nomenclature. and incorporated the Kirata land with their new acquisition. live on the southern range of the Himalayan system. behind a is invoked. are only sparse and occasional residents in British India. and after a season or two of careless cultivation. The latter take rank amongst the Kirata tribes after the Khambu and before the Yakha. but against the more actively malevolent spirits the aid of the Bijua or Ojha Their religion is very much that of the Limbu. as above remarked. and the subdivisions are almost all Tibetan in their titles. The majority of . F. priests corresponding to the Bijua of the other Tibetan communities. and on that account. like many of the Himalayan tribes. In the present day. a course which amongst the other Kirata places them outside their fellows. and the Lama is called in for marriages. it appears that the Lepca. are kept at arm's length by the Kirata of the west.Castes and Caste-Groups. as well as the lower tribes of Kirata.

it should be noted that the term Gorkha is used outside the State of any recruit of a Nepal tribe. are not a caste. Since. It is also on record. known as the Mukhya. is often substituted for the Brahman. differentiated into functional divisions which gradually grew into castes. It was the combination of these which overthrew the Nevar rule in the middle of the 1 8th century. whilst the others are gaining ground on the south ranges and valleys. The Nevar. probably. The Nevar in British territory. and a member of the Lama sub-caste. or Gorkha. The two stand absolutely aloof from each other in all social matters. The Mangar and Sunuvar both hail from western Nepal. In their case there is no question of mixed origin. In connection with the recruiting of so-called Gorkha soldiers. but it correctly appertains to the Mukhya tribes only. with a strong admixture of Brahman blood. mentioned at the beginning of this paragraph. with the peculiarity that with Ksatriya rank the patronymic titles are all Brahmanic. The Khas is a thoroughly Brahmanised community. Their appearance and the nomenclature of their subdivisions stamp them as Mongoloid of the Tibetan type. from the interior. In the tribal worship and ceremonial there remains a good deal of the Himalayan animism. and established that of the Gorkha. though not a professional ministrant. To help on this task the families of highest rank were dubbed Ksatriya. however. many Brahmans had to fly for refuge to the hills. of whom a few thousands are found in the same locality as the Murmi and Kirata. but the condonation of the abduction of them from each other. the Mongoloidic origin is no less apparent. that in the 14th century. The five principal tribes of Nepal. whilst the Aryan strain is undoubtedly existent in the Khas. there has been. § 102. are the Khas. though both are now what are called "undeveloped" Brahmanists. not exactly an interchange of brides. being away from the strict organisation imposed upon the community by the Chief of the race ruling before the Gorkha. the Gurung has abandoned Buddhism for the creed of his rulers. imported. Thus. however. from the caste of the father. when there is a suspicion of sorcery or witchcraft. . and both made their way east-ward by the same route. the Gurung. These two stocks furnished the now dominant class in the State. as between this tribe and the four others of the Mukhya. tribes. Both are agriculturists and soldiers. was himself a direct descendant of one of the Udepur line.138 5- Ethnography. and thus lose position if they venture back into their native land. grow very lax in the matter of intermarriage. At the same time. but the aggregate of the early inhabitants of Nepal. The Nevar are both Brahmanists and Buddhists. On the advent of the Muslim. the Mangar also doing something in the way of petty trade. and the same rank was stipulated for by them for the offspring of their own order by the hill women. and that the Gorkha Chief who in turn dispossessed the intruder from the plains. the latter are attracted to the Tibetan frontier. who suffer no degradation thereby. and are served by Upadhya Brahmans. The Gurung rank next to the Khas among the fighting. like the rest. who fled to Gorakhpur after defeat by the Muslim. In their native place the Murmi are an agricultural class. the Man gar and the Sunuvar. those enumerated in British territory are probably labourers in the tea gardens of Darjiling. a Rajput Chief of north Bihar dispossessed an ancient Hill Rajput dynasty. where they settled amongst the local tribes and proceeded to bring them into conformity with their own scheme of life. and set up a principality of his own on the upper Gandak.

in some parts of the country. predominates more or less over all Muslim designations.000 nominally belong to the on the north-west frontier. must be taken with the above qualifications. the long supremacy of the Mughal has endowed that race with a halo which is still attractive to the local convert.442. 139 the Nepal rulers have for a generation or more taken into their service recruits from the Kirata tribes. Vaisya and S'udra. it will have been seen. the name of Sekh is practically assumed to connote native. in the Panjab. In the British army. The latter. They are now apparently merged in the Pathan or Jat tribes. Mughal or Pathan. that they consider themselves bound. accordingly. where the Arab is chiefly found. and. the titles § 103. true to their secular connection with India. as already stated above. when accepting Islam. without detail. or foreigners. some of the Gorkha battalions contain a good many of this class. The returns of Mother-tongue would justify still further diminution. except in the Panjab and Kashmir. the latter being the progeny of Arab or sometimes Makrani fathers by wives taken from some local SunnT caste. however. of taking this name on conversion is justified by . to enrol themselves as either Sekh. Ksatriya. About 4. again. in connection with the ports on the Persian Gulf. instead of foreign. The others. The common practice just referred to. In the Panjab. and. § 104. it is said that converts from Brahmanism are so deeply imbued with the notion of a fourfold division of society. and the Muvallad. that the proportion of foreign blood is that indicated by the prevalence of the above titles. in whose household the current vernacular is Hindustani. The small number returning themselves Arab.441. and the remaining 434. too. especially in Assam.000. adopted Islam en masse. G. On the contrary. Muslim Race Titles. the ruling race before the Talpur. It must not be supposed. principally from Hadramat. Those whose names imply Arab descent amount to 30. origin. which ought to be the most honourable. apply most extensively to the communities purporting to belong to the native land of the Prophet. nearly all the Arabs of Sindh bear the title of Kalhora. belong to a subdivision of Banjara. (a) Arabian (25. but they are brigaded into regiments by themselves. G. The Arabs settled in India permanently are generally guards in the service of native Chief or kept by the principal bankers in the same capacity. and the region round Delhi.000 affiliate themselves to races introduced by the Central Asian dynasties which successively ruled from Delhi. The figures now to be reviewed. The two small tribes of Hans and Khagga. then. who have naturally overflowed into Sindh and upper India.000. with the modern addition of horse-dealing. finally. as they are the most numerous on tribes the record.900). In eastern Bengal. bringing the total down to about 75. or native-born.239. might be still further reduced were the Kalhora to be treated as an indigenous body. which. are merchants and traders. except in the case of the frontier races. Muslim Race Titles. but in as the west of India. Saiyad. the community is divided into the Vilayatl. Of the total Muslim population of India nearly 58 per cent bear of races foreign to the country. The title of Sekh is widely spread over the country. Nearly nine tenths of the Turk. are also said to be Arabs who came by land and settled north of Multan.Castes and Caste-Groups. fostered by the traditional sacerdotal partition of the Indian world into Brahman.

The second Khalif. the favourite section is decidedly the Siddlqi. as it were. Thus. the Distinguisher of Right from Wrong. like a celebrated Saiyad of 'Iraq. too. a province which stands between the ignorance of eastern Bengal and the exclusiveness of the upper valley. giving the convert the opportunity of retaining his former status. in upper India where Islam was the State religion. as in the upper Gangetic region. of Nau-Muslim. In some Provinces the details of Sekh have been tabulated. the two last being descended from India. the Banu 'Abbas Sekh are derived from his uncle. also under rulers of this creed once. The Saiyad. this title covers 85 per cent of the total Muslim population. named As Siddiq. the Quresi. Others have adopted geographical names. in . In Lower Bengal. who sheltered the Prophet. as is to be expected. but for the most part the value of the return is vitiated by the preponderance of those who failed to have this information entered against their names. such as Rajput. The Ansari. The Sekh are much subdivided. the tribe to which the Prophet belonged. In the Gangetic region. Elsewhere it ranges from 25 to 40. and in Mysore.140 5- Ethnography. 'Abbas. the return indicates in most cases no more than the personal preference of the householder. not by his other wives. whose family settled in upper the train of one of the Muslim conquerors. one family is said many others. Indeed. the larger communities often contain a Brahmanic and a Muslim branch. Originally. and where. In Bihar. Sabzawari. and in the Panjab where conversion does not affect caste or social position. Abu Bakr. so far as the information goes. BilgramT. except in the north. and in Sindh the QuresI have been separately given. In the Muslim State of Haidarabad. It is smaller. or raw-recruits. such as Bukhari. it is over 60 per cent. from his great grandfather. are. from which 80 per cent of the Sekh are returned. the corresponding proportion is 70 per cent. and the line is generally limited to his offspring by Fatma. with a change in his worship only. At best. or the Truthful One. from his cousin. who became his son-in-law. The Siddlql are so called from the first Khalif. who are allowed to pass directly into a race-title. Barha. Babhan or Kayasth. but the return is only partial. and from him come the Faruqi. the Hasimi. and after it. it is only the converts of the higher castes. the Hadith. and their further advancement depends upon their conduct or worldly prosperity. the descendants of 'All. the term denoted eldership or a position of authority only. and of the descendants of his own family and of his relations. though throughout the greater part of India the sections have little more significance than the main title. the proto-martyrs of the faith. a title said to be derived from Sud. J'afarT. Thus the primary division of the Saiyad is into the claimants through Hasan and those through Hussain. Those of humbler origin have to spend a time in the probationary grade. amongst the Arabs. Omar. or Helpers. Probably in all the tracts surrounding Delhi and the principal seats of Muslim authority there are families of Saiyad who hold their estates by inheritance from ancestors who rendered distinguished service to the Mughal power either in the field or in administration. and so on with several more of these subdivisions. or saying of the Prophet "All converts to my faith are of me and my tribe". was called Faruq. but many call themselves after other relatives of the Prophet. were the inhabitants of Al Medinah. cousin of the Prophet. gain. In the Panjab. It subsequently became the special designation of the Qures. and often a very slight one even in that. using the same titles as the Sekh. strictly speaking.

being as they are. is not in such cases very clearly drawn. yet he maintains more Saiyad than the Baluc. Qizilbas. The inclusion among the former of the Turkiya sub-caste of Banjara has been mentioned. assuming them to be of really pure descent. which is found in the parts of the Panjab where Islam predominates but the Pathan influence is not supreme.600). the representatives of families brought into Bengal and the south Dekkan by the semi-independent Viceroys of Delhi. to signify his belief in the rank of 'All as premier Khalif. The only permanent colony is that left by Timur in Hazara at the end of the 14th century. For there are. and who now. The Mughal element. though in some cases reduced to take to lowly occupations for a living. In the north there is the tendency already mentioned to assume the title of Mughal on conversion or on rising in the world. however. is not so well attested. irrespective of race or descent. perhaps. Sunni Saiyad as well as those of the SI' ah sect. Nevertheless. away from the frontier. 141 have "made four Timurides emperors. from Babar downwards. dethroned and killed two. to G. In the west coast. and. which is a practice said to have received the approval of the great Emperor Akbar. and too often is a member of "that pestilential horde of holy men. it should be noted. or members of the Mughal or Pathan races. there are considerable numbers of true immigrants. who is a temporary sojourner in Kashmir and Peshawar. The real Turk in the north is the traveller or merchant from Turkistan. and subdivisions are returned which are common to both. The disbetween Turk and Mughal. it is hard to say which is the more unduly magnified in the Census returns. too. in Bombay and a few other towns. in Bihar and round Delhi. at all events. however. but as seldom as possible. who not only prey upon the substance of the people but hold them in the most degrading bondage".Castes and Caste-Groups. or more correctly. there is a tendency to introduce endogamous subdivisions. depends a good deal upon that of the family in its neighbourhood. and occasionally. and even Caghatai. Along the Jamna. and those who bear it are probably correctly described. in theory. there are probably a few families of Osmanli. There is also. upon their family tinction . the Mughal and Pathan. too. by adopting himself into the company of the Apostles. to which. as equal in rank to the Saiyad and Sekh. Then. far down to the south. As a rule. and their position. settled upon estates conferred by the Turk Emperors. especially if he be of the creed of Islam. Turk is the equivalent amongst the peasantry for any official. In the western Panjab the Saiyad is usually a religious teacher. (b) Mongol (394. with some respectable local family of the same sect. however. as. "The Pathan is a bigoted Sunni. and Mughal serves the same purpose in Orissa and the east Dekkan. once known as "the friends of 'Ali". consequently. in the south and east is better defined.. for instance. all ought to belong. to make existing sections endogamous. generally hold to their rank and intermarry only with other Saiyad. there are Saiyad settled whose forefathers followed the fortunes of some one or other of the Muslim invaders. as the convert of those parts does not affect the title. apart from the selection of this rank by converts of high Brahmanic caste. and in Haidarabad. In the interior. the Turk and the Mughal. are not considered. Muslim Race Titles. and blinded and imprisoned three". Of the two races which entered § 105. The genealogy of most of the Saiyad of India. India with the Ghaznavides and later. Turkman. the tribe of Babar. it is reported to be not uncommon for a Muslim changing his sect from Sunni to ST'ah.

accepted with equal zeal and devotion the exceedingly narrow and superstitious form of Islam now current amongst them. either bastards of the upper classes. took the first opportunity of reverting to their former . and the further detail of selecting a tribe or clan presents no more difficulty to him than that of a Rajput clan does to an aspiring Kol. In the former. very well deserved. on the other hand. and religious observances of their neighbours. has impressed its name upon the whole country. but not to anything like the amount indicated on the face of the returns for regions like Bengal or the peninsula. the Pathan. It cannot be denied. with the customs. Buddhism. which was in the occupation of the Gandhari. The Caghatai. The Afghan. like all highlanders in the tribal stage. — whose Jewish origin is insisted on by several authorities. (c) The Pathan and Baluc Pathan identity of the high road to India which passes near them. Some of them. or Pastu. Thence they descended upon the Helmand valley. no doubt. first settled in the hill tracts of Ghor and Hazara. and the more they prosper the less respect they show for the hard life they have left behind. has his charm in his virile independence and his strict observance of the the great national code of hospitality and asylum. as (4. however. are soon softened by their circumstances. however. and regarded as unproved by others. by at all events the hillmen. even towards an enemy solace of his life. were people amongst whomBrahmanism found a favourable reception. lower edge of these communities. have become almost an integral part of the Muslim masses. and. and then.287. a foreign race which. like most of the proverbial sayings of the country-side.142 at the 5- Ethnography. Those who have settled in the plains of the Panjab. The term Pathan is now used to denote any one speaking the Pakhtun language. who go by the name of Mughal. these tribes must have been from time immemorial neighbours of India. that the epithet of "faithless". universally appended to his name by those who have to deal with him. even though within easy reach of their fellow tribesmen of the highlands. Most of them have engaged in trade. a Pathan tribe expelled from the Peshawar valley by one of the Scythian invaders. again. looking at the extent to which soldiers of fortune were settled by their victorious employers upon the land overrun by them. and thus includes the Afghan. They are strict Si'ah and do not intermarry with Indian Muslim. the latter especially lingering long in these secluded valleys and on the § io6. and are Sunni. however. the title of Pathan is regarded as the right of a converted member of a Brahmanic military caste. The Gandhari. however. language. and even occupants of some part of the territory which is now included in that country. These do not intermarry with the Mughal or better families of the Sekh. If the hypothesis of the with the Paktyes of Herodotus be true. is. there is a considerable sprinkling of Persian settlers and refugees. as is now generally believed. At the same time. The Pathan. In the interior of India there is no Province or State without its quota of this race. or have taken the title of their employers and patrons on conversion. in addition to the Caghatai. These people were dominated and then converted by the Afghan.000). there is a good deal of real Pathan blood disseminated amongst them. In the west of India. and anything less like the mild and tolerant character of the Indian Buddhist than the present temperament and habits of the frontier men of nowadays can hardly be imagined. a fringe of dependents who are among the Rajputs. who finally intermarried freely with them. indeed.

In the spring they re-assemble on the Indus. Here they deposit their arms. In addition to the Gandharl just mentioned. have been much altered^ The Kakar nearly obliterated the Dadi in Sewistan. In these lush pastures their superior size and strength. In addition to the Pathan colonies and the converts arrogating to themselves that title. the Khatak and Afrldi were dispossessed by the Turk to a great extent. 143 where. which remain longer in India. by large bands of other tribes. Kakar and Karlanri.. as the distance from the frontier increases. however. the Paktyes contained.000 Powindah. Large caravans assemble in the autumn to the east of Ghazni. where the Rohilla community. there is a floating population of from 100. the Aparytai. often as far as Bihar. the whole has been welded into one nation. the Sattagydai. they now reside. under the names of Yusufzai. or Dadi. selling the goods and horses they have brought from Kandahar and Central Asia. at that time. nor. They belong chiefly to the Ghilzai tribes. these tribes constitute the Pathan of to-day. and AbdalT. however. G. After rendering great assistance to Mahmud of Ghazni on his raids into India. The Ghilzai. etc. dispersing from that centre by their various routes through Herat and Kabul to the north. like its predecessors. Along with the Afghan. and a few Turk accretions brought down by Sabaktagin and his successors. also. taking up work as it suits them. arrived across the Bamian from Ghor. well known in history. whose original army grew like a snowball as he moved it across the hills to the plains of promise. when they transferred their headquarters to Kabul.Castes and Caste-Groups. under the guardianship of a detachment of their fighting men. seat. Mohmand. of the larger settlements of this race. or Afridf. the Ghilzai took possession of the country between Jellalabad and Qal'at-i-Ghilzai. and usually affecting tracts well known for their prosperity and the unwarlike character of their population. or Durrani. When these have been disposed of. by . is probably the best-knit. and the Dadikai. their connection with their kinsfolk is of the loosest. The tribal organisation gets weaker. They were soon followed. or itinerant traders of Pathan nationality. But through the operation of intermarriage and the adoption by all of the Pastu language. though. the Scythic Kakar. as is only to be expected. all of whom are ascribed to an Indian origin. and wander off across upper India. the Powindah act as pedlars on behalf of merchants in the larger towns. and march in armed bodies through the dangerous country of the Waziri and Kakar. but not belonging to the regular Powindah. and is scarcely to be found in its original form east of the Jamna. There are gangs. the Orakzai. as it is the most prosperous. Pathan. Some few of the band engage in contract labour for the season. Sirani.000 to 150. who were not Afghan. The territories occupied by the ancient people of that name. a Turk tribe which is Pathan but not Afghan. The modern Pathan inhabitants of upper India were first introduced by the Lodi and Sur dynasties. to the Indus at Dera Ghazl Khan. and wend their way back to Kandahar. and have since spread east and west from that nucleus. or Khatak. added to their loud The Afghans. leave their families encamped on the grazing grounds along the river. this time known as Tarin. with the usual fictions as to common descent to explain the fusion. remained round Kandahar until the i8th century. The tribes most numerously represented in this distribution were the Yusufzai. Ghilzai. Muslim Race Titles. according to ancient writers. the Wazlrl (said to be Parmar Rajputs). who were generously endowed with estates by the Ghazni Chiefs and also by Babar. and consisted chiefly of Ghilzai. owing to their nomad life. Lodi.

from which most of the rest claim to be descended. the and gruff voices provide them with a living until they are moved on by police towards a region where those qualifications are sufficiently familiar to fail to extort respect or alimony. It should not be forgotten. but the latter have advanced considerably to the north of this limit in the Indus valley. The tribes best represented and along the rivers are the MarrI. There are many Baluc tribes. thereafter being known only in middle Sindh. with their hereditary foe the Bughtr. For centuries the Brahui have been Muslim. Members of these exiled clans joined with their kinsfolk of the plains in rendering assistance § 107. however. Brahui. the independence of the artificial restrictions of caste and the strongly-marked character of the Baluc and Pathan alike.144 5- Ethnography. The Rind. colonised a part of upper Sindh. it was treated as the Ksatriya were treated by Paras'urama.000 were enumerated within the scope of this survey. indeed. they tend to amalgamate with the Jat and Pathan. to the Emperor Humayun. In the south-west Panjab. the Rind itself. has been greater than that of the political supremacy of Islam in producing that laxity in religious matters which is generally attributed to the latter cause alone. but the predominant section is the Rind. when regaining India after his expulsion. according to competent observers. Lund. and swept off the face of the country. Leghari. A line drawn from Dera Ghazi Khan through the Sulaiman range due west to Quettah demarcates approximately the Pathan on the north. and were expelled from Syria on sectarian grounds. where they are outnumbered by the Brahul. too. and there in a disjointed condition which has never been repaired. They found their way through Baghdad and Kirman to Makran. As they get higher up the rivers. and have now spread well up the Cinab and Satlaj valleys. outside British Balucistan. Except in upper Sindh and the Dera Ghazi Khan district. The result of this movement is that there are now more Baluc in Sindh and the Panjab than were enumerated in their native country. many centuries before a single Muslim was in existence. Gurchani. have had very considerable effect upon the customs and general tone of the population in the midst of which these races have settled. and the Mazarl. In spite of this dilution of the original stock. and settled in Sindh. This influence. The Lasari stands next in rank. of whom only 48. Baluc. for religious indifference and "neglect of rites". different as these peoples are in other respects. Last among the more definite communities acknowledging Islam is that of the Brahuf. where they lived for many generations before they occupied Khalat and the south Sulaiman hills. of the hills. which justified their inclusion amongst the Mleccha. owing to the marked addiction of the race on the frontier to that occupation. and of course. They were rewarded with grants of land along the Indus. A large section of their community was expelled from Balucistan in a tribal dispute. every camel driver is called Baluc. inhabiting Balucistan and Upper Sindh. § 108. a unique reputation in the eyes of the Singers on the Sarasvati. from the Baluc on the south. which they took from the Pathan. The Baluc statement of their origin is to the effect that they belong to Aleppo. the Baluc of British domicile do not keep up in parti bus the characteristic tribal organisation so strictly observed in their own country. but are not found to any great extent elsewhere in British territory. and have inter- . Bozdar. that the people of the west enjoyed. but according to the tradition of the others. and have also established large colonies in upper and middle Sindh.

the supply thereof has greatly increased of late years both in amount and quality and has received valuable additions even since the body of this review was written. indeed. except for purposes connected with their occupation. On the other hand. from whom they have perhaps borrowed it. and. that the Brahui may denote the high-water mark of the Dravidian extension northwards. to give a word-picture of society as it exists to-day in India. Nevertheless. In the present day the Brahui are specially addicted to the rearing and tending of camels. That the review of their leading characteristics is imperfect has been fully admitted throughout. left derelict and isolated under the protection of the desert. and the certainty of error will not be denied by any one who has attacked even the outworks of a task of this nature. 145 married with Jat and Baluc. they are equally certain that they have never lived in any other country but that which they now occupy. a tongue undoubtedly Dravidian in its main characteristics. In common with their neighbours. Information upon such distinctions must be obtained. as remarked in the Introduction. their language has been overlaid with Sindhl and Baluci. they have preserved their distinct physical features. because. as a rule. for domestic use at all events. rites or customs. at second-hand. Here. Indo-arische Philologie. Muslim Race Titles. after the Indus had changed its course and the tide of Aryan occupation had absorbed the bulk of the darker race. they hold the tradition of Arab descent. Aleppo being their chosen seat of origin. Indian society differs from tract to tract to an extent which inevitably involves the lurking danger of being led astray by analogy or similarities of nomenclatvyre. if anywhere. being shorter and more swarthy than their neighbours. and fortunately. into the assumption that what is true of a community in one part is equally applicable to a body of perhaps the same name elsewhere. not merely geographically. It is possible. . a little knowledge is dangerous. Setting on one side the conjecture that the Brahui are of Scythian race. and have even admitted adult recruits from these races into their tribes. 5.Castes and Caste-Groups: G. for which there is little corroborative evidence. they keep. therefore. though. It needs but little experience of Indian life to bring home to the student of ethnography the vanity of thinking that the whole field can be adequately surveyed in the light of such knowledge as can possibly be acquired by a single individual. It is on such material that reliance has been mainly placed in the attempt here made. but are rarely found far from their wide pastures. They enjoy a good social position in Balucistan. it is known that there was of yore a considerable Indian population settled along the hill-country west of Sindh. but as a whole. as has been abundantly shown in the course of this review. with its own customs and temples. With these tribes ends the list of the communities which have been selected as representative of the different elements of which the vast and complicated society of India is compounded. II. perhaps rashly.

. . APPENDIX Summary A. (§ 24 A. .000 Porval Osval Humbad Khatrf 382.300 . Lohana Subarnabanik Balija .300 426.000 42.300 173.200 195.600 572.300 . .300 925.163. 10.700 585.600 92..800 4. Writers.000 Brahmak.149.040. (§24— 26) Brahman (§ 27) Rajput .000 ..000 155..800 39.300 . Kanakkan Karnam Vidhur Vaidya (§ . 154.000 227. 152. of Caste-Groups. .800 Komati Banjiga 534..100 177. .. ..700 60.400 95.. — Agarval Agrahari S'rimali 557. 63. .300 112. 30) Khatri 138. 31) Religious Devotees. 14. .000 Arora Bhatia 732.. .300 Khojah Meman Bohra Labbai Mappila jOnakkan (§ . .100 60.satriya Karan-Mahant ..200 .400 75. Kayasth Prabhu 28.893.600 Gosai Bairagl 765.000 2.800 .800 (§ r 28 29) Traders. 900 Vaduga Cetti 320..146 5- Ethnography. . . .700 656. Atlt — 31) Special Groups. Banya unspec^3. .200 90..200 100. .

Summary of .Appendix A.

.. .drawers. 52.376.408.400 110.. .500 154.600 - 277.. 3.900 145.800 Pasi Bhandari Paik .. . Bind Cain ^ Gonrhl Leather-workers. 721.800 r L r Dhanuk .500 (§ 43) Barbers.800 1. Salt and 219.458. . .100 ...200 76.500 1 Rehgar Kharvi Agria ..200 2.800 1. 166. 530. . Boatmen 17...600 _ Mukkuvan (§ 46) . .500 Tiyar . .561..000 80.600 1. 154. .. ..900 791.110.. . . (§ 5.300 337. 41) Oil-pressers.200 24.176... (§ 42) Potters.258.016.300 Kalu Vaniyan Ganiga II.200 141.000 14.700 288... Ethnography. 4. 11.400 18. ^ Kahar DhTmar Jhinvar 705...909 . . 113. Camar Megh Dagi .970.700 Idiga Agasa Cakala 14- Gaundla Segidi 470..042. 230.400 Tell-Ghanci . 48—49) Field-labourers..900 187.500 .700 8.700 and Porters. Arakh Dhundia-Dhodia Bagdl Baurl Malo Kevat L Dubla-Talavia . ..500 122.300 Uppara .600 120. 20..700 2..500 53.500 38.. Mahar Dhed (§ 50) 378. Uppiliyan Patharvat Baiti-Cunari 16.700 140.800 Dhakar Palli Boya Palle (about) .300 Billava Tiyan 580.100 169..000 (§ 44) Washermen..200 S'anan 759.. . . . S'embadavan 15- .. .. . .900 246.400 361.700 18. Toddy. Yata (§ .600 63..200 Rajvar Machi _ 477. (§ 145. . Mala Holeya _ 866..148 10. .800 Stone..400 664.863.700 458.700 165.000 Pallan 836.800 (§ 45) Fishers.400 54.300 Mohano BhoT .300 219.700 23.200 .400 76. 2.600 Musahar Bhar . 524. 807.400 260.. . 50.600 Lime-workers... 1.060.572...100 Kumhar Kusavan 12. Luniya-Nuniya KharOl . ..400 12. .000 19.200 Kabbera-Ambiga Moger .700 14.500 2.600 291.700 158..400 Hajam Ambattan Marayan Mahgala Bhandari 13- 534..600 1. 804. Tandan Ilavan Dhobl-Parit Vannan Veluttedan . Pulayan-Ceruman Paraiyan Besta . .400 Nai-Nhavi 2.700 270.. 253. 176. . 47) .000 43.500 125.400 1 50. .900 . 270. Mallah unsp^PatnT . .

600 etc.. C. .000 60. L Devadiga (§ 58) ..600 85. Summary of Caste-Groups. . Cuhra ..100 . . .700 .400 209. . .200 23(a) (§ 56— 57) Temple-services.400 Panan L Velan .200 .800 Barvala r Pandaram Valluvan Ghatval 88.900 Hari and Kaora HaddT . Dakaut Halvai 667.900 260. Kalavant L . 579. 33..600 119.700 20..600 Ganak j~ Mayara Godiya-Guria 27..700 Tambolr .300 D. nealogists.300 32.600 Khangar Mina DOsadh L Bharai .. 57.500 . 306. (§ 145. .. 3 59.. L Kandra Ambalakkaran ]\Iutraca . ..300 3.000 . 1 5 .700 99.500 .. 285. . 68. .500 28.000 20. 15. 25. .329. .800 Butchers.800 151. .. 74. etc.. etc.700 Bhojak Sevak 6.Appendix A.007. 880 1.100 113. (§ 62) . 200.. . 1 3 1 ..500 332. Ulama (b) 66. 79.800 r Pujari L Bhojki r L Bambhr 19.700 ..070 1. Ghasiya (§ 60) Grocers ..600 r Dasi-Devali ... 400 23.200 26.000 291. .000 149.000 36. 855.600 52—53) Scaven gers. 329. . (§ 54) Bards and Ge377. INIazbl (about) 38. (about) .500 Raj-Bhit Caran MirasI 22..300 Qasab Khatik Garpagarl .900 1. 55) Astrologers .200 1.000 11. 77.258...700 Kanis'an 150.200 Kandu Josi 83..200 Servants.000 89. 5.800 Bhangi-Mihtar Dancers and Singers.100 Bogam (§ Dom . . 149 Madiga 1. (§ 61) Grain-parchers and Confectioners.800 Gurao Bari r Satani 94.700 646. . . Bharbhunja Bhathiara . 369.. 487. (§ . Attarl Gandhabanik r Kasarvani L . .900 Priests. 25..500 1. Kancan . 500 58. Besiya.. M51 Berad-Bedar Ramos'i 20. 59—68) Urban Castes.300 27.. 101.700 8.. . .281. . Phulari-Hugar . .200 581.000 BhuTnmalr . (§ 54—58) Professions Subsidiary. 839. 21.7oo 3. .500 15. r L r 162.700 Tambala Jangam Garuda .000 (§ 51) Watchmen. Kasaundhan Gandhi Kunjra . .200 Mang S'akkiliyan. . Bhat Bhatrazu . .900 141. 20. .700 28. . i\l6ci ...800 405.400 24.

ISO 2<S. 5. (§ 63) Pedlars and Glassworkers. Ethnography. . '" Bisatr .

000 385.100 Cutiya (b) IMiri .600 33. Gadaba 30...500 8.. 612. Assam ..100 Kand Poroja .. .400 53. Habura Bhamtiya-UcH 41. .700 370.198..900 Gamta .000 6.900 162.500 66. 181.900 Rabha .. 367. .6oo Bhil51a 144.200 Toda Kota Kanikkan Malaiyan 800 1.. . .900 115.000 152.. .500 34>700 _ .600 .800 Halaba PatharT 90.Appendix A. .900 41. ..900 (§ 91 — 100) .100 11.. Munda Bhumij Bhuinya 86.907.400 Belt. Thieves . Gond Majhvar Bottada-Bhatra Hajong Tipparah-Mrung . . .286.000 32. 614.400 50. 4.700 1. Mal-Paharia Mec ...300 35.500 383.800 (§79) Hunters and Fowlers..500 88. Savara .200 25.600 (c) Nayak Chodra (§ 88) Sahyadri. 10.300 122. .. . (§ 42.300 75.700 320 _ Pradhan KoyI .200 Kharvar Baiga Ceru Kharia r Santal L Mahili r Birjia Yanadi .700 11.100 139.200 35.400 114.300 35.000 2. . Bavariya-Moghiya Aheriya Baheliya INIahtam 30.300 Cencu 43(a) . . 89-90) NTlg iri 299. . . 120. 80—102) Hill Tribes. Kuriccan F.200 Oraon Male _ Garo Lalung . .300 4.400 Dhanka Tadvi Nihal 66. . .300 6.100 Ho Kuruman Irula ...500 48.900 136.800 1. 103.300 etc...900 57.100 466.500 Sahariya .700 Kondu-Dora .700 Bagariya Bediya Sansiya . Tribes.100 10. Ghat-Thakur (d) (§ .900 9. . Summary of Caste-Groups. L Juang 5. 82. etc. .. (a) Katkarl Varli 93.000 74.200 789..300 . 22. . 52. 91. . Dombar-Kolhati Gopal 40.300 91. (§ 78) .900 Abor Daphla 4^.200 950 28 Aka .Patella VaghrT Pardhi 49. 67.900 8. .200 Naikada Vedan Valaiyan Vettuvan 25.000 90. 85. (§81—86) Ce ntral Belt. 242. ..100 58.800 Bodo-Kacari . K61 . Jatapu . .100 (b) (§ 87) Western Korku-Korva Bhil .800 111. . ..400 7.300 99.900 30.100 2. 151 39.. .

152 .

Appendix B. Caste . 153 APPENDIX B. Caste Index. Caste Index.

Caste .154 5. Ethnography.

workers 30. Hill tribe Assam Agra and Bihar Panjab Hills 38. 32. Belt Telingana Gujarat 42(a). 18. Devotees Dancers Devadiga Devali -= Dasi 23 (b). Dancers Traders and cultivators Fishers etc.l-]\Iedar Writers 45. Assam Himalaya Universal 29(a). 4. Bodo = Kacari Bogam Bohra-Vohora Bottada-Bhatra 24. 9. Caste Index. Chudra Ciihra Upper West India Cunarl-Baitr Curihar Cutiya Dafah' 28. Panjab Scavengers Upper India and Bengal Lime-burners Pedlars and glass-workers North and Centre 43(a). Tailors Dasari Dasi-Devali 24. except in South 21. 15. Hill tribe 42(a). Hill tribe 20. Hill tribe 28. DagT Dakaut Daphla Darji Mendicant drummers Leather-workers (b). Cultivators and traders Karnatic 42(d).workers Stone. Field-labourers Rajputana etc. Pedlars Bisati Bengal Pan jab etc. Muslim race Bamboo. Telingana West South Cent. Traders Tamil Chipi 29(b). Dhanka Dhanuk Dharkar 42(b). Camar-Khalpo Caran Casa Caturtha Telingana Rajputana Univ. 13. 3. Dekkan West Belt Agra and Rajputana Agra and Rajputana 35. 22. Hill tribe 14. Bamboo-workers . 155 Caste Group Stone and lime-workers Locality Bind Birjia 15. Dekkan and Karnatic Cain Cakala Cakar 15. Calenderers and dyers 42(b). 35. 18. Hill tribe Cencu Ceru Ceruman = Pulayan Cetti Eastern Ghats Bengal 3. Bihar and Oudh 42(a).Appendix B. Hill tribe Agra etc. Astrologers 43 5. Peasants 6 (b). Hill tribe 17. Genealogists West Orissa 6(b). Temple servants Telingana Telingana and Karnatic Telingana and Karnatic Karnatic Devanga Dhakar Dhangar-Hatkar Weavers Shepherds Field-labourers 17.workers Sindh Frontier etc. Oudh and Bihar Washermen Domestic servants Leather. Boya Brahmaksatriya BrahuT Buru(.

156 5- Ethnography. Cent. Upper India Panjab Hills Panjab 29(b). West North 29(c). Astrologers 9. Hill tribe 22. 17. Hill tribe Gakkhar Galiara Shepherds 32. Oil-pressers Karnatic 43(a). 13. Prov. 16. Hill tribe 22. Shepherds 6(a). Cotton-scutchers 43 (h). 9. Bengal Gamajla = Gaundla 42(b). Peasants 25. Cotton-scutchers Dum = Dumna Faqir MlrasI = Dom 5. Bastard Singphu Scavengers Acrobats etc. West Dekkan = NiyaField-labourers Dhundia-Dhddia Dhuniya Doania 17. Prov. Scavengers Ganges Valley . Madras Gadaba Gadariya Gaddi 42(a). 7. Religious mendicants Universal N. Assam Upper India Dekkan N. Dhur Dhuldhoya riya etc. Grocers 6(b). Loka West Upper and 1 i t y Dhed Dhlmar Dhobr-Parit Village menials 14. Masons Toddy-drawers Cattle-breeders Dekkan Telingana Bengal Telingana Gaura Gazula Ghanci = TelT Ghasiya 28. Low priests West Karnatic Gaud a Gaundi Gaunclla-Gamajla 6(b). Caste Group 17. Gamta Ganak Ganda Gandhabanik Gandhi Gangauta Ganiga Garo Garpagari Weavers Grocers 25. E. 39. Pom-Dumna Dombar-KolhatI 20. Pedlars 20. Indigo-dyers West West Assam East Cent. Madras Bihar Domba Dosadh Dubla-Talavia Weavers 19. Fishers etc. Watchmen Field-labourers West Telingana Dudekula 29(c). Landed-dominant 32. 10. except in South Dhodia Dholr = Dhundia 38. Garuda 23 (i). Peasants 8(e). India Washermen Drummers Hemp-weavers Univ. 9. E. Dekkan Bihar etc. Hail-averters Assam Cent.

.

158 .

Prov. Landed-dominant 6(c). Hill tribe Carpenters 27. India Coorg Tamil Agra. 43(g). Hill tribe Kavar Kayasth Kevat Khaira 6(b). tribe 43(c). Koc = Raj bans! Kodagu Kodikkal Koeri K6I Kolhatl 6(a). Hill tribe 15. Kathi Katkarl-Kathodi Landed-dominant West Sahyadri Cent. Landed-dominant 19. Caste Index. Ind. Grindstone-makers 30. Watchmen Salt-workers Salt-workers 42(a). Writers 8 9. Butchers 3. Bitel-vine-growers 6(b). Hill tribe Berar and Cent. Panjab India Ganges Valley Silk-weavers Khavas Khojah Khokar Khumra Kirar Domestic servants 3. Assam Orissa Cent. Upper Upper Ind. West West West Panjab Upper India 6(b). Prov. Peasants 3.Appendix B. Earth-workers Bengal Weavers Upper India Korku-Korva KorvT = Kuravan 42(b). Landed-dominant 34. and Bengal India Khalpo = Kora = Camar 44. Kolta 6(b). . = Dombar 6(b). Himalayan (c). 42(c). Prov. Hill tribe 6(a). 9. Peasants 4. 42(a). Peasants Cent. Komati Kondu-Dora Koraca = Kuravan Kora-Khaira Kori Traders Hill tribe Telingana N. Hill tribe 15. Kisan Agra and Cent. Bengal Rajputana Bengal West Nepal Khas KhasI Khatl Khatik Khatri Khatri Khatri 44. Prov. Traders 4. Khambu Khamtr Khandait Khangar Kharia Kharol Kharvar Kharvi Himalayan tribe Nepal E. Peasants 6(b). Writers Fishers etc. 159 Caste Group 25. Prov. E. Peasants Kolr West Cent. Locality Kasaundhan Kasera Grocers Agra and Oudh = Kasar 6(a). Traders 6(a). Hill tribe Oudh and Bihar Cent. 14. Peasants 42(a). Madras 42(a) 33. Assam Upper India Upper and West.

Ethnography. Caste .i6o 5.

.

Ethnography. Caste .l62 5.

163 Caste .Appendix B. Caste Index.

Caste . Ethnography.1 64 5.

.

i66

5.

Ethnography.

APPENDIX
Showing (A) the number returning each
principal Lan of the population o

I

India

N.

West

Language and Family

Total number
returning the

No. per
10,000
of population

H c

language

I.

Kol-Khervari Kol
. . .

.

.

3,179,300 948,700
1,790,500 157,100 102,000

-')

Santalf

.

.

.

Savara Kharia

.

.

.

.

.

.

Korku.

.

.

.

Gadaba Kora
Others.
II.

.

.

.

....
. .

.

87,700 37,200 23,900 32,200
56,315.700 1,125,500 592,300 494,100 60,800 20,600,000
10,364,700

.... Oraon .... Kand .... Malto ....
Gond
Telugu Kanarese
.
. . .

Dravidian

.

.

.

Kodagu
.

.

.

.

39,200

Tulu Tamil Malayalam
.

.

.

....
. .
.

535,200 16,425,000 6,028,900

Brahui
Others
III.

.

.

....
.

47,900 2,100

Gipsy tongues
.
.

IV. Indo-Aryan Sina etc. [ Kasmiri
.

.

.

344,100 219,352,100 54,200 1,007,900
3,337,900 3,002,800
1,710,000 1,270,900

Lahnda
I

.

.

.

[
f

Sindhi

....
.

West Pahari
Central Pahari

I

[

East Pahari West Hindi PanjabI Rajasthani
.

138,300
.
.

.

.

.

.

40,568,900 17,033,300 10,917,100
9,921,700 22,136,400

Gujarati

.

.

.

East Hindi

.

.

Table of Languages.

167

TABLE

I.

guage, and (B) the Linguistic distribution per 10,000 each Province or State.

N. Central

i68

5.

Ethnography.

India

N.

West

Language and Family

Total number
returning the

No. per
10,000
of population

E c a
t4

language
Biharl

Bengali

Assamese
-

34,579,800 44,413,600 1,350,800

1,223

16
I

1,570

Oriya Marathi
Others

9,674,200 18,233,200

48 342 645

o o o
9
7

800
1,388,200

o
49
43
5
I

V. Iranian
Pastu Baluci Persian Others

1,218,500 1 50,600

463 446
15
2

o
2

18,900
--^

VI.

Tibeto-Burman
Bhotia

....

200
1,804,800

o
64
8
I

Kanavari
Kirantr

244,900 19,500
45,400 32,200 83,800 40,800

597 597 o

22
15
7

2
I

Murmi
_

Other Himalayan Miri-Abor Other East-Himalayan

....
. .

3
I

900
239,500 185,500 112,000
59,000 83,600 164,160

o
8 7

Bodo
Garo Tipparah
r

4
2
3

Other Mikir

Assam

L

Naga languages
Meithei Lusei
Kuici

....

269,300 72,200
53,900 20,000
1,800

6 9
3

2
I

Others

Kacin

o
3

Burmese

65,400
10,500

Mru
VII. Tai (San) VIII. Mon'(Khasi) IX. Mongolian X. Malay XL Semitic (Arabic). XII. Hamitic XIII. European r English
L Others
Unspecified^^

3,400 177,800 3,600

o o
6

o
o
I

26
•.
.
.

19,700

180
243,100 227,900 15,200
282,832,000
in the

o
9
12
12

o
5

Total population returning language
')

Returned by

less than

one per 10,000

Province or state.

Table of Languages.

169

B

Religions per 10. . TABLE II. APPENDIX.170 5- Ethnography.000 of population of each division.

of the principal Forest Tribes. . TABLE Showing the numerical strength III. 171 APPENDIX.Tables of Religion. and the relative prevalence of the Tribal language and religion.

T" _ : u« .172 5- Ethnography.

London 1885/7. London 1744. mem. India. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. A. t. Historisch-geographische Beschreibung von Hindustan. enrichis de 68 cartes et autres planches: i) La geographic de I'lndoustan. I XXVI. the history of the discovery and conquest of India by the Portuguese translated by J. — — The Imperial Gazetteer of India. t. Stevens. W. Risley and E. et de la navigation interieure du Bengale. A new account of the East Indies being the observations and remarks of Capt. 3 vols. Tieffenthaler. 25 38. Bernoulli. Mem. nouvelle: Lettres edifiantes et curieuses. celles du cours du Brahmapoutra. or. par le pere Joseph Tieffenthaler. 173 A LIST of the more important works on Indian Ethnography by Dr. 2 vols. W. Siegling. Description historique et 2 Bde. t. des Indes et de la Chine. Oxford 1907/9. by 2"d ed. et curieuses. 8° Paris 1829 32. ecrite en latin. 2) Des recherches historiques et chronologiques sur I'lnde. Part III: Ethnographic appendices. Vols. Calcutta 1903). i 9. — 26 tomes 74. et la description du cours du Gange et du Gagra. Le tout. von J. de. . Aus dessen latein. fol. who resided in those parts 2"^ ed. The Census of India. M. 9 vols. I India Part I Report by H. 8 tomes 12° Paris 1818 23. augmente de remarques et d'autres additions. Capt. mem. 39 40. the Mogul empire and a map of the countries between the Indian rivers and the Caspian. 3 vols. : . or. series. 4° London 1788. from the year 1688 to 1723. avec des memoires relatifs a ces cartes. des Indes. avec une tres grande carte. 10 16. du Levant. W. par Jean Bernoulli. — Toulouse 18 10. etc. J. 3 vols. d'Amerique. 14 vols. Asia Portuguesa . — 12° Paris 17 17 ed. mem.India. account of the Ganges and Barrampooter rivers. Gait Part II Tables. — — — : — — — — 2 vols. Maj. ecrites par des missionnaires de la Compagnie de Jesus. 4° Berlin 1786 Rennell. — 3*^ Hunter. Faria y Sousa. et enrichies de nouvelles notes. collationnees sur les meilleures editions. geographique de I'lnde. (Vol. par Anquetil du Perron. provincial 1907 sqq. Edinburgh 1727. Herausgeg. 17 24. A. En 34 2^ ed. Berlin und Gotha 1785—86. redige et public en 91. Lisboa 1666 75 The Portugues Asia. 12° ecrites des missions etrangeres. 3) La carte generale de I'lnde. publics en anglois. mem. t. — — 4 tomes 8° Paris Nouvelles lettres edifiantes des missions de la Chine et des Indes Orientales. par Jacques Rennell. Ed. 20 vols. general. frangois. London 1739. .. Hamilton. Memoir of a map of Hindoostan. — Lettres edifiantes recueils. 3 vols. H. general. Handschrift iibersetzt. fol.. Hamilton. dans le pays meme.. London 1695. 26 tomes 12° Paris 1780 83. 2 vols. t. : — . — — 3^ ed. London 1881 ed. iQOi. — — . de la Chine. A. 26 vols. . — autre 1837—43. J. qui presente en 3 vols.

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W. Examined with reference to the physical. — London 1882. — : 2"^ ed. the annals of the native states of India. T. Baden-Powell. duction frangaise par L. a treasury of the musical instruments and of various other countries. B. London 1896. 1879. from the earliest period to the rise of the British power in India. Calcutta 1878. and products. Asiatic studies. of ancient and Calcutta 1875. Paris 1900. Leipzig 1880/1. Statistical atlas of India. Lord) W. ed. ed. rule. H. augmentee. peoples. Baroda 1896. — Hunter. — 2"d ed. ed. history. S. C. Indien in Wort und Bild. 1886. London 1880. . 2. — Calcutta 1895. with considerable additions: A description of Indian and oriental armour. The Hind Rajasthan. Bastian. 2"<i — : 2"^ ed. etymological. London 1886. B. Calcutta 1886. P. Les civilisations fol. and the author's private collection. fol. 4° — nouv. C. a.India. H. Burnell. Yantra Kosha. G. Schlagintweit. London 1897.. H. C. now exhibited at South Kensington. or. An Anglo-Indian dictionary a glossary of Indian terms used in English. revised by W. Sir J. Wheeler. Ideale Welten in Wort und Bild. historical. 4° Leide 1883 86. fol. 4° Paris 1887. The native states of India. 175 Tagore. London 1896. 2 Bde. Illustrated from the collection formerly in the India Office. — Tra- Whitworth. M. — Le Bon. London 1880. Berlin 1892. J. Phear. 2 vols. London 1880. — — 2^'^ LiTH. and other contemporary documents. The Indian 2"d ed. and historical conditions of the provinces chiefly on the basis of the revenue-settlement records and district manuals. Early records of British India a history of the English J. with an introductory sketch of the military history of India. de I'lnde. — its 3d ed. civilisation during British vols. . Eine Schilderung des indischen Kaiserreiches. the works of old travellers. 2"<i ed. 3 BosE. Hobson-Jobson being a glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases of kindred terms. VAN DER. G. N.Chandra. The Aryan village in India and Ceylon. . settlements in India. — Hodgson. geographical. 3 Bde. Marcel Devic. — Chakrabarti. Texte arabe. An illustrated handbook of Indian arms being a classified and descriptive catalogue of the arms exhibited at the India Museum. London 1899. of or. Livre des merveilles de I'lnde. London 1885. as told in the government records. Aufl. and A. — ed. new ed. 1890/1. Crooke.. general. and of such English or other non-Indian terms as have obtained special meanings in India. religious and social. London 1903. History of Hindu Calcutta 1894 6. 1884.. 1892.. modern India. First and second series. Sir A. W. Compiled by Markand Nandshankar Mehta and Manu Nandshankar Mehta. E. . Lyall. Calcutta 1895. village community. and discursive. 2 vols. 1907. fol. Yule. ethnographic. 3'* London 1896. P. The Indian empire London 1882. Egerton (of Tatton. A. Miscellaneous essays relating to Indian subjects. B.

A.) — London 1. Vivien de St. Die Cultur der vedischen Arier. relating to religion. Ed. I'lnde au moyen age. poetry. Berlin 1792. Manning. anterieurement au milieu du XI^ siecle de I'ere chretienne. the laws and judicial proceedings. London 1817. 4 vols. 1708. Paris 1792. Forster. Etude sur la geographic et les populations primitives du nord-ouest de I'lnde d'apres les hymnes vediques. 4° Paris 1849. being manners and customs. W. Life in ancient India. Speir. La Mazeliere. caste. Things Indian. 1653 with introduction and notes. Ubersetzt von G. London 1907 8. 2 tomes Paris 1903. architecture. Robertson. Glossary of Indian terms. Mc Crindle. et en particulier sur I'lnde de Ptolemee. commerce. anterieurement au 11^ siecle de I'ere chretienne. astronomy. Crooke. B. village communities in new London 1908. Storia do Mogor. der Indier enthalt. Etudes sur la geographic grecque et latine de rinde. the arts. J. land. manufacture. Calcutta I903ff. Recherches historiques sur la connaissance que les Anciens avaient de rinde. dargestellt nach den Samhitas. etc. Irvine. by W. and religious (8° Basil 1792. Essai sur revolution de la civilisation indienne: rinde ancienne. historique et scientifique sur I'lnde. Translated. reprinted Calcutta 1904. Grierson. Edinburgh 1806. fol. d'apres les ecrivains arabes. relatives a I'lnde. dans ses rapports avec la geographic sanscrite. L. N. customs. — Reinaud. — — — 7^^ ed. laws. 12° — 3^ ed. H. I'lnde moderne.176 5- Ethnography. ZiMMER. and other terms and words in common use.799. taken from their Speir). medicine. London 1821. persans et chinois. Temple. H. literature. The London 1899. London 1856. G. Baden-Powell. With an appendix. 4° Paris 1858. Ancient and mediaeval India. the history. 2 vols. the sciences. London 1869. (Formerly Mrs. Linguistic survey of India. Berlin 1879. L. W. recueillis avec traduction frangaise. government. philosophy. Reinaud. Memoire geographique. algebra. welcher Bemerkungen iiber die gesellschaftlichen Verhaltnisse usw. Bombay 1877. — origin and growth of ed. institutions of the Indians. An historical disquisition concerning the knowledge which the ancients had of India. by G. religion. Paris i860. Marquis de. Mogul India. . language. Altindisches Leben. Mrs. of the Hindus. — — Ancient India. 4° London 1791. Martin. India. Ancient India as described by Megasthenes and Arrian. (Historische Untersuchung iiber die Kenntnisse der Alten von Indien. Martin. Mrs. containing observations on the civil policy. Vivien de St. Fragments arabes et persans inedits. Utrecht 1792). or. and the progress of trade with that country prior to the discovery of the passage to it by the Cape of Good Hope. London 1906. Manucci. writings. London 1897.. Paris 1845. W. Being discursive notes on various subjects connected with India. Nebst Anhang.

Goblet d'Alviella. 5. Calcutta 1902 and enlarged.und Bestattungsgebrauche. Mainz 1902. Smith. Paris 1897. 12 . I'lnde doit a la Grece. Caland. 2^ ed. W. Justin. La magie dans I'lnde antique. laws. astronomy. classical authors. LiJDERS. E. D. and other 2"'^ ed. London 1901. cribed by Arrian. Q. Alberunl Ancient India as described by Ptolemy. dans I'Afghanistan et dans I'lnde. W. Mc Crindle. literature. London 1910. R. History of literature. R. The invasion of India by Alexander the Great.Ancient India. revu. Ed. D. Fa-Hien: Foe Koue Ki. revised ed. Diodorus. Berlin 1907. Bombay 1907. as desJ. A. Des influences classiques dans la civilisation de I'lnde. account of the religion. 4° London 1887. par Chy Fa Hian. — (English translation of this ed. revised middle of the 16'^ century A. Oxford (London) 1901. London 1896. London 1903. Ouvrage posthume. Rhys Davids. Sachau. V. Plutarch. 177 JRajendralala Mitra. Bombay 1885. Breslau 1899. Altindische Zauberei. Amsterdam 1908. by E. London 1907. DuTT. Paris 1903. Kulturgeschichtliche Skizzen. 2 vols. Oxford 1904. W. II. 2 vols. geography. A. Altindischer Ahnencult. Ancient India as described in classical literature: a collection of Greek and Latin texts from Herodotus and other works. Calcutta 1848). Vaidya. 4° Paris 1836. History of Hindu chemistry from the earliest times to the 2"^ ed. English translation with notes and indices by Ed. Die altindischen Toten. Indo-Aryans: contributions towards the elucidation of their ancient and mediaeval history. London 1893. and astrology of India. chronology. W. J. India. — Travels. Buddhist India. Caland. Amster- — dam 1896. Ce que . 2 vols. W. civilisation — Mc Crindle. J. complete. Die sociale Gliederung im nordostlichen Indien zu Buddhas Zeit. Ch. Asoka. J. Mc Crindle. Curtius. Leiden 1893.. — — — the Ramayana. philosophy. Smith. customs. based on Sanscrit Calcutta 1889/90. 1030. W. W. 2 vols. et augmente d'eclaircissements nouveaux par Klaproth et Landresse. Bombay 1882. Alt-Iudicn. India as described in the Mahabharata and . London 1888. V. Paris 1909. Sachau. Epic India. 1908. Ch. Ray. Caland. about A. — Indo-arische Philologie. Henry. J. Mc Crindle. execute a la fin du IV^ siecle. 2"^ ed. Kiel 1897. V. The early history of India. London 1881. Ancient India as described by Ktesias the Knidian. HiLLEBRANDT. An — — new ed. the Buddhist emperor of India. Darstellung der altindischen Wunschopfer. Hardy. Pr. C. translated and annotated. Traduit du chinois et commente par Abel Remusat. London-Westminster 1893. or. Das Wiirfelspiel im alten Indien. H. Vincent A. Konig Asoka Indiens Kultur in der Bliitezeit des Buddhismus. ou relation des royaumes bouddhiques: voyage dans la Tartaric. Travels. in ancient India. FiCK. W. 3 vols.

and 518 A. 2"^ ed. On Yuan Chwang's 2 vols. Milano 1806. Russian.^ Historiarum Indicarum libri XVI. traduits du Sanscrit en chinois.. London 1871. the author's death by T. a Joanne Hayo Dalgattiensi — . the Venetian. India in the 75 "* century. 4° Venetiis 1589. A. depuis I'an 629 jusqu'en 645. en 181 1 par les soins de feu Langles. Persian. 400 A. P. en I'an 648. being a collection of narratives of voyages of India in the century preceding the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope. Reinaud. : — — travels in India. now first translated into English. Record of the Buddhistic Kingdoms (by Fa-Hian). Watters. 629 — 45. Si-yu-ki. Fa-Hien. Marco Polo. J. Th. Travels of Fah-Hian and Sung-Yun. by Col. revised by by H. 3^ ed. and Italian sources. et de ses voyages dans rinde. 4° Viennae Austriae 175 1 Le istorie dell' Indie orientali. T. id. Friar Jordanus. Translated from the Latin original as published at Paris in 1839. Cordier. Relation des voyages faits par les Arabes et les Persans dans I'ltide et a. with an introduction by R. — — H. Paris 1853. Accessit liber recentiorum epist. Translated from the Chinese by H. with notes. Maffeii historiarum Ind. public avec des corrections et additions et accompagne d'une traduction frangaise et d'cclaircissements. Tradotte di latino in lingua toscana da Francesco Serdonati. — — . 22). 2 tomes Paris 1857/8. H. Mcmoires sur — London 1906. imprime la Chine dans le IX^ siecle de I'cre chretienne. Ed. from Latin. 4° Florentia 1588. Giles. H. being an account of his travels in India and Ceylon (399—414). The book of Ser Marco Polo. concerning the kingdoms and marvels of the East. London 1863 (Hakluyt-Society. id. P. London 1869. vol. Hiuen-Thsang. 3 vols. S. 4° Venezia 1589. 4° Venetiis 1588. Transnew ed. 2 tomes 16° Paris 1845. D. Rhys Davids and W. in the "Recueil de Voyages et de Memoires" etc. London 1903. Translated and annotated by J. Legge. Translated and edited. Translated from the Chinese by S. 31). Ign. suivie de documents et d'cclaircissements geographiques tires de la relation originale de Hiouen-Thsang. Texte arabe. — — 4° Oxford 1886. Selectarum item ex India epist. libri IV. London 1904/5.. et du chinois en frangais par Stanislas Julien. Joanne Petro J. Major. Access. Beal. from China to India. 4° Viennae Austriae 175 1 Historiarum Indicarum libri XVI. Beal. London 1884/88. D. Maffeio interprete. a record of Buddhistic Kingdoms. Histoire de la vie de Hiouen-Thsang. Yule. Buddhist records of the western world. Bushell. lated from the Chinese by S. Selectarum item ex India epistolarum eodem interprete libri IV. Mirabilia descripta. Buddhist pilgrims. Loiolae vita postremo recogn. Traduit du chinois par Stanislas Julien. vol. London 1857 (Hakluyt-Society. libri XVI. INIaffei. Hiuen-Tsiang. les — contrees occidentales. par J. Yule. 2 vols. 3 vols. — — — . new ed. par Hoeili et Yen-Thsong. 1875. after 2 vols. Ed. the wonders of the East.178 5- Ethnography. London 1880. Selectarum epistolarum ex India libri quatuor. W. par Hiouen-Thsang.

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new

ed.

12 vols.

Glasgow

1903/5.

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Turchia, la Persia e I'India. 3 vols. 4° Rom 1650/8; The travels of Sig. Pietro della Valle, a noble Roman, into East India and Arabia deserta. In which the several countries, together with the customs, manners, traffique and rites, both religious and civil, of those oriental princes and nations, are faithfully described, in familiar letters to his friend Signior Mario Schipano. Translated by G. Havers. Whereunto is added a relation of Sir Thomas Roe's voyage into the The travels of Pietro della Valle East Indies, fol. London 1665 in India, from the old English translation of 1664, by G. Havers;
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tinued to 1764, including authentic accounts of the governments of A voyage to the Deckan and Bengal, etc. 2 vols. London 1766; the East Indies; containing authentic accounts of the Mogul government in general, the viceroyalties of the Decan and Bengal, with their several subordinate dependances; of Angria, the Morattoes, and Tanjoreans; of the Mahometan, Gentoo, and Parsee religions; of their customs and antiquities, with general reflections on the trade of

India, etc.

SoNNERAT.

et a la Chine, 1774 81. 2 tomes Paris 1782; (another ed., 3 tomes 8° Paris 1782, is without the plates); nouvelle ed., augmentee, par Sonnini. 4 tomes 120

2 vols. London 1772. Voyage aux Indes orientales

et atlas

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do., Paris
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1836;

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With an introduction by A. M. Amsterdam 1808 (Haarlem 1809). D.Southern-India. 4° Amsterdam 1670. de — — and characteristics. Hipkins. J. — . Government Musetim. Madras 1882. Le Mamoul. ou la porte ouverte. London 1865. Gribble. of lotgevallen en merkwaardige aanteekeningen op eene reize langs de Kusten Orixa en Choromandel. H. B. R. and explanation. de la religion et du service divin des Bramines. Hamilton. P. E. Madras 1908. Thurston. Le Gentil. Muller. Vol. George. J. MiMANDE. a I'occasion du passage de Venus. by W. D. of Madras. B. Madras 1868. et aux pays circonvoisins. G. Madras new ed. 1861 Hamilton. J. Madras 1866. Capt. Castes and tribes of southern India. Kap. 2 tomes 4° Paris i779/8i. D. 2'^^ druk Amsterdam 1826. des Indiens tamoults. Goldingham. Collection of Telugu proverbs. Voyages dans la peninsule occidentale de I'lnde et dans I'lle de Ceilan. Bonn). etc. J. 205 Day.. The music and musical instruments of southern India and the Deccan. Hamilton. moral condition. A history of the Deccan. J. J. G. Chambers. Babington. etc. Haafner. S. Ethnographic notes in southern India. et la vraye representation de la vie. India] Thurston. London 1896. Ed. pour parvenir a la cognoissance du paganisme cache. 1909 (Dissertation. qui demeurent sur les costes de Choromandel. 2 parts Madras 1868. Btdletin of the Madras Madras 1894 s(}q. Report on the high ranges of the AnnamuUay mountains. from the first foundation of Fort St. Le theatre de I'idolatrie. Paris 1904. London (New York) 1901. la religion J. together with some Sanscrit proverbs. D. 1) Berlin — new ed. Gen. 4° London 1 891. Reize in eenen palanquin. 3 vols. (Teil I. . Rangachari. by E. D. Caldwell. their religion. Carmichael. The Tinnevelly Shanars.] Wheeler. 7 vols. Manual of the district of Vizagapatam in the pres. Tome I: Coutumes et usages des Indiens de la cote de Coromandel. des moeurs. fait par I'ordre du roi. — Madras-Presidency. Descriptive and historical papers relating to the Seven Pagodas on the Coromandel coast. H. A. Kap. general. Carr. Madras 1869. Hamilton. The Madura country. Report on the Shevaroy hills. W. Sketches of the Shevaroy hills. R. Gen. Madras 1909 '10. Traduit du Hollandais par M. I. 4 und Teil II. Roger. Untersuchungen iiber die Geschichte der polyandrischen Eheformen in Sudindien. 2 tomes Paris 181 1. E. being a history of the presidency. J. Thurston. a manual. Madras 1849. Rev. Nelson. D"' H. Madras in the olden time. D. F. i vol. Gen. T. Report on the Pulni mountains. B. fol. P. and K. Madras 1862. J. Madras-Presidency. Madras 1906. illustr. Voyage dans les mers de I'lnde. Occasional essays on native South-Indian life. [1861. [Religious and social customs of Rice. Gen. With a translation. C. S.

Nicholson. Mahon. Crole. A manual of the South-Arcot district. D. Percival. S. Row. fol. W. A. Madras 1869. Venkasami. A manual of the Nellore district in the presidency of Madras. — London 1897. G. H. II revised by H. H. from the earliest period to its cession to the English government in A. by Capt. revised by H. J. W. A manual of the district of Tanjore in the MadrasPresidency. A manual of the North-Arcot district in the Madras-Presidency. Gribble. with their English translation. C. J. Madras 1883. Thomas. The Shevaroys. J. J. Madras 1878. Madras 1882. C. Rev. 2 vols. W. B.by G. T. R. H. C. 1877. A manual of the Kistna district in the presidency of Madras. with an introduction. Ed.Leman. in the presidency of Madras. M. Madras 1887. A. Madras 1873: Madras' 1874. Ch. land of the Chola. A. MuLLALY. Notes on the criminal classes of the Madras-Presidency. Garstin. based on an analysis of statistical information relating thereto. — — new ed. Madras 1881 Maltby. A manual of the district of Cuddapah. Jensen. Madras 1873. Mackenzie. H. Benson. ed. Madras 1894/5. — . Lazarus. J. Madras 1883. and prospective future. 2 vols. Madras 1875. the port for the Central Provinces. A. H. D. A manual of the Trichinopoly district in the presidency of Madras. D. HiCKEY. London 1878. and C. J. Madras 1874. Madras 1892. Stuart. 1898 (Vol. the Eden of the south. The Tanjore Mahratta principality in southern India: the 2"^^ ed. a manual of the Salem district in the presidency of Madras. Classified collection of Tamil proverbs. G. Sir Walter Elliot. J. p. 1801. Madras 1 881. fol. E. Cox. A dictionary of Tamil proverbs. Madras 1879. Narahari Gopalakrishnama Chetty. T. presidency of Madras. Madras 1872. Ethnography. a story of their past. Madras 1889. A descriptive and historical account of the Godavery district in the presidency of Madras. Wilson. Lieut. Moore. Madras 1888. and on personal observations. 5. late Madras district: a manual. F.2o6 G. W. A. 2"^ ed. and hints in English on their meaning and application. A manual of the Tinnevelly Madras. Taylor. district in Stuart. Madras 1879. Madras 1877. Morris. Madras 1886. Madras 1883. in the A political and general history of the district of Tinnevelly. J. Vizagapatam.. Gubbins. F. The Chingleput. Tamil proverbs. 2 vols. The Ganjam district manual. L. Braddock. F. An account of the Kurnool district. Manual of the Bellary district. Kelsall. Madras 1878. Carr. . Madras 1879: new ed. Stuart). Le Fanu. Manual of the Coimbatore district in the presidency of Madras. F. present. Madras 1894. a manual of the Kurnool district in the presidency of Madras. the presidency of Caldwell. A. BoswELL. S.

T. another ed. G. The Malabar Coast. an historical work in the Arabic language. B. R.Madras-Presidency. R. Henry E.) Madras-Presidency Madras 1908. behelzende eene naukeurige bevan de Kust van Mallabaar. An account of the religion. Madras 1895. J. Phillips. . Lawson. Barbosa. Madras 1907. No. Ed. Erukalas. London 1900. Madras 190 1. Papa Rao Naidu. I: Management. A collection of 42 highly amusing and instructive tales. London 1866 (Hakluyt-Society. British and native Cochin. Madras 1905. a description of the coasts of East Africa and Malabar in the beginning of the i6'h century. C. H. Wheeler. Drury. Letters from Malabar — . Duarte. Tohfut-ul-Miijahideen (by Sheikh Zeen-ud-deen). 2: The history of Korawars. . To which Apetz. (Selections from the records of the A statistical atlas of the Madras Govt. Francis and F. . by Major H. J. 12° London 1717. J. of the same work: Zinadim Benali Benamede. INIartin. 207 A statistical atlas of the fol. Being a report on the public records preserved in the Madras Government Office. Madras 1904 sqq. — The Malabar Coast. 35). Hemingway. C. Papers relating the history of the Banganapalle state. and Fra Bartolomeo's that country. Now first transl. with notes and preface by the Hon. and literature of the Jangams. Dav. Mallabaarse brieven. Uitgegeven door C. from the original Dutch. Sewell. compiled from existing records. Government Museum. schrijving Leeuwarden 1743. Madras. Folk-lore of the Telugus. Madras-Presidency. Translated from an early Spanish manuscript in the Barcelona library. Madras 1862. Rowlandson. from the letters of the Danish missionaries. Visscher. Handbook to the Madras records. 2"*^ ed. Visscher. Ch. vol. the people of Malabar. P. J. London 1833. Madras 1907. M. and the learning of J. a forgotten empire (Vijayanagar) a contribution to the history Brown. London 1 861. Ch. . Translated into English by Lieut. interpretatione et annotationibus instructa. Lopes. R. T. Descriptio terrae Malabar. Madras 1906. manners. . Benson. Batutae itinerario Jena 18 19. Madras-Bangalore 1897. or Kaikaries. Madras 1908. . The Baramahal records. Ill: Inhabitants. 2"'* ed. Madras 1907. den aardt des landts. The criminal tribes of India. Ex arabico Ebn edita. previous to 1834. with chronological annals of the Madras-Presidency. Ethnographic notes on the Maduvars. Subramiah Pantulu. R. de zeden en gewoontens der inwoneren. T. Sect. to 2"'^ ed. is travels in added an account of Travancore. a. a. customs. of India. FooTE. Stanley. Essay on the creed. Gazetteer of districts of the Madras-Presidency By W. Historia dos Portugueses no Malabar. Sect. Catalogue of the prehistoric antiquities. F. — Lisboa 1898.

Ward. the Blue Mountains. G. critical analysis of the Acta Thomae. Memoir of the survey of Travancore and Cochin. Evans. F. by L. (Reprinted from the "Indian Antiquary". F. London 1905. London 1871. Native life in Travancore. or. CoNTZEN. Madras 1891. A manual of the district of South-Canara. London 1908. Madras 1906. Day. an inquiry. 1816 1820. Goa and 1851. Oxford 1869. A thousand Canarese p7-overbs. C. Mateer. Edinburgh-London 1892. Logan. G. its peoples and traditions. Shungoony Menon. J. Madras 1905. preceded by a short statistical account of the territory of Goa. R. The Indian christians of Saint Thomas. S. C. Madras 1 901. and H. Keane. 2 vols. T. . E. W. Madras 1904. Shankunny. C. Mackenzie. Howard. Madras 1900. Rev.) Sturrock. Goa. B. Mateer. Stuart.. From the papers of Preface by Major R. (Selections from the records of the Madras Govt. Christianity in Travancore. with special reference to missionary labour. — Fawcett. GoPALAN Nair. F. 3 vols. Rev. Folklore in Malabar. With a Malabar district gazetteer. Malabar and its folk. revised and enlarged. by the Rev. a. Madras 1887 91. W. S. christians of S. A systematic description of the social customs and institutions of Malabar. K. Canara past and present. Madras 1900. The Cochin tribes and castes. Malabar law and custom.. Rev. a. The Syrian christians of Malabar. Vol. Madras 1863. B. by the Rev. : — — — — — Burnell. a. An historical and archaeological sketch of the city of Goa. Madras 1905 sqq. Richards. otherwise called the Thomas. India and the apostle Thomas. With introduction by A. N. Goa im Wandel der Jahrhunderte. Calicut 1902. Philipos. Innes and F. Medlycott. Bombay 1878. J. p. a history of Travancore from the earliest times. Madras 1878. By C. L. fol. B. 3d ed. S. of the Tuluvas. Madras 1894/5. I.2o8 5. The land of the Permauls.) Rae.. or Cochin its past and its present. J. 4^ Bombay 1894. H. Burton. The land of charity account of Travancore and its people. Ananta Krishna Jyer. GoPAL Panikkar. S. Ed. The Syrian church in India. Nayars of Malabar. 2"d ed. six months of sick London FoNSECA. I. Madras 1882. MiLEY. leave. Ethnography. Ethnological survey of Cochin^ monographs. Vol. da. A manual of the district of Malabar. Rev. E. T. otherwise called the Syrian christians of Malabar. Moore. C. P. H. Madras 1884. Beitrag zur portugiesischen Kolonialgeschichte. W. Trivandrum 1901. M. Kellett. F. A. Berlin 1902. Burnell. 2"^ ed. devil worship The the late A. . G. Capt. Mangalore 1874. London 1883. Madras 1911. Calcutta 1910. Rev. With an introduction 2"'^ ed. Madras 1908. WiGRAM. Malabar Series: Wynad. Temple.

4° London 1810 — 17. — trace the history of Mysoor. D"" J. 209 Mysore and Coorg. 1834. and of the effects of the climate on the European constitution. with a short description of those peculiar to Coorg. Observations on the Neilgherries. Shortt. Seringapatam. Ed. London 1832. Das Kurgland und die evangelische Mission in Kurg. from the origin of the Hindoo government of that state. An account of the tribes on the Neilgherries. J. and its religion. G. South India. gazetteer compiled for the government Mysore gazetteer. T. fol. sous les regnes d'Hydcr-Aly et Tippoo-Saib. B. Bangalore 1855. Histoire des progres et de la chute de I'empire dc Mysore. 5. Ouchterlony. Mercara 1906. . W. The Hough. a gazetteer of the natural features of the country.. Bangalore 1876 1897. Shortt and a geographical and statistical memoir of the Neilgherry mountains. Mangalore 1870. of the 1873. Die Volksstamme der Nilagiris. a description of a singular aboriginal race inhabiting the summit of the Neilgherry hills. Revised ed. F. productions. in the province of Mysore. etc. The legends of the shrine of Harihara. Bangalore 1887. Narrative of a journey to the falls of the Cavery. London 1834. WiLKS. '4 . B. Arthur. — Jervis. T. AND Th. H. Coorg memoirs: an account of Coorg and of the Coorg mission. primitive and monuments of the Nilagiris. past and present. Capt. by W. 2 tomes Paris 1801 9. Breeks. H. Manual of Coorg. or Blue Mountains of Coimbator. B. Madras 1876. A paper read before the Anthropological Society. Basel 1866. Madras 1868. RicHTER. 2 vols. Ethnographical compendium on the castes and tribes found in the province of Coorg. Rev. Ross. A strative of India. King. a monograph. Vol. W. G. — The Nilgiri Hills. — — London Richter. 2nd ed. and the social and political condition of its inhabitants. Basel 1857. climate. MoGLiNG. Founded — chiefly on Indian authorities. or Blue Mountains of Coimbatoor. in an attempt to MiCHAUD. Malleson. Coorg district gazetteer. Col. Translated from the Sanskrit. Calcutta 1857. including an account of their topography. R. oftheNeil1829. The aboriginal tribes of the Nilgiri hills. J. H. soil. to the extinction of the Mohammedan dynasty in 1799. 3 vols. Mysore and Coorg. Baikie. Rev. Smoult. G. London Indo-arische Philologie. Metz. Nilgiris. L. mission to the Mysore with scenes and facts its people. A of India. W. Letters on the climate. Harris. and productions. Weitbrecht.Mysore and Coorg. gherries. Rev.. 8. inhabitants. H. Calcutta 2nd ed. Madras 1876. Account 4° 11. L. M. illu- MoGLiNG. J. H. by the late Col. London Harkness. 8° Madras 1869. FouLKES. London 1847. 2 vols. 3 vols. London tribes 1870. J. with an historical and descriptive account of the Neilgherry hills. Historical sketches of the south of India. by J. Rice. in the southern peninsula of India.

Leipzig Aus dem Englischen iibersetzt von Ehrmann. Reize te voet door het eiland Ceilon. geopent en nauwkeuriger dan oyt te voren ontdeckt. — W. district gazetteer). its Davy. les moeurs et les usages des Chingulais. Harvard.) London 1873. — — . 4° Utrecht 1692 Relation du voyage de I'isle de Ceylan . To which is subjoined. 12° Paris 1823. the study of a primitive tribe in South India. a grammar of the Tuda. republished. London 1833 (Beschreibung von der Insel Ceylon etc. of . de Vries. Amsterdam 1826. 4° London 181 7. and Kolan Nattannawa. An fol. Rivers. natural history. descriptive of the Ceylon system of . historical relation of the island of Ceylon in the East Indies. their trades and their services to government To which is appended a description of the dress of native headmen. The history of Ceylon to 181 5. R. Knox. Voyage a Tile de Ceylan. devil 1829. the Nilgiri hills. Amsterdam 1810. 'T Eyland notes. a description of castes in the island of Ceylon. les coutumes. in 2 vols. P. etc.) An . U. (Ceylanische Reise-Beschreibung oder historische Erzehlung von der in Ost-Indien gelegenen Insel Ceylon etc. London 1829. E. Saram. demonology to which is appended the practices of a capua. London 1821). J. with an account of his . The Todas of Madras 1905 1906. 2 tomes Ceylon in syn binnenste. fait de 1797 a 1800.. de. and manners of the people. 4° Leipzig 1680. 1693. or planetary incantations of Ceylon. Robert Knox's historical relation of the island. Callaway. . G. according to their different castes.. with travels in that island. Vertaald door S. H. 11). and of 4° inhabitants. Magdeburg 18 16. 't — Amsterdam Percival. fol. with notices of the Kappooism. 1821. Aus dem Englischen mit Zusatz uber die Perlenfischerey iibersetzt von J. with A brief outline of the language. d. 2te druk. Gauttier. (Sprengels Bibl. Upham. .M. Marshall. — 8. by London 168 1. laws. with characteristic details of the religion. 8° London 1910. Francis. Weimar 1 804 1803. with an introductory preface and reprinted.. a. geography. Haafner. An account of the interior of Ceylon. : 2"'^ ed. London — — — Koningrijck Candy. (Fufireise durch die Insel Ceilon. R. E. — — — — — — captivity. London 1805 London 1803 ed. 2 tomes Paris 1803). Reisebeschr. Grigg. ou recherches sur I'histoire. Henry. B. les moeurs. The history and doctrine of Budhism. A. or demon-worship. Pope. copied from an old Ceylon Almanac dated 1811. Philalethes. Bergk. nach Travels on foot dem HoUandischen frei bearbeitet. W. Bd. Madras 1880. la litterature. manners and customs of its various inhabitants. or priest. with the account of the island of Ceylon its history. London . R. Translated by J. A phrenologist amongst the Todas. traduit par F. through the island of Ceylon. London Ceylon. 2 vols.210 5- Ethnography. H. (Appendix: by Rev. Ceylan. 4° Galle 1823. and a collection of their moral maxims and ancient proverbs. Translated from the Dutch. E. . manual of the Nilagiri district in the Madras presidency. Yakkun Nattannawa^ a Cingalese poem. or. W. The Nilgiris (Madras W. and of the Bali. et la religion de ses habitans etc. London 1821.

4° Wiesbaden 1892/3. Ed. i860. an account of the island. Band 3 Die Weddas von Ceylon und die sie umgebenden : Volkerschaften. with notices of its natural history. . London 1850. SiRR. Ceylon. With an historical sketch of the brahmanical and buddhist vinces. Brenda. 4° Bombay-London 1885/87. Sir J. Nevill. 2 vols. Jevers. Ceylon. H. 4° Norman Chapel. R. etc.. E. Tennent. Sir Emerson. Christianity in Ceylon: its introduction and progress under the Portuguese. Vol. P. Lewis. Published by A. J. Parker. I. z. Ancient Ceylon. superstitions. J. with an account of the structure of society and the status of the craftsmen. Village folk-tales of Ceylon. The Taprobanian. by H. Berlin [1897]. of its various inhabitants. Colombo 1896/8.. I— III. Being a monograph on mediaeval Sinhalese arts and crafts. Mediaeval Sinhalese art. Manual of the North-Central Province. C. Dias.Ceylon. H. Tennent. Colombo 1845 sqq. — — 4'h. C. London 1910. a. 2 1 Ceylon gazetteer: accurate account of the districts. London 1909. Sarasin. Ceylon. Broad Campden 1908. 2 vols. Manual of the Vanni districts (Vavuniya and Mullaittivu) of the Northern Province. the British. . anti2"^^ 3d edd.. produce and capabilities. excluding Walapane. mainly as surviving in the eighteenth century. Schmidt. quities. G. Colombo 1895. an account of the aborigines and of part of the early civilisation. C. Seligmann. 5 th edd. Lawrie. their history. Vol. A. 2 vols. Ergebnisse naturwissenschaftlicher Forschungen auf Ceylon. Itihdsa. Parker. and American missions. und F. Ceylon and the Cingalese. government. etc. Ceylon 1834. H. W. Ch. Colombo 1899. London 1850. Colombo 1876. p. Einiersgn. Jotirnal of the Ceylon Branch. and Z. and productions. protogether with sketches of the of the island of Ceylon manners. Ceylon. Royal Asiatic Society. compiled by Weligama Sri Suwangala Terunnanse. 1859. physical. London 191 1. historical and topographical. Ceylon. Dravidian Journal of oriental studies in and around Ceylon. London 1859. K. a gazetteer of the Central Province of Ceylon. S. religion. the Dutch. Chitty. CooMARASWAMY. The Veddas. as recorded or a collection of useful information concerning the natives of in ancient histories. customs.

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13. time's. line 36 for between read about. 30. Muslim Race Titles 139 Appendices A. line 17 for stand read read stands. Page Introduction Social Organisation A. 6. Caste Index Table of Languages Table of Religions Table of Forest Tribes List of the more important • 170 171 works on Indian Ethnography 173— 211 CORRECTIONS. Urban Castes E. 94 100 112 Nomadic Castes F. p.CONTENTS. 146—172 of Caste-Groups Summary 146 153 166 B. 30. 1—9 9 9 21 — 24 Descriptive Castes and Caste-Groups A. 24 24 — 145 The Village Community 42 85 C. Special Groups B. Hill Tribes G. P. 6. . Historical B. line 31 for others P. 27. P. line 4 for belongs read belong. — — — P. line 16 for times' P. other. line 42 for Chapter read review. Subsidiary Professional Castes D. P. line 5 read read for clouth South. 25.

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.. I. Coomaraswamy. Persian. S. II. Crown Bvo.. sum total of historical experience and truth.. 292. Crown 8vo. Oxon. The Indian Craftsman. p. Vol. which we can recommend as a most interesting account of the Craft Guilds of India and their value sesthetically. by A. and a historian of Islam unparalleled in this country.C. . 41. Translation from the 8vo.. Japan)— Conclusion Bibliography— Index. net 3s sf*' D. Vol. The Author to science Indian and Islamic.. Korea. Bukhsh. pp. by S."— T. 1911 net 7s Khuda 6d " »f 1 . 6d author has brought to bear on his subject great knowledge and ''^—Indian Mag. y PROBSTHAIN 6- CO.. "Wilson's niichterne fast wortliche Uebersetzung in verein mit seinen Erlauterungen lasst Keinen.PROBSTHAIN'S ©ricntal Settee. pp.. Sketch Buddhism III. K.. net 6s Hackmann. Calcutta. .. Theol. Great Russell Street. 1910 net 24s . Burma.. Wilson. Buddhism as a Relig^ion: its Historical Development and its Present-Day Condition. London. and II.. i- spiritually. Southern Buddhism (Ceylon. The Masnavi. 1909 .. III. sympathy and wide learning ".A. E. The Buddha and his Doctrine— II. Lie. Siam) — IV. Lamaism — V.Sc. "—Modern Reviezv.. has carried on his studies with scrupulous fidelity He is a faithful historian. Vol. Book translated the : first Prof. II.. Eastern Buddhism (China. ab^r auch Keinen Wunsch unbe- fned\gt"—Der /s/ajH. Contents Preface of the History of : — — Vols. 320. P. 1910 I. IV. M.. and . Vol. I. socially. C. .. Commentary.. for 2 by Jalalu d Din Rami. v.. 295. Essays: ". Vol. by H. W. Crown 8vo. . vols time into English Prose by Vol. II. "The ). for having adopted the true Much has been brought to light to add to the critical method. The only complete work on Buddhism. .

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