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Why Environmental Engineering:
y The goal of the course is to provide students with the scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems both natural and humanmade, to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and to examine alternative solutions for resolving and/or preventing them.
y The beginning of 20th century:
Major emphasis on control of epidemic communicable diseases. Importance on water supply and sewage disposal.
y The middle of 20th century:
Solid waste disposal, air pollution control, occupational hygiene gain significance.
y The latter part of 20th century:
Chemical pollution, radiation hazards, and hazardous waste management join the array of environmental pollution problems.
Ecology: science dealing with interrelationship of things.
y Organisms depend on the quality of environment, and
they also exert an influence on the quality of environment. y Man exerts a tremendous impact on the environment through: Extraction of resources, and Modification and manipulation of the environment, and pollution resulting from deposition of wastes.
Ecological impact on environment:
y on the productivity of the ecosystem (green plants,
atmospheric oxygen) y on other organisms (microorganisms, insects, animals) y on climate (global warming, ozone hole, acid rain) Health impact: y Due to microbiological pollution y Due to microchemical pollution
The human environment encompasses all physical, chemical, biological and social processes and influences, which individually or in combination exert directly or indirectly a significant influence on the health and well-being of human race.
y Health: Health is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, but a state of physical,
mental, and social well-being. (WHO)
y In developing countries:
Microbiological pollution is of more significance. Environmental factors serve as links in the chain of transmission of diseases Communicable disease like cholera, typhoid, dysentery, malaria, bilharziasis, etc.
y In industrialized countries:
microphysicochemical pollution is of more significance. microchemical health hazards more complex than communicable diseases cancer, leukemia, cardiovascular disorders, etc
and the social and environmental impact of public health. and atmospheric pollution. and the control of water. the elimination of industrial health hazards.ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING definition: Environmental Engineering is manifest by sound engineering thought and practice in the solution of problems of environmental sanitation. and recreational areas. and the effect of technological advances on the environment. such as control of anthropod-borne diseases. palatable. and ample public water supplies. the adequate drainage of urban and rural areas for proper sanitation. rural. notably in the provision of safe. the proper disposal of or recycle of waste water and solid wastes. soil. (ASCE) . and the provision of adequate sanitation in urban.
1.5 billion 1980 .5.more industrial goods .more of everything .10.more food .y More population .2.5 billion (estimated) y Rate of population growth in developing countries is 40% greater than in the world as a whole.0 billion 2000 .0 billion 2110 .6.more water .more wastes more pollution! y World population: 1900 .6 billion 1950 . .
Environmental impact of agriculture-related activities: Desertification Dams and ecological disasters Salinity problems Use of fertilizers Use of pesticides Animal wastes .
Air pollution y Closely related to the influence of industrialization! .Slums .increased demand on resources .Problems of residential environment .Environmental impact of urbanization: y Concentration of people .Production of solid wastes .increased volume of waste-waters .
cumulative and synergistic chemicals y Increased demand on resources y Problems of occupational environment .Environmental impact of industrialization: y Industrial wastewaters y Industrial solid wastes y Hazardous wastes y Growing numbers and complexity of wastes y Toxic. carcinogenic.
program or activity and converted the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) as a line bureau and created the EMB Regional Offices. y It advanced the formulation and enforcement of a system of accountability as regards environmental impact of a project. DECREES. AND LOCAL LAWS: y Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 (RA 8749) y The Clean Air Act promoted cooperation and self- regulation and pollution prevention as well as encouraging public participation to air quality planning and monitoring. RA S. .IMPLEMENTING LAWS.
and abatement of pollution in water resources. public health and quality of life. Environmental Impact Assessment (PD 1151) . water supply.y Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 (RA 9275) y The Clean Water Act advanced the prevention. control. y The Act thus endorsed management programs to address water pollution. y It encouraged that water quality management issues should not be separated from concerns on water sources and ecological protection.
processing. manufacture. distribution. even in transit.RA 6969: Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act (1990) . use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that present unreasonable risk and/or injury to health or the environment. sale. It also prohibited the entry.controlled toxic substances and hazardous and nuclear wastes by way of regulating. of hazardous and nuclear wastes and their disposal into the country. . restricting or prohibiting the importation.
RA 9003: Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (2000) y This Act maximized the utilization of valuable resources and encouraged resource conservation and recovery. . y It promoted solid waste avoidance and volume reduction. y RA 9003 places the primary enforcement and responsibility of solid waste management with LGUs and encouraged cooperation and self-regulation among waste generators.
. These problems are referred to as MULTIMEDIA pollution problems. Three environmental systems: Water resource management system Air resource management system Solid waste management system Many important environmental problems are not confined to one of these systems but cross boundaries from one to the other.ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS ³SYSTEMS APPROACH´ ± looking at all interrelated parts and their effects on one another.
lakes. and rivers Groundwater ± wells .WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM WATER SUPPLY SUBSYSTEM The components of a water supply system may include: collection works transmission works treatment works distribution works Two major sources of water supply: Surface water ± streams.
Factors that influence water consumption: Consumer Groups: Domestic and public use Industrial and commercial use Livestock use Waterworks use Losses and wastes ('unaccounted for' water) Fire demand Factors influencing water use: Size of city Climate and location Industrial development Habits and living standards Parks and gardens Water quality Water pressure Cost of water .
. Higher average annual temperature implies higher per capita water use.The following factors also influence water consumption: Extent of sewerage Systems pressure Water price Availability of private wells Standard of living Per capita water use increases with and increased in standard of living. Likewise. whereas areas of high rainfall experience lower water use. higher socioeconomic status implies greater per capita water use hat lower socioeconomic status. Highly developed countries use much more water than the less developed nations.
Variations in water demand: Average day demand Maximum day demand Maximum hour demand Source: to meet average day demand or maximum day demand Transmission from source to treatment plant: To meet average day demand or maximum day demand Water treatment plant: To meet maximum day demand Pumping plant: To meet maximum day demand (if feeding into reservoirs) Distribution system: to meet maximum hour demand or (maximum fire demand + fire demand) whichever is greater. .
The variation of demand is normally reported as a factor of the average day.2 x average day Peak hour = 5.3 x average day .A single family residence uses about 400 Lcpd (liters per capita per day). For metered dwellings the factors are as follows: Maximum day = 2.
. A small residential development of 28 houses is being planned. If a faucet is dripping at a rate of one drop per second and each drop contains 0. Seven hundred sixty five (765) cubic meters of solid waste are dumped at the site five days per week. Solution: (0. Assume that the average residential consumption applies. and that each house has three residents.Problem 1.2 ha at an average depth of 10 m. This waste is compacted to twice its delivered density.600 L/d Problem 2.150 milliliters. Draw a mass-balance diagram and estimate the expected life of the landfill in years. A sanitary landfill has available space of 16. Solution: (28 houses)( 3 people/house)(400 Lcpd) = 33.400 s/d)(365 d/y)(1 x 10-3 L/mL) = 4.730 L/y Problem 3. calculate how much water (in liters) will be lost in one year. Estimate the additional average daily water production in L/d that will have to be supplied by the city.150 mL/s)(86.
2 ha)(1 x 104 m3/ha)(10 m depth) = 1.620.000 m3 / 99.450 m3/y The available space: (16. The annual volume of compacted solid waste is: (5 d/wk)(52 wk/y)(765 m3/d)(1/2) = 99.3 years .450 m3/y = 16.620.Solution: Compaction to twice delivered density means that the volume is reduced to ½.000 m3 The expected life of the landfill is: 1.
the equation would be written: ACCUMULATION = INPUT OUTPUT . This concept is called a materials balance. In environmental system or subsystem.A materials balance approach to problem solving Matter can neither be created nor destroyed but that it can be changed in form. or a mass balance. This concept serves as a basis for describing and analyzing environmental engineering problems.
the remainder is discharged to the sewer system. The couple approximately recycles 25% if the solid waste that is generated. appliances. newspapers. Estimate the amount of solid waste they place at the garbage cab each week. Consumer have no children. Of this amount. In an average week they purchase and bring into their house approximately 50 Kg of consumer goods (food. and assorted packaging). furniture. Approximately 1 Kg accumulates in the house. magazines. Half of the food is used for biological maintenance and ultimately released as CO2. Mr.EX. 50% is consumed as food. and Mrs. Solution: .
25( input output 1 output 2 accumulation) = 0.25(50 12.5)(50 Kg) = 25 kg One half of food is for biological maintenance = output 1 = (o.5 6 1 = 18 Kg .5 kg The recycled amount is 25 percent of what remains of input after food and accumulation is removed = Output 3 = 0.5 Kg One half of food is lost to sewer system = output 2 = (0.5 -12.5 1) = 6 kg Output 4 = input output 1 output 2 output 3 accumulation = 50 12.5)(25 kg) = 12.5)(25 Kg) = 12.Mass balance equation: Input = Output 1 + output 2 + output 3 + output 4 + accumulation One half of input is food = (0.5 12.
Some water is absorbed by plants and returned to the atmosphere as vapor. falls to the Earth as rain or snow. condenses.HYDROLOGY The continuous circular process. . and eventually returns to the oceans through run-off in rivers or streams. in which the water of the Earth evaporates from the oceans.
Ice and snow can sublimate directly into water vapor. which is water transpired from plants and evaporated from the soil. and the melted water flows overland as snowmelt. where the water cycle renews itself. along with water from evapotranspiration. Some precipitation falls as snow and can accumulate as ice caps and glaciers. Most precipitation falls back into the oceans or onto land. grow. heats water in the oceans. and fall out of the sky as precipitation. Some of it evaporates as vapor into the air. Rising air currents take the vapor up into the atmosphere. Much of it soaks into the ground as infiltration. the precipitation flows over the ground as surface runoff. . some to reenter the ocean. with streamflow moving water towards the oceans. where. Air currents move clouds around the globe. cloud particles collide. and some ground water finds openings in the land surface and emerges as freshwater springs. the water continues flowing. Snowpacks in warmer climates often thaw and melt when spring arrives. which store huge amounts of freshwater for long periods of time. Some water infiltrates deep into the ground and replenishes aquifers (saturated subsurface rock). which drives the water cycle. accumulate and are stored as freshwater in lakes. which can store frozen water for thousands of years. due to gravity. Over time. Some infiltration stays close to the land surface and can seep back into surface-water bodies (and the ocean) as ground-water discharge. A portion of runoff enters rivers in valleys in the landscape. Runoff.Description The water cycle has no starting or ending point. and ground-water seepage. Not all runoff flows into rivers. The vapor rises into the air where cooler temperatures cause it to condense into clouds. The sun.
hail. evaporate into the air. 398. As it flows. or be extracted for agricultural or other human uses.000 km³ of it over the oceans. the water becomes soil moisture or groundwater. Infiltration is the flow of water from the ground surface into the ground. become stored in lakes or reservoirs. graupel. Canopy interception is the precipitation that is intercepted by plant foliage and eventually evaporates back to the atmosphere rather than falling to the ground. Snowmelt refers to the runoff produced by melting snow. Once infiltrated.000 km³ of water fall as precipitation each year. This includes both surface runoff and channel runoff. but also includes snow. . Runoff includes the variety of ways by which water moves across the land. and sleet.The different processes are as follows: Precipitation is condensed water vapor that falls to the Earth's surface. Approximately 505. fog drip. Most precipitation occurs as rain. the water may infiltrate into the ground.
liquid. so it can remain in aquifers for thousands of years. . Evaporation is the transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the ground or bodies of water into the overlying atmosphere. water that evaporated over the oceans could not precipitate over land. 434.000 km³ of which evaporates from the oceans. and is replenished slowly. Without advection. while the remaining 10% is from transpiration. The source of energy for evaporation is primarily solar radiation. under the force of gravity or gravity induced pressures. as a spring or by being pumped) or eventually seep into the oceans. Total annual evapotranspiration amounts to approximately 505. though together they are specifically referred to as evapotranspiration. Evaporation often implicitly includes transpiration from plants. in the vadose zone and aquifers. Sublimation is the state change directly from solid water (snow or ice) to water vapor. producing clouds and fog. or vapour states ² through the atmosphere. Water returns to the land surface at lower elevation than where it infiltrated. Condensation is the transformation of water vapour to liquid water droplets in the air. Subsurface water may return to the surface (eg.Subsurface Flow is the flow of water underground. Approximately 90% of atmospheric water comes from evaporation. Advection is the movement of water ² in solid.000 km³ of water. Groundwater tends to move slowly.
ample water supply. internal water deficit. EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET) is a term used to describe the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the earth's land surface to atmosphere. its roles in providing the energy to transport water in the plant and in aiding dissipation of the sun's heat (by cooling through evaporation of water) have been challenged. Evapotranspiration is an important part of the water cycle. Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapour through stomata in its leaves. and water bodies.TRANSPIRATION Loss of water from a plant. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil. . transpiration has been considered by some to be merely an unavoidable phenomenon that accompanies the real functions of the stomata. Darkness. illumination. and extremes of temperature tend to close stomata and decrease transpiration. Its exact significance is disputed. canopy interception. Since stomatal openings are necessary for the exchange of gases. mainly through the stomata of leaves. and optimum temperature cause stomata to open and increase transpiration.
A confined aquifer is overlain by a rock layer that does not transmit water in any appreciable amount or that is impermeable.Potential evapotranspiration (PET) Is a representation of the environmental demand for evapotranspiration and represents the evapotranspiration rate of a short green crop. Evapotranspiration is said to equal potential evapotranspiration when there is ample water. or zone. It is a reflection of the energy available to evaporate water. . and of the wind available to transport the water vapour from the ground up into the lower atmosphere. allow water to flow through their matrix. AQUIFER In hydrology. lens. An aquifer also may be called a water-bearing stratum. completely shading the ground. a rock layer or sequence that contains water and releases it in appreciable amounts. The rocks contain water-filled pores that. of uniform height and with adequate water status in the soil profile. There probably are few truly confined aquifers. when connected. In an unconfined aquifer the upper surface (water table) is open to the atmosphere through permeable overlying material.
The v l mes f ater in the fresh ater reserv irs. partic larly th se that are available f r h man se.01 0. The ater c ntaine smallest reserv ir.0006 Percent of total 97. are imp rtant ater res rces.0001 0.25 2.125 0. Reservoir Oceans Ice caps & glaciers r n ater Lakes S il m ist re Atm sphere Streams & rivers Bi sphere Volume of water stored in the water cycle's reservoirs Volume of water ([[1 E+15 m³|106 km³]]) 1370 29 9.065 0. acc nting f r 97% f the Earth's ater. The next largest q antity (2%) is st re in s li f rm in the ithin all living rganisms represents the ice caps an glaciers.Reservoirs In the c ntext f the ater cycle.013 0.6 0. a reserv ir represents the ater c ntaine in ifferent steps ithin the cycle.001 0.00004 .0017 0.005 0.05 0.5 0. The largest reserv ir is the c llecti n f ceans.
The hydrologic equation: The total quantity of water available to the earth is finite. VP( ) ± Vs( ) ± VR( ) ± VG( ) ± VE( ) ± VT( ) = 0 Where: V = volume P = precipitation S = storage R = runoff G = groundwater infiltration E = evaporation T = transpiration = density . the global hydrologic system is considered to be a closed system: that is self-contained or in mass balance.
mm/h k = empirical constant. h Note: rate of precipitation > rater of inflation .Infiltration: (Horton¶s equation) f = fC + (fO Where: ± -kt fC)e f = infiltration rate. h-1 t = time. mm/h fC = equilibrium or final infiltration rate. mm/h fO = initial infiltration rate.
Evaporation: E = (es ± ea)(a + bu) Where: E = evaporation rate. kPa ea = vapor pressure in overlying air. . kPa a . b = empirical constants u = wind speed. mm/h es = saturation vapor pressure. m/s Note: high wind speeds and low humidities result in large evaporation rates.
As production increases while plant capacity remains the same.WATER TREATMENT Water can be consumed in any desired amount without concern for adverse health effects in termed to be potable water. In contrast. which is one that is pleasing to drink. Often increased production requires the use of new water sources that contain higher contaminant levels. but not necessarily safe. palatable water. Potable water does not necessarily mean that the water tastes good. the task of producing potable water increasingly difficult. Water should be both potable and palatable. so must water production. As population increase. .
Water pollutants OUR BODY DEPENDS UPON WHAT YOU DRINK! Information states that there is some kind of toxic substance in our ground water no matter where we live. The old adage "If you want something done. and can form toxic compounds (THM's) which adversely affect us. do it yourself" applies to our drinking water also. . Even materials added to our drinking water to "protect" us (such as chlorine) are linked to certain cancers.
BIOLOGICAL IMPURITIES: Bacteria. Virus.000 people will die daily from waterborne disease. Effects of waterborne microorganisms can be immediate and devastating. Therefore. and Parasites -. an estimated 25. microorganisms are the first and most important consideration in making water acceptable for human consumption.Years ago. Even today in underdeveloped countries. waterborne diseases accounted for millions of deaths. .
.Generally speaking. animal wastes. Private wells and small rural water systems have reason to be more concerned about the possibility of microorganism contamination from septic tanks. and other problems. modern municipal supplies are relatively free from harmful organisms because of routine disinfection with chlorine or chloramines and frequent sampling. This does not mean municipal water is free of all bacteria.
Turbidity is unpleasant to look at. The entire list of them could fill this page.INORGANIC IMPURITIES: Dirt and Sediment or Turbidity -. The presence and amount of total dissolved solids in water represents a point of controversy among those who promote water treatment products.These substances are dissolved rock and other compounds from the earth.Most waters contain some suspended particles which may consist of fine sand. and precipitated salts. soil. and can interfere with effective disinfection. Here are some facts about the consequences of higher levels of TDS in water: . Total Dissolved Solids -. can be a source of food and lodging for bacteria. clay.
and makes them less desirable to consume. minerals having passed through a living system are known as ORGANIC minerals. and faster melting. 3. .1. High TDS water is less thirst quenching. bitter. and Fluoride. High TDS make ice cubes cloudy. Sodium. 5. Sulfates. 4. Water with higher TDS is considered by some health advocates to have a poorer cleansing effect in the body than water with a low level of TDS. Can you imagine going out to your garden for a cup of dirt to eat rather than a nice carrot. 7. When TDS levels exceed 1000mg/L it is generally considered unfit for human consumption. Minerals exist in water mostly as INORGANIC salts. softer. or metallic. 2. Numerous water supplies exceed this level. High TDS results in undesirable taste which could be salty. They are combined with proteins and sugars. The EPA Secondary Regulations advise a maximum level of 500mg/liter (500 parts per million-ppm) for TDS. Copper. Some of the individual mineral salts that make up TDS pose a variety of health hazards. 6. High TDS interferes with the taste of foods and beverages. or drinking a whole bathtub of water for LESS calcium than that in an 8 ounce glass of milk? 8. According to many nutritionists minerals are much easier to assimilate when they come from foods. The most problematic are Nitrates. Barium. In contrast. This is because water with low dissolved solids has a greater capacity of absorption than water with higher solids.
the deadly substance of asbestos is showing up with increasing frequency in drinking water. Asbestos -. birth defects. have limits imposed upon them when in water because the form in which they exist may pose a health hazard. It has been estimated that some 200. . certain cancers. and Silver.Arsenic.000 miles of this pipe is presently in use to transport our drinking water.Among the greatest threats to health are the presence of high levels of toxic metals in drinking water . mental retardation. Maximum limits for each are established by the EPA Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Toxic metals are associated with nerve damage. Other metals such as Chromium and Selenium. It has been linked with gastrointestinal cancer. Because these pipes are wearing. while essential trace elements in our diets.Toxic Metals or Heavy Metals -. Cadmium. and increased susceptibility to disease.Asbestos exists as microscopic suspended mineral fibers in water. Its primary source is asbestos-cement pipe which was commonly used after World War II for city water supplies. Mercury. Lead.
The greatest threat is posed by nuclear accidents. hydrocarbons to phenols. chances are it is due to one or more of many organic substances ranging from decaying vegetation to algae. . Radioactive wastes leach from mining operations into groundwater supplies.Even though trace amounts of radioactive elements can be found in almost all drinking water.If your water has a disagreeable taste or odor. As containers containing these wastes deteriorate with time. It could also be TDS and a host of other items. and radioactive waste disposal sites. the risk of contaminating our aquafers grows into a toxic time bomb. levels that pose serious health hazards are fairly rare--for now.Radioactivity -. nuclear processing plants. ORGANIC IMPURITIES: Tastes and Odors -.
Chemicals end up in our drinking water from hundreds of different sources.000. Contaminated drinking water may look and taste perfectly normal. Endrin can contaminate 5. growth abnormalities.000. Just two glassfuls of TCE can contaminate 27. Some of these disorders may go unnoticed for decades!! Just how toxic these chemicals are may be illustrated by looking at two examples: TCE is a widely used chemical which routinely shows up in water supplies.000 gallons of water. The users symptoms might include recurring headache.all of which are hard to diagnose as being water related. The effects of chronic long term exposure to these toxic organics. The more serious consequences of drinking tainted water are higher cancer rates. birth defects. . There are hundreds of publications each year highlighting this problem. are extremely difficult to detect. infertility.000. and nerve and organ damage. rash. or fatigue .The most pressing and widespread water contamination problem is a result of the organic chemicals created by industry.000 gallons of drinking water! One pound of the pesticide. even in minute amounts.Toxic Organic Chemicals -.
Chlorine -. . interacts with natural organic materials (e. etc. by-products of decayed vegetation. and Bromodichloromethane.Trihalomethanes (THM's) are formed when chlorine. algae. used to disinfect water supplies. This creates toxic organic chemicals such as chloroform. A further word about chlorine: Scientists at Colombia University found that women who drank chlorinated water ran a 44% greater risk of dying of cancer of the gastrointestinal or urinary tract than did women who drank non-chlorinated water! Chlorinated water has also been linked to high blood pressure and anemia.g. Anemia is caused by the deleterious effect of chlorine on red blood cells.).
The following four categories are used to describe drinking water quality: yPhysical: Physical characteristics relate to the quality of water for domestic use and are usually associated with the appearance of water. yMicrobiological: Microbiological agents are very important in their relation to public health and may also be significant in modifying the physical and chemical characteristics of water. The radioactivity of the water is of public health concern in these cases. in particular. and other substances at it forms and falls through the earth¶s atmosphere. and.WATER QUALITY Precipitation in the form of rain. Groundwater. taste and odor. The precipitation. yChemical: Chemical characteristics of waters are sometimes evidenced by their observed reactions. such as the comparative performance of hard and soft waters in laundering. . has virtually no bacterial content. temperature. hail. however. therefore. It may contain trace amounts of mineral matter. or sleet contains very few impurities. yRadiological: Radiological factors must be considered in areas where there is a possibility that the water may have in contact with radioactive substances. differences are not visible. Most often. often contains more dissolved minerals than surface water. its color or turbidity. gases.
General characteristics of groundwater and surface water GROUND Constant composition High mineralization Little turbidity Low or no color Bacteriologically safe No dissolved oxygen High hardness H2S. Mn SURFACE Varying composition Low mineralization High turbidity Color Microorganism present Dissolved oxygen Low hardness Tastes and odors Possible chemical toxicity . Fe.
most water systems must treat their water. filter plants. Public Water Systems Public Water Systems (PWSs) come in all shapes and sizes. or softening plant. and the quality of the source water.providing safe. . and no two are exactly the same. The types of treatment provided by a specific PWS vary depending on the size of the system. They may be publicly or privately owned and maintained. whether they use ground water or surface water.TREATMENT SYSTEM Treatment plants can be classified a simple disinfection. To do this. they all share the same goal . reliable drinking water to the communities they serve. While their design may vary.
000 feet). and reservoirs. . lakes. Around 35 percent of the population served by community water systems (CWSs) drink water that originates as ground water. Ground water is usually pumped from wells ranging from shallow to deep (50 to 1.Tapping a Source of Water Large-scale water supply systems tend to rely on surface water sources. while smaller systems tend to rely on ground water. The remaining 5 percent of the population served by CWSs receive water taken primarily from surface water sources like rivers.
while others need to add chlorine or additional treatment. Water utilities select a combination of treatment processes most appropriate to treat the contaminants found in the raw water used by the system. The most commonly used processes include filtration. and disinfection for surface water. flocculation and sedimentation. Water suppliers use a variety of treatment processes to remove contaminants from drinking water.Treating Raw Water The amount and type of treatment applied by a PWS varies with the source type and quality. Many ground water systems can satisfy local as well as national government requirements without applying any treatment. These individual processes may be arranged in a "treatment train" (a series of processes applied in sequence). Because surface water systems are exposed to direct wet weather runoff and to the atmosphere and are therefore more easily contaminated. . Some treatment trains also include ion exchange and adsorption. regulations require that these systems treat their water.
Water Treatment Plant .
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