Technical English

For Deck Cadets

No Part of This Book Covered by Copyright

Bushehr Maritime Center Prepared by: Mahdi Bordbar – Deck Cadet

This Book is an effective training tool, not only to teach Maritime English to the newly joining seafarers but also to familiarize them with: - Various types of ships, Organization onboard ships, Ship Design and Basic Terminology used onboard. - General Ship Safety, Safety Symbols and Emergency Alarms onboard. - Potential dangers onboard ship like Fire, Man Overboard, Medical Emergency, Abandon Ship and Search and Rescue operations. - Basic Principles of Navigation and Position Fixing, Brief introduction of Bridge Equipment, Basics of Collision Regulations and Overview of Navigational Aids like Buoys and Lights. - Various Knots and Bends, Terms used during Berthing and Meanings of Flag signals. Table of Content Chapter No Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Content Familiarization onboard Safety onboard Emergencies onboard Navigation and aids to navigation Ship operations and seamanship Page Number Page 2 Page 13 Page 17 Page 26 Page 42


Chapter 1 Familiarization onboard

The learning objective of the chapter is to learn Maritime English and understand basic terminology relating to:  Types of ships  Organization onboard ships  Ship design and terminology The classification of merchant ships on the basis of the type and methods of carrying cargo is as follows:  Bulk Carriers: Bulk Carriers are ships specially designed to carry homogenous unpacked cargo in bulk. Cargo such as coal, iron ore, grain, light minerals and other dry products is carried, in bulk, in large cargo holds. Bulk Carriers are commonly categorized by their size. Ships of 25,000 deadweight tons (DWT) are called "Handysize", about 75,000 DWT are called "Panamax", and those over 200,000 DWT are called "Capesize".  Tankers: Tankers carry liquids such as crude oil, petroleum products, various oils and liquid chemicals in bulk. This type of cargo is loaded in specialized tanks. A network of pipelines and pumps is provided to load and discharge the cargo. Depending on the type of cargo, tankers are further classified, for example: Crude oil tanker, Product tanker, Gas tanker and Chemical tanker.  Crude Oil Tankers: Crude Oil Tankers are ships that carry crude oil and other dirty liquid cargoes. The cargo is carried in large covered tanks. The capacity of these ships can vary from a few thousand tonnes to almost half a million tonnes. Large Crude Oil Tankers are often referred to as VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier) and ULCC (Ultra Large Crude Carrier).  Product Tankers: Liquid cargoes such as gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, aviation fuel or similar clean petrochemical products are carried on Product Tankers. They also carry cooking oils such as tallow, vegetable, palm and corn oil. Compared to Product Tankers these ships are smaller and they usually have a larger number of tanks to segregate the different types of cargoes.  Gas Tankers: Gas Tankers are ships that carry liquefied gases. Some of the most common gases are propane, butane, ammonia and methane. These gases are kept in a liquid state in specially designed tanks maintained at very high pressure or very low temperature, or a combination of both. There are broadly two types of Gas Tankers depending on the type of cargoes they carry: LPG Tankers carry Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) such as butane, propane or similar gases. They are designed to carry their cargo in pressurized and refrigerated states. LNG Tankers are specially designed to carry Liquefied Natural Gas (mostly methane) at temperatures of -160 degrees Celsius and below.  Chemical Tankers: Chemical Tankers are ships that carry different liquid chemicals in specially built tanks. These tanks are mainly made of stainless steel and specially coated to withstand chemical reactions and corrosion from diverse cargoes such as acids, alcohol, edible oils and petrochemical products. They are smaller ships designed to carry small quantities of different types of cargo at the same time in various compartments.  Container Ships: Container Ships are ships designed to carry standard sized containers. Containers are stacked in the ship's holds as well as on the deck and secured to the ship using a locking mechanism. Two of the most common standard sizes of containers are the Twenty Foot (TEU) and Forty Foot (FEU) units. The capacity of a Container Ship is usually expressed by the number of Twenty Foot Equivalent Units (TEU) that can be carried by the ship.


 Passenger Ships : These ships are used by passengers either for the purpose of travel between two ports or for pleasure cruising. Passenger Ships used for short inter-sea trade and travel are called ferries and are capable of carrying cars, commercial vehicles and small quantities of containers or palletised cargoes along with the passengers. Others are designed as luxury hotels and are capable of transporting holidaymakers relatively long distances in great comfort.  Ro-Ro Ships : RO-RO or Roll-On/Roll-Off Ships have large ramp doors at the bow or stern to allow vehicles to drive in and out of the ship from the jetty. These ships have many long and wide decks to allow cars and commercial vehicles to be loaded and secured safely. Ro-Ro Ships used for short inter-sea trade are sometimes called Ro-Ro Ferries.  General Cargo Ships: General Cargo Ships are capable of carrying a diverse range of cargo in bales, drums or in palletized form. They are usually small ships with a capacity of up to 35,000 metric tonnes. Some, known as 'tween deckers', have multiple decks inside the cargo holds for segregation purposes.  Reefer Ships: Refrigerated Cargo Ships (Reefers) are designed to carry cargo that needs to be kept frozen or chilled; this includes fruits, meat, juices or other perishable foodstuffs. The insulated cargo holds have specially designed refrigeration and air-cooling systems to maintain a specific range of low temperatures.  Heavy Lift Vessels: Ships that can load very heavy cargoes on the deck or in the cargo hold are known as Heavy Lift Vessels. They can carry a variety of unusual cargoes including heavy machinery, yachts, drilling rigs, barges and bridges. Their decks and hold tank tops are designed to withstand the high load density of cargoes and they sometimes have their own integral specialised cranes.  LASH: LASH (Lighter aboard Ships) carry large barges loaded with cargo. These barges are loaded and unloaded on to the ship using huge gantry cranes onboard the ships, alongside a jetty, or at anchorages. This method allows access to places with shallow waters or transportation of cargo by barges to inland areas using rivers and canals.  Livestock Carriers: Livestock Carriers are designed for transportation of animals and livestock like sheep, goats and cows. They have specially designed compartments for the carriage and care of the animals.

Bulk Carrier


Crude Oil Tanker

Product Tanker


Gas Tanker

Chemical tanker

Container Ship

Passenger Ship

Ro-Ro Ship

General Cargo Ship

Reefer Vessel

Heavy-Lift Vessel


Livestock Carier


Whether at sea or in port, shipboard activities continue twenty-four hours a day, 7 days a week. The manning of ships and the related work schedule onboard has evolved through centuries of tradition and continues to change with the increasing use of automation.

Shipboard Hierarchy
Master Deck Department Catering Department Chief Cook & Steward Engine Department Chie Engineer Second Engineer Third Engineer Forth Engineer Electrical Officer Fitter Engine Ratings

Chief Officer Second Officer Third Officer Deck Cadet

Bosun Deck Ratings


Master The Master of the ship, or the Captain, is in command of the ship. He has the overall responsibility for the safe navigation of the ship, the safety and protection of the crew and passengers, the safe delivery of the cargo, and the efficient maintenance of the ship's equipment. He ensures discipline and smooth operations on the ship by delegating responsibility to qualified officers and members of the crew and by monitoring their performance. Chief Officer The Chief Officer is in charge of the deck and cabin departments. He is responsible for loading, discharging and care of the cargo in port and at sea; the general maintenance of the deck and accommodation areas; and maintaining the navigation and safety equipment. He also assists the Master in the general administration on the ship. While at sea the Chief Officer normally keeps the 4-8 morning and evening navigation watch. Second Officer The Second Officer is often called the Navigating Officer and is responsible for the upkeep of navigational charts, navigational equipment and publications. He plans the voyage under the guidance of the Master and plots the course on the chart before the ship sails. At sea he keeps the navigational watch from 12-4 morning and night. In port he keeps alternate cargo watch to assist the Chief Officer in cargo operations. Third Officer The Third Officer is responsible for the maintenance of the ship's safety equipment, including the firefighting and the life-saving equipment, under the guidance of the Chief Officer. He keeps the 8-12 mornings and evening navigational watch at sea. In port he keeps the cargo watch, alternating with the Second Officer to ensure smooth cargo operations. Deck Cadet The trainee or Deck Cadet works under the guidance and command of the Chief Officer. All ships have a specialized training program and work schedule for hands-on job experience for the cadets. Bosun The Bosun, or Boatswain, is in charge of the Deck Ratings or crew. The Bosun takes orders from the Chief Officer for the maintenance work on deck and allocates work to the Deck Ratings. Chief Engineer The Chief Engineer is the Head of the Engine Department. He has the overall responsibility for the maintenance and smooth operation of all machinery including the engine room and deck machinery, electrical and electronics systems, mooring equipment, deck pumps and cranes. He is also responsible for the ordering and storing of spares and stores required for the upkeep of the machinery. The Chief Engineer estimates the fuel oil consumption of the main engine during the voyage and ensures sufficient 'bunker' or fuel oil is available for the forthcoming voyage. Second Engineer The Second Engineer is in charge of engine room machinery and personnel and assists the Chief Engineer in the maintenance of all machinery in the engine room and critical machinery on deck. He delegates various jobs to the Engineers and Engine Ratings and monitors their performance. He keeps the 4-8 morning and evening Engine Room watch in a manned ship and Day work (8 - 17) in an Unmanned Machinery Space (UMS) ship along with other engineers.

Third Engineer The Third Engineer is responsible for auxiliary engines and other electrical equipment. He also keeps the Engine Room Watch from 12-4 morning and night and assists in the general maintenance of the Engine Room. Fourth Engineer The Fourth Engineer is responsible for auxiliary machinery such as purifiers, pumps and related equipment. He is responsible for daily bunker calculations. He usually keeps the 8-12 morning and evening Engine Room Watch Electrical Officer The Electrical Officer is responsible for the maintenance of electrical equipment onboard the ship, including radio, navigation and safety equipment. Fitter The Fitter assists in the general maintenance of the Engine Room. The various repair jobs including welding and gas work are usually carried out by the Fitter. Engine Ratings Engine Ratings assist in general maintenance and cleaning and contribute to smooth operations in the Engine Room. Catering Department On cargo ships, the Chief Cook and the Stewards form part of a Catering Department team with the responsibility for food preparation and service and general accommodation area cleanliness. They work under the guidance of the Master. On Passenger Ships the Catering Department will have more personnel to meet the requirements of the passengers.


Ship design and terminology In this section we will learn about the common terms used in: General design of a merchant vessel Directions on a vessel Movements of a vessel

Main Deck The Main Deck is the uppermost deck that runs the entire length of a ship. Superstructure The Superstructure houses the crew accommodation, offices, stores etc. Crane The Crane is a machine for lifting heavy objects or cargo. Scuppers The Scuppers are drains from the decks to take out excess rainwater, condensation or seawater. Ladder The Ladder is a set of steps leading from one deck to another. Fair-lead Fairleads are openings in the ship's bulwark or hull to guide mooring lines and ropes. They are specially strengthened and designed to prevent chafing of ropes. Panamalead Panamalead, or Centrelead, is the name for the Fairlead at the forward and aft ends of the ship at the centerline. Poop Deck The Poop Deck is the deck situated at the aft of the ship.

Bitts and Bollard Bitts are cylindrical shaped small posts (pillars) fixed on the ship or quay and are used to tie the mooring lines. Capstan Capstans are drums or cylinders revolving in a vertical axis. They are mainly used onboard for pulling ropes or mooring lines.

Forecastle (Foc'sle) The Forcastle is the slightly raised structure at the forward part of the ship. It is a mooring station used for housing windlass machinery and as a storeroom. Windlass The Windlass is the machinery for lifting and lowering the anchor cable. Bulbous Bow The Bulbous Bow is a protruding bow that is designed to break up the bow wave before it reaches the ship. Anchor The Anchor is used to keep the ship fixed within a small area in the water. It gets its holding power due to its weight and design plus the added weight of the cable it is attached to. Bow Thruster The Bow Thruster is a propeller at the bow of the ship used during manoeuvring to provide transverse thrust.

Propeller The Propeller is similar to a fan. Rotary motion of the propeller blades in the water provides the force for the ship's movement. Rudder The function of the Rudder is to steer the ship. The Rudder is usually located in the water flow aft of the propeller. Monkey Island The Monkey Island is the uppermost deck on the superstructure upon which the main mast and various aerials are located. Signal Whistle The Signal Whistle is an instrument to produce a loud sound for alerts and warnings. Radar Scanner The Radar Scanner is an antenna that sends out and receives radar wave pulses. Main Mast The Main Mast is usually the highest portion of the ship. Scanners and navigational lights are placed at various heights on the Main Mast. Halyard The Halyard are the ropes on the Main Mast for hoisting flags.


Mast Headlight The Mast Headlight is a white navigational light on the mast.

Funnel The Funnel is the large exhaust pipe for the ship's engine room and machinery fumes.

Bridge The Bridge is the command centre of the ship. It is usually the highest enclosed portion within the ship's superstructure. Engine Room The Engine Room is a space where the main and auxiliary engines are located. Accomodation The Accommodation consists of spaces onboard the ships which are set apart for the crew. Cabin Cabins are the rooms or compartments for personnel use. Porthole Portholes are the windows in the cabins.

Alleyway The Alleyway, or Passageway, is the name for the enclosed corridors in the accommodation areas of the ship. Galley The Galley is the kitchen area used for food preparation. Mess Room The Mess Room is the place where the crew eats their meals.

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 Port When you are on a ship looking forward towards the bow, the side of the ship on your left is called Port.  Starboard When you are on a ship looking forward towards the bow, the side of the ship on your right is called Starboard.  Aft or Stern The Aft, or Stern, is the rear end of the ship. Forward or Bow  The Forward, or Bow, is the front end of the ship.  Midships Midships is the area in the centre of the ship.

 Port Bow The forward part of the ship on the port side  Starboard Bow The forward part of the ship on the starboard side  Port Quarter The aft part of the ship, usually from the stern to the accommodation, on the port side  Starboard Quarter The aft part of the ship, usually from the stern to the accommodation, on the starboard side  Abeam Abeam is the direction at right angles to the forward aft line of the ship, usually from the centre of the ship. Movements of the vessel  Ahead Ahead is the forward movement of the ship.  Astern Astern is the aft or reverse movement of the vessel.  Athwardships Athwartships is the sideways movement of the ship. This movement plays an important part in berthing and close interaction between ships.  Rolling The side-to-side (athwartship) motion of a ship along the vertical line is known as rolling.  Pitching The up and down motion of a ship forward and aft is known as pitching  Yawing  The port and starboard movement of bow along the water plane is known as yawing.



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Ship particulars  Breadth Breadth usually denotes the greatest width of the vessel - usually measured in the centre (amidships).  LOA or From Stem to Stern Length overall. It denotes the total length of the ship from stem to stern.  Draft (or Draught) Draft denotes the depth of the ship in water or the vertical distance from the bottom of a floating ship to the waterline.  Freeboard Freeboard is the height of the main deck of the ship from the waterline.  Under Keel Clearance (UKC) Under Keel Clearance is the vertical distance between the seabed and the bottom of the ship.  Air Draught Air Draught is the vertical distance of the highest point on the ship from the waterline. Common terms  Bunkers A bunker is the term for the fuel used aboard the ship. The name derives from the days when coal was the main fuel for ships' engines and this was stored in bins or bunkers.  ROB ROB stands for Remaining Onboard. ROB is the term used to denote fuel, ballast, cargo or water remaining onboard.  ETA Estimated Time of Arrival  ETC Estimated Time of Completion of a task such as cargo work or bunkering  ETD Estimated Time of Departure

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Chapter 2 Safety onboard

The learning objectives of this chapter are to develop basic knowledge of safety onboard ships and to learn some of the key associated Maritime English terminology. This chapter covers:  General Ship Safety  Signs and Symbols  Emergency Alarms General ship safety Soon after joining a ship everyone should familiarize themselves with the procedures in case of an emergency. These procedures include: 1. The Protection of Personnel 2. The Protection of the Environment 3. The Protection of Property Responsibility of safety Safety Onboard is maintained by:  Design and Construction of the Vessel With many hazardous cargoes transported by sea, ships are designed to function with extremely high levels of safety built in.  Modern Equipment Navigation, communication and safety equipment all play an important role in maintaining a safe regime.  Proper Training to Crew These days the personnel onboard are all trained to be aware of safety risks and to be able to act effectively and swiftly in the event of danger. Hazards The Major hazards onboard are:  Fire  Flooding  Pollution

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Fire Fire is one of the greatest hazards onboard a ship. Risks with this hazard are reduced by:  Ship design restricting the opportunity for fire outbreak  Ship design to restrict the spread of an outbreak  Providing proper equipment to detect an outbreak  Providing proper equipment to fight fire  Ensuring that the entire crew are well briefed and trained to tackle any fire outbreak effectively Flooding To protect from catastrophic flooding the structural integrity of a vessel is critical. This is especially true in the case of heavy weather or in the event of an accident. To prevent flooding on ship the following precautions are taken:  Subdividing the ship into small watertight compartments.  Selecting quality approved material for ship construction.  Providing watertight doors and hatch-covers.  Providing detection systems for flooding.  Providing pumping systems for emergency purposes.  Providing load indicators for accurate ship stability calculations.

Pollution To protect the environment from pollution all ships are required to abide by international rules and regulations. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution at Sea (MARPOL) is the International Maritime Organization (IMO) law governing the safe and clean disposal of substances potentially harmful to the environment. Its main purpose is to guide the crew in dealing with waste oil, toxic and general waste, accommodation and galley garbage, sewage, and potential air pollution. The following are some of the general precautions taken for environmental protection:  Tankers are designed with double hulls to reduce the risk of tank rupture.  Ships are required to carry a plan of action to deal with environmental threats in an emergency.  Proper equipment and training in its use is provided for all ship's personnel.  Garbage disposal procedures are in place. Restricting damage Even the best of protective measures cannot prevent emergency situations arising and threatening to damage life, property and the environment. For dealing with such emergencies two pieces of equipment are vital to limit the risk or damage: 1. Life Saving Equipment 2. Communication Equipment

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Life saving equipment Adequate and well-placed life-saving appliances are provided to prevent loss of life onboard. The main lifesaving equipment includes:  Lifeboat  Liferaft  Lifejacket  Lifebuoy All seafarers are trained in the operation of all life-saving appliances. Communication equipment Communication equipment onboard provides the link for ship to ship and ship to shore in the event of an emergency. The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) provides the facility onboard to send distress alerts to other ships and to the shore authorities.

Signs and symbols There are international symbols to identify safety and lifesaving equipment. They are displayed at various locations around the ship

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Emergency alarms The alarms should be clearly understood by everybody onboard. All alarms and indicators should be clearly marked. The main classifications of alarms used onboard ships are:  General Emergency Alarm Fire Alarm  Abandon Ship Alarm  Fixed Fire Extinguishing System Alarm  Watertight Door Closing Alarm

General Emergency Alarm Seven short blasts followed by one prolonged blast is the main General Emergency Alarm, indicating an emergency onboard. On some ships the signal for man-overboard is three prolonged blasts. However the main General Emergency Alarm can be used to indicate any emergency including man-overboard. Fire Alarm The Fire Alarm is a continuous ringing of a bell. This alarm can be activated by manual operation from various locations around the ship including the navigation bridge, engine control room, fire station and cargo control room. When hearing this alarm, proceed to your designated Muster Point, closing all the fire doors behind you. Abandon Ship Alarm Orders for abandoning the ship are always ultimately given verbally by the Master or the person in command of the ship. On some ships the indication for abandonment may initially be transmitted by the alarm consisting of one short, one prolonged and a further one short sounding of the bell or whistle. A verbal announcement will follow. Fixed Fire Extinguishing System Alarm Machinery spaces are fitted with a Fixed Fire Extinguishing System that can deliver large amounts of fire suppressant material such as C02, Halon or Foam. A very distinct and loud alarm is sounded before releasing these fire-extinguishing materials into the space. On hearing this alarm, evacuate the space immediately and proceed to the Muster Station. Watertight Door Closing Alarm Many ships, especially Ro-Ro vessels, have several watertight doors. These doors are capable of being closed and opened from a remote location. Upon being closed these doors are fitted with audio and visual alarms. These alarms may be in the form of a flashing light and a continuous ringing of a bell which must be distinct from other alarms.

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Chapter 3 Emergencies onboard

The learning objective of this chapter is to improve knowledge of the correct Maritime English terms used in the following potential hazards onboard a ship:
     Fire Man Overboard Medical Emergency Abandon Ship Search and Rescue

Fire Fire is a major threat onboard the ship. In this section, we will learn about:  Protection against fire  Detection and alarm system  Firefighting equipment

Protection against Fire The ship's structure is designed to provide maximum protection against fire. Protection on the ship is provided by:  Dividing the ship into various fire zones.  Installing insulating material into the bulkheads.  Fitting effective fire doors throughout.  Limiting the amount of combustible material used in construction.

Detection and alarm system All ships are equipped with fire detection systems to provide an early warning of fire onboard. These sensors are fitted in strategic locations to detect signs of fire at the earliest opportunity. The main locations of the sensors are in:  All cabins and the accommodation area.  Machinery spaces and other sensitive areas.  Cargo spaces as necessary. The fire detection and alarm system will have a Master Control Panel with lights to indicate the area in which the sensor is activated. The Master Control Panel is usually located at a Fire Station with repeaters provided on the Bridge, the Engine Control Room and/or other required locations.

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Sensor types The most common types of fire-detecting sensors are:  Smoke Detectors  Heat Detectors  Flame Detectors These sensors monitor the atmosphere and general area where they are fitted. If there is unusual activity of temperature, smoke or flame, above set parameters, the sensor will activate the Emergency Alarm onboard. Sometimes these sensors are directly connected to the sprinkler system to activate a spray of water within the whole detection zone.

Fire fighting appliances A ship is well equipped with various fire fighting appliances designed to tackle all potential fire hazards. These are positioned to enable personnel to fight any potential fire effectively. Depending upon the risks involved and the type of cargo carried, the type and the number of fire fighting appliances varies from ship to ship. A broad classification of the equipment would be:  Fire Blanket  Fireman's outfit and Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)  Portable fire fighting systems  Fixed fire fighting systems

Fire blanket A blanket which is made of fire resistant material and fitted, most commonly, in the ship's galley Primarily used to smother small fires in pots and on stoves Switch off any heat source. Place the blanket gently on the fire, keeping hands away from the flames, and covering it completely to starve the fire of oxygen.

Fireman outfit and SCBA Fire fighting teams are provided with personal protective clothing and self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) to assist in fighting the fire. The clothing includes:  Heat-resistant suits (jacket, trousers and a pair of gloves)  Fire-resistant boots  Helmet with face shield  Communication equipment  Lamp  Small axe Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) sets are compressed air cylinders attached to shoulder straps with an airtight face mask and low pressure alarm.
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Portable fire extinguishing system Extinguishers are the primary means of attacking fires. Various types of portable extinguishers are located in the fire prone areas and passageways onboard ships. The main types of portable fire extinguishers supplied for ships are: Water Foam Dry Chemical Powder C02 Portable Foam Applicators Water type fire extinguisher Water extinguishers are marked red. They are suitable for fires involving rags, paper etc but must not be used on oil or electrical fires. They extinguish the fire by cooling the combustible material. Foam type fire extinguisher Foam extinguishers are marked yellow. They are most suitable for fighting fires involving combustible liquids such as oil and can also be used on burning wood, plastic, coal etc. The released foam forms a blanket above the source of the fire and extinguishes it by cutting the oxygen supply to the source. The foam should not be aimed directly at the burning liquid surface as this could cause the fire to spread over a bigger area, instead aim the jet at a bulkhead or wall adjacent to the seat of fire. Dry Powder Type Fire Extinguisher Dry Chemical Powder (DCP) extinguishers are marked blue. They are suitable for fires involving solids like wood, coal, plastic etc and are safe when dealing with live electrical equipment. This type of extinguisher gives out a jet spray of chemical powder to knock out small flames and smother larger fires. The powder should be applied with a sweeping motion of the jet at the base of the flames. Never touch the metallic nozzle with bare hands while using a DCP extinguisher as it can freeze the skin. C02 Type Fire Extinguisher C02 extinguishers are marked black. They can be used on all types of fire but are best suited for small galley fires and electrical equipment box fires. They contain carbon dioxide gas that smothers the flames by displacing oxygen from the fire area. Aim the gas jet at the base of the flames and move slowly across the fire area. Be careful when using them in a confined area. Portable Foam Applicators Portable foam applicators are used in conjunction with foam barrels and drums to provide foam to the desired location onboard ship. It consists of a nozzle with hydrant coupling at one end and a small inlet pipe in the middle of the nozzle and the hydrant coupling. The hydrant coupling is attached to the ship's fire line and the driving force of the liquid provides suction to the small inlet pipe which draws out the foam concentrate solution from the drum. A large foam jet comes out of the nozzle and is delivered to the required area.
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Fixed fire extinguishing systems The fixed fire extinguishing system is used for fighting larger fires. The engine room, pump room, cargo spaces and a few other critical areas are protected by these fixed systems. The main types of fixed fire extinguishing systems are: Fire mains Fixed foam system Fixed gas (C02 or halon) system Fire mains Water is the easiest and cheapest medium available for extinguishing a fire on a ship. To allow the water jet and spray to reach every part of the ship fire pumps are fitted. These pumps provide seawater to the fire line which is connected to fire hydrants at various locations. A firebox containing a fire hose, nozzle and couplings is situated near each hydrant. Fixed foam system and foam monitors. This installation provides a large amount of foam or powder to the designated area in an emergency. Fixed foam system is fitted extensively in pump rooms and machinery spaces and deck on tankers. A foam system consists of:  The foam tank and piping in the foam room. Fire Mains as the drive.  Nozzles in the engine room. Foam Turrets on deck. Fixed gas installation (C02 or Halon) Large quantities of C02, or halon, are kept in storage on the vessel. In the event of a fire a large quantity of the gas is released to flood the engine room or other protected areas. Any area to be flooded with the gas must first be evacuated and sealed. The area under protection from this system must have distinctive audio and visual alarms to warn personnel that the space will imminently be flooded with the extinguishing agent. Action in case of fire Despite incorporating the best design and precautions, accidents involving fire still occur. As soon as a fire is detected onboard the person should:  Raise the alarm or inform the bridge.  Try to rescue any person in danger.  Take steps to restrict or fight the fire until help arrives.  Any action that is likely to cause further danger should be avoided at all costs.

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Man overboard Immediate action is necessary if someone falls overboard. In this section we will learn about:  Immediate action.  Manoeuvring action.  Muster and recovery of person. Immediate action: Upon discovering or suspecting of someone falling overboard the immediate action should be: 1. Raise the alarm by shouting: "man overboard". 2. Immediately throw the nearest lifebuoy overboard. 3. Inform the bridge immediately that there is a man overboard. Manoeuvring action: The Duty Officer on the bridge should take the following immediate action:  Throw a Man Overboard Buoy.  Sound the General Emergency Alarm.  Note the ship's position.  Notify personnel to lookout for a person in the water.  Send out a distress alert to all ships in the vicinity.  Alert the nearest rescue centre.  Manoeuvre the ship to locate the person in the water. Muster and recovery of person Once the crew is mustered and assigned duties of Lookout, the rescue boat is launched to facilitate the recovery. Once the person is rescued he should be treated with all the available medical care and, if required, further advice sought from the rescue centre. The condition of the survivor should be continuously monitored until he is out of danger. Medical first aid All personnel onboard should be able to administer basic first aid. The objective of this section is to provide an overview of the procedures for:  Action on discovering a casualty  First aid  Life saving actions  Medical care onboard  Assistance from shore Action on discovering a casualty As soon as you discover a casualty or an injured person:  Carefully assess the casualty.  Be careful in enclosed spaces or in the vicinity of electrical equipment.  Always be sure that it is safe before you attempt to help a victim.  Do not rush in and become the next casualty.

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First aid
The early application of first aid can be an effective tool in saving a casualty from further injury and in providing relief against shock and pain. The principle of first aid in the isolated environment of a ship is to give treatment to the ill or injured person until proper medical assistance can be provided. The ABC of first aid is:  Airway: Clear the airway by clearing the mouth of any obstruction.  Breathing: Check if the person is breathing properly.  Circulation: Check the person's heartbeat and pulse.

Life saving actions Every seafarer should know the three basic lifesaving actions to be administered immediately while waiting for a trained person to arrive. These lifesaving actions are:  Stopping external bleeding.  Artificial Respiration.  Placing an unconscious casualty in recovery position. Medical care onboard All Officers on a ship are taught basic life-saving actions. Most ships have a dedicated Sick Bay Room and a Dispensary for the care of any sick personnel. Several First-Aid kits are kept at strategic locations around the ship. These would normally be located on the Bridge, in the Engine Room and Galley, as well as workshops and the lifeboats. All ships carry the publication "The Ship's Captain's Medical Guide" giving essential guidance for the treatment of a wide range of common medical conditions. Radio medical advice Ships also have access to radio medical advice. With faster communication available to the crew, treatment of injured or ill seafarers or passengers can be done with real-time assistance from specialist advisers based on land. By describing the symptoms in detail the ship's medical officer can get advice by radio or by email and thus ensure that safe and timely treatment is given.

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Abandon ship In this section, we will learn about:  The decision to abandon ship.  Action in case of abandoning ship.  Survival crafts  Equipment to be taken  Survival after abandoning.

Decision of abandoning ship If the ship is flooding or is on fire and sinking, and the crew cannot control the situation safely, the vessel may need to be abandoned. The decision to abandon ship is taken by the Master. Upon deciding that the emergency is sufficiently severe and that no further action by the crew will improve the situation, the Master announces "Abandon Ship" on the PA system. Action in case of abandon ship Before abandoning ship, all persons onboard should:  Put on warm clothing.  Put on a lifejacket and proceed to their muster station.  Assist children and those in need of help. Survival craft Ships are equipped with 2 types of survival craft:  Lifeboats  Liferafts Every craft is pre-equipped with rations and various equipment designed to aid survival at sea. The Master will decide the number and location of the survival crafts to be launched, depending on the number of personnel and the nature of the emergency.

Equipment The ship's muster list details the duties and responsibilities of each crew member in the event of the need to abandon ship. Personnel are also assigned to carry :  Extra food and rations.  Distress pyrotechnics  Walkie-talkies.  An emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB).  Search and rescue transponders (SART). Further equipment and rations should only be collected if time and safety permit.
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Survival After abandoning the ship:  All the survival crafts should keep close together.  All personnel in the survival craft should remain calm.  If necessary keep warm by huddling together.  Do not drink seawater.  Arrange lookout watches.  Use flares only when there is a vessel in the vicinity.  Fix the SART in a high position to increase chances of being spotted. Search and rescue All persons and vessels must assist others in distress at sea, whenever they can safely do so. In this section we will learn about: Communication procedures. Search and rescue operations. Completion of search. Communication procedure To co-ordinate a prompt and efficient rescue effort, proper procedures have to be followed. These procedures include communication between:  Ship to shore: Information about the incident.  Shore to shore: Co-ordination between search and rescue authorities.  Shore to ship: Instructions to the vessel in distress and the assisting ships.  Ship to ship: Information exchange between ships in the vicinity and the vessel in distress. Search and rescue operation ["he International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual (IAMSAR Manual) provides detailed guidelines for all authorities and ships that are likely to )e involved in a search and rescue (SAR) mission at sea. Here are various terms used during Search and Rescue operations:  MRCC.  Search action plan.  Search pattern.  OSC. MRCC Maritime rescue co-ordination centers (MRCC) are land-based authorities established to efficiently organize and coordinate the conduct of search and rescue operations within a region. MRCCs acknowledge the distress alert in their specified areas and communicate with the ship in distress to assess the situation. An MRCC has the authority to summon all available resources to assist in the rescue effort.

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Search action plan A search mission co-ordinator (SMC) makes a search action plan based on the:  Number of units assisting in the search and rescue.  The last known position of the ship in distress and the time elapsed.  Weather conditions.  The nature of the search (whether it is for a ship, lifeboats or person in the water).  Datum (the reference points for the search calculated on the basis of the last known position and the state of the weather). Search pattern The search is conducted in accordance with established patterns. The various search patterns used are:  An expanding square search.  A sector search.  A trackline search.  Parallel sweep search.

osc The SMC or MRCC appoints a rescue ship as on-scene co-ordinator (OSC) to co-ordinate the search and rescue efforts at, or near, the distress position. The OSC is usually the ship best equipped for rescue efforts or the first ship to arrive on the scene.

Completion of search These detailed procedures ensure that every effort is made to locate and rescue the persons in distress by all available means.

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Chapter 4 Navigation and aids to navigation
The learning objective of this chapter is to provide an understanding of maritime vocabulary used for: Basic principles of navigation and position fixing. Bridge equipment and its layout. Collision regulations. Navigational aids, such as buoys and lights.

Navigation and position fixing To manoeuvre a ship the navigating personnel's first requirement is to ascertain the position of the vessel. In this section we will learn about: 1. Ways of stating the position of a ship. 2. Navigational charts. 3. Position fixing of a ship.
Position of a ship

The Position of a ship can be represented in 2 ways:  In terms of latitude and longitude Latitude is the distance measured from 0 to 90 degrees in a northerly or southerly direction on the chart. The equator is at latitude 0 degrees. Longitude is the distance measured from 0 to 180 degrees in an easterly or westerly direction on the chart.  In terms of bearing and distance from a well known landmark  Bearing Bearing is the direction to an object from a point, expressed as a horizontal angle measured clockwise from true north. A compass is an important piece of equipment to obtain the direction and bearing.  Distance Distance at sea is measured in nautical miles. One nautical mile is equal to about 1852 metres. Distance can be measured with the help of RADAR. Navigational chart A chart is the projection of the earth's surface on a flat piece of paper. The chart shows land and sea and includes the sea depths. It also includes the navigational marks, beacons and other navigational information. Navigational charts are of 2 types:  Paper charts.  Electronic charts.

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Chart plotting A navigator plots the ship's position at frequent intervals to confirm the correct route is being taken. Waypoints One passage may consist of many turning points called waypoints.

Course The course is the intended direction of the ship's travel from one point to another.

Bridge layout and equipment The bridge layout can be divided into the following categories:  Engine control console This console provides controls to the main engine. It consists of:  Telegraph control This control is used to adjust the speed of the Vessel. It sends signals from the bridge to the main engine control stand.  Tachometer or RPM indicator This display provides the information about the RPM (revolutions per minute) of the main engine.  UMS alarms This panel indicates the status of various alarms in the engine room when the engine room is unmanned.  Steering console This console provides controls to the steering gear. It consists of:  Gyro Compass And Repeaters This is a device used in navigation to find out the ship's direction. Its repeaters are located in the steering console and bridge wings.  Magnetic Compass This device is also used in navigation to find out the ship's direction. It is mainly used in the event the gyro compass is not working.  Auto Pilot This device is used in open seas for automatic steering of the ship. The intended course is pre-set and the auto pilot adjusts the helm automatically to maintain this course.  Rudder angle indicator This indicator shows the rudder degree angle, either to port or starboard, when the steering wheel is moved. Its repeaters are kept on the bridge wing and various other locations.

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 Navigational console This console provides basic controls for navigation. It consists of:  RADAR System Radar is an electronic system that sends out wave pulses that are subsequently reflected back by any object within its range. The bearing and distance of the object can be read on the radar screen. ARPA calculates the time and distance when the object will be closest to the ship.  GPS The GPS uses satellite technology to provide accurate information on the ship's position.  ECDIS The electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) monitors the vessel's track on the electronic navigation chart.  Aids to navigation console This console provides aids to navigation. It consists of:  Echo sounder The echo sounder gives the depth of water below the ship.  Speed log The speed log measures the ship's speed and the distance it has travelled.  Barometer The barometer is used to check the atmospheric pressure and is an aid to weather monitoring.  Whistle and fog signal control The whistle and fog signals are used to attract the attention of other ships in restricted visibility and narrow channels.  GMDSS This equipment provides the means of communication. It includes:  VHF equipment and DSC This equipment is used to communicate within short ranges (approximate 20 miles), digital selective calling equipment is used to attract the attention of the watch keeping officer if he is not keeping a listening watch.  MF/HF equipment and DSC This equipment is used to communicate within comparatively larger ranges (100-200 miles).  SatC/SatA Satellite A and Satellite C communication systems can be used for exchanges of information over large distances and for data transferrals. Most ship to shore communications will use Sat.A or Sat.C.  Safety communication equipment  SART The Search and Rescue Transponder (SART) is used in distress situations to attract the attention of other ships. Signals sent by SART are picked up by the radars of nearby ships.  EPIRB The Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon sends the ship's identification and the position to the shore authorities through satellite in case of distress.  NAVTEX The NAVTEX system is used for the automatic broadcast of localised maritime safety Information (MSI) using radio telex.

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Rules of the road
In this section we will learn some basic information relating to collision avoidance at sea. Topics covered are:  General responsibility  Lookout  Safe speed  Risk of collision  Action to avoid collision  Overtaking situation  Head on situation  Crossing situation  Narrow channels  Traffic separation scheme  Responsibilities  Restricted visibility

General responsibility The 'Rules of the Road' apply to all vessels sailing on the high seas and all connected waters navigable by seagoing vessels. The master, owner and crew of all ships must comply with these rules to ensure safety of navigation. Look-Out A proper lookout by sight, sound and all available means must be kept at all times. Depending on the situation lookouts can be posted at various locations such as bridge wings and the forecastle. Safe Speed Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a speed that would enable effective action to be taken to avoid collision and to be able to stop within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions. Factors to be considered for deciding safe speed include: - Prevailing visibility. - Traffic density in the area. - Manoeuvring capabilities of own ship and others around. - Background light. - Wind, sea, current and weather conditions. - The proximity of navigational hazards. - The draft in relation to the available depth of water. - The performance of navigational equipment.

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Risk of Collision All available means should be used to determine if the risk of collision does exist. These include lookouts, electronic devices such as radar and ARPA, and the frequent taking of bearings and soundings. A risk of collision would be deemed to exist:  If the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not change noticeably.  If there is any doubt that a collision risk exists. (Risk may sometimes exist even when bearing change is evident, particularly when approaching a very large vessel.) Action to avoid collision Any action to avoid collision should be made in accordance with the rules and by observing good practices of seamanship. Action can be alteration of course or speed adjustment or both and all actions must:  Be positive.  Be made in ample time.  Be sufficiently obvious to be apparent to other vessels.  Be such as to result in passing at a safe distance.  Be such that it does not result in another close-quarters situation. Overtaking situation Any vessel overtaking any other vessel shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken. Any overtaking vessel, be it a sailing vessel or a fishing vessel or a ship, shall alter its course to Port or Starboard and pass at a safe distance from the vessel being overtaken. Head-on situation When two power-driven vessels are meeting on head-on or nearly head-on courses which involves a risk of collision, each shall alter her course to starboard so that each shall pass at a safe distance on the one another's port side. Crossing situation When two power-driven vessels are crossing and a risk of collision exists, the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way. Narrow channels A vessel proceeding in a narrow channel or a fairway shall keep as near to the outer limit of the channel, which lies on her starboard side, as is safe and practical. Small vessels, fishing vessels or crossing vessels must not impede the passage of a vessel, which can safely navigate only within a narrow channel. All vessels must avoid anchoring in a narrow channel.

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Traffic separation schemes To regulate and streamline traffic in some highly congested and critical areas, traffic separation schemes (TSS) are followed. A vessel in TSS: Shall stay in the proper lane and away from the centre of the separation zone. Shall join or leave the TSS smoothly at as small an angle to the general direction of traffic flow as practicable. Shall avoid anchoring in TSS or its termination and shall not use inshore traffic zones. Shall avoid crossing traffic lanes, and if they have to, shall cross on a heading, as much as practically possible, to cross in a right angled-direction to the general direction of the traffic flow.

Responsibilities Except otherwise stated, as in an overtaking situation or in narrow channels, the responsibility between vessels is listed as follows: A power-driven vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:  A vessel not under command.  A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre.  A vessel engaged in fishing.  A sailing vessel. A sailing vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:  A vessel not under command.  A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre.  A vessel engaged in Fishing. A vessel engaged in fishing when underway shall, so far as possible, keep out of the way of:  A vessel not under command.  A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre.

Restricted visibility When navigating in or near an area of restricted visibility every vessel shall proceed at a safe speed and shall have her engines ready for immediate manoeuvre. Every vessel should give sound signals to indicate its presence. To avoid collision, when taking an action, vessels should not alter course:  To port for a vessel forward of the beam, other than for a vessel being overtaken.  Towards a vessel abeam or abaft the beam.

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Navigational lights onboard In this section we will learn about:  Navigation light characteristics.  Navigation lights on different ships.

Navigation light characteristics Navigation lights are required to be displayed on ships between sunset and sunrise and in restricted visibility. The following terms are used to indicate the characteristics and whereabouts of navigation lights:  Masthead light  Side lights  Stern light  Towing light  All-Round light

Masthead light The masthead light is over the fore and aft centerline of the vessel, over an arc of the horizon of 225 degrees.

Sidelights The sidelights are a green light on the starboard side and a red light on the port side, each showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 112.5 degrees.

Sternlight The sternlight is situated at the stern, showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 135 degrees.

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Towing light The towing light is a yellow light sharing the characteristics as the sternlight.

All-Round Light The all-round light is an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 360 degrees.

Navigational lights on different ships Navigational lights and their positioning onboard different types of ships are covered in detail by the International Collision Regulations (COLREGS). The following section describes the various light configurations on different vessel types.            Power driven vessel Vessel engaged in towing Sailing Vessel Fishing Vessel Fishing Vessel - Other than Trawling Vessel Not Under Command Vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre Vessel Constrained by her draft Pilot Vessel Vessel at Anchor Vessel Aground

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Power-driven vessel A power-driven vessel shows:  Masthead light forward.  Second masthead light abaft of and higher than the forward one, except that a vessel of less than 50 metres in length shall not be obliged to exhibit such a light, but may do so.  Sidelights, green on starboard side and red on port side.  Sternlights

Vessel engaged in towing A vessel engaged in towing shows:  Two masthead lights in a vertical line.  When the length of the tow, measuring from the stern of the towing vessel to the after end of the tow, exceeds 200 metres, three such lights are required in a vertical line.  Sidelights  Sternlight A towing light in a vertical line above the Sternlight If the length of the tug exceeds 50 metres, a masthead light abaft and higher than the vertical lights.

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Sailing Vessel A sailing vessel shows:  Sidelights  Sternlight A Sailing Vessel underway may, in addition to the lights prescribed above, exhibit at or near the top of the Mast, two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being Red and the lower Green.

Fishing Vessel - Trawling A fishing vessel engaged in trawling shows:  Two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being green and the lower white.  Sidelights.  Sternlight.  A masthead light abaft of and higher than the All -round green light, if the length of the vessel is more than 50 metres. A vessel of less than 50 metres in length shall not be obliged to exhibit such a light, but may do so. Fishing Vessel - Other than Trawling A fishing vessel engaged in fishing other than trawling shows:  Two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being red and the lower white.  Sidelights.  Sternlight.

Vessel Not Under Command A vessel which, through some exceptional circumstance e.g. steering failure or engine difficulties, is unable to manoeuvre properly is termed Not Under Command. A vessel not under command shows:  Two all-round red lights in a vertical line where they can best be seen.  When making way through the water also sidelights and a stern light.

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When a vessel can safely navigate in a narrow zone only because of her draft in relation to the available depth and width of the water channel, it is termed as a Vessel Constrained By Her Draft. These hampered vessels indicate their status by showing:  Three all-round red lights in a vertical line, in addition to appropriate lights for power-driven vessels.

Pilot Vessel Vessels engaged in pilotage duties show:  Two all-round lights in a vertical line at or near the masthead, the upper being white and the lower red.  In addition, when underway, sidelights and a sternlight.

Vessel at Anchor A vessel at anchor shows:  An all-round white light in the fore part.  An all-round white light at or near the stern and at a lower level than the forward all-round light.  Deck lights to illuminate the deck, if the vessel's length is 100 metres or more.

Vessel Aground A vessel aground shows:  Two all-round red lights in a vertical line.  An all-round white light in the fore part.  An all-round white light at or near the stern and at a lower level than the forward all-round light.

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Characteristics of lights as aids to navigation The characteristics of ships' lights are defined by three distinguishing properties: colour, period and phase Colour The colour of the light can be either white (W), red (R), green (G) or yellow (Y). If no colour is described on the chart the light is deemed to be white. Period The period is the time needed for one complete cycle of light rhythm including the period of darkness. Phase The phase is the rhythm or pattern of light within one complete cycle or period.

Lights signals  Fixed (F)  Flashing (Fl)  Long-flashing (LFL)  Occulting (Occ)  Quick flashing (Q)  Very quick flashing (VQ)  Interrupted quick flashing (IQ)  Isophase (Iso)  Group flashing (Gp Fl(x+x))  Fixed flashing (F.FI.)  Alternating (AL)  Morse code lights (MORSE"U") (Mo (U)) Sector lights  Leading lights (range lights)

Fixed (F) Fixed light is the light that is Unblinking and shines continuously and steadily. Flashing (Fl) A fashing light is one in which the duration of the light is always less than the duration of darkness in one complete period. The frequency does not exceed 30 flashes per minute. Long-flashing (LFL) A long-flashing light has one long flash of at least 2 seconds in a period. Occulting (Occ) An occulting light is one in which the duration of the light is always more than the duration of darkness in one complete period. It is the opposite of flashing.
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Quick flashing (Q) A quick fashing light is one in which the duration of the flash is less than the duration of darkness. The frequency is at least 60 times per minute. Very quick flashing (VQ) A very quick flashing light is one in which the duration of the flash is less than the duration of darkness. The frequency is at least 100 times per minute. Interrupted quick flashing (IQ) An interrupted quick flashing light is one that is similar to quick flashing but with one relatively long duration of darkness in one period. Isophase (Iso) An isophase light is a rhythmic light in which the duration of light and darkness are equal. A period consists of both a light and a dark interval. (Also called equal interval light, [E Int.].) Group flashing (Gp Fl(x+x)) A group flashing light is one in which two or more patterns are combined in a group, each including the same number of flashes or long flashes etc., and in which the groups are repeated at regular intervals. In this example the first 2 flashes followed by the pattern of 3 flashes result in 'Gp FI(2+3) Fixed flashing (F.FI.) A fixed flashing light are lights with two intensities: Light and More Light. This light flashes at regular intervals from the lower intensity to the greater intensity. Alternating (AL) Alternating Lights change colour during a regular pattern and are used for special applications requiring the exercise of great caution. Examples are airport beacons, harbour entrance lights and lighthouses. In this example, ALT.WG is shown, alternating between green and white. Morse Code Lights (MORSE"U") (Mo (U)) Morse Code Lights give out a visual morse code signal by a series of flashes and long flashes. In this example: This light shows two flashes and a long flash, which is equivalent to the letter "U" in the Morse Code. Sector Lights A Sector Light is a light presenting different appearances, either of colour or character. Sector lights warn the navigator of hazards to navigation when approaching the light from certain dangerous arcs or sectors. For example: Fl (2) 10s WRG The White Sector usually indicates the safest route to the port, while the Coloured Sectors indicate less safe waters. Sector limits are expressed in degrees true as observed from a vessel, not from the light. Leading Lights (Range Lights) Leading Lights are two or more lights associated so as to form a leading line to be followed especially in narrow channels while entering or exiting a port. On navigational charts the best course to follow for approach is also marked.

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Aids to navigation: Buoys and buoyage
The objective of this section is to gain an understanding of characteristics of buoys and the buoyage system. The International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) is the authority that issues guidelines for the characteristics of buoys and their lights. IALA has endorsed two kinds of buoyage systems to be used in seas and harbours across the world. Region A (IALA A) covers all of Europe and the rest of the world except America, Japan, the Philippines and Korea. Region B (IALA B) covers the Americas, Japan, The Philippines and Korea. Fortunately the differences between these two systems are few. The most striking difference is the Direction of Buoyage (see lateral buoys). IALA system Within the IALA System, there are five easily distinguishable and identifiable marks/buoys. These five categories are: o Lateral marks. o Cardinal marks. o Isolated danger marks. o Safe water marks. o Special marks.

Lateral marks/buoys Lateral marks define the borders of channels and indicate port or starboard of the route to be followed. Lateral lights can have any calm phase characteristic except FL (2 + 1). Red buoys have red lights and green buoys have green lights. Shape  Starboard side buoys have a conical shape or conical top mark, while port side buoys have a cylindrical (Can) shape or cylindrical top mark. Positioning  Positioning of these buoys is done on the basis of the conventional direction of buoyage. Under IALA A, red buoys mark the port side of the channel when returning from sea, whereas under IALA B, green buoys mark the port side of the channel when sailing towards the direction of buoyage.

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Cardinal marks The four cardinal buoys indicate the safe side of a danger or obstacle for ships to pass. For example the west cardinal buoy has safe water on its west and the danger is usually on the other side.  The colour of the buoys is a distinctive sequence of yellow and black bands.  The top marks consist of two black cones above the black/yellow scheme of the buoy. An easy reference is that the apex of the cone represents the black colour on the buoy.  The shape of these buoys is either a pillar or spar.  The light is usually white with a series of clockwise quick flashing or group flashing rhythms. When a new obstacle (not yet shown on charts) needs to be marked, two Cardinal buoys will be used to indicate this 'uncharted' danger. The Cardinal System is identical in both the IALA A and the IALA B Buoyage Systems. Here is a detailed description of all Cardinal Marks: North Colour: Black band above yellow band. Shape: Usually pillar or spar. Top Mark: Two cones, both apex upwards. Light Colour: White. Light rhythm: Q. or VQ. South Colour: Black Band below yellow band. Shape: Usually Pillar or spar. Top Mark: Two Cones, Both apex downwards. Light Colour: White. Light Rhythm: Q (6) + LFI. or VQ. (6) + LFI. East Colour: Black Band above and below yellow band. Shape: Usually Pillar or spar. Top Mark: Two Cones, Both apex outwards. Light Colour: White. Light rhythm: Q (3) or VQ. (3). West Colour: Black Band with yellow band above and below. Shape: Usually Pillar or spar. Top Mark: Two Cones, Both apex inwards. Light Colour: White. Light rhythm: Q (9) or VQ. (9).

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Isolated danger marks This type of buoy indicates the position of an isolated danger and it has navigable water all around it. The features of an isolated danger mark are:  Colour - black, with one or more red horizontal bands.  Shape - preferably pillar or spar.  Top mark - two black spheres, positioned vertically and clearly separated.  Light - a white flashing light, showing groups of two flashes.  The characteristics may be best remembered by association of two flashes with two spheres as the top marks. Safe water marks Safe Water buoys indicate that there is navigable water all around the buoys. These are mainly used to indicate landfall, fairway buoys or mid-channel buoys.  Colour - Red and white vertical stripes.  Shape - Spherical, and pillar or spar with spherical top mark.  Top mark - single red sphere.  Light - A safe water m will always show a WHITE light, but can be isophase, occulting, morse "A" or one long flash every 10 seconds.

Special marks Special Marks are not primarily intended to assist navigation but they pass on very useful information to assist mariners in identifying:  ODAS buoys or weather buoys.  Military exercise zones.  Spoil ground marks.  Pipelines or cable lines.  Recreational zones.  Colour - yellow.  Shape - optional, but should not conflict with other marks in the area.  Top mark - single yellow X shape.  Light - yellow colour, with rhythm, which is not already used by WHITE lights.

New danger mark A new danger is any dangerous wreck or danger that is not marked on the chart. To indicate a new danger a duplicate mark is provided besides the normal original mark. A new danger may also carry a RACONcoded morse D on radar.

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Chapter 5 Ship Operation and Seamanship
The learning objective of this chapter is to provide some basic information related to ship operations and seamanship and introduce some of the basic maritime english vocabulary associated with: Various knots and bends. Terms used during berthing. Meanings of flag signals. Knots, bends and hitches Knots A knot is a method for fastening or securing ropes of similar size by tying or interweaving. Bends A bend is a method for fastening or securing ropes of different size by tying or interweaving. Hitches A hitch is a method for making an eye at the end of the rope by tying it against itself. In this section, we will learn about various knots, bends and hitches and their correct shipboard application.  Sheet bend  Double sheet bend  Bow line  Clove hitch  Figure of Eight Knot  Reef knot  Round turn and two half hitches  Rolling hitch Sheet bend The sheet bend is used to join two ropes of different size together or for making a rope fast to an eye.

Double sheet bend The double sheet bend, having a similar structure and use to the Sheet Bend, is constructed to join two ropes together but makes a more secure joint.

Bow line The bow line is used for making an eye in the end of a line.

Clove hitch The clove hitch is used to tie the rope to a pillar or a strong point.

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Figure of eight knot The figure of eight knot is used as a stopper point on a rope and mainly used for manropes and in lifeboat operations.

Reef knot (square knot) The reef knot is used to tie two ropes of equal size or thickness together.

Round turn and two half hitches The round turn and two half hitches can be used for several purposes such as tying a rope or fender to a gunwale or other strong point.

Rolling hitch The rolling hitch is used when you want a hold on a thicker cable.

Berthing The objective of this section is to understand the various terms and phrases used when berthing or casting off a ship. This section will cover various terms used for the following operations:  Terminology used for mooring lines.  Superstructure for berthing operations.  Additional terms in berthing.  Miscellaneous phrases for berthing operation.

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Terminology used for mooring lines

Buoy line The mooring line used in securing a vessel to a mooring buoy. Towing Line The rope or wire used by tugs for pulling/towing vessels. Headline The mooring lines at the forward part of a vessel that lead ahead onto the dock/mooring buoy. Forward breastline The mooring line at the forward part of the vessel leading at about right angles from the vessel onto the dock/mooring buoy. Forward spring The mooring line at the forward part of the vessel that leads towards aft onto the dock/mooring buoy. Aft spring The mooring line at the aft part of the vessel that leads towards forward onto the dock/mooring buoy. Aft breastline The mooring line at the aft part of the vessel leading at about right angles from the vessel onto the dock/mooring buoy. Sternline The mooring lines at the aft mooring station that lead aft onto the dock/mooring buoy.

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Superstructure for berthing operation

Centrelead / Panamalead The Centrelead or Panamalead are fairleads at the ends of the ship at the fore and aft centreline.

Bitts Bitts are usually cylindrical shaped small posts (pillars) fixed on the vessel/quay to tie the moorings lines. Single-post bitts are called bollards. Windlass The Windlass is a piece of machinery for lifting and lowering the anchor cable and it consists of revolving drums. Anchor drums have teethed cleats that fit in the chain links of the anchor cable to facilitate lifting. Fairlead Fairleads are openings in the vessel's bulwark/hull to guide mooring lines and ropes. They are specially designed to prevent chafing of ropes. Drums Drums are revolving cylindrical structures on the mooring machinery around which turns of ropes are taken to facilitate heaving or slackening of lines. Heaving Line The Heaving Line is a small and light line that is used to pass objects from the ship, for example a mooring line from the ship to shore personnel. One end of the heaving line is weighted in a ball shape to enable it to be thrown long distances. Stopper Stoppers are small bits of rope or chain. They are used to take the weight of mooring lines and facilitate their transfer from one bitt to bitt, or bitt to drum, without any slackening. Tug Tugs are small powerful boats used in pulling or towing a ship. Tugs assist the ships in berthing/unberthing.

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Miscellaneous phrases and significance in berthing First line ashore First line ashore indicates that the very first mooring line has been sent ashore and has been secured around a shore bollard. This rope may still be slack but indicates readiness for heaving onto it. Vessel in position Vessel in position indicates during berthing that the vessel is at its exact berthing spot and all mooring lines can be made tight and secured. All fast forward 4,2,2 All fast forward indicates that all the mooring lines as per the berthing plan have been secured and made fast. The number; represent 4 head lines, 2 breast lines and 2 spnng lines. All fast aft 4,2,2 All fast aft indicates that all the mooring lines as per the berthing plan have been secured and made fast. The numbers represent 4 stern lines, 2 breast lines and 2 spring lines. Single up to one headline and one spring Single up to one headline and one spring indicates that all the mooring lines, except those mentioned, should be cast off. Propeller clear Propeller clear indicates that no mooring lines are slack in the water at the aft mooring station and no boat is in close proximity of the propeller. International code of signals Every alphabet and numeral denotes a flag with a specific meaning in the International Code of Signals. The purpose of this section is to learn the international code of signals of the individual flags.

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             

        

A: I have a diver down; keep well clear at slow speed. B: I am taking in, or discharging, or carrying dangerous goods. C: Yes (affirmative or “The significance of the previous group should be read in the affirmative”). D: Keep clear of me; I am maneuvering with difficulty. E: I am altering my course to starboard. F: I am disabled; communicate with me. G: I require a pilot. When made by fishing vessels operating in close proximity on the fishing grounds it means: “I am hauling nets”. H: I have a pilot on board. I: I am altering my course to port. J: I am on fire and have dangerous cargo on board: keep well clear of me, or I am leaking dangerous cargo. K: I wish to communicate with you. L: You should stop your vessel instantly. M: My vessel is stopped and making no way through the water. N: No (negative or “The significance of the previous group should be read in the negative”). This signalmay be given only visually or by sound. For voice or radio transmission the signal should be “NO”. Man overboard. P: In harbor.—All persons should report on board as the vessel is about to proceed to sea. At sea.—It may be used by fishing vessels to mean: “My nets have come fast upon an obstruction”. It may also be used as a sound to mean: “I require a pilot”. Q: My vessel is “healthy” and I request free pratique. S: I am operating astern propulsion. T: Keep clear of me; I am engaged in pair trawling. U: You are running into danger. V: I require assistance. W: I require medical assistance. X: Stop carrying out your intentions and watch for my signals. Y: I am dragging my anchor. Z: I require a tug. When made by fishing vessels operating in close proximity on the fishing grounds it means: “I am shooting nets”.

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