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A RESPONSE TO
With God on our Side
the Porter SPeakman Jr FiLm
The Board of Rabbis of Southern California | The Jewish Federation of Greater Los Angeles
Written by Jonathan G. Freund Director of Educational & Interreligious Programs A Project of the INTERRELIGIOUS ACTION CENTER
with Miriam Philips, Rabbinic Intern
Executive Vice President The Board of Rabbis of Southern California The Jewish Federation of Greater Los Angeles
Rabbi Mark S. Diamond
Rabbi Yitzchok Adlerstein
Director, Interfaith Affairs Simon Wiesenthal Center
©2011 The Board of Rabbis of Southern California / The Jewish Federation of Greater Los Angeles
Special Appreciation to Guilford and Diane Glazer
We couldn't agree more with the above statement. We have closely viewed Porter Speakman Jr.'s film With God on Our Side, and it raises challenging questions, shows compassion for ordinary Palestinians, and in its final minutes expresses a desire for peacemaking and loving one's neighbor. Unfortunately, the previous hour-plus of the film offers partial, simplistic, and factually incorrect analyses of complex realities. It is narrowminded even as it claims to be presenting a faithful perspective of a heart-rending conflict. As its narrator says, the more you find out about With God on Our Side, the more you see that things aren't quite that simple. Our response provides details and explanations to help you see the film's inaccuracies and oversimplifications. It is divided into the following sections: • misrepresentations of history and outright falsehoods.
“The more I found out, I began to see that things weren't quite that simple.” Christopher, narrator of With God on Our Side
HISTORY & FACTS: Correcting the use of selective and debatable data,
THEOLOGY: Countering With God on Our Side's anti-Jewish theology, and its
political agenda, predetermined conclusions, and lack of balance. erroneous use and biased misunderstanding of “Jews,” “Zionism” and “Israel.”
THE REST OF THE STORY: Providing a context for understanding the film's IN THE IMAGE OF GOD: Thoughts on peace and justice, hope and holiness.
initiatives through which you can take action for a fair peace for all people in the Middle East. statements included in this Response.
WHAT YOU CAN DO: Opportunities for further research, plus organizations and REFERENCES & SOURCES: Comprehensive references for the facts, figures and
An accurate definition:
MISREPRESENTING ZIONISM (04:47). * Rev. Stephen Sizer calls Zionism “a political system that believes that the Jews have the right to much of the land of the Middle East, and it gives preference to Jewish people over others who may have been born in that particular piece of land.” His definition of Zionism is wrong: Zionist Jews have never claimed “much of the land of the Middle East.” Zionism believes that Jews also have a right to live in their ancient homeland, in their own nation, together with all non-Jews who also reside there. Furthermore, Zionism was and is a movement not a “system.” It is the honest expression of a persecuted people yearning for their ancient homeland.
Zionism is a movement of national liberation, seeking self-determination for the Jewish people within a sovereign Jewish nation located in their ancient homeland. Zionism is a direct continuation of the Biblical religious attachment of the Jews and Judaism to this specific historic holy land. Zionism is non-partisan, transdenominational, and not related to the policies of any Israeli government. 1
The film With God on Our Side provides no sources or references for any of the information, statistics, quotations, graphics, or history it presents and on which it bases its point of view. This alone should cause any thoughtful viewer to question the film's claims and conclusions. Many of its statements are inaccurate, unsupported, false and even offensive.
HISTORY & FACTS
DECEPTIVE “MAP” (05:42). Using the image of the flag of the State of Israel taking over huge areas of territory in the service of Christian religious belief is misleading at best and an offensive smear at worst. No Israeli government has ever advocated extending the nation's borders to include territory of a sovereign country, as this image does. The speaker in the film admits he is looking “strictly at the Bible,” not at any historical definition of Israel's political borders. This
All timings are taken from the DVD of With God on Our Side, with 00:01 marked at the appearance of the “Rooftop Productions” logo.
VAGUE NUMBERS (15:34). The graphic and narration claim the population under Turkish rule, from the 1500's until World War I, was 95% Arab, 5% Jewish. This inappropriately confuses a cultural identity (Arab) with a religious identity (Jewish). Close to a million Arab Jews are not included in the graphic: Yemenite, Moroccan, Tunisian, Iraqi, Libyan, and other Arab Jews were living throughout the Middle East and North Africa, including in Palestine, during these four centuries and for millennia prior to that. 2 3 4 In which population of the graphic are these Arab Jews accounted for, if at all? For that matter, why are no percentages given for Christians, Muslims and others? The site MidEast Web has this to say about population figures from the Ottoman and British periods:
The major conclusion is 'The nature of the data do not permit precise conclusions about the Arab population of Palestine in Ottoman and British times.' Anyone who pretends otherwise is deliberately misleading you. We can reach some general conclusions…. But we cannot give a precise number in any case, and even if we could, it would not constitute evidence to back any moral claims. 5
unjustly equates a Christian Biblical interpretation with Israeli government policy; the graphic should have used a Christian cross, not an Israeli flag. The depicted borders are not now nor have they ever been the policy of the State of Israel, or a part of any Mandate or any Partition Plan granting the Jewish people a nation in their homeland.
FALSIFYING ZIONISM (AND HISTORY) AGAIN (15:45). This inflammatory image connects the barbed wire and concrete of the current separation barrier to the World Zionist Congress of 1897. It also shows the Dome of Rock surrounded by the two. These items are unrelated to each other; connecting them as the film does is baseless and derogatory. The image and accompanying narration imply that Zionism seeks to restrict access to the Dome and is a threat to Islam. Further, it speciously suggests the separation barrier is a direct result of the 1897 congress. Together with Ben White's introductory (and disingenuous) comment that there is only one “specific historical root” to the regional conflict, Zionism is here depicted as the sole cause of all conflict in the Middle East. None of these implications are truthful. IGNORING WHAT CAME AFTER BALFOUR (15:56). The narration says “the British committed themselves to the Zionist cause with a famous letter,” the Balfour Declaration of 1917, and goes on to imply that the West reneged on promises
to the Arab people by even discussing a Jewish state. The film neglects to mention that the goal of Balfour, “a national home for the Jewish people,” became official policy of the League of Nations on July 24, 1922, when the “Mandate for Palestine” (different than the British Mandate) enshrined the Jewish right to settle in western Palestine as international law. That Mandate was unanimously approved by all 51 member countries of the League of Nations. 6 Twenty-five years later, United Nations Resolution 181 officially superseded the Mandate for Palestine by creating borders for an independent Arab state alongside an independent Jewish state, with full protections for the religious and minority rights of all citizens in both states. 7
FRAUDULENT BEN GURION “QUOTE” (16:47). By repeating this alleged statement—“The Arabs will have to go, but one needs an opportune moment for making it happen, such as a war” —With God on Our Side perpetuates a libel: that Israel at its inception sought war as a pretext for transferring Arabs. The “quote” is a fabrication, as is the very idea behind it, which basic fact-checking would have revealed. David Ben Gurion never said or wrote these words. The “quote” first appeared in an article Ilan Pappé (see p.10) wrote for the Autumn 2006 issue of the Journal of Palestine Studies and in his book The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. 8 9 10 11 It is, in fact, a lie. For comparison, here is a genuine quote from Ben Gurion during the war of 1948 expressing his welcoming views on Arab residents in Israel: UPDATE: On November 4, 2011, Porter Speakman, Jr., director of With God on Our Side, issued a "Correction" on both the film's website and in a press release, acknowledging that the quote "cannot be verified as authentic." Speakman further promised to remove this quote from future printings of the film. We sincerely appreciate Speakman's willingness to respond to criticism and to publicly issue this correction. 13
We appeal - in the very midst of the onslaught launched against us now for months to the Arab inhabitants of the State of Israel to preserve peace and participate in the upbuilding of the State on the basis of full and equal citizenship and due representation in all its provisional and permanent institutions. 12
MISINFORMATION ON THE BARRIER. Whenever the film deals with the Separation Barrier, begun only in 2003 during the Second Intifada, it shows a 30-foot-high, concrete wall and guard towers. Only 4% of the separation barrier is made up of such a concrete wall. These sections are only built in areas where snipers have used rooftops to fire onto highways and into populated areas (see diagram). 14
Prior to the construction of the barrier, over 500 Israeli civilians were murdered in suicide bombings during 20012004, the height of the Second Intifada. This number dropped precipitously each year as Israel constructed the barrier, and the last successful suicide bombing occurred in 2008. 18 The Separation Barrier is currently the only workable solution preventing suicide bombings and other terrorist attacks against civilians. Statements of terrorist leaders confirm this and bear out the barrier’s success:
We do not deny that [the barrier] limits the ability of the resistance to arrive deep within [Israeli territory] to carry out suicide bombing attacks. Ramadan Abdallah Shalah, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, 2008 19 [Carrying out] such attacks is made difficult by the security fence and the gates surrounding West Bank residents. Mousa Abu Marzouq, Deputy Chairman, Hamas Political Bureau, 2007 20
The vast majority is a high-tech intrusion detection screen with sensors and a patrol road, as shown on the right. 15 16 17
By terrorist leaders' own admission, the barrier is saving lives of Israelis and Palestinians. We recognize that its placement also causes personal suffering and economic hardship for Palestinians. Its existence, however, was a defensive response to terrorism originating from Palestinian Authority territory. Thankfully, just as the barrier went up to save lives, it can come down when the threat to lives is gone.
• • • • •
The Hebrew Bible depicts events and people in the land of Israel, and is largely focused on the creation and continuation of a Jewish nation in this same land. A prayer for Jerusalem is part of the core Jewish prayer (the Amidah) that has been recited three times a day by traditional Jews for close to two thousand years. Israel and Jerusalem figure in most Jewish holidays, including Yom Kippur and Passover which culminate with the fervent aspiration, “Next year in Jerusalem!” The Jewish calendar and Jewish holidays are tied to the seasons of Israel. Regardless of where Jews have lived in recent centuries, Judaism itself and all Jews have roots in the Middle East. 21
CLAIMING JEWS HAVE NO RIGHT TO THEIR LAND. Several interviewees and graphics in With God on Our Side strongly imply that Jews have no rightful claim on the land of Israel or that such claims are not part of the Jewish religion or are unsupported by history. In fact, the land of Israel is of central importance to Judaism itself:
There has been an uninterrupted Jewish presence in the Middle East since Biblical times. Archeological evidence shows that since the tenth century BCE, Jews have lived and built communities in the land of Israel, 22 approximately 1,000 years before the birth of Jesus, 1,600 years before the Muslim conquests, and 2,700 years before the origin of modern Arab states. In addition, since 1850, prior to the birth of modern Zionism, Jews have made up the largest single population group in Jerusalem. 23 24 25 (See also MISREPRESENTING ZIONISM, p. 3.) We leave it to our Christian friends and colleagues to debate Christian theology, and to defend or criticize Christian Zionism, among themselves. When such views involve the Jewish people and Judaism, however, we have an obligation to point out misleading statements and their damaging implications.
PUNITIVE THEOLOGY (01:01:22-01:05:35). We understand that not all Christianity is anti-Jewish, and that interpreting the Hebrew Bible through the New Testament is foundational to Christian belief. However, when Rev. Sizer and Gary Burge promote the term “one covenant,” they claim it is distinct from historical Replacement Theology. In truth, they are merely putting a new label on an old wine. Historical Replacement Theology, or supercessionism, relegates Jews who do not accept Christ to the status of a condemned people, just as Sizer and Burge speak welcomingly only of those Jews who accept Christ - i.e., Christians. Beyond merely criticizing the application of “God’s love for the Jewish people” to the State of Israel, Sizer and Burge use scripture to call into question any Christian support for Israel. Burge even goes so far as to suggest (01:02:00) that contemporary Jews may not be true descendants of Abraham due to their “spiritual disposition.”
NO JEWISH THEOLOGIANS OR CLERGY appear in With God on Our Side. (Pappé and Finkelstein are secular Jews, and speak only about politics.) Instead, the film has non-Jews repeatedly define or explain the Jewish people, Jewish theology, Judaism and Zionism. The selection of experts is self-serving and does not serve balance or fairness. This is no different than making a film about the history and theology of the New Testament without consulting or interviewing a single Christian.
CONFLATING “JEWS” AND “ISRAEL” (1:06:25) is done throughout the film. Just one example is Rev. Sizer saying “They’re [Israel] given a free pass … because they [Jews] are God’s chosen people.” It is offensive and patently false to suggest that all Jewish people are one and the same as the Israeli government, or that the two move in uncritical lockstep. Additionally, to judge from the rhetoric, criticism and actions of international media, organizations and governments, including in Sizer's England, it is highly dubious to claim Israel gets a “free pass” for anything. Shortly after this (1:06:52), Sizer claims that American Jews, as a small percentage of the population, are “assisted” by Christians in supporting Israel. Once again, Rev. Sizer assumes all Jews have exactly the same beliefs and positions about Israel, and that all American Jews unquestioningly support all policies of the Israeli government. His statement is reminiscent of the fabrication of a Jewish conspiracy controlling world events. This is rank stereotyping and prejudice (see also p. 10).
RACIAL BIAS (1:05:50). Rev. Sizer says the New Testament never uses the term “chosen people” for “a racial group” —at which point the film shows an Orthodox Jewish man (left). Referring to Jews as a “racial group” is offensive and baseless. There are Jews of all races and ethnic backgrounds, just as is the case for Christians and Muslims. Describing Jews as a race, as Rev. Sizer does, invites comparison to the discriminatory classifications of the Nuremberg Laws.
There is nothing wrong with a film making a case with a specific point of view. A distinction needs to be made, however, between a dispassionate documentary investigating multiple perspectives on a complex geopolitical issue—and a weighted piece of advocacy with an explicit political agenda. Porter Speakman Jr. has acknowledged on his blog that his film has a “certain perspective.” His film, however, contains no such admission or disclaimer. Speakman clearly cares about justice for Palestinians. We care about justice, too— for Palestinians and Israelis both. We therefore take issue with the film's misrepresentations and inaccuracies about Judaism, the Jewish people, and history.
THE REST OF THE STORY
IGNORING TWO STATES. The film does not deal with the goal of a twostate solution, implying that it does not support this solution and is opposed to any Jewish state. A 2009 joint poll showed that roughly 60% of both Israelis and Palestinians support a two-state solution “based on the establishment of a Palestinian state alongside Israel.” 26 This shows a fundamental agreement between Israelis and Palestinians, and a mutual desire for peace and reconciliation through two states, side-by-side in peace and security. THE FILM NEVER MENTIONS: The estimated 1,000,000 Jews forced to flee their homes in Arab countries in the 20th century. 27 Arab anti-Jewish bigotry centuries prior to political Zionism, with pogroms and massacres of thousands of Jews occurring in Arab lands as early as 1066. 28 29 Pogroms and massacres of Jews in Palestine and the Middle East from the 1800s through the 1940s, including: 1834 in Safed; 1840 in Damascus; 1847 in Jerusalem; 1874 in Beirut; 1901 in Cairo; 1920 in Jerusalem; 1921 in Jaffa; 1929 in Jerusalem, Safed, and Hebron; 1936 in Jaffa. 30 31 32 33 Jordan denying Jews access to the Old City from 1948 to 1967, desecrating synagogues and holy sites, and using ancient Jewish headstones to build latrines. 34 35 Responsibility of Arab states for their roles in the conflict, and the plight of refugees within their borders. The toll of terrorism—suicide bombings, rocket attacks, shootings, kidnappings—which would provide
These are just a few of the multifaceted realities the film ignores, even while claiming to search for “non-simple” explanations. These issues, not just the policies of an Israeli government, will also have to be part of any reconciliation leading to a true and just peace. With God on Our Side presents its commentators as impartial experts yet has them speak about topics on which they have demonstrated bias or on which they are not true experts, or both. We offer the following brief perspectives on several commentators, primarily using their own words.
context and rationale for the separation barrier and insight into the state of mind of ordinary Israelis. Hundreds of Israeli NGOs working for peace and justice. The one Israeli justice organization mentioned in the film, B’tselem, is not identified as Israeli or that it is founded and run by Israelis.
Rev. Stephen Sizer posted this headline [underline added] on his blog with a news item about U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Rev. Sizer suggests Clinton is making U.S. policy regarding Israel based on her husband's affair with a Jew fifteen years earlier. This betrays a cynical prejudice, and is offensive coming from any person. That it comes from a member of the Christian clergy whom With God on Our Side presents as a voice of sacred reason is shameful. 36
“Indeed the struggle is about ideology, not about facts. Who knows what facts are? We try to convince as many people as we can that our interpretation of the facts is the correct one, and we do it because of ideological reasons, not because we are truthseekers...” and “I admit that my ideology influences my historical writings....” 37
Ilan Pappé, who claims that Israel has engaged in “ethnic cleansing,” has elsewhere denied the relevance of facts and admitted his own bias:
In the introduction to one of his books, Pappé wrote “My bias is apparent despite the desire of my peers that I stick to facts and the ‘truth’ when reconstructing past realities. I view any such construction as vain and presumptuous.” 38 As fellow Israeli historian Benny Morris puts it, Pappé “often omits and ignores significant evidence,” “alleges that a source tells us the opposite of what it in fact says” and “will also simply and straightforwardly falsify evidence.” 39 As noted on page 5, Pappé invented the fraudulent Ben Gurion quote which the filmmakers have acknowledged is inauthentic and are removing from future copies of With God on Our Side. 40
Ron Dart is Professor of Philosophy and Politics at the University of Fraser Valley (British Columbia). At 08:40 of the film, he speaks about the core of “prophetic Judaism,” and at other points about Judaism and Biblical history. His bio on the University website does not list any qualifications regarding these disciplines. Of his 21 books, none are about Israel, the Middle East, the Bible, or Judaism. 46 “I was of course happy to meet the Hezbollah * people, because it is a point of view rarely heard in the United States, and I have no
Ben White is identified as a “Middle East Journalist” by the film. Any look at his work reveals that he writes as an activist promoting a specific cause not as a neutral, unbiased reporter: he contributes to Electronic Intifada, is Campaign Coordinator for A Just Peace for Palestine, 41 refers to Israel as a “regime” and the “Zionist drive of fragmenting the Palestinian people,” and alleges that Palestinians were “expelled and de-nationalized and ethnically-cleansed in 1948, in the first dramatic acts of Israeli apartheid.” 42 White also defended Iranian President Ahmadinejad's description of the Holocaust as a “myth,” just as in this film (15:10-19) he claims the idea of a longstanding Middle East conflict is a “myth.” 43 Elsewhere, White has said, “I do not consider myself an anti-Semite, yet I can also understand why some are.” While he has defended or explained these statements, and has written against racism targeting Jews, he still recommends the work of Holocaust deniers and uses “doctored” quotations in his written work. 44 45
Norman Finkelstein is a controversial and strident critic of both Israel and the United States. In an interview from 2008 on Lebanon's Future TV, Finkelstein said the following:
Hezbollah is classified as a terrorist organization by the United States, United Kingdom, Egypt, Israel, Australia, and Canada. See: www.cfr.org/publication/9155/hezbollah_aka_hizbollah_hizbullah.html and www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/lebanon/links.html#02.
Addressing the Lebanese interviewer, Finkelstein later says “You have no self-respect. How can you expect other people to respect Arabs if you show no respect for yourselves?” 47 48
problem saying that I do want to express solidarity with [Hezbollah].... If I'm going to honor the Communists in World War Two, I am going to honor the Hezbollah. They show courage, and they show discipline. I respect that.”
There is no government in the world that is always right or blameless. What is true of other governments is also true for Israeli governments. Responsible criticism of policies and actions is justifiable and healthy, provided it is without double-standards. Israelis themselves, as well as Jews around the world, engage in such criticism. However, to expand legitimate political criticism into challenging the right of Israel to exist, or denying the historical importance of the land of Israel to the Jewish people, or denigrating the authenticity of Judaism, is morally unacceptable. The pain the Palestinians experience is real and pervasive, whatever its causes are. We appreciate that With God on Our Side gives viewers a compassionate look at the “It’s okay to have a political experiences of individual Palestinians. We are also grateful for the hopeful expressions of opinion about something, but brotherhood that appear in the final minutes. If the minute that political we are interested in helping to bring peace to opinion causes you to become the region, we must all put ourselves in the prejudiced against another shoes of ordinary Palestinians and ordinary people group, you lose the Israelis.
IN THE IMAGE OF GOD
Our attempts to create peace and holiness must be based on an acceptance of human complexity, frailty and promise—and a similar acceptance that nations are made up of human beings—not based on sloganeering and partiality.
heart of God.” Thousands of such ordinary Israelis and Raija-Liisa Palestinians are working together daily to in With God on Our Side bring peace and justice to the region they share, and each would likely say that a key to peace is seeing the humanity in every Israeli and every Palestinian, seeing their neighbors as God’s precious creatures.
If you care about peace and hope, if you care about the well-being of all people in the Middle East, don't look for easy answers. Don't listen to those who claim to have simple solutions to complex geopolitical conflicts. Don't blindly accept pronouncements about a people or a religion from those who are not members of that people or religion. It is a moral obligation for people of faith to recognize the pain of all who suffer, and to bring relief and remedy to all those who are created in the image of God, Israeli and Palestinian, Muslim, Christian and Jew.
We find it regrettable that the makers of With God on Our Side appear to think that acknowledging Israeli suffering or Israeli compassion, as well as truthfully depicting Judaism and the Jewish people, would somehow deny the validity of Palestinian suffering, and Palestinian narratives. Nothing could be more untrue.
We know you care about peace and justice, about hope and redemption. In order to act with holiness and honesty, we urge you to explore these options for education and action: LEARN more about the long, detailed and multifaceted history of Judaism, of the Jewish people, and of Israel and the Middle East from a comprehensive perspective. Don't blindly accept the views or assumptions of any advocate or activist. Read. Study. Think. Here are just a few suggestions for where to begin and come back to:
The Media Line themedialine.org/ Haaretz haaretz.com/ The Jerusalem Post. jpost.com/ Israel21c-News Beyond the Conflict israel21c.org/ YnetNews ynetnews.com Israel Policy Forum advocates for active U.S. involvement in creating a two-state solution. israelpolicyforum.org/
WHAT YOU CAN DO
JIMENA: Jews Indigenous to the Middle East and North Africa. jimena.org/ Myths & Facts on the Arab-Israeli Conflict mythsandfacts.org/conflict.asp
Jewish Virtual Library provides information on all facets of Judaism, and Jewish life and history. jewishvirtuallibrary.org
GET INVOLVED with one of the hundreds of non-profits and NGOs working in Israel and the West Bank to remedy the plight of ordinary Palestinians, to stimulate the Palestinian economy, and to foster co-existence between Israelis and Palestinians, and Jews, Christians and Muslims. A very short list to start from:
Abraham Fund Initiatives abrahamfund.org Center for Jewish-Arab Economic Development cjaed.org.il Parents Circle: Bereaved Families Supporting Peace, Reconciliation and Tolerance theparentscircle.org Givat-Havivah Center for Jewish-Arab Peace givathaviva.org.il Hand in Hand Schools handinhandk12.org Galilee Moms - Making Peace Day by Day galileemoms.org Nets of Peace - Catching Peace through Aquaculture netsofpeace.org Ono Academic College Religious Leaders Program for Jews, Muslims, Christians and Druze ono.ac.il
Peres Center for Peace perescenter.org Save a Child's Heart-Heart of the Matter Project saveachildsheart.org Voices of Peace Choir, ArabJewish Community Center, Jaffa sites.google.com/site/voiceso fpeaceajcc
INVITE knowledgeable people with broad viewpoints on these issues, not narrow or simplistic ones, to speak to your community or church. Contact your local Jewish Federation (jewishfederations.org/section.aspx?id=5) or the Board of Rabbis of Southern California (www.boardofrabbis.org, email@example.com, 323-761-8600) for help finding speakers or contacts in your community, whether in connection with a screening of this film or separately.
REFERENCES & SOURCES
3 “Jewish and Non-Jewish Population of Palestine-Israel (1517-2004)” Jewish Virtual Library, http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/israel_palestine_pop.html. (Source: Israel in the Middle East: Documents and Readings on Society, Politics, and Foreign Relations, Pre-1948 to the Present, Ed. by Itamar Rabinovich and Jehuda Reinharz, Brandeis University Press, Waltham, Mass., 2008. (pp.571572.) Retrieved 14 January 2011.
Encyclopædia Britannica. “Zionism (nationalistic movement) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia”. Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/657475/Zionism. (See also: Gurock, Jeffrey S. “American Zionism: mission and politics” (1998) p 289; Davis, Moshe. “Zionism in transition” (1980) p 56; “Zionism: Changed perceptions of,” in Glenda Abramson, ed. Encyclopedia of modern Jewish culture (2005) vol 2 p 991. A national liberation movement: Rockaway, Robert. “Zionism: The National Liberation Movement of The Jewish People,” World Zionist Organization, January 21, 1975. Avineri, Shlomo: “Zionism as a Movement of National Liberation,” Hagshama department of the World Zionist Organization, December 12, 2003. Neuberger, Binyamin. “Introduction Zionism,” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, August 20, 2001.) Retrieved 19 January 2011. Population Statistics, Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, ProCon.org http://israelipalestinian.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000636. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
FAQ, JIMENA, Jews Indigenous to the Middle East and North Africa, http://www.jimena.org/faq.htm Retrieved 19 January 2011.
“The Population of Palestine Prior to 1948,” MidEast Web, http://www.mideastweb.org/palpop.htm. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
6 Hertz, Eli H. “Mandate for Palestine-The Legal Aspects of Jewish Rights,” http://www.mythsandfacts.org/conflict/mandate_for_palestine/mandate_for_palestine.htm. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
Honest Reporting UK, http://www.honestreporting.com/tag/david-ben-gurion/ Retrieved 20 January 2011.
12 David Ben Gurion, “Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel,” 14 May 1948, http://www.knesset.gov.il/docs/eng/megilat_eng.htm. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 13 14 11
10 Mideast Dispatch Archive: “Benny Morris responds to ‘numerous historical errors’ in The Independent” http://www.tomgrossmedia.com/mideastdispatches/archives/000805.html (middle of the page) Retrieved 5 January 2011.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, November 29, 1947, at the Avalon Project of Yale U. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/un/res181.htm. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
Steven. “Johann Hari's Tirade Against Israel” August 6, 2008, http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=2&x_outlet=62&x_article=1521. Retrieved 5 January 2011. Hari's original article “Ethnic Cleansing returns to Israel's agenda,” appeared in The Independent, November 13, 2006.
Van Zile, Dexter, "The Faux Zionist History of Ilan Pappe," CiF Watch, http://cifwatch.com/2011/11/12/thefaux-zionist-history-of-ilan-pappe/ Retrieved 16 November 2011.
Ministry of Defense, “Israel’s Security Fence,” January 31, 2007. http://www.securityfence.mod.gov.il/Pages/ENG/operational.htm. Retrieved August 27, 2010, per
Speakman, Porter Jr., "MEDIA ADVISORY: Correction: 'With God On Our Side' -- David Ben Gurion Quote," Christian News Wire, Nov 4, 2011. http://www.christiannewswire.com/news/3026318192.html Retrieved 16 November 2011.
17 (photo of barrier)Philadelphia Jewish Voice, http://www.pjvoice.com/v21/21004walls.aspx. Retrieved January 6, 2011. 18 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Suicide and Other Bombing Attacks in Israel Since the Declaration of Principles (Sept 1993).” http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism+Obstacle+to+Peace/Palestinian+terror+since+2000/Suicide+and+Other+Bombing+Attacks+in+Israel+Since .htm. Accessed 10 February 2011. Ibid, “The Anti-Terrorist Fence: The Fence that Makes a Difference.” securityfence.mfa.gov.il/mfm/web/main/missionhome.asp?MissionID=45187&. Accessed 22 December 2010. Pierre Tristam, “First Suicide Bombing in Israel in Over a Year,” About.com Middle East Issues, February, 2008. http://middleeast.about.com/b/2008/02/04/first-suicide-bombing-in-israel-in-over-a-year.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2011. 19 Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center, terrorismhttp://www.info.org.il/malam_multimedia/English/eng_n/html/ct_250308e.htm. Retrieved 5 January 2011. 20 21
Wikipedia, “Israel’s Separation Barrier,” http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israeli_West_Bank_barrier. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
Ministry of Defense (ibid).
Jewish Virtual Library (ibid).
22 “Jerusalem city wall from 10th century B.C.E. uncovered,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Feb. 22, 2010, http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Israel+beyond+politics/Jerusalem_wall_10th_century_BCE_22-Feb-2010.htm. and “Jerusalem in International Diplomacy,” JCPA, http://www.jcpa.org/art/jid-intro.htm, p. 9. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 23 24 25 27
Khazzoom, Loolwa. “Jews in the Middle East.” MyJewishLearning http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Jewish_World_Today/Jews_Around_the_Globe/Mizrahi_Jews.sht ml. Retrieved 21 January 2011. ProCon.org (ibid).
Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center (ibid).
Schwartz, Adi (Janruary 4, 2008). “All I Wanted was Justice”. Haaretz. http://www.adischwartz.com/israeli-arab-conflict/all-i-wanted-was-justice/. (See also: Shulewitz, Malka Hillel, “The Forgotten Millions: The Modern Jewish Exodus from Arab Lands,” Continuum 2001, pp. 139 and 155. Aharoni, Ada “The Forced Migration of Jews from Arab Countries,” Historical Society of Jews from Egypt website. Accessed February 1, 2009.) Retrieved 19 January 2011.
29 Bard, Mitchell, “The Treatment of Jews in Arab Lands,” Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/Jews_in_Arab_lands_(gen).html. Retrieved 10 March 2011. Further references: Norman Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands, (PA: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1979), pp. 59, 284. Maurice Roumani, The Case of the Jews from Arab Countries: A Neglected Issue, (Tel Aviv: World Organization of Jews from Arab Countries, 1977), pp. 26-27. Bat Ye'or, The Dhimmi, (NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1985), p. 61. G.E. Von Grunebaum, "Eastern Jewry Under Islam," Viator, (1971), p. 369. Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, (NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984) p. 158. 28 Kraus, Richard, “The Roots of Anti-Semitism,” The Tech (MIT), Volume 123, Issue 12, Friday, March 14, 2003. http://tech.mit.edu/V123/N12/kraus12.12c.html. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- Survey Research Unit: Palestinian - Israeli Joint Press Release, June 14, 2009 http://www.pcpsr.org/survey/polls/2009/p32ejoint.html Retrieved 19 January 2011.
JIMENA Jews Indigenous to the Middle East and North Africa, http://www.jimena.org/faq.htm Retrieved 20 January 2011.
Wasserstein, Bernard, Divided Jerusalem: the Struggle for the Holy City, Yale Univ., 2002.
Kraus, Richard, “The Roots of Anti-Semitism,” ibid “Palestine Massacre: The forgotten pogrom: Safed 1834,” http://www.zionismisrael.com/log/archives/00000349.html. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
Rev. Stephen Sizer’s blog, 12 March 2010, http://stephensizer.blogspot.com/2010_03_01_archive.html and http://seismic-shock.com/2010/11/08/sizer-features-in-theological-anti-zionist-film-showing-in-holyroodand-stormont/. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
34 Tekoah, Yosef, “Letter dated 5 March 1968 from the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General,” 5 March 1968. http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/A8138AD15B0FCAC385256B920059DEBF, retrieved 18 January 2011. 35 Bard, Mitchell, “Jerusalem: An Introduction,” Jewish Virtual Library. http://jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Jerusalem.html. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
32 “Eyewitness to History-The Hebron Massacre of 1929,” http://www.professors.org.il/docs/eye.htm. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
“Arab Riots of the 1920s.” http://jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/riots29.html. Includes additional sources and references. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
Pappé, Ilan, A History of Modern Palestine: One Land, Two Peoples, Cambridge 2004, quoted by Efraim Karsh in Middle East Quarterly, Winter 2006. http://www.meforum.org/897/a-history-of-modern-palestine-oneland-two-peoples. Retrieved 1 February 2011
39 Morris, Benny, “The Liar as Hero,” The New Republic, March 17, 2011. http://www.tnr.com/article/books/magazine/85344/ilan-pappe-sloppy-dishonesthistorian?page=0,0&passthru=MWE4MzAwYzEwZTUxY2M3Y2VjZWEwODI4NTYyOTZlYmU. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 40 41 38
Loos, Baudouin, “An Interview of Ilan Pappé,” Le Soir [Bruxelles], Nov. 29, 1999 http://www.ee.bgu.ac.il/~censor/katz-directory/$99-11-29loos-pappe-interview.htm. Retrieved 1 February 2011; Ricki Hollander, “Backgrounder on Professor Ilan Pappé: When Ideology Trumps Scholarship,” October 20, 2005. http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=8&x_nameinnews=122&x_article=994. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
42 White, Ben, public speech at Dundee University, September 2010 http://www.palestinevideo.blogspot.com/2010/10/ben-white-on-israeli-apartheid.html. Retrieved 27 January 2011
Van Zile, Dexter, "The Faux Zionist History of Ilan Pappe," CiF Watch, http://cifwatch.com/2011/11/12/the-faux-zionist-history-of-ilan-pappe/ Retrieved 16 November 2011. Ben White’s website http://www.benwhite.org.uk/about/. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
44 Hoffman, Jonathan, “Lies, Damn Lies and the Apartheid Analogy,” Z Blog, http://www.blog.zword.com/2009/07/lies-damn-lies-and-the-apartheid-analogy/ and More Damned Lies About Israeli Apartheid. http://www.blog.z-word.com/2009/07/more-damn-lies-about-israeli-apartheid/. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 45 Seismic Shock, “Ben White recommends Roger Garaudy essay in ‘Israeli Apartheid Guide’” http://www.seismic-shock.com/2009/07/17/ben-white-recommends-roger-garaudy-essay-in%e2%80%98israeli-apartheid-guide%e2%80%99/. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 46 47
Seismic Shock, “Ben White: the Holocaust is a ‘myth’”, March26, 2009. http://seismicshock.com/2009/03/26/ben-white-holocaust-is-a-myth/ and CiF Watch, “Ben White” http://cifwatch.com/cif-contributors/ben-white/. Retrieved 1 February 2011
Ron Dart, Faculty Bio, University of the Fraser Valley website. http://www.ufv.ca/PoliticalScience/Faculty_and_Staff/Faculty_Members/Ron_Dart.htm. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
MEMRI TV Project, “American Political Scientist Norman Finkelstein, Future TV (Lebanon) January 20, 2008.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDe65-nF3FQ. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
48 Passner, Deborah, “Norman Finkelstein’s Fraudulent Scholarship,” October 10, 2005, http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=8&x_nameinnews=169&x_article=985. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
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