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Proprietary
Heat Transfer Modeling
Heat Transfer Modeling
Introductory FLUENT Training
Introductory FLUENT Training
7-2
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Outline
‹ Energy Equation
‹ Wall Boundary Conditions
‹ Conjugate Heat Transfer
‹ Thin and two-sided walls
‹ Natural Convection
‹ Radiation Models
‹ Reporting - Export
7-3
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
‹ Energy transport equation:
• Energy E per unit mass is defined as:
• Pressure work and kinetic energy are always accounted for with compressible flows
or when using the density-based solvers. For the pressure-based solver, they are
omitted and can be added through the text command:
Define/models/energy?
( )
( ) | | ( )
h
j
j j
S V J h T k p E V
t
E
+

⋅ τ + − ∇ ⋅ ∇ = + ρ ⋅ ∇ +

ρ ∂
∑ eff eff
Energy Equation – Introduction
2
2
V p
h E +
ρ
− =
Conduction Species
Diffusion
Viscous
Dissipation
7-4
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Energy Equation Terms – Viscous Dissipation
‹ Energy source due to viscous
dissipation:
z Also called viscous heating.
z Important when viscous shear in fluid
is large (e.g. lubrication) and/or in
high-velocity compressible flows.
z Often negligible
„ Not included by default in the
pressure-based solver.
„ Always included in the density-
based solver.
z Important when the Brinkman
number approaches or exceeds unity:
( ) V ⋅ τ ⋅ ∇
eff
T k
U
e

u
=
2
Br
7-5
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Energy Equation Terms – Species Diffusion
‹ Energy source due to species
diffusion included for multiple
species flows.
z Includes the effect of enthalpy
transport
due to species diffusion
z Always included in the density-
based solver.
z Can be disabled in the pressure-
based solver.
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ∇

j
j j
J h
7-6
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Energy Equation Terms (3)
‹ Energy source due to chemical reaction is included for reacting flows.
z Enthalpy of formation of all species.
z Volumetric rate of creation of all species.
‹ Energy source due to radiation includes radiation source terms.
‹ Interphase energy source:
z Includes heat transfer between continuous and discrete phase
z DPM, spray, particles…
( )
( ) | | ( )
h
j
j j
S V J h T k p E V
t
E
+

⋅ τ + − ∇ ⋅ ∇ = + ρ ⋅ ∇ +

ρ ∂
∑ eff eff
7-7
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Energy Equation for Solid Regions
‹ Ability to compute conduction of heat through solids
‹ Energy equation:
z H is the sensible enthalpy:
‹ Anisotropic conductivity in
solids (pressure-based solver
only)
( )
( ) ( )
h
S T k h V
t
h
+ ∇ ⋅ ∇ = ρ ⋅ ∇ +

ρ ∂

=
T
T
p
dT c h
ref
) ( T k
ij
∇ ⋅ ∇
7-8
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Wall Boundary Conditions
‹ Five thermal conditions
‹ Radiation
z Heat transfer from exterior of
model
z Requires external emissivity
and external radiation
temperature.
‹ Mixed
z Combined Convection and
External
Radiation Boundary Conditions
‹ Wall material and thickness can
be defined for 1D or shell
conduction calculations.
heat transfer calculations.
7-9
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Conjugate Heat Transfer
‹ Ability to compute conduction of heat through solids, coupled with
convective heat transfer in fluid.
‹ The Coupled boundary condition is available to any wall zone which
separates two cell zones.
Grid
Temperature contours
Velocity vectors
Example -- Cooling Flow over Fuel Rods
7-10
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Circuit board (externally cooled)
k = 0.1 W/m·K
h = 1.5 W/m2·K
T

= 298 K
Air Outlet
Air inlet
V = 0.5 m/s
T = 298 K
Conjugate Heat Transfer Example
Electronic Chip
(one half is modeled)
k = 1.0 W/m·K
Q = 2 Watts
Top wall
(externally cooled)
h = 1.5 W/m2·K
T

= 298 K
Symmetry Planes
7-11
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Example – 3D Mesh and BC’s
Flow
direction
Board
(solid zone)
Chip (solid zone)
2 Watts source
Convection Boundary
1.5 W/m
2
K
298 K free stream temp.
Convection boundary
1.5 W/m
2
K
298 K free stream temp
Air (fluid zone)
7-12
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Problem Setup – Heat Source
7-13
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Temperature Distribution (Front and Top View)
Flow
direction
Board
(solid zone)
Chip (solid zone)
2 Watts source
Convection Boundary
1.5 W/m
2
K
298 K free stream temp.
Convection boundary
1.5 W/m
2
K
298 K free stream temp
Air (fluid zone)
Front View
Top View
Flow
direction
7-14
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Conjugate Heat Transfer Setup
7-15
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Alternate Modeling Strategies
‹ An alternate treatment of the board surface would be to model it as a
wall with specified thickness (Thin Wall model).
‹ In this case, there would be no need to mesh the lower solid zone
(representing the board).
7-16
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Two Approaches for Wall Heat Transfer
‹ Meshed wall
z Energy equation is solved in a solid
zone representing the wall.
z Wall thickness must be meshed.
z This is the most accurate approach
but requires more meshing effort.
z Always uses the coupled thermal
boundary condition since there are
cells on both sides of the wall.
‹ Thin wall
z Artificially models the thickness of
the wall (specified on the wall BC
panel).
z Uses the coupled thermal boundary
condition only for internal walls.
Fluid zone
Solid zone
Wall zone
(with shadow)
Fluid zone
Wall thermal resistance directly accounted
for in the Energy equation; Through-
thickness temperature distribution is
calculated.
Bidirectional heat conduction is
calculated.
Wall thermal resistance calculated using
artificial wall thickness and material type.
Through-thickness temperature
distribution is assumed to be linear.
Conduction only calculated in the wall-
normal direction.
Wall zone
(no shadow)
7-17
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Temperature Definitions for Thin Wall Model
‹ Thin wall model applies normal conduction only (no in-plane
conduction) and no actual cells are created.
‹ Wall thermal boundary condition is applied at the outer layer
Thermal boundary
condition on wall
Static temperature
(cell value)
Thin wall
(no mesh)
Wall temperature
(outer surface)
Wall temperature
(inner surface)
7-18
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Shell Conduction Option for Wall Heat Transfer
‹ The shell conduction option
is used to enable in-plane
conduction calculations.
‹ Additional conduction cells
are created but can not be
displayed and cannot be
accessed by UDFs.
‹ Solid properties of the
conduction zones must be
constant and can not be specified as temperature-dependent.
Static temperature
(cell value)
Virtual
conduction cells
Wall Temperature
(inner surface)
Wall Temperature
(outer surface)
7-19
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Natural Convection – Introduction
‹ Natural convection occurs
when heat is added to fluid
and fluid density varies
with temperature.
‹ Flow is induced by force of
gravity acting on density
variation.
‹ When gravity term is
included, pressure gradient
and body force term in the
momentum equation are re-written as:
g
x
p
g
x
p
) (
0
ρ − ρ +



− ⇒ ρ +



where
x g p p
0
ρ − =

• This format avoids potential roundoff error
when gravitational body force term is
included.
7-20
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Natural Convection – the Boussinesq Model
‹ Boussinesq model assumes the fluid density is uniform except for the body
force term in the momentum equation along the direction of gravity, we have:
z Valid when density variations are small (i.e., small variations in T).
‹ It provides faster convergence for many natural-convection flows than by
using fluid density as function of temperature.
z Constant density assumptions reduces non-linearity.
z Suitable when density variations are small.
z Cannot be used together with species transport or reacting flows.
‹ Natural convection problems inside closed domains:
z For steady-state solver, Boussinesq model must be used.
„ The constant density, ρ
0
, properly specifies the mass of the domain.
z For unsteady solver, Boussinesq model or ideal gas law can be used.
„ Initial conditions define mass in the domain.
g T T g ) ( ) (
0 0 0
− β ρ − = ρ − ρ
7-21
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
User Inputs for Natural Convection
‹ Define the gravitational acceleration.
‹ Define density model.
z If using Boussinesq model:
„ Select boussinesq as the Density method
and assign constant value, ρ
0
.
„ Set Thermal Expansion Coefficient, β.
„ Set Operating Temperature, T
0
.
z If using a temperature-dependent model,
(e.g., ideal gas or polynomial):
„ Specify Operating Density or,
„ Allow FLUENT to calculate ρ
0
from a
cell average (default, every iteration).
Define Operating Conditions…
Define Materials…
7-22
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Radiation
‹ Radiation effects should be accounted for when is of equal or
greater magnitude than that of convective and conductive heat transfer rates.
‹ To account for radiation, radiative intensity transport equations (RTEs) are solved.
z Local absorption by fluid and at boundaries couples these RTEs with the energy equation.
‹ Radiation intensity, I(r,s), is directionally and spatially dependent.
‹ Transport mechanisms for radiation intensity:
z Local absorption
z Out-scattering (scattering away from the direction)
z Local emission
z In-scattering (scattering into the direction)
‹ Five radiation models are available in FLUENT.
z Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM)
z Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM)
z P1 Radiation Model
z Rosseland Model
z Surface-to-Surface (S2S)
) (
4
min
4
max rad
T T Q − σ =
7-23
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Discrete Ordinates Model
‹ The radiative transfer equation is solved for a discrete number of finite
solid angles, σ
s
:
‹ Advantages:
z Conservative method leads to heat balance for coarse discretization.
„ Accuracy can be increased by using a finer discretization.
z Most comprehensive radiation model:
„ Accounts for scattering, semi-transparent media, specular surfaces, and
wavelength-dependent transmission using banded-gray option.
‹ Limitations:
z Solving a problem with a large number of ordinates is CPU-intensive.
( )

π

′ ′
⋅ Φ

π
σ
+
π
σ
= σ + +


4
0
4
2
) ( ) , (
4
) , ( d s s s r I
T
n a s r I a
x
I
s
s
i
Absorption
Emission
Scattering
7-24
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM)
‹ Main assumption – Radiation leaving a surface element within a specified
range of solid angles can be approximated by a single ray.
‹ Uses a ray-tracing technique to integrate radiant intensity along each ray:
‹ Advantages:
z Relatively simple model.
z Can increase accuracy by increasing number of rays.
z Applies to wide range of optical thicknesses.
‹ Limitations:
z Assumes all surfaces are diffuse.
z Effect of scattering not included.
z Solving a problem with a large number of rays is CPU-intensive.
π
σ
= +
4
T a
I a
ds
dI
7-25
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
P-1 Model
‹ Main assumption – The directional dependence in RTE is integrated
out, resulting in a diffusion equation for incident radiation.
‹ Advantages:
z Radiative transfer equation easy to solve with little CPU demand.
z Includes effect of scattering.
„ Effects of particles, droplets, and soot can be included.
z Works reasonably well for applications where the optical thickness is
large (e.g. combustion).
‹ Limitations:
z Assumes all surfaces are diffuse.
z May result in loss of accuracy (depending on the complexity of the
geometry) if the optical thickness is small.
z Tends to overpredict radiative fluxes from localized heat sources or sinks.
7-26
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Surface-to-Surface Radiation Model
‹ The S2S radiation model can be used for modeling radiation in situations
where there is no participating media.
z For example, spacecraft heat rejection system, solar collector systems, radiative
space heaters, and automotive underhood cooling.
z S2S is a view-factor based model.
z Non-participating media is assumed.
‹ Limitations:
z The S2S model assumes that all surfaces are diffuse.
z The implementation assumes gray radiation.
z Storage and memory requirements increase very rapidly as the number of surface
faces increases.
„ Memory requirements can be reduced by using clusters of surface faces.
ΠClustering does not work with sliding meshes or hanging nodes.
z Not to be used with periodic or symmetry boundary conditions.
7-27
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Solar Load Model
‹ Solar load model
z Ray tracing algorithm for solar radiant
energy transport: Compatible with all
radiation models
z Available with parallel solver (but ray
tracing algorithm is not parallelized)
z 3D only
‹ Specifications
z Sun direction vector
z Solar intensity (direct, diffuse)
z Solar calculator for calculating direction
and direct intensity using theoretical
maximum or “fair weather conditions”
z Transient cases
„ When direction vector is specified
with solar calculator, sun direction
vector will change accordingly in
transient simulation
„ Specify “time steps per solar load
update”
7-28
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Choosing a Radiation Model
‹ For certain problems, one radiation model may be
more appropriate in general.
z Computational effort – P1gives reasonable accuracy
with less effort.
z Accuracy – DTRM and DOM more accurate.
z Optical thickness – DTRM/DOM for optically thin
media (αL << 1); P1 better for optically thick media.
z Scattering – P1 and DOM account for scattering.
z Particulate effects – P1 and DOM account for radiation
exchange between gas and particulates.
z Localized heat sources – DTRM/DOM with
sufficiently large number of rays/ ordinates is more
appropriate.
Define Models Radiation…
7-29
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Reporting – Heat Flux
‹ Heat flux report:
z It is recommended that you perform
a heat balance check to ensure that
your solution is truly converged.
‹ Exporting Heat Flux Data:
z It is possible to export heat flux data
on wall zones (including radiation)
to a generic file.
z Use the text interface:
file/export/custom-heat-flux
z File format for each selected face zone:
zone-name nfaces
x_f y_f z_f A Q T_w T_c HTC

7-30
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Reporting – Heat Transfer Coefficient
‹ Wall-function-based HTC
where C
P
is the specific heat, k
P
is the turbulence kinetic energy at point P,
and T
*
is defined in Chapter 13 of the FLUENT 6.3 User Guide.
z Available only when the flow is turbulent and Energy equation is enabled
z Alternative for cases with adiabatic walls.
*
2 1 4 1
eff
T
k C C
h
P P u
ρ
=
7-31
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Summary
‹ There are many introductory level tutorials which use concepts
discussed in this lecture.
z Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer (Tutorial #2)
z Radiation and Natural Convection (Tutorial #5)
z Solidification (Tutorial #20)
z Many others…
‹ A number of intermediate and advanced tutorials are also available at
www.learningcfd.com/login/fluent/intermediate/tutorials/index.htm
‹ Other learning resources
z Advanced training course in heat transfer offered by FLUENT
z Web-based training modules
z User Services Center, www.fluentusers.com
„ All tutorials and lecture notes
„ User Documentation
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Appendix
Appendix
7-33
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Thin and Two-Sided Walls
‹ In the Thin Wall approach, the wall thickness is not explicitly meshed.
‹ Model thin layer of material between two zones
‹ Thermal resistance ∆x/k is artificially applied by the solver.
‹ Boundary conditions specified on the outside surface.
Thermal boundary conditions are supplied
on the inner surface of a thin wall
Exterior wall
(user-specified
thickness)
Fluid or
solid cells
Outer surface
(calculated)
Inner surface
(thermal boundary
condition specified
here)
x ∆
Interior wall
(user-specified
thickness)
1
k
2
k
Interior wall shadow
(user-specified
thickness)
2 2
or T q
1 1
or T q
Thermal boundary conditions are supplied
on the inner surfaces of uncoupled
wall/shadow pairs
Fluid or
solid cells
Fluid or
solid cells
7-34
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Export – ANSYS
‹ Export ANSYS file through GUI or
TUI:
file/export/ansys file-name
‹ A single file will be written containing
coordinates, connectivity, and the
scalars listed below:
z x-velocity, y-velocity, z-velocity,
pressure, temperature,
z turb-kinetic -energy, turb-diss-rate,
density, viscosity-turb, viscosity-lam,
viscosity-eff, thermal-conductivity-lam,
thermal-conductivity-eff,
z total-pressure, total-temperature,
pressure-coefficient, mach-number,
stream-function,
z heat-flux, heat-transfer-coef, wall-shear,
specific-heat-cp
7-35
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Export – ANSYS
‹ The file written is an ANSYS results file with a .rfl extension. To read this file
into ANSYS, use the following procedure:
1. In ANSYS, go to General Postproc Data and File Options and read the .rfl file
generated from FLUENT.
2. Go to Results Summary and click on the first line in the upcoming panel. You will see
some information listed in the ANSYS_56_OUTPUT window displaying geomtery
informatiom.
3. In the small ANSYS Input window, enter the following commands in order:
SET,FIRST
/PREP7
ET,1,142
The last command corresponds to FLOTRAN 3D element. If your case is 2D, then
this should be replaced by “ET,1,141”.
4. In the ANSYS MULTIPHYSICS UTITLITY menu, select Plot and then Nodes or
Elements, including the nodal solution under Results in the drop-down list.
7-36
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Export – ABAQUS
‹ A single file (e.g., file.aba) containing coordinates, connectivity,
optional loads, zone groups, velocity, and selected scalars will be
written. You can specify which scalars you want in the Functions to
Write list.
‹ Export of data to Abaqus is available only for 3D models and is valid
only for solid zones or for those surfaces that lie at the intersection of
solid zones.
‹ None of the fluid zone heat transfer properties will get exported
‹ Ideal only when you want to do some Fluid-Solid interface i.e., wall
analysis.
file/export/abaqus file-name list-of-surfaces () yes|no list-of-scalars q
7-37
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Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.3 December 2006
Export to Other Formats
‹ NASTRAN/PATRAN:
The best approach.
‹ For ABAQUS,
NASTRAN, and
PATRAN, select the
Loads to be written
(Force, Temperature,
and/or Heat Flux) to
analyze the structural
stresses (fluid pressure
or thermal) in an FEA
program.
‹ Loads are written only
on boundary walls when
the entire domain is
exported (i.e., if you
select no Surfaces).
9 TECPLOT
2001 PATRAN
2001 NASTRAN
2 CGNS
n/ ASCII
10 ANSYS
6.3 Abaqus
Supported
Version
Format

Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.3 December 2006

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Outline
Energy Equation Wall Boundary Conditions Conjugate Heat Transfer Thin and two-sided walls Natural Convection Radiation Models Reporting - Export

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7-2

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Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.3 December 2006

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Energy Equation – Introduction
Energy transport equation:

 ∂ (ρ E ) + ∇ ⋅ V (ρ E + p ) = ∇ ⋅ k eff ∇T − ∑ h j J j + τeff ⋅ V ∂t j 

[

]

(

)

  + Sh 

Conduction

• •

Energy E per unit mass is defined as:

Species Diffusion

Viscous Dissipation

p V2 E = h− + ρ 2
Pressure work and kinetic energy are always accounted for with compressible flows or when using the density-based solvers. For the pressure-based solver, they are omitted and can be added through the text command:
Define/models/energy?

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7-3

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Proprietary .g. lubrication) and/or in high-velocity compressible flows. Often negligible Not included by default in the pressure-based solver. Always included in the densitybased solver. Inc. All rights reserved. 7-4 ANSYS. Inc. Important when the Brinkman number approaches or exceeds unity: µ U e2 Br = k ∆T © 2006 ANSYS.fluentusers. Important when viscous shear in fluid is large (e.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.com Energy Equation Terms – Viscous Dissipation Energy source due to viscous dissipation: ∇ ⋅ τeff ⋅ V ( ) Also called viscous heating.

   ∑ hj J j  ∇ ⋅   j  Includes the effect of enthalpy transport due to species diffusion Always included in the densitybased solver. Inc. © 2006 ANSYS.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.com Energy Equation Terms – Species Diffusion Energy source due to species diffusion included for multiple species flows. All rights reserved. 7-5 ANSYS. Can be disabled in the pressurebased solver. Proprietary .fluentusers. Inc.

3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Energy source due to radiation includes radiation source terms. Enthalpy of formation of all species. spray. 7-6 ANSYS.fluentusers. Proprietary .com Energy Equation Terms (3) Energy source due to chemical reaction is included for reacting flows. Inc. All rights reserved. Volumetric rate of creation of all species. Inc. particles…  ∂ (ρ E ) + ∇ ⋅ V (ρ E + p ) = ∇ ⋅ keff ∇T − ∑ h j J j + τeff ⋅ V ∂t j  [ ] ( )   + Sh  © 2006 ANSYS. Interphase energy source: Includes heat transfer between continuous and discrete phase DPM.

Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. 7-7 ANSYS. Inc. Proprietary . All rights reserved. Inc.fluentusers.com Energy Equation for Solid Regions Ability to compute conduction of heat through solids Energy equation: ∂ (ρ h ) + ∇ ⋅ V ρ h = ∇ ⋅ (k ∇T ) + S h ∂t ( ) H is the sensible enthalpy: h = ∫ c p dT Tref T Anisotropic conductivity in solids (pressure-based solver only) ∇ ⋅ (kij ∇T ) © 2006 ANSYS.

fluentusers. Mixed Combined Convection and External Radiation Boundary Conditions Wall material and thickness can be defined for 1D or shell conduction calculations. Inc. Proprietary . © 2006 ANSYS. Inc. heat transfer calculations.com Wall Boundary Conditions Five thermal conditions Radiation Heat transfer from exterior of model Requires external emissivity and external radiation temperature. 7-8 ANSYS. All rights reserved.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.

coupled with convective heat transfer in fluid.com Conjugate Heat Transfer Ability to compute conduction of heat through solids. Grid Velocity vectors Temperature contours Example -.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Inc. Inc.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. The Coupled boundary condition is available to any wall zone which separates two cell zones.Cooling Flow over Fuel Rods © 2006 ANSYS. All rights reserved. 7-9 ANSYS. Proprietary .

5 m/s T = 298 K Electronic Chip (one half is modeled) k = 1. Inc. 7-10 ANSYS. Proprietary .fluentusers. All rights reserved.1 W/m·K h = 1.5 W/m2·K T∞ = 298 K © 2006 ANSYS.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Inc.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.5 W/m2·K T∞ = 298 K Air Outlet Air inlet V = 0.com Conjugate Heat Transfer Example Symmetry Planes Top wall (externally cooled) h = 1.0 W/m·K Q = 2 Watts Circuit board (externally cooled) k = 0.

Inc. Proprietary . Inc. © 2006 ANSYS.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers.5 W/m2 K 298 K free stream temp Board (solid zone) Chip (solid zone) 2 Watts source Convection Boundary 1. 7-11 ANSYS. All rights reserved.com Example – 3D Mesh and BC’s Flow direction Air (fluid zone) Convection boundary 1.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.5 W/m2 K 298 K free stream temp.

3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.com Problem Setup – Heat Source © 2006 ANSYS. Proprietary . All rights reserved.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers. Inc. Inc. 7-12 ANSYS.

5 W/m2 K 298 K free stream temp Board (solid zone) Flow direction Chip (solid zone) 2 Watts source Convection Boundary 1. All rights reserved. Top View © 2006 ANSYS.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Inc. Proprietary .3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. 7-13 ANSYS.5 W/m2 K 298 K free stream temp.fluentusers. Inc.com Temperature Distribution (Front and Top View) Flow direction Air (fluid zone) Front View Convection boundary 1.

Inc.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Inc. 7-14 ANSYS.fluentusers.com Conjugate Heat Transfer Setup © 2006 ANSYS. Proprietary . All rights reserved.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.

© 2006 ANSYS. there would be no need to mesh the lower solid zone (representing the board). Inc.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Inc. All rights reserved.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. 7-15 ANSYS.com Alternate Modeling Strategies An alternate treatment of the board surface would be to model it as a wall with specified thickness (Thin Wall model).fluentusers. Proprietary . In this case.

Inc. Bidirectional heat conduction is calculated. Wall zone (with shadow) Fluid zone Solid zone Wall thermal resistance directly accounted for in the Energy equation. Conduction only calculated in the wallnormal direction. Through-thickness temperature distribution is assumed to be linear.com Two Approaches for Wall Heat Transfer Meshed wall Energy equation is solved in a solid zone representing the wall. Wall thickness must be meshed. Wall zone (no shadow) Fluid zone Wall thermal resistance calculated using artificial wall thickness and material type. All rights reserved. Always uses the coupled thermal boundary condition since there are cells on both sides of the wall. 7-16 ANSYS. Throughthickness temperature distribution is calculated. © 2006 ANSYS. This is the most accurate approach but requires more meshing effort.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Thin wall Artificially models the thickness of the wall (specified on the wall BC panel). Inc.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. Proprietary . Uses the coupled thermal boundary condition only for internal walls.fluentusers.

Inc.com Temperature Definitions for Thin Wall Model Thin wall model applies normal conduction only (no in-plane conduction) and no actual cells are created. Inc. Proprietary © 2006 ANSYS. Wall thermal boundary condition is applied at the outer layer Static temperature (cell value) Thin wall (no mesh) Wall temperature (outer surface) Thermal boundary condition on wall 7-17 Wall temperature (inner surface) ANSYS.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. All rights reserved. .Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

com Shell Conduction Option for Wall Heat Transfer The shell conduction option is used to enable in-plane conduction calculations. Proprietary . Solid properties of the conduction zones must be constant and can not be specified as temperature-dependent. All rights reserved. Inc. Wall Temperature (outer surface) Wall Temperature (inner surface) 7-18 ANSYS. Static temperature (cell value) Virtual conduction cells © 2006 ANSYS. Additional conduction cells are created but can not be displayed and cannot be accessed by UDFs. Inc.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.

fluentusers. 7-19 ANSYS. Inc. pressure gradient and body force term in the momentum equation are re-written as: ∂p ∂p′ + (ρ − ρ0 ) g − + ρg ⇒ − • This format avoids potential roundoff error ∂x ∂x when gravitational body force term is where p′ = p − ρ 0 g x included.com Natural Convection – Introduction Natural convection occurs when heat is added to fluid and fluid density varies with temperature. Flow is induced by force of gravity acting on density variation.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. Inc.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. © 2006 ANSYS. Proprietary . All rights reserved. When gravity term is included.

All rights reserved.com Natural Convection – the Boussinesq Model Boussinesq model assumes the fluid density is uniform except for the body force term in the momentum equation along the direction of gravity.. Initial conditions define mass in the domain. Natural convection problems inside closed domains: For steady-state solver. Inc.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.e.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. small variations in T). © 2006 ANSYS. Boussinesq model or ideal gas law can be used. The constant density. Boussinesq model must be used. Suitable when density variations are small. properly specifies the mass of the domain.fluentusers. 7-20 ANSYS. It provides faster convergence for many natural-convection flows than by using fluid density as function of temperature. ρ0. Constant density assumptions reduces non-linearity. Cannot be used together with species transport or reacting flows. we have: ( ρ − ρ 0 ) g = − ρ 0 β (T − T 0 ) g Valid when density variations are small (i. Inc. Proprietary . For unsteady solver.

7-21 ANSYS. ρ0. ideal gas or polynomial): Specify Operating Density or.g.com User Inputs for Natural Convection Define the gravitational acceleration.fluentusers. (e. Define Materials… Set Thermal Expansion Coefficient. Inc. If using a temperature-dependent model. T0. Proprietary . every iteration).3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. Define Operating Conditions… Define density model.. All rights reserved. If using Boussinesq model: Select boussinesq as the Density method and assign constant value.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Inc. © 2006 ANSYS. Set Operating Temperature. β. Allow FLUENT to calculate ρ0 from a cell average (default.

All rights reserved.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. radiative intensity transport equations (RTEs) are solved.s). Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM) Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) P1 Radiation Model Rosseland Model Surface-to-Surface (S2S) © 2006 ANSYS. 7-22 ANSYS. Proprietary . To account for radiation. is directionally and spatially dependent. Local absorption by fluid and at boundaries couples these RTEs with the energy equation. Radiation intensity.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers.com Radiation 4 4 Radiation effects should be accounted for when Qrad = σ (Tmax − Tmin ) is of equal or greater magnitude than that of convective and conductive heat transfer rates. I(r. Inc. Inc. Transport mechanisms for radiation intensity: Local absorption Out-scattering (scattering away from the direction) Local emission In-scattering (scattering into the direction) Five radiation models are available in FLUENT.

3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. s ) = a n 2 + ∫ I (r . specular surfaces. Accuracy can be increased by using a finer discretization.com Discrete Ordinates Model The radiative transfer equation is solved for a discrete number of finite solid angles. All rights reserved. Most comprehensive radiation model: Accounts for scattering. σs: 4π ∂I σT 4 σs + (a + σ s ) I ( r .fluentusers. © 2006 ANSYS.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Inc. 7-23 ANSYS. semi-transparent media. s′) Φ ( s ⋅ s′) dΩ′ ∂xi π 4π 0 Advantages: Absorption Emission Scattering Conservative method leads to heat balance for coarse discretization. and wavelength-dependent transmission using banded-gray option. Inc. Limitations: Solving a problem with a large number of ordinates is CPU-intensive. Proprietary .

fluentusers. Inc. Uses a ray-tracing technique to integrate radiant intensity along each ray: Advantages: dI a σT 4 +aI = π ds Relatively simple model. Applies to wide range of optical thicknesses. Limitations: Assumes all surfaces are diffuse. Inc. Can increase accuracy by increasing number of rays.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. All rights reserved. Proprietary . Effect of scattering not included.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.com Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) Main assumption – Radiation leaving a surface element within a specified range of solid angles can be approximated by a single ray. Solving a problem with a large number of rays is CPU-intensive. © 2006 ANSYS. 7-24 ANSYS.

combustion). Limitations: Assumes all surfaces are diffuse.fluentusers.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. droplets. Tends to overpredict radiative fluxes from localized heat sources or sinks. 7-25 ANSYS. Proprietary . © 2006 ANSYS. and soot can be included.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. All rights reserved. Advantages: Radiative transfer equation easy to solve with little CPU demand. resulting in a diffusion equation for incident radiation. Inc.com P-1 Model Main assumption – The directional dependence in RTE is integrated out.g. Effects of particles. May result in loss of accuracy (depending on the complexity of the geometry) if the optical thickness is small. Includes effect of scattering. Inc. Works reasonably well for applications where the optical thickness is large (e.

spacecraft heat rejection system. Non-participating media is assumed. All rights reserved.fluentusers. 7-26 ANSYS. and automotive underhood cooling. Inc. Memory requirements can be reduced by using clusters of surface faces. solar collector systems. Inc. Proprietary . Limitations: The S2S model assumes that all surfaces are diffuse.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Clustering does not work with sliding meshes or hanging nodes. The implementation assumes gray radiation. Storage and memory requirements increase very rapidly as the number of surface faces increases.com Surface-to-Surface Radiation Model The S2S radiation model can be used for modeling radiation in situations where there is no participating media. Not to be used with periodic or symmetry boundary conditions. For example.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. S2S is a view-factor based model. radiative space heaters. © 2006 ANSYS.

Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. Proprietary . Inc. All rights reserved. sun direction vector will change accordingly in transient simulation Specify “time steps per solar load update” © 2006 ANSYS. Inc.com Solar Load Model Solar load model Ray tracing algorithm for solar radiant energy transport: Compatible with all radiation models Available with parallel solver (but ray tracing algorithm is not parallelized) 3D only Specifications Sun direction vector Solar intensity (direct.fluentusers. diffuse) Solar calculator for calculating direction and direct intensity using theoretical maximum or “fair weather conditions” Transient cases When direction vector is specified with solar calculator. 7-27 ANSYS.

Scattering – P1 and DOM account for scattering.com Choosing a Radiation Model For certain problems. 7-28 ANSYS.fluentusers. one radiation model may be more appropriate in general. P1 better for optically thick media. Particulate effects – P1 and DOM account for radiation exchange between gas and particulates. Proprietary . Accuracy – DTRM and DOM more accurate.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. All rights reserved.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. Inc. Define Models Radiation… Computational effort – P1gives reasonable accuracy with less effort. Optical thickness – DTRM/DOM for optically thin media (αL << 1). Inc. Localized heat sources – DTRM/DOM with sufficiently large number of rays/ ordinates is more appropriate. © 2006 ANSYS.

Use the text interface: file/export/custom-heat-flux File format for each selected face zone: zone-name nfaces x_f y_f z_f A … © 2006 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc. Exporting Heat Flux Data: It is possible to export heat flux data on wall zones (including radiation) to a generic file.com Reporting – Heat Flux Heat flux report: It is recommended that you perform a heat balance check to ensure that your solution is truly converged. Inc.fluentusers.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. Q T_w T_c HTC 7-29 ANSYS. Proprietary .Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

kP is the turbulence kinetic energy at point P.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers.com Reporting – Heat Transfer Coefficient Wall-function-based HTC 1 1 ρ C P Cµ 4 k P 2 heff = T* where CP is the specific heat. © 2006 ANSYS. and T* is defined in Chapter 13 of the FLUENT 6.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. Proprietary . Inc. Available only when the flow is turbulent and Energy equation is enabled Alternative for cases with adiabatic walls. Inc.3 User Guide. All rights reserved. 7-30 ANSYS.

www.fluentusers.learningcfd. All rights reserved.com All tutorials and lecture notes User Documentation © 2006 ANSYS. Proprietary .com/login/fluent/intermediate/tutorials/index. 7-31 ANSYS.com Summary There are many introductory level tutorials which use concepts discussed in this lecture.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. Inc. Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer (Tutorial #2) Radiation and Natural Convection (Tutorial #5) Solidification (Tutorial #20) Many others… A number of intermediate and advanced tutorials are also available at www.htm Other learning resources Advanced training course in heat transfer offered by FLUENT Web-based training modules User Services Center. Inc.fluentusers.

Proprietary . Inc. ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc.Appendix © 2006 ANSYS.

Inc. Boundary conditions specified on the outside surface. Inc. All rights reserved. the wall thickness is not explicitly meshed. Model thin layer of material between two zones Thermal resistance ∆x/k is artificially applied by the solver. Exterior wall (user-specified thickness) Outer surface (calculated) Inner surface (thermal boundary condition specified here) Fluid or solid cells Fluid or solid cells q1 or T1 q2 or T2 Interior wall (user-specified thickness) Interior wall shadow (user-specified thickness) ∆x k1 k2 Fluid or solid cells Thermal boundary conditions are supplied on the inner surface of a thin wall © 2006 ANSYS.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers. Thermal boundary conditions are supplied on the inner surfaces of uncoupled wall/shadow pairs 7-33 ANSYS. Proprietary .3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www.com Thin and Two-Sided Walls In the Thin Wall approach.

and the scalars listed below: x-velocity. total-pressure. turb-kinetic -energy. Inc.com Export – ANSYS Export ANSYS file through GUI or TUI: file/export/ansys file-name A single file will be written containing coordinates.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. Proprietary . thermal-conductivity-eff. wall-shear. density. viscosity-turb. heat-transfer-coef. turb-diss-rate. stream-function. heat-flux. thermal-conductivity-lam. pressure-coefficient. Inc. viscosity-lam. 7-34 ANSYS.fluentusers.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. viscosity-eff. temperature. pressure. specific-heat-cp © 2006 ANSYS. y-velocity. All rights reserved. total-temperature. mach-number. connectivity. z-velocity.

If your case is 2D.com Export – ANSYS The file written is an ANSYS results file with a .141”.rfl file generated from FLUENT.1. then this should be replaced by “ET.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. go to General Postproc Data and File Options and read the . 2. Inc. enter the following commands in order: SET.FIRST /PREP7 ET.142 The last command corresponds to FLOTRAN 3D element. 4. In ANSYS. use the following procedure: 1. In the ANSYS MULTIPHYSICS UTITLITY menu. In the small ANSYS Input window. select Plot and then Nodes or Elements. All rights reserved.fluentusers. Go to Results Summary and click on the first line in the upcoming panel. including the nodal solution under Results in the drop-down list. 3.rfl extension.1. To read this file into ANSYS. © 2006 ANSYS. You will see some information listed in the ANSYS_56_OUTPUT window displaying geomtery informatiom. Proprietary . Inc. 7-35 ANSYS.

velocity. zone groups.3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. Export of data to Abaqus is available only for 3D models and is valid only for solid zones or for those surfaces that lie at the intersection of solid zones. All rights reserved.com Export – ABAQUS A single file (e. Inc. connectivity.g. None of the fluid zone heat transfer properties will get exported Ideal only when you want to do some Fluid-Solid interface i. Proprietary .. file/export/abaqus file-name list-of-surfaces () yes|no list-of-scalars q © 2006 ANSYS. and selected scalars will be written. optional loads..fluentusers. You can specify which scalars you want in the Functions to Write list. Inc. file. 7-36 ANSYS.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. wall analysis.aba) containing coordinates.e.

Inc. if you select no Surfaces).3 December 2006 Fluent User Services Center www. and PATRAN. Loads are written only on boundary walls when the entire domain is exported (i. Proprietary ..fluentusers. Format Abaqus ANSYS ASCII CGNS NASTRAN PATRAN TECPLOT Supported Version 6. and/or Heat Flux) to analyze the structural stresses (fluid pressure or thermal) in an FEA program. NASTRAN. For ABAQUS.e. All rights reserved.Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 7-37 ANSYS. Inc.com Export to Other Formats NASTRAN/PATRAN: The best approach.3 10 n/ 2 2001 2001 9 © 2006 ANSYS. Temperature. select the Loads to be written (Force.

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