HRM & HRD both words are important for an organization management and development. HRM teach employees how to manage different types of people.HRD teach employees how to develop themselves, like skill,communication skill etc.Though somehow HRD & HRM are interrelated but still there is some different between HRD& HRM ,Which has been discussed later.

HRM-Human Resource Management (HRM) is the management of company PERSONNEL.HRM,the management of people or resources in an organization. It includes the activities of human resources planning recruitment selection orientation training performance appraisal compensation and safety.

DEFINITION HRD-HRD is the development and management of company RESOURCES. It is defined as The development of human capabilities, abilities, knowledge. Know-how to meet people's ever-growing needs for goods and services to improve their standard of living and quality of life. It is a process in which the citizens of a nation acquire and develop the knowledge and skills necessary for occupational tasks and for other social, cultural, intellectual and political roles that form part of a vibrant democratic society.


The management of people or resources in an organization. A major management activity. An HRM professional might start out as a generalist

The development of the resources in a company. Human Resource Development, a profession. An HRD professional's career might begin with an analyst role, working as a consultant on a company's organization development (OD) team.


It is a Staffing function of the organization. It includes compensation and benefits, recruiting and staffing, employee and labor relations, occupational health and safety.

The development and management of company RESOURCES. It includes organization development,performa -nce management, training and learning, and coaching.


It is very much suitable for small organization(Profit/No n profit).

It is suitable for large organization.


Numerous organizations have increasingly realized that their most important resources are human. Furthermore, two important domains in the field of human resources have been distinguished: Human Resource Management (HRM), and Human Resource Development (HRD). These two fields are interrelated and have a significant influence on organizational performance. This is especially true in extension services, of which the major commitments are education, training, and development. Therefore, this research has focused upon to the situation of HRM and HRD in the agricultural extension system of Iran. Formal agricultural extension services began more than 50 years ago in Iran, and endeavors have been particularly accomplished in this field after the revolution of 1979. Nevertheless, there still are a number of barriers and restrictions which hampering extension procedures, and as a result extension, has not been appropriately successful or satisfactory for farmers throughout the years. In order to explore what could be done to support extension systems and facilitate its evolution, several studies have been conducted in Iran. These studies indicate that no sufficient efforts are being made towards HRD and HRM in agricultural extension in Iran. Therefore, this research pays specific attention to the obstacles in the field of HRM/HRD in agricultural extension organizations in Iran. Finally, recommendations will be presented to overcome the barriers observed.


One of the basic principles taught to managers is that an organization functions most efficiently when there is an appropriate use of its physical, financial, and human resources. The smart use of financial, physical, and information resources, and the productivity of the organization as a whole, highly depends upon the effective and efficient functioning of human resources within an organization. Human resources have been neglected to a large extent by many agricultural extension and education services throughout the world. This study aims to clearly depict the current HRM/HRD in extension services in Iran. According to various studies, agricultural development in Iran has yet to have any convincible evolution.(50% of total available land, water and natural resources have still not been cultivated:Tahmasebi)

In comparison with the last decade, agricultural extension services in Iran have been going forward with a noticeable rate in all enclosure tasks. There is unanimity among researchers that HRM and HRD have not been able to play a satisfactory role in extension organizations in Iran. The main purpose of this study is to explore the most important obstacles influencing HRM and HRD work in the field of agricultural extension in Iran.


Organizational Issues: - Structural changes in the Ministry of Agriculture over the last decade - Lack of adequate linkage between extension and other institutions - Inadequate Farmers· Participation in Extension Organizations· Programs


Human Resource Management Issues: - Shortage of extension personnel. - Lack of adequate mobility in extension organizations. - Low level of employees· motivation and accountability. - Problems in Recruitment. - Inadequate Farmers· Participation in Extension Organizations· Programs.


Human Resource Development and Competence Issues : - Inadequate Extension employees· professional competencies. - Problems in training programs. - Insufficient employees· access to new learning and communication technology.

The Ministry of should establish a continuous assessment of workplace changes and its consequences on human resources in the Ministry, and its clientele. Additional contacts and interactions with other agencies and companies should be established by extension organizations. This will help in facilitating HRD inside and outside extension organizations, and will result in more support by other stakeholders. Steady communication between extension employees, researchers, and farmers should be emphasized, and more participatory approaches should be assigned. To achieve this, a novel and proper plan or regulation might be designed by the Ministry.


Since adequate recruitment is the best and easiest way for retaining qualified employees, more efforts should be made to accomplish this vital step A lack of motivation by personnel has irreparable effects on the body of extension organizations and naturally decreases the quality and quantity of employee·s performance. Thus, it is strongly advised to conduct continual needs assessments in the different fields of agricultural extension organizations in Iran To increase the competence of personnel, suitable training programs should be organised Extension employees need to be equipped with new information sources and tools such computers, Internet, update journals, books, and instructional technology.


LARSEN AND TOUBRO LTD(L&T)-It was the probably organization in the first organization in INDIA to introduce an integrated HRD system and to set up a separate human resource development department.HRD system was introduced by the organization in the year 1975 with the introduction of performance appraisal and feedback and counseling sub system. A high level task force was constituted to implement the HRD system. The taskforce performed up to the year 1979.The organization had a strong training department which was conducting a large number of training programmes and occasional OD exercises even prior to this. These training activities were further strengthened by linking training with performance appraisal and by stepping up OD activities.


Crompton Greaves Ltd. (CGL) started thinking about HRD system in 1979-80 when an ambitious expansion and diversification programme was launched. Decision to initiate HRD system in a systematic manner was taken by the top management after a review of its existing personnel functions. A high level HRD taskforce was constituted to implement the HRD system. The taskforce identified role analysis, performance appraisal and counseling as priority areas. The role analysis exercise was extensive and involved several top management teams. A new performance appraisal system with considerable emphasis on team work was involved. Performance counseling was also introduced independent of appraisal. Potential development using in-basket exercises are also being tried out.


A decision to introduce HRD system in the State Bank of India (SBI) was taken at a workshop attended by the chairman of the SBI and the managing directors of SBI and its associate banks. The workshop was addressed by an external consultant who explained the HRD philosophy. The associate banks subsequently appointed HRD managers but could not make much headway except designing a new appraisal format common to all associate banks and conducting periodic surveys on motivational climate. It was only 1979 when the SBI appointed a chief general manager (personnel and HRD), and a chief officer(HRD) at the central office, that the HRD started gaining momentum in the SBI. Simultaneously, HRD departments were started and HRD managers were appointed in the different circles of the SBI. The HRD efforts were further augmented by a new development-oriented performance appraisal system. Now, the HRD department of SBI is working in different activities like job rotation, training, organization development, career development, performance feedback and counseling and so on. Also strategic leadership programmes for officers in senior management grade were launched.



Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd. (BHEL), a public sector undertaking, is one of the largest engineering enterprises of India. Its corporate office at Delhi, among the other things, provides necessary top management leadership, direction, strategic planning, and operational and management support services. The erstwhile training and development department have been renamed as HRD departments. The personnel function(including HRD) in BHEL is headed by a fulltime functional director. The human resource development institute at Delhi looks after the training and development needs of the senior executives, and co-ordinates the training activities throughout the organization. Based on the needs identified and the standard training modules, training modules, training plans are formulated. The plans are Long term training plan(three year plan) Annual training plan Training calendar for the year. OD efforts were systematically introduced in some of the units of BHEL.


Personnel and human resource management A. M. Sharma.
Agasizadeh, F. & Shahbazi, E. (1995). Rural young farmersÑ point of view toward agriculture and assessment of their occupational tendencies in Gaemshahr and educational mission of extension, Master dissertation, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran. Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization of the Islamic Republic of Iran & International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR). (1999). Information Policy for agricultural research (IPAR). Amirani, M. (2001). Designing novel and sustainable agricultural extension system for Iran: research report, Jihad Persian magazine, 12, 248,249. Amiri, A. &Zamani, GH. (1999). Determinants of organizational commitments of B.Sc. agricultural


SM-9020 MBA-SBS (2009-11 BATCH)

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