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the 6. H. Queen and H. Wales W. OXFORD " Viva fui in sylvis ." Ent.. mortua dulce cano. Dum vixi tacui.A. M. WITH NOTES AND AN APPENDIX W.R.M.I the Prince of [author's property] 1894 . Street. OUARRELL. Condon ROBERT COCKS & Music Publishers to CO. H. sum dura occisa securi. EXETER COLLEGE. Sta.CREMONA AN ACCOUNT OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS AND THEIR INSTRUMENTS BY FRIEDRICH NIEDERHEITMANN TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL. 2s 6d. Hall. net. New Burlington I.


74 76 91 — Minor Makers. Venice. 7 Fourth Part. —The Violin and its Origin.Music Library POL \9&r CONTENTS. of the Art 3 Third Part. —The Collector Luigi Tarisio Deceptions.—The six Schools of Violin-making. Florence. Naples. &c Index 1 M { r7 Sd r . and the Tyrol Second Part. The Schools I of Brescia. Gaspare! Duififoix pruggar. Forgeries. their and a Sketch of the Leading Features of 18 Conclusion Appendix. His six Violins First Part. Cremona. —Development The Knowledge and Perfection of Violin-making. out Scooping 12 14 Fifth Part. Page Preface Introduction. — Alphabetical List of the Work Italian Violin-makers. and Makers of Lutes.— Labels. Sixth —The old Italian Varnish Part.


Author's hands. The title of this work is " The Violin its Famous Makers and their Imitators. not and Mr. however. as much from the actual instruments themselves. Hart knows Gaspare! . 1875. both foreign and native. he Although many instruments have passed through the is still far from saying that he has seen He mentions with all those which are described here. so far as may be possible from the description accorded to them. and of which he has made use.AUTHOR'S PREFACE. sufficiently itself." by George Hart. the names of the masters with the greatest possible accuracy and care. there is still a want which it would be as desirable as praiseworthy to their Although many supply. makers are. because those materials have been dealt with . as from ancient and modern literature. as regards the characteristic features of the Italian masters of the art of violin-making. experts have already set forth the result of knowledge and skill in publications of more or less merit on the subject of bowed instruments. and also of describing the work of each individual. : London. The Author has set himself the task of collecting. and from which it may have been developed. and he can do this with the greater confidence because the author of that work is known to him personally as an authority of the first rank in his art. peculiar pleasure an excellent work from which he has learnt much. A large number of in Italian mentioned that work. and he begins with the origin of the violin so that the reader may learn how to estimate the genuineness it and the value of the Italian instruments. that is. He has omitted to dwell upon those stringed instruments which preceded the violin.

but not in his original capacity as the inventor of the violin. THE AUTHOR. viols. of Bologna. maker of and basses. only as the famous lutes. .VI PREFACE. Duiffbpruggar. May the following work receive a friendly welcome from a goodly number of amateurs of true Italian instruments.

. far more important and earnest of the author of the preceding contains essays on the origin and history of the . in I am fortified "De Fidiculis Bibliographia. and I cannot do better than quote it without further comment. and also of makers of viols. and other instruments. cithers. I hope. as Such a comprehensive list nearly as possible. I have to which will be. into to merit a translation the English language. complete." practical maker and connoisseur. It writes as effort follows : I." Part Of this book he work. Stradivari did not disdain to make the cetera. containing a list of minor makers.. being the recorded observations of a really violin-makers. latter section. p. 100. To the text which I have rendered into English as exactly elegance. a fine speci- . lutes. published in 1877. with a view of providing a catalogue which may be. his by the criticisms of several and especially by the latest. Heron-Allen. This and this little tain matter of work. when it as possible. of some I have also added an Appendix. interest to the reader. is not out of place in a work professing to deal with the is remembered that the great Antonio violin. section " This is a iv. Mr. Italian by birth or by education. appears to me to conmuch interest to lovers of bowed instruments. violin. Tarisio. practical or theoretical. preferring precision appended a series of notes.EDITOR'S PREFACE. nearly three hundred in number. and the six leading schools of violin-making on Luigi and on labels on varnish and the rest of the bookis taken up by an alphabetical catalogue of the Italian This violin-makers and the characteristics of their work. . E. renders the work of the all greatest value to This opinion appears to me to be carefully considered. In opinion writers. .

B. for I to information kindly given. Hart (to whose well-known work the Author has paid a just and other writers of eminence. recently published. MM. Major Alexander Hajdecki. I For information have inspected some tions and have drawn upon the catalogues of. for information readily and courteously It given. remains to direct the attention of the reader to the much-contested claims of Gaspard Duiffoprugcar to rank as the inventor of the violin. referred among many other authorities. W. & my indebtedness New Bond Street. as treated in this book. H. of Wardour his son. indirectly. is. of this instrument. Schebek. list. invaluable series of monographs famous makers and famous instruments. valuable to the formation of this of. I Vidal and De Piccolellis. I desire to thank Mr. tribute). have to E. Sandys & Forster.. and. of 1700. and to state that certain facts to their owe the confirmation of on Mr. the great collecand exhibitions of musical instruments." by Dr. Street. Of these claims the Author Dr. QUARRELL. and Ashby-de-la-Zouch. and have also to. of W. "Les Luthiers Lyonnais au i6 me siecle. Royal Thames Yacht Club. the works of Messrs. Contagne. On this question the reader should be referred to a very interesting work. Georges Chanot and Joseph Chanot. Vlll PREFACE. differing from Messrs. Vidal. . Hill acknowledge Sons. Vuillaume. being formerly in men by him the possession of J. a strong advocate. with Messrs. Albemarle Street. W.

and which may be conspicuous in their perfection yet for centuries to come. and basses. One man sought to supply this want. is similar to that of the . who calls him the founder of art. of Prague. the Italian violin- making {a) first. and then only the Viola da brazza. but a German. who. the Viola da gamba. however. Edmund Schebek. Gaspard Duiffopruggar. He was named Caspar Tieffenbrucker. I484. Down nearly to the middle of the sixteenth century bowed instruments were only used as an accompaniment to choirs. It was not in Cremona. and the Basso were employed an instrument to accompany the the soprano voice was wanting. the name of which is famous is heard on the face of the There the masterpieces of the art of violin-making were made. and there became a famous maker of lutes. . viols. in such The text of the second edition of 1884 from which the translation is taken. which have remained unequalled for more than a hundred years. and was called in Italian. on the banks of the Po. nor was it an Italian who invented it. A. at wherever the sound of a violin earth. of Cremona.— GASPARD DUIFFOPRUGGAR. and may stand out as models worthy of imitation. THE VIOLIN AND Between lies a ( ITS ORIGIN.INTRODUCTION. art. ) the little city Milan and Mantua. to Bologna. He created that work of our violin. found his way. What we know about his life we owe in a great measure to the diligent researches of Dr. born in the Italian Tyrol. that the cradle of the violin was found. the commencement of the sixteenth century.

and this had to be brought into the right proportion by lengthening the bar. it has gained for the name of " Queen of Instruments." Although only glued together out of fragile wood. Innumerable experiments have been made in altering the bass-bar and the sound-post. nothing perfection may have be done to done something was left to the tone-giving qualities. It serves not only for the strengthening of the instrument where the strain is the greatest. the fulness of tone it which all can produce. where the lower strings make the . for through the gradual belly could not rise of pitch. Everything is symIts form is also pleasing to the eye. but particularly for the communication of the vibration. are It is formed of fifty-eight parts. When we at the look at this little instrument. we are astonished beauty of sound and expression. Only a single alteration has . the power of resistance of the be extended in proportion. rest. If every part is in pleasing proportion to the the outlines. this will certainly only tend to the detriment of the external appearance. that an incredible amount of body by a skill thereby displayed. and a vertical strain of twenty-five pounds and its voice will penetrate and fill the largest concert-hall and the most lofty church. in order to obtain better tone but every alteration of these material parts tends to injure it. and hardly weighing seven and a half is strained on the body of the instrument. the lengthening of the bass-bar was really necessary. construction of the violin the we are at best only experimenting. ounces. in the belly. although later masters to the form. This bar is of the greatest importance. The interior arrangement also is not to be improved. and these so is cunningly arranged. or the one seeks to change anything in harmonious arrangement of each In every alteration in individual part. there . indeed. that. a horizontal tension of eighty pounds. and from the melo- dious sound and charm which skilled may be drawn from itself its weak hand. by ingenious mechanism. proved this to be satisfactory. X INTRODUCTION. every line is beautiful.. and we do not thereby obtain any advantage. metrical. and through the consequent higher tension of the strings.

INTRODUCTION. played between the knees (2) the violin (3) the small contra-bass (if not the earliest . slower oscillations. or cut from hard or soft wood. tenor.player. If the bar is XI too light the G string makes a rough sound. (5) the full-sized contra-bass The latter part of this is doubtful. if it is too strong it does not give out its tone. is now made two centimetres scroll. Georges . the fact that artist are many instruments by the last-named adorned with finely-painted pictures in oil. and terms of peace were On this occasion. King Francis I. of Gaspard Duiffopruggar ( b ). the painter. and that Leonardo da Vinci was well known to be an assiduous violin. (6) tin. moned luthier. the three most famous Italian masters to his Court. smallest difference in the pcsition of both alters the and the best violin will not give forth its sound if these parts are not in their right places. Hart very appropriately compares this bass-bar with the nervous system. was Gaspare! da In order of invention he puts (1) the large tenor. sumarranged in that city. . invented this The man who masterpiece was called In 1510. Andrea del Sarto. but Mr. Reade accentuates. The tone. An engagement took place near Bologna.small of all) . This supposition On this rlebateable and much debated point the observations of (/») He says that the first known Mr. longer than formerly it concludes in a curved and the the connection thus shaped cannot be better contrived. exhibit* d at South nigton in 1S72. As uppermost sustaining part of the strings. Charles Reade are interesting. it cannot be a wholly indifferent matter whether it is thick or thin. and the Gaspard Duiffopruggar. it may with confidence be assumed that these From pictures are by the hand of that master. that the tenor is an instrument "f unfixed dimensions. Leonardo da Vinci. maker of the true tenor. one important poinl in particular tenors. of this he cites the Carlino or Kerlino tenor of 1452. Francis I. G. The neck of the violin . . France was carrying on war with Pope Leo X. Chanot. and probably of the violin. which has been finely copied by Mr. and the sound-post with the heart. As an example and can easily be reconstructed out of the early viol. (4) the violoncello . as to in the course of his arguments. and it is not altogether without influence on the tone. namely.

Contagne criticizes the author's statements incisively. Duiffoprugcar furnished a number of instruments for the Chapel of Francis I. " One of the last la bears the inscription. and from his construction of Vidal's use of the portrait in question. he is also mentioned. In Gerber's Dictionary of Musicians. also a luthier in Lyons. and subsequently to M. Of the handiwork of the latter nothing is known. of France . proved to be well founded. or even later. of Paris. Schebek saw in the Convent of Neustift. is similarly marked "Gaspard Duiffoprugcar a Lyon. "48 years old. {d) This was a bass-viol. There are also known (1) A bass-viol. Gaspard Duiffopruggar was long known by means of a portrait etched by Pierre Voeirot in 1562 c ( ). not long ago possessed an extraordinary violoncello the back of which there was a plan of the city of Paris a Parisian kinds. with a scroll in the shape of a horse's head. instrument belongs to M. with the inscription. (3) violin in the Musee du Conservatoire A in Paris. Caspar Duiffoprugcar a Saint Sebastien a Lyon. of Paris." in from which he would appear to have been born 1467. dated 15 15. prugcar's instruments to the Gallay ascribes the paintings on Duiffo- maker himself. belonging to M. : viol." The design is attributed to Baccio Bandinelli. Roquefort. among much new matter. Depret.Ml is INTRODUCTION. A superb etching of the instrument by Hillemacher is in Vidal's large book. 181 2." A lute of the same period. if these pictures are compared with the painter's authentic works. and draws a conclusion differing altogether from his. The . In 181 7 it belonged to M. Vidal inserts in his new work. " Les Instruments a archet. important evidence from which the author deduces the theory that Gaspard Duiffoprugcar was living as late as 1567. It may be noted that M. of these Vuillaume. Contagne in his valuable book. d ( ) . Raoul and afterwards it was in the possession of M." his portrait. with similar carved horse's head." The master could not have borne the air of Paris. his career commencing about 1 5 14. an amateur 'cellist of merit." This interesting work contains. le Comte Louis de Waziers. and inlaid back bearing the subject known as the " Vieillard a la chaise d'enfant. (2) A small bassa fine specimen. and must have gone (r) This is the portrait reproduced by Dr. and the engraving to Augustin Venitien. to 1571. Coste which Dr. " Les Luthiers Lyonnais du l6 me siecle. Chardon-Chanot. and ascribing to him a son Jehan. . also from the on and connoisseur has basses and viols of different hand of the master. Dr.

1. the lattei LS said to have worked at 15ologna with Gaspard. but the theory of his Bavarian origin is confirmed by Wasielewski and by Dr. and another authority gives the name in the lute of Prince Moritz Lobkowitz as " DeffoIn a lute in the Liceo Communale di prukhar. Dr. The exactness of the statement that Gaspard Duiffoprugcar's descendants worked in Italy is certainly doubtful. of France'. for there however. Fetis is wrong. The oldest dates from 15 10. " Magno Diefifopruchar a Venetia 1612. (f) The scroll displays the head of the Court jester Triboulet. : " Tieffenbrucker. is made by Fetis in his Biographie Universelle. . and under it two F's entwined. sides. Musica at Bologna the inscription is. The belly." states that a viola by Vendelino is in the Modena Dr. to X1U Lyons. and bears on the back the French royal crown. in It appears. Niederheitmann at Aix-la-Chapelle. see post Appendix This ir. Schebek Museum in Vienna. Vendelino (or Wendelin). dates from the year 15 15. ami Leonardo. Contagne also mentions the family 30 kilometres from Munich. It was made for Francis I." still A family of violin-makers by name Tieffenbrucker exists in Bavaria. ( ) mention of a genuine violin by Gaspard which is in the possession of Professor Mertz of the Brussels Conservatoire. Leopold and Uldrich (Wasielewski). a lute with the inscription. The tone is full." violin (/1 the now belonging to Mr. and peg-box show signs of Instead of a scroll. and is to be found in the collection of F. and penetrating. however. is of a large size. Georges Chanot. The name varies in its orthography considerably. (Francois de France). from the description. For the inscriptions in the instruments exhibited in Vienna in 1892." and the date 1607. The names of other members of the family appeal in history. in his castle of Eisenberg in Silesia. This violin. namely. the most prominent member of of Hochbritcher of Donauwerth this family was one who in 1 720 brought out improvements in the (e) lineal . Magno. " Magno e Dieffoprugkar a Venetia 161 7. first The Duiffopruggar. is that his descendants worked Italy. mechanism of the harp. in the possession of Prince Lobkowitz. of Wardour Street. From 1590 to about 1620 there were three celebrated lute-makers of the name in Venice. when he says this is the only In the course of existing violin by this celebrated maker. with a falling ruff. where he died in 1530. which shows that he was a native of Fressin or Treising. time five other violins by him have come to light. Contagne's new evidence. it has a handsomely carved rich gilding. keen.INTRODUCTION. which.

head of a man singing. On the back. the purfling is single. and also on the back. Of the year 15 15 the violin mentioned above. 18) mentions. This writer ("Die Violine und ihre Meister. of Bologna. in London. The F holes are without much curve. 1). It is interesting to notice that a lyra da braccio." was exhibited in Vienna in 1892 by Maj. noble. the Berlin maker. to be an excellent The violin numbered 14) is considered instrument of the earliest period. from the exact measurements of the markings in the grain. This violin was exhibited in 1872 at South Kensington. The back is cut on the the purnings are double and quarter. Contagne. In the corners. " Gaspard Duiffopruggar Bononiensis anno 1515. (Mr. which is in one piece." p. by Von Wasielewski to be a larger instrument cut down. but belly of this violin now in the possession of Mr. is a beautiful painting in oil. 2. in the most surprising manner. and is without any grain.XIV INTRODUCTION. The instrument easily and has a an old is powerful. and thinly played. and other signs in the wood. One of the year 15 n It is in the possession of Aix-la-Chapelle family. a violin considered to be a genuine instrument of the year 1521. 4. Hajdecki. on. strong. and of about the ordinary length. .-Aud. and are nearly of It is of a broad model. and is in two pieces : roughly worked. for which reasons the tone sounds more like that of a viola. as well as on the belly. The and that of the Niederheitmann violin. mentioned have been criticized most carefully seriatim by Dr. larger 3. Carl Engel). the violin-maker. the violin above of Mostar. and dates attributed to. by Duiffoprugcar. (No. but somewhat and higher arched. as may be quickly established from a comparison of the instruments. is of a similar model. The sides have an inscription in gilt letters. are cut from the same plank. the same width from top to bottom. and most attractive tone. probably by Leonardo da Vinci. Chanot. and in front of the bridge is The scroll is massive and painted a count's coronet. One of the year 15 14 (f) is is in the possession of Professor Francalucci. and described by Fetis as belonging to Mertz. It was (g) pronounced on high authority. The authenticity of. laid The varnish is is dark yellow. on the authority of Herr Riecher. the varnish rather more red and put on more thickly than in the preceding instrument. is ornamental work. the Virgin Mary with the Holy Child.





the year 151


in the possession

of an old

This instrument was formerly musician at Aix la-Chapelle,


only played

in the orchestra at

mass on Sundays






especially interesting,














the lower part

of the back

the picture of



and on the upper



an ancient bowed instruwoods. The sides have the

fui in sylvis, dum vixi tacui, mortua cano " ("I lived once in the forest; when I lived, I was silent ; now I am dead, I sing sweetly "). The same adage is inscribed under the portrait of the master etched in 1562 by Pierre Voeirot. The back of this violin is of pear-tree, in two pieces the varnish is dark yellow, and put on very thin.






( )




of Prince



of St. Petersburg.


the description of

the former possessor, Herr von

called Treasury violin bears the

Hunyady, of Pesth, this sohead of an old man instead of a scroll, the sides are adorned with gilt inscriptions, and the back with a handsome painting it is said to be perfectly preserved, and to be of a fine model, easily played, and to have a rich and noble tone. These violins are broad in the breast, and the curve of

the middle bouts





the corners, but






Duiffopruggar bononiensis







In the quality of tone they vary one from another but



power and beauty



be found




concert violins of the


rank have been






one really equalled it. The and it is worthy of note that

Stradivarius, in his


period, design.


use of

archings of a similarly


The author of the well-known " Luthomonographie historique et Francfort, M. 1S56," now a very rare onnee, par un Amateur. ied about a year and a half ago.




that the


specimen of a newly discovered
attempts towards

instrument, in spite of

all later


ment and perfection, thus resembled the most and has so remained, may well be mentioned

perfect model,

unique of




It gradually came to pass in the course of time that the weak and low-sounding viols were supplanted by means of the brilliant qualities of the violin, and the art of violinLike a tree making reached its highest point in Italy.

reaching out


branches in


directions, the art of violin-

making spread over all the cities of Italy, and stepped over It the borders into Germany, France, and even England. may be fairly assumed that a great demand sprang up shortly after the discovery of the violin, and that violinmaking must have become a paying business, since so many turned speedily to the industry, which was often handed


Schools in families, even unto the fourth generation. sprang up, which propagated their leading principles among their scholars and through their immediate neighbourhoods.


natural consequence was a struggle to produce the best

work, and from this the distinctions between the schools may be clearly marked, which may be distinguished in the




Brescian School, (1520-1620), making on the


which Gaspard

Duiffopruggar had



represented through Gaspard da Salo, whose direct pupil was Maggini, and more distantly Mariani, Venturino,
Budiani, Matteo Bente, Peregrino Zanetto, &c.

Italy. The Tyrolese School. Florentus. and Sanctus Seraphin. Techier. repre- Roman and Bologna Gabrielli. with those of Italy according . The most important (1 school follows next. (5). Neapolitan School. and its to their productions rank merit.2 CREMONA. that of Cremona. (1680-1800). The first might be associated with the Cremona school. sented by the names of Anselmo. since he spent his time of apprenticeship at Cremona. Landolfi. &c. it If this school at least derives its origin should not nominally belong to from that country. with the Amatis. The Venetian School. Gagliano. (2). The we number represented The families were those of Grancino. 550-1 766). of which the most prominent masters are Domenicus. Montagnana. and his works are conformable to those of that school. (1640-1696). also the among whom masters. Guadagnini. The through the Milanese and Neapolitan masters. Florentine School. Guameri. and Tononi. Testore. Stradivari. brilliantly represented by Jacobus Stainer. Bergonzi. &c. (1 680-1 760). (3). (1690-1764). (4). (6). and the families of Klotz and Albani.

the founder of which family was Andreas Amati. It is to be observed with most of the Italian violin-makers that they work at first in the foot steps of their master. and England most makers . and as each one prefers what he himself creates.PART II. France. and the prize was awarded Amati and to Stainer. Cremona makers.— THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ART. took the lead. they devise new outlines and archings. At the highest period of success of the old Brescian and the violin was valued only according to . The masters who formed the Cremona school came from Brescia. who possess these properties in the highest degree. its tone-producing qualities but as the fashion began to its value more and more the developing beauties of its form. and Stradivarius and Joseph Guarnerius. In his first independent works are to be found reminiscences of Gaspard da Salo. although it has never been proved that he was a pupil at any time of that maker. and in Germany. The style of the period has in the same way to be conIf at the present time beauty and power conjointly sidered. THE DEVELOPMENT AND PERFECTION OF VIOLIN-MAKING. are prized the most. there are also periods to a low to when preference was given and soft sounding tone. are sought. so the various schools originate through the varying changes and differences of opinion and diversions of each master. but as soon as they gain consciousness of their own power they form their own paths to right and left. of these the Amatis. connoisseurs as well as Down to 1800 no master stood as high in favour as Stainer. its the violin began to have players.

Paganini violin In that year astonished the musical world with a wonderful by Joseph Guarnerius del The Gesu of the year 1743. The Viotti Stradivari was in 1855. Then the Amati instruments came more into favour. in the possession of M. and a double price was willingly paid for a violin of the flatter the last named. worked upon his model. a violoncello of Nicolas Amati. at which price the April. on the 20th of 1799. The excellence of the Italian instruments did remain long hidden. and Antonius. Until 1820 the name of Joseph Guarnerius had not by Stradivari. not. whether Andreas. After the taste for the flatter model of model had sprung up. or Nicolas was had been over- looked in apprizing the value. for example.4 CREMONA. Kreutzer. passed the frontier of the country of his birth. Mazas. The maker. How blind the world had been until that time to the value is of his productions violoncellist. . a very fine example of inlaid is in the possession of an English amateur. and the prices soon rose fold. (?') ornamental work. Viotti. bought. and ( Baillot and his fame now increased day by day. five shown by the sell his fine fact that Cervetto. This artist possessed also two fine violins by Giuseppe (j) Guarnieri del Gesii they were sold at the Coding sale in February. Lafont y ). three led and four The spread of the Cremona instruments model came to observation and comparison of their models and archings. . however. and as their number in Italy was greater than the demand. but now greater attention was given to the works of Nicolas Amati. 1854. William Forster.S and ^"ioi respectively. Stradivari came more and more into honour. Habeneck. according to his diary. together with a case and bow. . and fetched £it. Stradivari violin owned by Rode. according to Fetis. purchaser would not have parted with a violoncello of his own make. the could not Stradivari violoncello for pounds. Brochart de Villiers. Rode ('). Hitherto no difference had been noted between the different Amatis. Hieronymus in question. by which the superiority of the flatter to be recognized. the happy owner of a quartet of Stradivaris. for seventeen guineas. solo-players The violins were the next who sought to obtain and among these were Boccherini. they could be bought cheaper than many new instruments.

Every far . as a master of the first In England especially his (/•) This violin was copied with great exactness by J. The names by the great Guarnerius. as well as in the hands of ignorant owners. Livron exclaimed. own Maggini violin to Prince de Chimay for (/) 15. reposes in the Museum at Genoa. and it was recognized that the works of this violinist strove to possess a violin of master are divided into three periods. through the In a similar manner the violins of Maggini became famous violinist Charles de Beriot. (*) A French merchant. B." of Amati and Stradivari had become known and wide throughout the musical world and Paganini made the name of Guarnerius suddenly famous. . 1840. and the copy presented by him to Paganini. Beriot possessed a second Maggini violin. had lent Paganini this violin to play one evening at a concert. his popularity the price of Maggini's violins rose . 5 which since the death of that player on the 24th May. be profaned which your is fingers have touched the instrument yours.000 francs. the younger maker (jf that name but few of these instruments are found the varnish is cleverly imitated. which erg. the productions of which are now classified with equal exactness with those of Stradivari. "Never shall the strings . I One : . Then came the time when Carlo Bergonzi was recognized rank. who gave it to his pupil Camillo Sivori. The Paganini violin is one of the large massive violins of the last period of the master. and those which had once cost 200 francs were bought sold at his now willingly Shortly before his death De Beriot 2.000 francs.THE DEVELOPMENT OF VIOLIN-MAKING. whose works a goodly number were found in the Italian churches and monasteries. Livron. With the appearance of numerous Guarnerius violins a great difference was seen in the models and in the technical finish. and the world was astonished at the penetrating power and beauty of its tone. (/) De I merit. When the artist had concluded and was about to return it. Vuillaume. He was the first who played one With of these violins in public. of the best modern copyists of Maggini violins was Gilkes. M. is now in the possession of his former pupil. an instrument of Mr. in whose possession it now is. II.

Sanctus Seraphin. instruments were this . much prized. Gagliano. and Montagnana came to be valued and sought after.6 CREMONA. Grancino. until the whole list of Italian violin-makers became known and famous. and when once the merits of maker had been recognized. the works of Guadagnini.

and England took place in such a short time when they had for so many centuries been disregarded. by hunger. and worked whom assiduously.PART III. often compelled. when looking value back. The fame of the Italian art of violin-making was. the fancy awoke in him. provided only with slender means. THE COLLECTOR LOUIS We are astonished. to music and musical instruments were things unknown. TARISIO. to get his bread by playing on the road. Louis Tarisio. Tarisio was learning the trade of a carpenter. the son of poor parents. for the most part. and observed their different characteristics critically. He studied all the violins which came under with his notice. very small. and the foundation of his later extraordinary knowledge was thus laid. brought a host of the gems of This Italian art to light and to the notice of the public. In his hours of leisure he amused himself with violin-playing. if not exactly with much liking. and His this first was destined to have much influence on his future. His stock consisted of some . France. and went through the cities and villages of Italy. and to follow profitable and promising business. In violin was an instrument of but little value. unnoticed. fifty years later it had spread into For this we have. who. for violins made him disgusted and when he found that these violins were the object of a general to demand he determined up an apparently to turn account. until the year 1800. was the Italian. With this object in view he wandered forth. thank one enterprising individual. to every country. This passion his own it business. armed with the gift of the finest observation. that the spread and Italian appreciation of the of the instruments in Germany. his efforts to obtain a better instrument.

who was at first suspicious. Having arrived in the French capital. to increase his knowledge and to make notes of sources instrument in playable condition. he went to the best luthier he could find. and took with him only some of less value. At his death it passed under his will to the Churchwardens of St. foot." an Italian instrument of the seventeenth century. not only on that account. He plucked up his courage. violins old of little value. even the with this smallest. This celebrated player possessed a fine Stradivari contra-bass which he bequeathed to the Municipality of Venice. but became attentive enough when Tarisio produced a handsome small Nicolas Amati. who happened to be one Aldric. carrying his violins on his back. to In every place. Mark's. His clothes were in rags. His enormous three stringed contra-bass. and a fine basso di camera by Domenico Montagnana. and common first people many fine who had no who often willingly exchanged with Tarisio a stringless example of the rank for an ordinary He was also' wont to and put in order the numerous instruments which he found there ("*). which was hardly calculated to recommend him. with which he might inform himself as to the state He made his first journey on of the Paris violin-market.H. came from the Convent of St. his face and hands much burned and dirty. in whose custody. but also more for his own purposes.R. He left his home. {in) The famous Gaspard da Salo contra-bass. he knew and to inhabitants. for many years the property of Dragonetti. In way became easy for him In owned violins. is well known to visitors to the Museum at South Kensington. Before he entered his shop.8 CREMONA. Mark. he examined his own exterior. Prince Albert. (and see note to " Gaspard da Salo "). to which it was presented by the late Duke of Leinster. called "the Giant. : . how make ingratiate himself the it himself welcome. he made up his mind best violins at to travel as far as Paris. entered. to get information about persons who those days there were instruments in the hands of idea of their value. of the year 1725 or thereabouts this passed into the possession of H. Venice. After Tarisio had thus acquired several good instruments. the visit numerous monasteries of profit for the future. it was in 1885. in the year 1827. his shoes without soles. and offered his Cremona violins to Aldric. according to Hart.

he had sold a masterpiece he never lost sight of only waited for a favourable opportunity to get When it. Thibout. discontented with his but he believed he had put a the value of his instruments too high for the Paris market. and visited Vuillaume. For many years Tarisio travelled to Paris and London. ami many days passed without his departure being again then The doors were securely fastened. The doors of this answer was given to loud knocks." possess a Stradivari than twenty such equipages. and brought a great number of the finest instruments into the hands of persons who understood how to estimate their worth. first Tarisio went back to Italy. upon second attempt. No living being dare . Once when a state-equipage passed him on the boulevards. says of him. and no observed. and lost no time in buying his instruments After this they encouraged him to bring as many instru- ments to Paris as he could contrive to procure. " The man's whole soul was devoted to violins.THE COLLECTOR LOUIS and then laid on the and other makers. but went quietly on came as silently back to his One day his neighbours saw him return thus. Q table five violins by Maggini. This time he took his best instruments to Paris. Ruggeri. Aldric. and exchanged a word with no one. nevertheless. George Hart hermit. and only after a long bargaining and no diminution of price venture did they come to an understanding. enter his poor dwelling in the Porta Tenaglia in Milan his nearest neighbours knew nothing of what he did there. and Chanot. he was a great dealer. relates that Tarisio led at all home the life of a Violins were his in all. who knew Tarisio well. TAR1SIO. determined. he said that he would much rather but a greater amateur. Charles Reade. who were delighted with his collection. mysterious man were at last broken open by order of the home. at high prices. his He journeys for a long time. was trifling astonished at the high prices he asked. . the man that he did not who concluded from the shabby appearance of know the value of his wares. and once it more into his possession. . intending to try his luck with other dealers.



and Tarisio was found dead, stretched upon a Everything which was about him displayed the greatest disorder. His whole furniture consisted of a Violin-cases table, a chair, and the bed on which he died. were piled in heaps, and the walls were covered with violins, backs, bellies, and scrolls. Three contra-basses hung there covered with old bags the famous " Messie" Stradivari, (") whose strings had never been touched by a bow a dozen other Stradivari violins, (") violas, and violoncellos a contrabass by Gaspard da Salo, and nearly a hundred instruments of different masters. At last a packet of securities was found and a considerable sum in gold. Seals were placed on everything by the Court, and some nephews put in an appearance later, and established their claims as heirs. Vuillaume of Paris soon received the news of the Tarisio's death he hurried immediately to Milan, and succeeded in purchasing the entire collection of the dead man. (/ ) Tarisio, in his uninterrupted career of zeal, which was directed throughout by the finest judgment, had the advanauthorities,

miserable bed.





tage of finding instruments in their primitive condition as a

(u) The most perfect description of this violin, or perhaps of any other instrument, is contained in Messrs. W. E. Hill & Sons' recently published monograph, "The Salabue Stradivari," (W. E. Hill & Sons, Novello, Ewer & Co., 1891). The violin was purchased in 1775 from Paolo Stradivari by Count Cozio di Salabue, whose heirs sold it in 1827

to Tarisio.
(0) One of these was the violin dated 1736, bearing on the label the note " d'anni 92," in the handwriting of Stradivari ; it was recently in the possession of Messrs. W. E. Hill & Sons.

For the full history of this transaction see M. Vidal's " Les (/) Instruments a archet," and Messrs. W. E. Hill & Sons' " The Salabue Vuillaume set out on the 8th of January, 1S55, and disStradivari." covered six of the finest instruments, the Stradivari of 1736, amagnficent T.iuseppe Guarnieri, a Carlo Bergonzi, two Guadagnini, and " Le Messie," at a small farm which had belonged to Tarisio, De la Croix, near Fontaneto. He purchased the collection for 80,000 francs. The " Salabue Stradivari," otherwise called " Le Messie," remained in Vuillaume's possession until his death on the 19th of March, 1875, and then passed to his daughters, being subsequently purchased by M. lelphin A lard, the husband of the elder daughter. After the death of M. Alard, which happened on the 22nd of February, 18S8, the violin passed to his widow and two daughters and after the death of Madame Alard, the violin was sold to Messrs. W. E. Hill & Sons for ^"2, 000, for Mr. R. Crawford, of Edinburgh, the present owner of the instrument.









false inscriptions, so that

he could study

the characteristics of each master, without being compelled

judgment might be led astray in that manner which has so frequently occurred to others by means of the
to fear that his

interference of other persons.





most unsafe.
a very com-



hardly necessary to mention that to judge an instrument
it is

by the label inserted

It is

mon and

a very simple trick to furnish worthless instruments
generally written on ribbed paper,

with well-copied tickets bearing the names of the best makers.


forgery of this kind


taken from old

or documents, with

Indian ink, to

which a yellowish tinge has been given with iron rust or oxide. A scribble of this kind is then given a worn and Another dirty appearance, and the genuine label is ready. way in which a fraud often happens is through the repairers,

who sometimes

take genuine labels out of instruments and
copies, while the real label

them with


set forth in


instrument which
so like the original

mere copy. This is in some points that one may be easily led astray by such




third kind of fraud



to be









in this way,

by by

genuine or forged labels of the great masters being inserted
in instruments

made by

their pupils or imitators, either

the latter or at a later stage by dealers.
cellos of

How many


under the flag of Nicolas Amati and Guadagnini are valued Poor Stainer highly as genuine Stradivari instruments comes off the worst in this respect, for nearly all the violins made by Klotz, and nearly all the high-arched violins, are

How many

violins of Bergonzi


usually ascribed to Stainer, just as those violins the purflings

of which are


of whalebone or ebony are put



Henry Jacobs.



be observed that the old masters did not always

Such no means proof of the inauthenticity of such instruments. use the — DECEPTIONS. Hieronymi filius Antonii nepos fecit Anno 16 (2) Nicolaus filius Amatus Cremonen Hieronymi Amatus Cremonen Hieronymi Nepos fecit 16 — antonii nepos fecit 16 (3) Nicholas Fil. It was easy to remove this mistake some wood was scooped out of the inner side and the bellies made thinner. but they lost their power and fulness of tone. FORGERIES. which made the violin-makers often come into forcible conflict with orthography. For instance.— LABELS. For this system " ausschachteln " was the technical expression. By the carrying out of this bellies — unfortunate idea many a splendid instrument has been ruined for ever. did not always use the first series of labels which he had printed. as the inscriptions in the sixth section of this are given exactly as they are in the originals. The instruments now sounded more clearly. and were too thick. — 1 3 and the same labels. sequently. The labels are partly in Latin and partly in Italian. . Conbook no one but the violin-makers must be held responsible for the orthography. who attained the age of eighty-eight years. these are genuine labels inscriptions same variations are by : (1) Gasparo and also di Salo fecit Bresciae Anno 16— 16 (2) Caspar Dasalo Fecit Bresciae Anno — Nicolas Amati has three kinds of labels (1) :— Nicolaus Amati Cremonen. ac Antonij It must also be assumed that Nicolas Amati. At one time the opinion prevailed generally that the contained too much wood.

and all attempts to prepare a varnish which has its fire and substance have been in vain. Charles Reade states as his opinion that the secret of the (q) genuine varnish had vanished in 1 760 and it may be pointed out that the excellent varnish used by some more modern makers. for if differences in the varnish of their instruments there is a resemblance in them it in the principal ingredients. Mention is now due to the Italian varnish. the balsam fir. Pinus balsamea. and on century a tree was account of its : timber being worthless was not re-planted and re-cultivated and perhaps with its disappearance the Mr. will not for a moment bear comparison with that which dates from certain earlier periods— for instance. that the material which the old masters had at their all command. but enigma. and which was are noticeable. as much as by the vibration of playing. This tree died from the extraction of its resin. Here we stand before an unsolved For more than one hundred years this varnish has been lost. also as a preservative of the instrument against the effects of temperature. is no longer all. and of varies only in colour and in the thickness or thinness the application. One This circumstance fact may be considered cultivated in here. must have perished long ago. take that of De Comble. It is certain. for otherwise the old instruments. in existence. through the changes of dryness and damp. and for this purpose the varnish which the old masters used must have had peculiar qualities. last has been proved. ( ? ) Varnish serves not only for ornament. such as Enrico Ceruti. THE OLD ITALIAN VARNISH. : . that until the middle of the Northern Italy which supplied an exquisite balsam. however.14 PART V. accessible to of them.

though. A stiff spirit varnish makes the tone shrieking and hard. in asserting. So much i^. it and changes the tone. much . however. in the latter case a substantial difference in the tone will be discovered. which does not in itself possess the necessary properties for good tone. is found. Great care must be taken not to re-varnish good old Without regarding the fact that the originality integrity thereby vanish. among other things. and such was certainly the case with the old : masters. Some wellinformed violin-makers go too far. or is is contained in the varnish. according to the length of time that a freshly varnished instrument is exposed to dust. how- . obtained through corrosion of the wood before the varnish applied. solution of the enigma. and varnish must harmonize.THE OLD ITALIAN VARNISH. It would be foolish. That the varnish has an influence over the quality of tone is a fact easily proved. and the violin necessarily sounds worse than before. also worth noticing that the Italian Oil highly beneficial for the purpose of drying. and that so much It is the more as the varnish is laid on harder and climate was thicker. to conclude from this that a badly constructed instrument. but dissolved their ingredients in spirits of wine and opinions also differ on the point whether the colour is . to the disadvantage of the instrument. instruments. so the clearness and fire of the varnish are injured. Every renewed coat of varnish makes the wood of the violin thicker it was thick enough before. but it now becomes hard. may be converted into a good instrument by means of good varnish it may merely be asserted that the choice of wood. that the Italian makers never used oil varnish. 15 and possibly of the decay of Italian violin-making. varnishes dry much more slowly in our climate and amber and . the construction. Whether an instrument with oil or spirit varnish shall be obtained is not always an easy point to decide. and then at a later stage after the varnish has been applied. If a violin is played before it is varnished. while an elastic oil or amber varnish makes it rich and soft. which will adhere to it.

best are dragon's blood. and a blending according to fancy is obtained by a combination of the colours. . and those varnishes always heterogeneous that is to say. so as to improve lustre ? An imitation of this system in recent years has in to no way proved {)) be of any advantage. ever. mastic. Gum-lac. mahogany. Pernambuco wood.making. copal. by two. The . sandarach. or benzoin. is some sovereign. which allow the wood to appear through them and do not cover sandalwood. of turpentine. it over. extract of poppy seeds. : when dry. elemi. by four coats of varnish. and. published Italians Weimar by Bernhardt Friedrich Voigt. in spirit More treatise exact knowledge and information about the prepais ration of different varnishes s ( ) to be obtained from GretschePs at on Violin-making. viz. though rarely. as it was and is. oil colophonium. see Appendix A in Mr. — . high-coloured. tender gum. but clear in solution. by three. but two varnishes expressed Mr." (s) For useful information on the different materials. : Fiddles. laid a heterogeneous varnish. that they experimented thereon quite as successfully as has been done at the present day. gum-lac. such as amber. Did they its intend to prevent the varnish from soaking in. anil sometimes. certain. ( r ) The colours which are given to the instruments must be sap-colours. or usually from Spirit varnishes are obtained by means of dissolving hard gums. must never be used not one atom of it. or did they wish to give the varnish a foundation.. which for forty years has been the mainstay of violin-makers. above all. The sometimes gave their violins before varnish- ing a thin coat of isinglass or of a solution of glue. &c. more or less (principally more) forcibly " The Cremona varnish is not a varnish. Then upon this oil varnish. boiling. and the grain shown up by one. shellac." . but principally from linseed Lac varnishes or gum varnishes are made from solutions of different resins. Ed. Heron-Allen's " Violin. Charles Reade says in his fourth letter on Cremona among other remarks.6 1 CREMONA. such as of wine. stick-lac. with some common gum. Oil varnishes are made by an oil. first the pores of the wood are filled. a solution in spirit of pellucid. Other sap-colours are extracted by means of such as those from Kurkuma. and Orleans the colouring matter is obtained by means of an infusion of spirit of wine. saffron.

. no one instrument is exactly like egg never resembles another. precisely as one have almost to be presumed that every it would maker was born a master of his art.7 THE OLD ITALIAN VARNISH. If this were to be denied. and a variation will be found in every improvement. must not be forgotten another. and more often very strongly marked differences exist between them. While we are passing the that characteristics of the it 1 different masters and their works in review. The struggle for perfection naturally involves making a new work better than the last.

afterwards. at A pupil of Giuseppe Cappa. Fetis mentions a da gamba by him. and of pleasing design. ACEVO. and a pupil Mathias Albani in Bulsani . OF NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. Matthias Albani fecit Bulsani Botzen. 4. At first in Cremona. _. dated 1693. ALBANESI. ALBANI. of a more The two higher strings have a clear tone. Sebastianus. 16 and are clumsy design. Saluzzio.. The model is flat. but the lower ones are nasal. Although made at Cremona. Matthias. they resemble more nearly the work of Milanese makers. . ' Tyrol Bolsani .p ings than those of his masfecit in ter. Matthias. are so instruments viol He is principally known by his bass-viols. died there in 1673. Mathias Albanus . Botzen. 1 720-1 744. fecit anno 16 Thiroh r . A pupil of Stainer Ris _ violins ' have higher arch. is His work selected. (u) Vidal states he was a pupil of Carlo Bergonzi. Born in 1621 at 3. and the wood is not well 2. . (/) clear. Botzen. 1650-1709. 1640. The varnish especially is quite unlike that of Cremona. of ISicolas Amati. (") ALBANI. Well-made instruments are rare. . r. Cremona. i.— — i8 PART ALPHABETICAL LIST VI. . Son of His well the preceding. 1 r. (') not well finished. of the Amati school. AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THEIR WORKS. The varnish is a reddish brown. which had belonged to MarinThe existence of this maker under this name is not altogether Marais. .

Otherwise Aletzee there appears to 1" orn ifusion about maker." was exhibited in Vienna in 1892. Paul. hard and plain. broad model. 1540-1580). considered to have originally worked in [taly. is good violin this Signor Albani in Palermo 16— label in Brussels besides this little of It is possible that he is identical with known. A viola with the label. of which some excellent. doubtful who was his instructor. It is died The founder Cremona school. lie is stated to have been born at Botzen in 1621. Cremona." he was Giovanni Marcus del Busetto. of Nicolas Amati 8. and it is thought from a certain resemblance which his violins have with those of Gaspard di Salo that he was a pupil of {v) The name runs Mattia.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. ALBANI. n. Paolo. and settled afterwards at Paolo. : century Gratz. AMATI. Monaco. tenors and violoncellos principally. Michael. a fine tone that they approach those of . 6. He are made 10. 7. and died 9. labelled " Paulus Al B LauteD mid Geigenmacher in Miinchen 1780. born 1520. A violin with a carved head. from other sources he is said to have studied at Brescia. and to have been widely known by his viole d'amore. 1720-1736. ALBANI. ( ) ALBANI. A pupil he made good instruments. : ALBANI. (Cremona." was exhibited in Vienna in This maker. He was living in 1650 in Cremona. 1755. 1633-1659. there. master in excellence. clear brown varnish. Matthias. maj have ied and his Germany it is thought his instrument [w) : this < • I I ' >l 1 : 1 imitated. one of the following is him makers. Palermo. According to "Luthomonographie. C 2 . ALETZIE. The middle of the seventeenth he studied at Cremona. ami then to have gone to Rome. 1580. A er of this name appears to have manufactured al Munich in 17S0. Signor. His varnish is 7 ") ( ALVANI. Cremona. Some of his instruments have carved heads. He is also stated to have worked for the most part at Munich. of the An able copyist of Joseph Guarnerius. 1650-16S0. a There with . to have worked there till about 1660. Palermo. and Mathias. Paolo Albani fece in Bolzano 1723. " Gio. with finished workmanship. 19 made and have such his 5. Andreas.

this set. (x) There was a violoncello bearing the arms of France and this Mr. Heron-Allen. and of a deep golden He colour . see the Appendix to " Liutai antichi e moderni. in motto in the collection of Sir William Curtis." by Giovanni de Piccolellis. 12. The varnish is of good quality. bearing the name of Amati whose exact connection with Andreas Amati has not come clown to us. generally of maple. but the boldness of the design is wanting. but possess a sweet quality of tone." describes a violin said to be of Mr. The instruments of Andreas Amati are care- in the style of used high archings. according to (y) Fe'tis. six tenors. different sizes. seventeenth century. which were made for the chapel of Charles IX. fully finished. of New York. CREMONA. Firenze. who was in London brought over with him a good violoncello which was reported in 1S91. basses. of Paris. (*) Revolution. and the F holes are Gaspard di Salo. Andreas. 1570Antonius & Kieronymus Amati 1635." These instruments vanished during October. according to some authorities. the backs are cut slab-fashion. he is said to have worked until the year 1586.20 that maker. This information is quoted to some extent by Vidal in his " La Lutherie. considered to be one of Silvestre. they have power. as it was and is. was in the possession of the late Canon Bridges. and they are consequently almost too broad. Le Monnier. the brother of Andreas . but also often of pear-tree wood. 1 . 1889). little The instruments are of but generally of a small pattern. at Versailles. and now is It is considered that there were several other makers used by his son. of him little is known. a violoncellist of merit. twelve large and twelve small. 1790. Hieronymus was probably born in 1551. (?) Antonius et AMATI. Sons of Cremona. On the backs were the arms of and beneath the device " Pietate the et justitia." iQuantin. Esq. For the fullest information and particulars of the genealogy of the Amati family (as well as that of Guarnieri). and died in 1638. in Hieronymus. and he died in 1635. Antonius was born Cremonen Andreae filii F 16— in 1550. maker were King twenty-four violins. the property of Geo.. Somes. Louis these instruments. Blumenberg. it had recently been put in order by to be one of this collection An excellent violoncello. 1S85 and 1886). There was also a Giuseppe Amati at Bologna at the beginning of the . There was a Nicolas Amati at Cremona. " Violin-making. the celebrated instruments by this Among and eight France.

Donaldson has a curious violin of 1590. Until the marriage of 2 1 Hieronymus (*) the brothers worked together . (. Ippolita Zucchielli.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. they improved on their father's model. Antonius and Hieronymus Amati. Although their names are placed together in the instruments. justice. and a violoncello of 1595. which caused their instruments to improve as to power. extremely good. and was given by him to the Gore Ouseley. in 1576. firstly. . probably with inferior of the two. This says differs from the opinion. who Jerome Amati was the Much remains to be written on the violas bearing the names of (/. The varnish is darker in the . and secondly. and has a brightness and a transparency to which allow the pine wood. in 15S4. in their History of the Violin. L. Antonius did not depart much from his father's principles he changed the F holes but little. the was the third.. (a) greatest of the family. by by whom he had five daughters. This viola came from the Radetti family of Venice into General Kidd's possession in 1793. possessed the making he created new designs. Laurie. invariably used by them. Mr. by the brothers Amati.) Messrs. into the hands (if Mr. formerly the property of Kreutzer. be violin (z) Hieronymus Amati married. Hieronymus has more earlier it is curve. (/) the better displayed. being ultimately sold to Mr. and the F holes are narrower and have an elegant shape. of a large model. became part of the Adam Collection. Both brothers differ also in the form of the scroll that of . on the other hand. Wm. that is very different in each case. Croall possesses a fine violin. instruments than in the latter —a clear orange colour put on very thin. and then to the late Mr. It subsequently Adye. and used rather flatter archings. From Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley it passed. Mi. and in other respects his work was . Sandys & Forster describe. of whom Nicolas. Richard Blagrove. 106. ol Glasgow. W. about i860. the celebrated Radetti or Kidd instrument of 1620. "I 1027. and the younger was much superior to the elder ("). and was exhibited at South father of the late Sir Frederick Kensington in 1872. p. whom he had five daughters and four sons. Laura Lazzarini. of an artist to a greater extent Hieronymus. only few bear witness to joint workmanship. of Fetis. Henri Wieniawsky played on a of this kind. .

ac Antony Nepos Fecit 16— many violins of the small model. the character of his predecessor. . Antonii nepos fecit 16 « „. On the 23rd of May. by whom he had five sons and four daughters. . . AM ATI. more boldly The scroll is of a handsome design.. and by far the most noted artist of He ^q Amati family. appeared to be that these fuller corners not only look pleasing to the eye. 16S4. and the backs is handsomely figured. Nicolas. The corners stand forward more. but also rather improve than result The lessen the quality the The selection of wood of the bellies wood of the is of a very even and fine grain. born the 3rd of Nicolaus Amati. died on c the 12th of August. '' Hieronymi Fil. and are merely curved. and give originality to the whole. and made violins which are to be placed among . and made r . This part of the design was for long the subject of discussion. those of the highest rank. He Nicolaus Amatus Cremonen Hieronymi filius. for we find different examples in which he abandoned his first principles and changed his archings and in this way his as well as the thickness of the wood new model appeared. and also in making experiments. 13. Cremonen. A Nicholas Amatus Cremonen. first flat and then suddenly nearly an inch in is up to the middle. continue d for a long time . . and especially with regard to its acoustic effect. An experienced eye can follow the gradual development until he designed his large model in 1625. Hieronymi filius. but rather (c) The researches of Signor cle Piccolellis show that he was born on the 3rd of December. Antonii nepos fecit Anno 16— also > September. ( ) of son the was Hieronymus. (one of the witnesses being " Messer Andrea Guarnieri "). From rises the purfling the arching runs at height. to wonc according to his father's pattern. . The edge rounded obliquely. Cremona. 1596. wood was made . 1645. 1596. 1684. The F holes have all the and power of the with great care tone. he married Lucrezia Pagliari. He creates the im- pression that he employed this first period in acquiring technical skill.— 22 CREMONA. and died on the 12th of April.

Heundoubt produced some excellent instruments. bright. as by the researches of De Nicolas Amati would appear to haw had three other sons. besides this son. Paolo Grancino. AMATI. worked Nicolai figlius fecit 16— The few until 1696. Gallay states in his of very doubtful date. and Count Castel-barco. The Beethoven violin is a late specimen violin is said to be at Bergen. and handsome. Girolamo Francesco. Son of the last. " Les Luthiers Italiens M. though it is considered thai much . devoted himself Hieronymus. 26th of the born on Hieronymus Amatus Cremonen February.ne et i8 me Siecles. The golden brown varnish very elastic. a very remarkable specimen.1 hi. Andreas Guarnerius. verj and the actually reliable amount of information about him i . Willemotte. 14. especially in the bold curve of the scroll. some violins There are which Nicolas Amati finished with peculiar attention and care. aux I7 . and Antonius Stradivarius.. Gian Battista. of Anvers. Hieronymus and Johannes Baptista. which is to be others are those of found in the Nicolas later instruments of Stradivarius. 1649. of the year 1680. ( r ) (</) The Alard violin of 1645 is now in the possession of Baron through the hands of Mr." 1869. instruments of his exist which fat- are of a rather large model. and Giuseppe.contemporary makers.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. The immediate of February. of Glasgow: The Ole Bull this is considered to be the finest specimen known. 1649. who also died an infant. D. who was born on the 26th to the priesthood. that M. and of Alard and Ole Bull. Amati had by his wife Lucretia two sons. the date of whose death is unknown. One of these. (t) Piccolellis. 1740. Hieronymus. work has gone forth to the world as that of. possesses a Nicolas Amati with double purflings. Knoop. but otherwise rank below the those of his father in every respect. (O In the last-mentioned violins the hand of his famous pupil Antonius Stradivarius is hardly to be mistaken. Cremona. 1657. followed his father. who died an infant. is in the collection of Count Cozio de Salabue at Milan. pupils of Nicolas Amati were. He in was the last who bore the celebrated family name capacity of an artist. after passing This appears not quite correct. small in is 23 comparison to the body. who was born on the 13th of August. (/") This maker died on the 2 1 st of February. Laurie. ( e ) The last named.

His 17." him are rare. but always a good wood for the bellies. The latter are much prized. Anno 17— that of Stradivari at his 20. the other lighter in colour. later at Pietro. Antonio. . latest period. BAGATELLA. 1782. He adopted the method of drawing the outlines of a well-made violin on given measurements on a straight line. Violins by violoncelli. Gaspard. is of no importance. is a violin of the year 1761. Rome. (') violas by him are known. ( h ) Padua. Probably a pupil of StradiThomas Balestrieri Cremonensis vari. is without value. Pietro. reddish-yellow. Cremona. December 6th. ticket. 1 701-1750. His violoncellos are celebrated. CREMONA. which formerly belonged to the Ries family. His model resembles Fecit Mantua. about 1700. Mediocre scrolls workmanship. Charles J. ASSALONE. ." (Padua. for ^130. BALESTRIERI. viole. of a small. states he worked from 1757 to 1772. He used very different His instruwoods. AMBROGI. (h) The author of " Regole per la construzione de violini. but his instru- ments are finished more roughly. some being very rough with a darker varnish. He used two kinds of varnish. 1730. however. which. and are of he used a good yellow varnish. rough workmanship 18. Florence instruments are modelled with high archings. practically 19. Mantua. (*) soft varnish. Rome. and used a handsome. At first at he worked on the model of Francesco Ruggeri. and similar to that of Balestrieri the of his violins are almost similar to those of Stainer. Pietro. ments are always distinguished by a powerful tone. 1786). . Thomas. Wilson possesses a very fine viola by him. (_») He is said to have also worked at Venice. (i) This maker's instruments vary greatly in finish. 1766. 1720-1750. . quality. ANSELMO. it De Piccolellis with a golden-brown varnish rather thickly applied. 1893. BAGATELLA. one was sold in the Woolhouse Sale. 16. Padua. It bears a large model. e violoni.24 15. " Hieronymus Amatus Cremonen Nicolai figlius fecit 1708. others showing workmanship of a high One of the latter order is in the possession of Miss Drysdale . Resembles the last. Mr. the one similar to that of Lorenzo Only violins and Guadagnini. He made violins and violoncellos of moderate merit. and is an instrument of much merit.

") are He worked until 1780. (') Mantua. for many traces of that maker's At first style are to be found in Bergonzi's work. (m) One form of the name Baganzi. 1580. Cremona. lie holes are widely cut rather obliquely. BARBIERI. lectors only. 1674. 1735. But known. " La pattern of Andrea Guarnieri are known. " Ansel mij Bi lo (/) ij fecit (/. (*) 25. Carlo Bergonzi fece in Cremona. He resembled Sanctus than in tone. Aegidius. BERGONZI. of Verona. 1687. Good violoncellos of his or Bellosio. with Aegidius Barzellini fecit varnish. but in workmanship rather BENEDICT!. 27. little Seraphin. 1684. 25 BALESTRIERI. specimens of which instrument by him are known to exist. Anselmo.brown violin BARZELLINI. His instruments interest to col- are of a broad angular model. of win mi (Vidal. BENTE. he adhered to the flat model and to the outlines however. 16— golden . finished in the exterior with Hls Cremona. have (J) violins of the There was also Francesco Barbicri. and are of principal merit His Francisco. Carlo. work 22. . Stradivari. Cremona.— NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. 1695. His model is that of Hieronymus Amati. 21. 17 12-1750. Donate de. is Pietro. known. Venetiis 17 — . whose Anno 17—. 26. The F and 24. Cremona. He must. influence is to be seen in all BERGONZI. and the master of Marc Antonio Cerin. Ecolle Amatius Cremonen. his work. (') Matteo Brescia. 1750. but is inferior in tone to that of the last. Cremona. admirer of an been also Joseph Guarnerius del Gesu. He was a pupil of Sanctus Seraphin. was that he was the father of 28. 1760." He is known as a maker is of lutes. more accuracy. ('") He was a direct and the best pupil of Stradivarius. BELLOSIO. He worked on the model of 23. of Venice. Lutherie. Venice. His label runs.

and put the F holes rather deeper and nearer to the edge. 1750. but selected position F holes which hold a middle between those of Stradivarius and Guarnerius. For it is his broader model Bergonzi used a broader apart. 1725of . retained the . Re . nothing of a very conspicuous character. but on the other hand his work shows much 30. thinly. and the deep-red nished instruments especially show striking irregularities. of his master. and that his descendants inhabited the dwelling until a recent date. as much on account of their great tone as for the beauty of their model and their powerful construction. ments after his father's and used generally a hard finely marked wood.. BERGONZI. and did good work. and is Guarnerius. always in harmony with the body. Carlo Bergonzfs instruments have of late years been much sought after and have risen in price. Carlo ~ . it is From careful examination evident that he attained also a combination of the quality of tone of Stradivarius and of The scroll is notably of bold design. Michel Angelo. Cremona. often a pale red. scroll with centres .. . 17— Nicolaus. finish. The second son Michel' Angelo Bergonzi Figlio di Carlo fece in _& . Son of and his successor in Nicolaus Bergonzi Cremonensis the business. 1760. 29. but («) authorities to have worked until about 1782. The varnish is inferior. Later he altered the corners. according to Vidal. made the lower part broader. put on sometimes sometimes thickly often it is a rich deep red. and frequently a bright yellow. . Cremona. The quality of tone not great. is stated by other . is The scroll (") has a curved form.. faciebat He made a great number of instru- model. BERGONZI. Cremona if 1 Anno 17 Stradivari character in his instruments. He died about 1770.— 26 CREMONA. Carlo. much wider The varnish differs greatly . It may be mentioned that Carlo Bergonzi bought the house of Stradivarius after the death of his two sons. On the finish var- Bergonzi bestowed but little care.

1744. for the bellies broad-grained and BROCHI. Cremona. Instru37. Instruments of a weak character. Cremona. (J>) His name is said to have been Giambattista : he worked about 1790. Domenico. 31. and are double pur fled. flat Amati model. who (s) flourished at Cremona from 1540 to 15X0. Javietta. g elo. similar to 1760. Venice. Michel Very An- — Cremona. and Benedetto. 1735-1741. (*) Gantana. a noted maker of viols. which put on thickly on the back. His instru- ments are often ascribed to Maggini. Carlo. Parma. is Small arch- instruments of a weak but Andreas Borelli fecit . The name still exists in Cre: mona. _ „ „ Fatto de me Zosimo Bergonzi l'anno 17 32. C) The subsequent members of the The brother of Nicolaus. (?) The wood used 35. F holes. soft. Brescia. of a 34. "La Luthomonographie " Andreas Amati Brescia. He high-arched model with widely cut used two sorts of varnish. the edges 36. BORELLT. . Andreas. v J 33. who died in 1840. mentions him as the master of Later but he appears to have lived at first at he worked for several employers at Cremona. ments of the second class thin golden-brown varnish. and which has in many instances is come off in patches.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. the name of Francesco Budiani. 27 BERGONZI. agreeable tone ing S. instruments of Borelli resemble those of Guadagnini. . 15 40. BONO. third-rate order.15 So. Of the Nicolas and slightly rounded. Vidal gives His name has also been written Giovita Rodiani. BODIO. (') BUS AN (or Busas). Venice. BUDIANI. and died about 1820 . BUSETTO. Parma. the third son of Michel Angelo he worked at Cremona. 38. as they resemble them in form. making principally guitars and mandolines. after a long. 1580. (0) Bergonzi family were Carlo. flat Parmae 17— brown varnish. . Venice. (</) The (r) . (?) . The same as Giam Maria Busseto. brown and deep yellow. But little known. Zosimo. a Brescian maker of lutes and viols in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Marcus del.

1680. 39. Ofredus. 28 CREMONA. Giuseppe. his instruments pass under the names of his masters. ( v) varnish. which are more oblique and are more widely open. is Bernardo Calcagno said by Vidal to have been a maker who worked with care and used a red varnish. (v) His name is also written Gioffredo. 15 90. One maker of this name is said to have worked at Saluzzio until 1725 but much confusion between the owners of the name exists. After l: Anno 16— he had made a considerable reputation he settled at Saluzzio. 1716-1750. . Bernardus. at Cremona. Saluzzio. Mantua. 41. CAPPA. gives 1590 as the date of his birth. distinguished from that of . (") A small model after the style of Andreas Amati. 45. A copyist of Nicolas Amati. 1755. followed the Stradivari pattern. and tone the difference is known only by the and the F holes. who This maker is probably identical with the next. Camillus little de. One of his violins marked 1640. born 1590. 44. 1640-168S. 40. CAMILE. 43. Cremona. states that Acevo and Sapino were his pupils. Most of . CAPPA. . CAPPA. The little known about him (/) unimportant. is Davido. Genuze anno 17 10.1640. Cappa made a large and a small model. colour. Pietro Antonio della. Giachino. 42. 1660- 1748. in : Jofredus Cappa in Saluzzio Fecit Anno 16— case his pupil any work is not to be 1640. which they resemble greatly in model. A pupil of Antonius and Hieronymus Cappa fecit Amati. " Bernardus Calcanius fecit He (u) Fetis. scroll . Small instruments with yellow varnish. CAESTO. This maker appears to have worked for a time at Turin. and His label runs.his master. Probably his the son of the last. the former has the flatter archings and is the better of the two. 'ofredus Salutiis Giofreda. CALCANIUS. Genoa. His violoncellos are more valuable than his violins. Treviso. is Saluzzio. A clever copyist of Stradivarius. finish. CAPPA. But little known. tone. Saluzzio. but that of a fine quality CAMILLO. ('. 46." .

one of the family being named Agostino. Some good used good used red imitator violoncellos. anno 1683. He studied in and then went to Madrid." or. varnish of poor quality. Treviso. 54. lutes as model of Stradivari. Joannes." Granadensis Joseph. Mantua. A successful of Stradivari. by Florence. Naples. 1 660-1 700.MAKERS. 1665. CHRISTOPHORI.17 20. Modena. COSTA. •" Cassinus fecit Mutinse. But Paolo. (y) (to) cellos — at the Paris Exhibition of 1878. or Casini. made Antonio. CONTRERAS. His label is. worked from about 1665 to 1683. 1746. ( ) CASTELLO. but (z) there was a family of this name working al Genoa. where he made a high reputation a very handsome model and good workmanship. CATENA. and value those of Alexander Gagliano. CIRCAPA." generally used a manuscript label. whose label is. Turin.'' of Prince CaramanContreras. de Contreras. exist. in the Amati Venice. Italy. v Of ( ) the Amati school 52. 1500. Various labels and Venice. Francesco. Genoa. ments resemble in workmanship. Joseph. contra basses Bartholomeo. Tomasso. (*) DARDELLI. 1760. style. or dalla. anno 17 (x) His label is. 1734. are in existence. Treviso. His instru53.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN 47. 49. 29 CASSINO. little known. . " Matriti per Granadensi had a son. good workmanship. as the corners are dispro- portionately long. His label runs. anno 1730. He made good 56. A fine violin by him was exhibited Contreras died about 1780. in the collection Chimay. He made well as fine viols. per filium mjo ephum "Matriti He His full name was Pietro Antonio della. Padre. Pietro della. 1745. in instruments of a large pattern with De Hccolellis gives a label of his. He He wood the outlines are clumsy. VIOLIN. The F Turin. "Antonio Casini Modena. "Joannes Franciscus Celionatus fecit Taurini. "Antonius reddish-brown varnish." Another Celionati. 50. Costa. 1680. 51. CELIONATUS. anno 1793. which are excellent. . 48. v (- ) 55. of which some specimens are to violins after the ViolonCassino. 1730. this Some and violoncellos master are known. holes are ugly. 1750. CASTRO. . varnish. Me Muttinre. yellow varnish. "Antonius Casini fecit by him are known. is said to have worked at Turin earlier in the eighteenth century. anno 1760. Brescia. .

oldest 60. belonging to is in black letter type. As he was a monk. label in the instrument described. . Cesarum. Joannes Romaminorum 1510. After the style of the older — . The tone is excellent. Amatl Violins. is archings modelled on the design of Andreas Amati. Bologna. 57. dated 1497. shows and we are confronted by an enigma of the namely 1510. but seldom to be Fetis mentions a famous lute. 1510of _ . . 1709. Can this violin year mentioned. iS3°duction. is A very old violin with this inscription Joannes Cesarum Dominicus in the Niederheitmann at it Collection Aix-lasmall. all this instrument. violin of 15 10 DUIFFOPRUGGAR. the signs. .„ The (*) inventor the violin— see the Intro- 61. is 1699. Gaspard Duiffopruggar Bononeniensis 15- Gaspard. made by him for the (a) Duchess of Mantua. Georges Chanot. . to say the . good basses and violoncellos by him are known. r Livorno. DULFENN. Alexander. Giuseppe. which its is unmistakably Italian. the painter. 59. like many others. DOMINICHINO. 58.30 CREMONA. handsome brown varnish. DOMINICELLI. doubtful. Though nowhere any information is to be found as to this name. 1510. 1695-1715. be found in collections. The violas and violins ascribed to Dardelli are of doubtful origin. be of the same period as the ? known Duiffopruggar . together with label. The purfling on the back runs upward and downwards in a flourish. In 1807 this instrument was in the possession of Richard. Mr. the F a holes are made with a similar curve. . Giuseppe Domimchino Veronensis faciebat anno 17 . xi. is very least. DOMENICUS. His Alexander Dulfenn fecit Livorno 16— work found. has Chapelle . it is possible he may not have practised his art as a trade. equally long and wide from top It is made of good wood and has to bottom. of Lyons. (") Some Ferrara. Verona. . _ . The authenticity of these printed labels. _. of great antiquity. with large bold letters. The (d) Seep.

Of Amati 69.. His violoncellos Bologna. FARINATO. (See />'.") 1 ' 1 . Giovanni Baptista. / ( Cremona.. (/) Fiorillo. (•") x ' T Joannes Florentus.— ( NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. 64. Across Tyrolean and Italian makers. Florence. 1745. Bapt./ "Guidantus. thickly put on. 176S. Although little in 1752.. 1722.(0 Venice. the F holes. FICKER. Florentus. "Guidantus Florenus Bononise 175—. rf ) Cremona. the have a good 6S. are 17— while valued more highly are carefully they made. Joh. the sides is and backs always have a it The varnish wanting in softness yellow and (t) De Of Or Piccolellis states he was a copyist of Bertjonzi. brown varnish. used very handsimilar is some wood grain. Cremona. 66. Good 70. natter Some pattern have a rounded model. which are of Stainer pattern. Tommaso. He . GABICELIS. the eld< Giovanni) Floreno. Joh. 65. Antonio.-." It seems certain. his from Cremona. they have but common with those of that FICKER. FLORENUS. 31 63. Gottlob. Christian. Giov. and theyounger. 62. His instruments are now better Joannes Baptista de Gabrielli Florentinus Fecit known and . VIORILLO. . at any that there were two makers of the name. Ferrara.(e ) ) 67. Paul. is between the former style of the Giovanni. instruments date Pro- bably a German. and Guidantus Giovanni. (d) (e) the school of Santo Serafino. 1740. . GABRIELLI. school. _. Guidante. 1685-1715. instruments. EBERTI. Florence. is This maker believed to have worked as late as 1808. quality of tone. those of a possess a tone hke those of Gagliano. 1 695-1 725. 1750. Son of the last as a violin-maker not superior to him. school. 1780. [g) There would seem to A label of the firsl is Guidantus. Quidantus fecit Bononiae anno 17 _. The especially in the more prominent. have been three makers of this name. FALCO.

18 style. combined with incorrect are not in the right place. Gian. himself in a thick forest near the Borgo Marighassetto. he to his left betrothed. dous narrat ve concerning .. on account of which he took his sons into the business. Antoniazzi. 1730. by which the difference in the work of the scholar fiom that of the master may be recognized." p. ° : ' Alessandro Gaghano Alumnus Stradivarius fecit Neapoli . Good holes workmanship. Battista. 72.— 32 very transparent. the best-known member of the family is. he was a direct pupil of Stradivarius. He appears to have acquired a profitable business at Naples. and rose thereby to much fame. „ . the son of a Marauis. " Gio. To escape Naples. 1695-1730. and stand more perpendicularly. The scroll is elegantly cut. (*) GAETANO. . After several years he returned to Naples. and acquired much facility in this direction.. The F Alexander. to his violins. . Bartolomeo. and set up the workshop of a lute-maker with the permission of the authorities. According to Vuillaume. and Antonio. . resembling of Stradivarius from 1725 to Although he copied his master. . him Alexander Galliano.. GAGLIANO. gives following vera. and made instruments resembling violins the wood found in the forest.. The label of Giovanni Battista. (h) Vidal ("La Lutherie. . " . The F holes are broader. His violas and violoncellos are superior 71. " La Luthomonographie the j Alexander Gaglianus Alumnus Antonius Stradivarius fecit Neapoli Anno 17 or. and of a concealed knife. Cremona. who established himself at Naples in order to secure greater scope for his art than he could ensure at Cremona. viz. 65) gives four makers of this name. Cristoforo.. out out ennui. CREMONA. " Naples. The instruments of Gagliano are that all of a large flat model. — . there are nevertheless noteworthy characteristics. Battista Gabrielli Fece in Firenze 176 — . Being betook well acquainted to with the use of of he himself carving.. was 1 ' at the beginning of the century guilty of a Anno 17— eighteenth of the murder man who endeavoured the marry pursuit of justice.

33 The scroll is is curve. Ferdinando." violins of his onof Nicolo. marked 1756 and respectively. His workmanship is superior to that of his father. 1740-1750. father's pattern. known of his instruments is a fine violoncello. label of his. mean-looking. 1740-1780. Nicolo. Other labels of his are known: (11 " Nicolaii Gagliano fecit in Napoli 1711" and (2) (/) Many " Nicolaus Gagliano (/t) filius Alexandri fecit Neap. 1 Naples. The varnish is very clear. given by De Piccolellis. is. and the widely cut. filius Naples. or Nicola. His Nicolaus Gagliano filius Alexandri fecit 17 inclination towards originality. " Ferdinantus Caliano Neapoli. The varnish dark. after the The second Ferdinandus Gagliano Filius Nicolai fecit Neapel 17— son of Nicolas he worked more pattern of Alessandro. and the back and sides often bear the mark of a band twisted round them. similar to that of pattern. 17 I — . about half-way between the Amatise violins and those of the long large violins Of his best period is some holes only exist. and show an He did not work after his but chose a smaller one. His violoncellos are excellent. Nicolo." Two 1 702 . Naples. and a more probable. GAGLIANO. formerly in the Quinefaut — Collection. (y ) 74. 17 . Gagliano was the eldest son of Alessandro. He and but worked Giuseppe Gaglianus Nicolini fecit Neapoli in similar fashion to his father. generally yellow in different shades. .— NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. the archings moderately high.^) Another. with the label. (') 73. GAGLIANO. F GAGLIANO. the scroll handsome. account of Alessandro Gagliano's (?) origin as a violin-maker is that he was compelled to flee from Naples on account of the result of a duel. Son of Alexander. where Another he earned his bread by working in Stradivari's workshop. and violoncellos are carefully made. more contracted and without He did not always select the most handsome wood. Ferdinando is stated to have been the eldi were shown at Vienna in 1S92. 17— appears to have made few instruments." Yidal states that he died in 1725. "Alexander ( iaglianus fecit One of the best Neap. of his instruments have passed under the name of Stradivari. 75. Nicolo. and took refuge at Cremona. and roughly worked. Stradivarius . violins 700-1 741. Giuseppe.

and the latter on the 27th June. "Joannes Gagliano nepos . 77. who worked in partnership . GARANI. 1857. Januarii fecit Neapoli 18 Raffaele and Antonio. 83. Nicolo. 82. (") Michael Angelo. the former died on The the 9th December. But little known. down i J to the beginning Antonio. of good quality. i860. violins of no great merit. of his shows . Gagliano family. power rather high archings. with a good he used a light-coloured varnish : . GAGLIANO. Januarius. (w) The second and third sons of Nicolo were Giuseppe and They were for the most part makers of cithers and mandolines Antonio. 1685-1720. little trace master's in- fluence. a well-known Vide De Piccolellis. similar workmanship. GATTANANI. tury. CREMONA.. / Naples. 80. 1740. (/) fecit The second son of Alessandro. (') 1700-1750. Without any especial merit. 81. GAGLIANO. but. GAGLIANO. and made few years later. Naples. . Naples. Gennaro. Piedmont. GAGLIANO. Bologna. though no great rather thinly put on. With them V the fame of the family ended." He died in 1806. 1785. "Joseph & Antonius Gagliano fecit anno 1787 in Platea dicta Cerriglio. He left two sons. He made some violins with quality of tone. GARANI. (") instruments. and used a label." — workman of the family. — (n) (0) He worked about 1790. copyist of Stradivarius. They come present cen- 78. Brother of Nicolo.34 76. Giovanni.. His label is " Gennaro Gagliano He is generally considered to have been the best Xeapoli 17 . and Antonio a Giovanni was the fourth son of Nicolo. He calls himself a pupil of Stradivarius. GAGLIANO. the ex- Januarius Gaglianus Alumnus Antonn Stradivarn Ao fecit Neapoh ion of usj _ a j flat model. His violas are the best of his GALERZENA. Their instruments are hardly worthy of notice. A Piedmont." Giuseppe died in 1793. He worked after the style of the 84. and was not inferior to them. manufacturer of strings at Naples. Naples. of the ("*) Raphael. 79. . last survivor of the family is Vincenzo. with . the son of Raffaele. with the label.

He be extremely good. GERANS. Venice. Venice. but everything is is r ( is in harmony. " Mattheus brothers worked from about 1690 to 1740.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. Italian Probably a German. GIULIANI. (*) GOBETTI. Alberto. of Anvers. 89. 1660. and bear the stamp of Many Gobit violins his genius. •. 1614. A copyist of Stradi- varius. (*) 56. and to the Marchese Ginore-Livei. exception of Montagnana and perhaps of Sanctus Seraphin. I The name found Goffriller and Goffriler. Cremona. A fine violin by Gobetti was M. Amati. (/) The same remarks apply to his brother Francesco. undoubtedly bear the label of Stradivarius with an earlier He surpasses the other Venetian masters. the without great round and of a noble Matteo. O ne of his violoncellos known a noble tone. 1690. " Nicolaus Giorgi faciebat Giuliani is also known maker of viols. 55. quality. little ) GOFRILLER. but 90. Taurini anno 17 (q) . two . He is Franciscus Gobettus Venetiis Fecit anno 17 (iobit. instruments have exactly the character of the Amatise violins of Stradivari. sometimes also called He must have been pupil — a his of Stradivarius . is 1735. varnish pale red and very clear. A pupil of Nicolas whom he copied excellently. The wood The tone quality. De.longing respectively to the Comte Malvaria. "Fran< The Gobetti (s) fecit Venetiis 1715. Francisco. and to have used golden-brown varnish of the finest to 88. is well finished. faultless. (/) Or Giorgi. instruments. at Florence. Some violoncellos ol Goffriler faciebat Venetijs anno 17—.) — . There was but character in his . Cremona. 35 GEORGI. Wilmotte. 1700. at Bologna. 1747." Nicolo. and power. Turin. with the date. Paul. is exhibited at the Paris Exhibition i of 1878 by His label also runs." De Piccolellis mentions merit with the name of Matteo are known. GIORDANE. His label as a is. scroll is the least is The successful part. Cremona. 87.1720." also The label is. which is otherwise are well made the varnish poor and weak.

Giovanni Baptista. and the workmanship The instruments have a powerful tone. Bapt. 1 690-1 700. Milan. the sign of a globe and a cross to his label. fecit Livorno. which shows a different character in a somewhat lengthened form. CREMONA. Paoli. T Antonius. 1780. GRANCINO. but are inferior to them in quality. longer and finer. first at Milan. 1601. The distinction is only to be found in the scroll. and the scroll is very GRAGNANI. (/) Vidal gives the Livorno about i73°- . 16 — The varnish is thin. A pupil of Nicolas Amati. name of Gennavo Gragnani. with sharp edges. His materials 16— are generally better chosen than are those of his father. 93. GOUVERNARI. Antonius. A long. with Antonius Gouvernari Cremonensis faciebat Anno moderately high archings. maker. The latter instruments surpass those of his master in volume of tone. The greater number of his instruments are to be found with Amati labels. who worked at Antonio had a son. fecit in Ferrara filius Ferrara. and is of an olive-yellow colour. Cremona. The model is rather flatter. The tone is not great. Grancino. 1 665-1 690. Instru- ments Antonius Gragnani U A Liburni Anno 17 of /A N ' the second ^"k. 92. and are generally varnished a deep yellow colour. He excelled especially in tenors and in violoncellos. he gradually takes his own path. Onorato. later at Giov. those of Nicolo Amati. GRANCINO. but never really attains to an original type of instrument. whose work was Antonio Gragnani was wont to append inferior to that of his father. The F holes resemble but extremely noble and sympathetic. Paolo. elegant pattern.— 36 91. is neat. with more curve graceful. and takes The much simple family of Grancino begins with this the same position with respect to Amati as that of Gagliano does to Stradivarius. His first instruments are copies of those of his master. but are rather . At 94. Paolo.

Milan. 17 nent amonir Italian D makers. Milan. and changed especially the shape of the F holes considerably. The model is rather flat. commences and (") artists ends with mechanics. The instruments of Lorenzo are of a bold design . two Johannes Baptista are the most noted. a of Stradivari. . direct pupil more and the value Lorenzo and the The first. has consequently increased very rapidly.. c -i family J . — . 1696-1720. attracted attention.—— NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. and the instruments have. they will all be found to take an equal position.. 1695-1742. 96. 17 10-1746. Giovanni Grancino in Contrada instruments are very good. is that Giovanni was the son of Paolo. of Guadagnini one of the most prom j_ T . The name is Cremonae Alumnus Stradivarius Cremona. . 37 GRAXCIXO.. contrada larga di Milano 17—. The ing. Giovanni. 97. with fine archings. sometimes inclining to those of Guarnerius. Battista and Francesco fra. though its it is interest- more indeed from varnish is originality than is from . The His second son of Paolo. is The reddish yellow. t anMM ». . its beauty. GRANCINO. . and soft the tone (u) The correct relationship of the latter members of the Grancino family. Giovanni fecit Mediolani 17 _. as given by De l'iccolellis.- . was considered the best but when the merits of each are duly weighed. GUADAGNINI." e Francesco fratelli de Grancini in contrada larga Milano 17 : .• „ t> recit Anno Domino . violin- and. especially in r J ' fecit Cremonae 17— recentyears. largha di Milano al Segno and are hardly to be disde la Corona 17tinguished from those of his brother. but then again returning to those of his master. the as Here same decline occurs : with the Gagliani the -»u with Francesco Grancino fiedio ° . Lorenzo Guadagnini Lorenzo.~. "Giov. he was addicted to vary it. and that Giambattista and Francesco were his sons he gives a label oi Grancino in the last named. scroll is not that of Stradivarius.„„. 95.„„ Cjuadagnmi Laurentius <-„^. Francesco. ' ." and Vidal quotes a label almost similar.

Joannes Baptista. he died about 1760. ( v ) 98. tion. Giovanni Baptista. 1740-1770. At first at Piacenza. GUADAGNINI." Pater et alumnus Antonij Stradivari fecit Placentise anno 17 : — This maker was born at Cremona in 1711. The tone noble and as powerful as that of Lorenzo. The peculiar crossed sign on some of his labels was not invariably used. where he worked during the latter part of his life in 1786. (w) (x) above. He is probably identical with the last. The archings ? are is least as and are of the finest proportions. and put on rather thickly. They bestowed much care on the choice of wood. Parma. Piacenza." A firm was working recently at Turin under the name of Guadagnini Brothers. 101. Milan. Joannes Baptista. powerful and of rich quality. The sides are high. 17 85. GUADAGNINI. The grain of the bellies figured is regular maple for the backs. Very good wood. A label of his is known " Laurentius Guadagnini . 1 760-1800. He was the son of Lorenzo. rather flat. Milan. especially in England. . rare. Parma. finest and and they used the the year 1728. without excep99. mentioned the brother of Lorenzo. and died at Turin.38 CREMONA. who was This was the son of Joannes Baptista (of Milan). of the finest quality. (v) He worked at Cremona and at Piacenza. Giuseppe. GUADAGNINI. 1 754-1 785. 1750Both of these Joannes Baptista Guadagnini makers adhered consistfecit Parmae C S R 17— ent ]y t0 t h e model of Stradivarius. is He little appears to have worked for a short period only. and all their work is exactly according to his principles. " Ioannes Baptista Guadagnini Cremonensis fecit Taurini 1776. The varnish is of a very handsome brown colour. GUADAGNINI. ( ") at 100. GUADAGNINI. 17101750. The scroll is not to be distinguished from that of Stradivarius of exact. (*) 102. Brother of the second Joannes Baptista. Giuseppe. and of him known. very clear and transparent. and also at Milan . His label also was. which is. Genuine instruments are and are eagerly sought for. Joannes Baptista Guadagnini The few instruments of his Placentinus fecit Mediolani 17— which are known to exist resemble those of his son.

the Stradivarius. The Beet- he was the son oi (a) Andreas Guarnieri was born about 1625 He married Anna Maria Orcelli. 103. He had a brother. Hart. and left two sons. This maker is said by high authorities to have been the second <j) He worked at Turin. son of J. like Andreas sub titulo Sanctae Theresiae 16 — Amati. is and the violins the same. but does not display the fine execu- his master. Francesco and Giuseppe. died in 1881. 39 F holes exactly like those of v Good instruments. Gaetano. He worked first on the model of his master. Gaetano. died on the 71I1 December.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. The varnish is not always the same. Gaetano. and of guitars. who were all engaged in the violin making and repairing the best of them was Felice. his Without influence we should not have had the masterpieces of Gesu.") Felice. of 1675. and then at the changed the shape of his F holes and of the scroll same time he began to use flatter archings. Turin as a repairer. The of workmanship tion of (") strong. 1698. B. who are also engaged in the business (See George with which the family has been so long associated. Carlo. Andreas. principally known as a maker Carlo Guadagnini had three sons. put on . and left a son. Antonio. . "The Violin. Joseph del earlier years he stood side by side with Stradivarius at the work-table of Nicolas Amati. one Bartolommeo Guarnieri. the archings rather higher. He and by her had seven children. and he used many bad pieces wood. is Guarnieri. who in 1835. who worked at and alternately at l'avia. but is generally a clear orange. born 1831. Giuseppe. rather thickly. who was working at Turin industry The last. had a son. 1695. (*) Cremona. He was a maker of violins. It is his the fact that in his nephew. ( ) GUARXERIUS. : (s) hoven violoncello In the archives of Cremona. and was buried in the Church of San . three sons and four daughters. of Parma and Turin. thena me is by this maker. Guadagnini. 1 < imenico. cellos The violon- are of two sizes. 1650of The founder Andreas Guarnerius Cremonae his family. but wanting in transparency.

and violoncellos. The maker are exceedingly scarce. Of the latter. that GUARNERIUS. Cremona and Mantua. and died about 1739. The breast is narrower. Petrus Guarnerius Cremonensis fecit Mantuae sub tit. Son of Andreas. is said to H. the third. CREMONA. model and in workmanin design ship he varies his brother. from which circumstance the middle bouts have an elegant outline. Duke of Edinburgh possesses an excellent violin of 1684 by this maker. tenors. and is sometimes put on so thickly that in some places it would appear to have congealed. 1680Cremona. from which fact it may be assumed that he devoted more attention to the construction of the smaller : instruments. but this instrument possesses The violoncellos of this characteristics of the work of Montagnana. and the arching rises rapidly from the edge to the centre. by whom he had three sons and three daughters. Mr.40 104. and they 105. the last seldom and with but little accuracy. the have worked as a maker of violins with her father. Andreas. Brother of * 1690-1728. Charles Ould has a fine Italian violoncello which has been pronounced on high authority to be by him. Beethoven violin of 17 18 is by this maker. and was born on the 25th of (b) November. He made violins. Mr. 1730. Ould's is of the year 1698. The tone of all his instruments is excellent. . He married Barbara Franchi. Anna Caterina. The varnish is of the most beautiful kind.R. a plan in which Carlo Bergonzi followed him later on. The He was the third son of Andrea. much from from his Petro Guarnerio inMantovai 7 - fecit and alsQ he differs father. of his father. Sanctae Theresiae 16— ancl> • tne ast - ^his master possesses Jn much originality. attain a high value. GUARNERIUS. Pietro. returning to a certain extent to the pointed form of Gaspard di Salo the F holes are also rather deeper and near to the edge. Theresiae 16— varying considerably from Joseph.His full name was Giuseppe Giovanni. (*) Joseph Guarnerius filius Andreae His first work shows that fecit Cremonae sub titulo he was taking his own path. S. 1666.H. The shape of the F holes shows a peculiar combination of the lines of Nicola Amati and of Andreas Guarnerius.

Joseph Antonius del Gesu. For the bellies he was fond of using a broad-grained wood. 1665. and the purflings higher. He was born in 1683. but Vidal is positive. He was generally GUARNERIUS. 107.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. Pietro. dated 1707. jj| s SO called by reason of his labels bearing the sign fecit Joseph Guarnerius Cremonae anno 17— ms jt js IH8. This was the second son of Giuseppe Giovanni. Nepos Cremonae and. De Piccolellis throws to have worked at Venice from 1735 to 1760. 1 725-1 745. nQt k nown this adopted wny he monogram. and the executed with curve than that of Pietro Guarnerius. Il out that the statement of De Piccolellis that Pietro the ''Lorei son of Giuseppe is confused with Pietro the in place of Andrea. to be a clerical error. and cites the fine violoncello in the possession of M. especially where they are joined The quality . L." may be pointed 1 . worked. The is parent. scroll is (f) His work is good and varnish less well worthy less the name of Guarnerius. (') GUARNERIUS. the name Lorenzo being writfc This statement appear. under whom trans- Mantua. after He filius Joseph worked more Cremonae Anno 17— he studied of at the model is of his uncle Pietro. in the corners. Mantua. archings finely and the F holes rounder and more The corners are more contracted and the The scroll is broad. " The Violin. doubt upon the existence of this member of the family as a maker. This is the maker whom I'Vtis states Andrea. the son of (d) He was born in 1695. 106. M Fleming." thi1739 Venetiis. breast is 41 perpendicular. which has " un vernis admirable rose a fond d'orambreV and a label. out in his magazine. Mr. who points aaong the uames. which was always regularly marked. J. Depret. to have puzzled Mr. fine violin by this maker. of the year 1755. broader. Son Pietro Guarnerius fecit of Andrae. He Pietro Giovanni Guarnieri was the eldest son of Andrea. (c) The date of his deatli is was born on the 18th of February. and transparency of the varnish are not to be surpassed the colour alternates from golden to pale red. and died Joseph Guarnerius Andreae in 1745. " Petrus Guarnerius filius Joseph Cremonensis fecit anno He also gives another label. Documentary evidence exists to show that in 1698 he was not known. (ieorge Hart had recently in his possession a very at Cremona.

. legitimate son of Johan Bapt. the point they had really nothing in If established that common. in the chapel of the cathedral.) (/) This extract Gian Battista. cla Matre D. 83. extract from the church register proves that Joseph The Anthony Guarnerius. p. however. of whom the famous Toseph only was a violin-maker. dalla Cattedrale di Cremona. the younger brother of Andrea Guarnieri. Joseph Guarnerius received his first instruction from Stradivarius. Patrinus fuit Franciscus Joan Baptistam Barozium Piaepositum. was born on the 8th of June. A general belief exists that Joseph Guarnerius pupil of Stradivarius. ii. (e) The Piccolellis). for social as well as for business purposes. who was the son of Bernardo." f il 1 1 del detto mese. 1687." ("Atti Parocchiali di San Donato.42 but it is CREMONA." Vol. who — . By a comparison. The real extract has been found by the later researches of De Piccolellis to be "Anno 168 sesto Die decima septima Octobris.^)] The original of this extract runs as follows figlio : — " Guarneri (Giuseppe Antonio) Battista de' legittimi conjugi Guarneri ed Angela giorno Locadella Giovanni nacque nella il parocchia di San Donato aggregata alia Cattedrale giorno 8 Giugno 1683 li e batezzato dei nati dal 1669 al 1692. and to give their For the dates of his birth and death we have to thank the researches of Vuillaume. but no. ( ) The father of Guarnerius does not appear to have was a followed the business of violin-making. possible that he was a member of a religious order. not in one single point are they date of his birth was the 16th of October. is taken from Fetis. (Signe) Fusetti Giulio Vic. Guarnerius and Angela Maria Locadella. Joseph filius D. Clara Teodora Barozius hujus Vicinae et obstetrix pro Rev Nicola Professa in Monasterio Sancta Marite Cistelli. Gian Battista had four sons (and two daughters). 1683. and was baptized on the nth of the same month in the parish of San Donato. his instruments would show in some respects some resemblance . association a religious title. is of the instruments of the two makers. (see De He was the second son of Gian Battista. but strict proof of this has never been brought forward. Libro G. 19 Settembre 1855. The Italian craftsmen of that time were wont to combine. No entry in the annals of Cremona after 1 702 concerning Joseph Guarnieri del Gesii has been found. Joannis Baptistse de me Guarneris et Maria de Locadellis Jugl m Baptizatus fuit p. and refers to the eldest son of died in the same year.

) It in Cremona on : . massive instruments. find instruments from one another in the design of the in one instanceoutlines and in the shape of the F holes being a wonderful combination of grace and boldness. is The F Guarnerius long. said. he made those large. 1715 founded on this event. the son of Andrea. led a very irregular life. in which differ greatly another disfigured and careless. with the purflings roughly inlaid. The scroll be a modified form can hardly differ more. of which each one bears the stamp of genius. The size of the instruments of this period vary to a slight extent. and shows itself to of Gaspard di Salo. As all dates are wanting. second period he gives us the most perfect in specimens of violin-making. The principles of Gaspard di Salo are clearly impressed on the works of both of them. From this arose ( | tin- great wood. prison at has been discovered that a certain Giacomo Guarnieri died it is possible the 1< the 8th of October. Joseph del Gesu and produces a series of experiments. with heavy edges. Among such masterpieces occasionally made it appear Prison some violins.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. Where Gaspard begins. and varnish. best materials. In the first we . In the last period. with imperfect tools. alike : 43 hole of the outlines are absolutely dissimilar. di Salo ceases to work. his cousin. roughly to drink specimens. and finally found himself was addicted in prison on account of some political intrigue. the corners grotesque. instruments in rough and ready fashion. and to play. finest quality. for which purpose the daughter of the gaoler was wont to secretly procure him difference in (£) is the materials. the scroll powerful and majestic. and by this method we come with some exactness upon Joseph. of the greatest beauty and in workmanship. as if In the he had no time to finish them artistically. the purflings deeper inlaid. is the so-called Guarnerius. workmanship. (See Hart. and there made. we must endeavour to inquire bv means of comparison whose pupil he really was. after 1740. Fetis divides his artistic career into three periods. and the F holes somewhat more rounded. as well as model and perfect in choice of the varnish is His deep golden yellow.

Adolphe Pollitzer plays upon a fine A splendid instrument of 1742 is in the possession Guarnieri violin. magnificent violin of 1742. but there are violins in which the belly is is same thickness throughout. D. of has recently been in the market in London. of Leeds. much of the irregularity is found . Haddock. and another fine specimen. Cramer. they are for the most part thick in the breast. and another of 1741. in the hands of Messrs. Mr. (4) the " Dolphin " Joseph . was presented by Madame Alard Other celebrated violins are (1). The Woolhouse violin. well known in musical of Signor Bazzini history. of i734> in the possession of Mr. A. (5) the violin of 1735. so called from having been The played by M. Other fine violins might be mentioned. while another belongs to Mr. : . Croall . Saint Leon in an opera of that name in Paris. to the Paris Conservatoire in 1890. J. and then principally through the violin used by Paganini. and that of Mori to Mr. which formerly belonged to S. all and thinner tone. which (//) It is of the year 1743. latter violin was exhibited at South Kensington in 1872 by its owner. In spite of this have fine to be assumed that to master possessed a peculiar knowledge of the tone-giving qualities of wood. of Glasgow (3) the Wieniawski Joseph. and considered the finest specimen in existence of this maker (2) the second so-called King Joseph. One of the finest Guarnieri violas known was formerly the property of afterwards passed into the hands of H. d'Egville (London). . then to F. so frequently described. formerly belonging to J. Hill and Sons. Dr. it is believed. and subsequently to a member of Dr. E. W. Wm. . and M. belonging to Edouard Remenyi. Viotti Collins. and some Weber's. is the " Violon du Liable " of 1734. and then to the late M. Madame Fleury. was sold. which was recently. formerly the property of the late Jules de Swert. Mr. so it is at the breast.R.44 CREMONA. R. B. . {'') This violin is the instrument. Laurie. in the possession of Mr. one of the late M. Carrodus possesses two excellent specimens one. or is now. : 1742. that called the Canon Joseph. Forster. sometimes called the King Joseph. Guarnerius did not in his life-time gain that fame which His great artistic power first attained its was his due. which is. it Signor Dragonetti Prince Albert. or was recently. His violoncellos are not frequently found it may be noticed that a fine specimen of 1730. and that he understood how work in his own peculiar fashion with extraordinary dexterity. The Plowden violin subsequently belonged to Mr.H. — . Delphin Alard.£270. Yuillaume. T. Prosper Sainton. at the recent sale for . The reposes in the Museum at Genoa. Hawley's. If the strength of the bellies is carefully tested. present high place of honour long after his death. thick at the edges this. in Berlin) in which the belly also (for instance. Mackenzie's family.

Stradivari. Cremona and Amsterdam. Bologna. 1690-1740. 1790. GUIDOMINI. The arching is moderately high. was a step-brother of the last Hieronymus Amati and had to make his escape on account of a loveaffair with a nun. His this have that Nicol Gusetto Fiorentino a the out- Cremona 17 are not designed lines generally scroll used. especially in the middle bouts. strongly constructed. no." which was in the There are tome violins passing undei Exhibition at Milan in 1881. and went to Amsterdam. after the model of in. Joannes Florens. is German every violin-makers occasionally did this nearly violin which is purfled with whalebone called a Henry Jacobs. little elegance. so that his instruments would generally pass for genuine Amatis. . GUSETTO. 1740. but in on the smoothly-rounded undulating fashion and . Nicolas. 113. After his It) There is some confusion here. Giovanni and Guidantc. 108. He copied the instruments of Nicolas Amati very skilfully. Henry. which has frequently occurred his elsewhere. although some also. l long F eS) )a(jly inlaid purflings. Milan.— NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. instruments peculiarity. 1760. label and description appear to belong really to the join! work of the 1 two makers. fecit Bononiae. and the tone powerful. . 45 GUIDANTUS. lines 1730. 1740- A an( j small. He for the purflings. Cremona. who bon name of Floreno. anno 1715. though Hart quotes a label from a viola d'ati "Joanne Guidantus. JACOBS. HORIL. The outlines (') possess but 109. Lorenz. the name of Guidantus with a line yellow oil varnish ot rather thin quality. He made good instruments. GULETTO. high- Joannes Florenus Guidantus fecit Bononiae anno 17— arched h l model. father and 5on. 112. see ante. the and F holes the same. and. Cremona. But little known. the varnish yellow. between this name and that of Florenus. did not the eye of the connoisseur detect the distinction by the He used whalebone inferior varnish and the ugly scroll. Nicola. Giacomo.

who saw it in 1799 it was Fetis. seems to be no He has been This maker worked from about 1690 to 1710. Mittenwald. Rome. after the Stainer pattern. Georges and which has been finely copied by him. of Paris. to Cremona and Florence. maker from 117. which was exhibited Chanot in the South Kensington Exhibition of 1S72. probably Verona. (*) KERLINO. of may be supposed that Kerlino was probably a German. Matthias. The Venetian dealers. of Venice. He made 115. to learn Absom good. 118. by Mr. Son He went. He went as a boy to wards returned under Stainer. 1701. but there special ground for such assertion. said to be of 1452. Mittenwald. with the inscription. There was a violin in the possession : of Koliker. but this is doubtful. (_/') This is Amati model. Brescia. and afterHe worked there exactly to Mittenwald. when it was seen by Kerlino is attributed the viola. but Kerlino acquires the credit of being a violinit. about 1520. made by Ventura Linarolli. . Mr. came to the conclusion to visit no longer the fair of Botzen. who followed the He is sometimes ranked as a French maker. KLOTZ. basses. of rather earlier date. who had been insulted and injured by Duke Sigismund. JULIANO. He subsequently last. was another Jacobs Andreas. (k) said to be identical with one Giuliani. of his As the initial letter it name does not exist in the Italian language. Francisco. Giovanni. his who used and a deep-red transparent varnish. there son_. 15 11. and selected the market of Mittenwald. (/) This . 1449. an excel- lent instrument of much power. viols JOANNES.46 time." Vuillaume considered this to be a converted viola. (') 114. having worked for a long time with father. CREMONA. and founded the industry which flourishes there to this day. returned to Mittenwald. and most of his violins pass for His varnish is redder. or German extraction. at Amsterdam. 1660-1720. Egidius. and is extremely genuine Stainers. Charles Reade asserted that this instrument was a converted six or seven-stringed viol. 1 660-1 675. " Joan Kerlino ann 1449. probably meant for Pecter Jacobs. 116. is the instrument mentioned by Laborde. (') KLOTZ. To in Koliker's possession in 1804. of the his if not so clear as that of his master.

17 and he shaped his archings somewhat lower. and Carl. There was a Johann Carl Klotz woi Sebastian. George. KLOTZ. KLOTZ. which till 47 then was of less importance. but the worm-eaten. LACASSO. Antonio Maria. of 1732. Georg. attained a more considerable fame. The is generally a dark 120. and created a market for him in all parts of the world. 123. (w) The Museum of the Conservatoire in Paris possesses a viola He left three sons. that of violin- making. • Joseph. its wood varnish reason of cut at the yellow. KLOTZ. KLOTZ. on. »»• Mittenwald. to the last.j t„ Joseph Klotz in Mittenwald an der Iser 17 121.— — NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. the larger number of the inhabitants were placed at the disposal of Matthias Klotz for the purposes of his business. His instruments are excellent. Mittenwald. Brother of Georg Klotz in Mittenwald an ner Iser 17— are well is His instruments made. KLOTZ. probably a of Matthias. 17S4. and is often similar to that of Albani. 1761. by having been wrong time. of Mittenwald. . ('") 119. for their rendezvous. But little known. about 1750. The varnish is not always the same. Mittenwald. its From this Mittenwald and new industry. and on that account an abundance of pine wood was easily to be obtained for violin-making. dealers took up the business. the last. and Egidius. 124. of Mittenwald. Sebastian Klotz in Mittenwald an. Milan. Michael. 122. Similar . 1784. and the most active Later used to travel the country with the finished goods. d'amore by Matthias Klotz. Sebastian. As in that neighbourhood agriculture was impossible and cattle-breeding unprofitable. grandson Their instruments approach those of ordinary workmanship. .

128. e. LINAROLLI. CREMONA. Those instruments which have a bright red varnish are the best. Some of his instruments are care- and these have one coat His violoncellos are of a small pattern. lessly finished. (f) Venice. His model is original. (") 126. He made basses and viols whether he also made violins is unknown.. De Piccolellis gives another label of his. . LAUSA. used the real Cremona varnish. Charles Reade pronounced Landolfi to be the last maker who He worked somewhat later than 1760. Carlo Ferdinand. and the arching is similar at the edge to that two that of Pietro Guarnieri. Milan. 1590-1640. 127. MAGGINI. marked 1 . anno 17 careful se l ec tion of wood : yellow varnish. 1750- As the Landolfi fecit marked Carolus Ferdinandus Landulphus violins show Mediolani in Via St. Venturi. Brescia. viols. . 1760." was shown in Vienna in 1892. but without the J° Batha Lolio di Valtezze f. . it may be observed that violins of early form considered to be by this maker are known. " was shown Other instruments are known labelled with various at Vienna in 1892. but this was not the case. 1674. copied the Brescian masters. (0) A large viol da gamba.. and without of varnish. .. Milan. He made Similar to only basses and 129. Gio. Valtezze. Grancino. 1750. Author's opinion. Antonio Maria. it was SUpanno 17— posed for a long time makers might have borne the same name. 1530-1540.g. . " Franciscus Linarolus Bergomensis Venetiis faciebat " and a very fine tenor. Joh. 585 Ventura di Francesco Linarol in Padova fecit. and is considered to have his pupil. labelled " Ventura di Francesco Linarol in With respect to the Venetiis 1583. LANDOLFI. (") Antonio Maria. (q) This maker also worked at Bergamo. (p) He principally imitated He also made lutes of ' ' Maggini. 130. He purfling. () . LANSA. Bapt.— 48 125. The instruments have their value on account of their good tone. Margaritae variations. labels. various kinds. 1520. LOLIO. Brescia. Paolo in Giovanni Paolo. This famous violin-maker followed Gaspard di Salo. been His Maggini Brescia 16— (n) Mr.

"I whom the seventh. the last being the George III. Novello. Another Maggini violin. NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. see the valuable monograph. and Pietro Santo Maggini. Maggini and his work. pointed shape. Carlo Francesco.000 131. Giovanni Paolo Maggini was born in 1580 he married Maddalena Anna l'oresti in 161 5. his Life and Work. 1630-16S0. Some excellent copies. and have a good quality of tone. and died about 1632. They had ten children.) In that work an ini violin formerly in the Dumas Collection at Lyons. H. His contra-basses are excellent. violins with double purflings are often erroneously called Maggini violins. ) Chimay Brescia. formerly the property of De Beriot. For much valuable information concerning. formerly in the possession of Mr. His violins are well made. "Gio. P. and a critical account of. - I . Hill & Sons. Sir Joseph Chitty. E. MAGGINI. (. the sides are rather low.. and Baron Erlangcr.. the only son who survived him.' (\Y. Son of Giovanni Paolo. instrument. Zerbini. The earlier instruments have only single purfling. and are long and characteristic. with fine tone and Mr. 15. Maggini used a broad model the archings begin to rise from the edges. Mr. On account of this. recently in the poss uo amateur in M' : . but later almost all have double. may be mentioned as a specimen of good workmanship. De Beriot caused a design. and now Vieuxtemps possessed a fine the properly of Captain W. of Maggini's violins were made in recent years by the younger Other valuable instruments are in the possession of Captain Gilkes. the F holes have a . though the exact date is unknown. violins of bold The attain a high value great sensation r ( with his Maggini violin . the violin-maker. Sternberg. both in varnish and tone. A. may have been related to Giovanni Paolo. Hobday's. equal to those of his father they have double purflings and similar ornamentation. 1892. and undoubtedly with spirit varnish. Emil Kreuz possesses a good specimen. Warner. now belongs to Mr. Pietro Santo. which is often used on the backs for ornamentation. Warner. Paolo Maggini.) This country is happy in possessing a number of fine violas by Maggini. Maggini at Brescia. me illustrations of the fine & Co. became Evidence exists of other families of the name of a silk merchant. 49 instruments are varnished either brown or yellow. he for sold it shortly before his death to Prince de francs. is The scroll on account of their grand tone. and are prized as solo instruments to an extraordinary extent. specimen.

but not ordinary. 138.SO 132. 1700. His (") violins are of a small model. 1670-1730. Mantegatia Mediolani in via S. B. An imitator of Nicolas Amati. Stradivari. MARIANI. and is also said to have carried on (s) This was the name discovered in two lutes found business at Bologna. (") He also made little MAN. ( ) Brescia. (") their value. He is seldom found. CREMONA. Margarita anno 1780. He worked about 1415. Cremona. w and the model in- 139. (') Milan. is The F elegant. 17 10-1750. of " Pietro Giovanni e Fratelli Mantegazza. " Alessandro MezadriFece in Ferrara anno («/) Francesco Mezadri worked at Milan about 1700 to 1720. Good instruments after the model of Stradivarius. The . when the collection of Prince lute by him is in the South Lobkowitz was removed to Raudnitz. Gregorio. nella Contrada di santa Margarita in Milano al segno dell' Angelo 1770. whose (*) pupil he called himself. Io Fratresq." and also one of Pietro. Alexander. 1769. holes stand near together. Naples. Milan. (/) A : Sigismond Maler is said to have worked at There were two makers of this name. Milan. Lucas. 135. 136. Venice about 1526. A Kensington Museum. his The best lute-maker of . Venice. 16 . Hans. Francesco. A pupil of Lorenzo Guadagnini. 1742. Ferrara. German. Verona. Pietro and Giovanni. MEZZABOTTE. Giuseppe Carlo. 134. violins and are moderately good. is C. He was probably a name appears also as workman of Omobono Mantado and Montalde. in the Castle of Eisenburg in 1872. His label (x) — ' 1713. Antonio. 1568-1620. 1720. Stradivarius model. Pesaro. MILANO." whom labels are known (m) (v) His real name appears is. MONTADE. 140. MALER. time probably a Laux Maler 133. 1720. His have the character of Maggini." His label is. " Petrus. But known. to have been Giambattista. A "Antonio Mariani Pesaro. MEZZADIE. The wood 137. viols. MILANO. MARATTI. 1690-1720. 141. MANTAGAZZA.

. MOXTAGXAXA. . it is golden brown and of velvet-like appearance. The archings are flatter lengthwise. the violins in two In the latter years of his 143. . . Guadagnini.. violas are famous. with a handsome model and careful execution. • Domenicus Montagnana Aftcr Sub Signum Cremonae Venetiis 17— shop ' [ea thg WQrk . Venice. 1 . Domenico. but in the details substantial differences observed appear. The scroll is large and boldly curved. The varnish of Montagnana excites the admiration of all connoisseurs full . (*) NOVELLO. . They Mr. NOVELLO. 1550. 1 A . Pietrus Workmanship in the style of J. MORELLA. influence When may be observed throughout. . and Venice. life he retired to the Tyrol. .— NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. and violoncellos. ^ A Dominicus Montagnana in Ab prope Oenipontum fecit Anno 17— . sizes. Signor Dragonetti had an excellent basso di camera by him of about 1725. 146. Bapt. He made violins. 144. His Morglata Morella fece in Venetia 15 . of life and fire. some of Venice. master he at established mmself from which his violins there are dated. . but across are more expanded.. pupil of Straclivarius. . Later he went to soon made a great reputation. Johannes.. Milan. Edward Howell possesses a fine violoncello of 1747 by this {y) maker. of r his famous . . and they are excelled those of critically. (-') violas. . the of Stradivari The outlines are hard and less pleasing. Venice. him violins by J No are known. Morglata. II. all others in Venice. 142.. The violoncello which belonged to General Oliver was subsequently acquired by M. this he bequeathed to ILK. Jean Gerardy plays upon a good instrument nine 90I by Montagnana of a small size it was presented to him in English friends. The F holes incline to the design of Joseph Guarnerius. it is now in the Royal collection. II I is said to have worked also at Mantua and lit . Prince Albert. (lallay. . Venice. MONTEGRATIA. 145. Marco Antonio. as his instruments Cremona. 17S0. . 51 700-1 750. His violas are valued more highly than his violins. Pietro Valentino.

" and " Vincenzo Triusano Panormo. but the scroll of varying character. He 1813. Vincenzo Panormo di in Palermo and died there in He was one of the Palermo. Bartolomeo.) Or Obici. Verona. died at Brighton on November 3rd. but He worked on a somewhat narrower But little model. best was born in 1740. where some of his instruments are and went afterwards to England and Ireland. 147. similar pattern to that of Nicolas Amati. ( ) He He is made violins and contra-basses. 151. 17S0-1785. OBIZI. He was not choice about his materials. Ferdinand. Rome. on the His labels are. " Vincent Panormo. fecit Parisiis. He lived for a short time in dated. but among his many instruments of decided mediocrity order.52 lived at the CREMONA. (") Verona. the guitar-maker. PANSANI. 1734. 1760. the name also appears ((/) (c) He worked at Ascoli in He is said to have been 1673. 148. and had after in their time a considerable reputation. the style of Maggini." There is much uncertainty about the dates. Georges Louis. " Bartolamio Obici in Verona 1684. OBUE. He is said to have worked also at Venice . the bow-maker. and it is suggested that one of his sons was working in London during the latter part of his father's He left several sons. born at Monreale. — as Panzani. PANORMO. Anno 17— of the imitators of Stradivari. near Palermo. (*) Paulus. Bartolomeo. (") 152. known. His label is. rue de 1'Arbre Sec. 149. 1750. and Edouard Vincenzo. ODOARDI. He A died at the small model. 17— . with. . PALMA. Lucca. Paris. Giuseppe. In Dublin he found an old billiard-table of maple. 1755. "Vincenzo Panormo me fece Marsiglia. 150. He made. seldom met (n) (/. Joseph (whose son. Edward residence in Paris. "and "Vincenzo Panormo. Sicily. age of twenty-eight years. Fecit Vincenzo. 1760. which he used for his backs. several excellent violins. as an amateur. A peasant. 1791". commencement of the eighteenth century. Anno 17 . Londra. Panormo is considered by De Piccolellis to have perhaps been a pupil of Bergonzi. Antonio. is c there are some of a high The F holes are very beautifully cut. Paris." 30th November. and his Paris labels are. 1891).

[/) De Piccolellis considers him to have been a pupil <>( Maggini. He 1652. He made good violins and violas of a model similar to that of Maggini. clearly toned wood. 1710-1730. PFRETSCHNER. and Carl Friedrich. David. POLLUSKA. bellies are rather The . Cremona. Neila. A Giovanni Gaettana Pazzini Florentinus anno 16— g 00(i rough. PICINO. 1670. made tone. model. ('") 155. 1 75 1. Johann Gottlob. dark if) brown 156. 1710-1730. Florence. not powerful. Giovanni Gaettana. both made instruments after the model of Stradivarius. varnish. lie cites a label in evidence. but this is not certain. RAPHAEL. But little known. 160. Domenico. dark 157. 16— Brescia. (a) (h) Or Pollusca. Cremona. dark yellowish brown. Gaetano. 1794 1794. PFRETSCHNER. A high model. varnish. Nella Raphael Brescia A. PASTA. PAZZINI." is known about this maker. 161. 1762. 1640. appears to have been associated with one of the Gaglianos. Rome. Or Davide I'izzurmus. 154.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. " Gian Ga< Very little Pazzini allievo dell' Maggini di Brixise Fecit anno 1660. is also found. POZZURNUS. He ornamented the backs and sides with His varnish tone is is inscriptions and designs. RACCERIS. 153. 15S. thinly laid on. flat-modelled Brescia. 159. Padua. as the weak is on the other hand they have an produced. of moderate merit. high-arched grained. instruments. and Both these which have very good 17 10. ) Mantua. . His instruments are seldom found. Brescia. h { Genoa. 171 2. 53 PASTA. . agreeable tone which easily (e) The name of Antonio Pasta. Immigrants from Bavaria. (f) Antonio. 162.

— 54 163. RUDGER. 164.) confusion has occurred between the families of Rogieri and Rugieri. REGGIERI. Cremona. Cremona. of A (/) (/•) Vidal gives a label of this maker. Per f Stainer. Sydney Brooks has a good violoncello of There 1693 by this maker. RENISTO. detto in il Per portions similar to those Cremona dell' Anno 16— Francesco. ROGIERI. ( ) Cremona. of 1686. are not clearly ascertained. 165. Domenico. who came from Brescia. but has really no connection with it. The model is high. good deal (See below. he was a pupil of it Renisto Cremonae Alumnus Carlo Bergonzi fecit 17— Carlo Bergonzi. with Ruggeri. with the middle bouts much hollowed out. They resemble far more those of Francesco Ruggeri. Domenico Rogieri Cremona 17 Cremona. in similar fashion to that of Amati. 17 Qf — ! . Cremona. brown 166. but not be said this can- may be distinguished in his instru- ments. and the dates of his career. 1744. RUGGERI. CREMONA. This master 167. has often been considered to be a member of the Ruggeri His violins family. He is little known. and is of good quality. 1650-1700. Cremona brown varnish. 168. Good Dark instruments after the style fecit in ^^ ^^ . 1668-17 20. RUGER. good. Cremona. The varnish is dark brown. Not to be confounded He copied Joseph Guarnerius. According to his label. and the separate identity of this maker from that of the preceding. The violoncellos are large and broad. 1640-1684. Francesco Ruger. . for a long l'anno 16— time a prominent position (?') This maker may have been one of the family of Rogeri. Cremona. ( 7 ) His instruments have pro- ROVELLI. the varnish is He made a large number of violins of a small pattern. 1738. and violas are especially good. and a reddish(*) 169. the wood ordinary. No. The Francesco Ruggeri in dett' il family of Ruggeri took. varnish. or Rogieri. 173. Francesco. Air. is much doubt as to the exact relationship of the members of the family of Ruggeri or Rugieri.

The Brescian and Cremon of Pietro Giacomo Rogeri. Foster Cooke has a violoncello by this maker. 171. The work of Francesco belongs to the school of Amati. in whose work1666-1725. The back is thickly. j ilf r he established himself first „ . This (/«) master was a maker of Brescia. uses higher archand makes the F holes less elegant and the scroll Mr. without being absolute copies. at at Cremona and Brescia. of The his instruments Giacinto. whose instruments are somewhat rave.hi. I. violom 1 llo. (/) Giacinto (the son of Francesco). violas. is not to be to clear up "the confusion. . fath. the belly thinly. the tone of He is which extremely clear and intense. Piatti which formerly belonged to the Due de Litta. afterwards varies He materially from the ings. figlio di Francesco Ruggero detto il per 16— which exist bear clearly the stamp of his father Francesco. the favourite pupilof Lindley. There is some confusion herein order and in orthography. The tone of the upper found in the instruments of the Rugieri family. (') RUGGERI. considering the a I t 1 much fine varieties of spelling. ('") : shop he was undoubtedly trained. Cremona. Giacinto. RUGGERI.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. this. The varnish is is clear red. in 55 inferior to Cremona. strings is sweet in quality. Hancock. and perhaps unequalled. exactly with the body. Nicolai . and was in artistic achievements but little it. The ticket. G. De Piccolelli ha done at. approaching golden. and harmonizes elegant. and wondered To this to Paganini. . varnished. few 1696. . Giovanni Baptista.Si-no. " ria This violoncello cinto filio di Francesco Ruggeri detto II Per 1696. families are here not clearly distinguished . model of Francesco. The back and sides are of pear. The scroll is gracefully carved." was formerly the solo instrument of Mr. the back being in one piece. maker is . or Rogicri. . A . the outlines and archings is The design of and the F holes come in from midway between those of Nicholas Amati and of Stradivarius. as kindly furnished by the owner. Rogerius 5 Bon : pupil of Nicolas Amati . one of the Uogeri family and li. .wood. Bapt.. Io : AmatiV.. not to be surpassed. violoncellos. Cremona alumnus Brixias fecit Anno Domini 17. and 170. The The shape is of the bold broad type varnish is of a fine dark colour. and made violins. and that of the lower possesses great depth and richness. is.

Gaspard his Duiffopruggar. running and the corners are less prominent. Vincenzio. and bears his initials. The middle bouts are cut as flat. 1700-1720... — of Salo. RUGGERI. as did later his successors («) violins. but the date is doubtful This maker was the son of Giovanni Battista Rogeri (171). RUGGERI. As little the violin in his time was a new instrument then but and introduced. . Brescia. "Petrus Jacobus Rogeri fecit Brixise 17 The violoncello mentioned above. than The Beethoven viola is by Vincenzo Rugieri. on the lake Garda.-. Of Vincenzo Ruger detto & . a very fine instrument. 172. P. apparently. Brescia. His instruments possess excellent qualities. of Francesco. . Gaspard di 1550-1612." Another label is known. 56 more clumsy. of the year 1717.. the cant. is now in the it is the instrument which was once possession of an English amateur owned by Paganini. but 1 In Cremona _ il Per • 16 inferior c to „ work or r Francesco. di. violoncellos. (0) . and For the bellies the archings are rather higher. scroll insignifi- the is F by holes similar to those quality. (") RUGGERI.. Cremona. N. . 1 695-1 730. ~ Nicholay Amati Cremonensis . are to be found in greater It is number than worthy of note that he. . — CREMONA. similar . 174. Guido. is narrower . Vincenzo Rugieri made more violoncellos. ' . F holes longer. — .. The pattern . The varnish of very beautiful is The violoncello of Signor Piatti (") this master. it is natural that basses. 175. Brixiae 17- maker. he always used pine with a perfect regularity of grain. the more parallel. 173. But little known. viols of Gaspard di Salo violins. is birthplace the little His town of Gaspard Salo in Brescia 16 also. - Petrus Jacobus Ruggerius de J fecit r athan that of ^ preceding the . carved by him. Cremona. Pietro Giacomo. . character .v„ the . . and are valued almost as highly as those of Francesco. Bresciae A° the He made laid Gasparo da Salo fecit foundations on by also. and wider open. little Casper Dasalo Fecit Bresciae A° an( j varied but from model. SALO.

with command of Cardinal Museum of Innspruck. Faure. Another remar] able violin is the one owned by Mr. . it belonged to M. Violins of Gaspard da Salo are rare enough in this country. Venice. to sell it at that period it . only a bridge of boxwood. into the market is willingly pun based at is a high in the One of the finest violins by this master {/*) possession of Ole Bull. Paris. Bennett. according to modern ideas the purfling so polished it. to have been born in 1542. Sandys <S. Ole Bull's violin. when the Councillor Rhehazek placed this unique gem in his celebrated collection of ancient musical instruments. is not particuis good. sculptured and painted. now Lord Many fine double-basses by Gaspard daSalo are in existence. He left it by will to Ole Bull in 1S42. which he left to Mr. W." This interesting instrument is now in America. which he bequeathed to the Churchwardens of St. which is in the South Kensington Museum the Amati double-bass. Mark's. by Gaspard da ran for I : ' ' Carytides by Benvenuto Cellini. at first made high-arched violins. the celebrated so-called Treasury violin of Innspruck. 1 . Forster from a description taken : This maker is considered (/' (Livi). it. For the backs and sides of the larger instruments he generally used pear-tree wood. which if is extremely great. maker was found in the collection of Tarisio it afterwards passed into if Mr. sculptured by special Aldobrandini. A. James' [all. Samuel Appleby. A small bass viol with six strings is in the the MumV du Conservatoire. which he left to the municiOne of the most perfect bassi di camera by this pality of Venice. After the assault upon the said city by the French in 1S09. by one of the most recent writers. 57 Amati and Stradivarius. Amherst. and in the course of time shaped his archings on a lower model. the Museum was plundered.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. and the violin carried to Vienna. at St. Up to had never been played upon had no bar. also instrument dates by Gaspard da Salo. and a four-stringed contra bass. when exhibited at a conversazione of the Musical Society of London on the 29th January. and by him presented to the in the Tyrol. . Tyssen-Amherst. as the later is makers knew how fulness to finish His greatest merit his of tone. . and a very short and inlaid fingerboard. and to have died in 1609. refusing Salo. 1S62. notably the celebrated instrument belonging to Signor Dragonetti.m about 1580. This description " The celebrated Treasury Violin of Innspruck. any price. . and neat. not The larly technical finishing in all his instruments . Gaspard di Salo's instruments are in safe hands it . is fully described by Messrs. This famous player also owned the gigantic three-stringed instrument which he left to the Duke of Leinster. but some of the finest of his violas are in the hands of English collectors. in the same collection fr'. one comes price. then to M. Boulart. for the violins only maple. of Brighton and a Stradivari double-bass.

. confusion has occurred between the names of Santi. 183. tator of and possibly or identical with him. Sapino. Sante. or by large ornamental His violoncellos are usually better labels or by small labels. Domenico.58 r CREMONA. and one of the tail-piece. found with his initials in ebony let into the belly under the bread part He principally followed Nicolas Amati. Milan. Of no particular Milan. are extremely good. whereby than his violins. With Venice. 1640. authority cites a label to show apt arently that he was his pupil. The varnish handsome. 181. 8c. Santo. 1730-1745. Naples. SERAPH IN. models differed. Model after that of Nicolas Amati . (. 1 SANTINO. others after that of Nicolas Amati. Similar to Grancino. An imi- Many of his violins Cappa. of the Amati school. golden-red varnish. Some of his violins are very elaborate and handsome. while still others much is resemble those of Francesco Ruggeri. very few instruments by this maker are to be found. Montagnana he is the most celebrated Venetian maker. and have a handsome. SEPINI. SANONI. 179. that of Stainer.-) Or Sante (?) This name also occurs at Pesaro and in Rome. 182. SANZO. 76. Sanzio. Giovanni. either by his name branded on them. Milan. varnish and insignificant workmanship 178. 1700-1730. Of mediocre merit. Sanctus Seraphin Utinensis Fecit Venetiis Ann. 17 10-1750. ('') Giovanni Baptista. so he varied in the marking of his instruments. and a large label. the backs. brittle Verona. Cremona. Similar to Sanzio Santino. which he is said to have himself engraved. SANTI. value. Naples. changed the model of his violins there are some made after . brownish-red. 17— and in the of their artistic execution instruments the He often best of them excelled those of Stradivarius. SANZZA. and put on thickly on As his it has come off in parts by use. r ( ) SERASATI. 1634. He used is and which . A high model 177. (q) Some Santo. Santino.

On the 7th October. . by means of the benevolent assistance of his parish priest. but is noble and sympathetic. SPEILER. 1872. Stainer was born on the 14th July. Cremona. and Absom in Tyrol. 185. and desired him went to to marry his daughter. There he is said to have worked under Nicolas Amati but of this proof is wanting. He was married on the 26th Noveml 1 (Innspruck. and there is nothing in his work to show the influence of this master. [645. STAINER." ByS.) "Der Geigenmacher Jakob Stainer. Valentino Siani Florenz 16- Florence. (') {s) in the ( According to the parish registers of Absom which arc preserved church of Hall. which union was blessed more with children than his art with remuneration.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. The Tyrol. Valentino. who was after his death elevated to an ideal position.Ruf. and made violins for the market at Hall. 186. but that this did not suit Stainer's wishes. The Siani tone is not strong. He made refined in instruments model and in construction. He was during the the Jacobus Stainer in Absom prope Oenipontum 16— whole of his life a poor man. he was the son of Martin Stainei and Sabine See Iratinger. 1630. r. and. violin-making. he married Margaretha Hobz- hammer. made excellent violas. ( ) s As a . (/) Wagner. History also relates that Amati sought to secure Stainer on account of his talent. which his price was six guldens. Jacobus. 59 SIANI. When for hardly twenty years old he returned to Absom. 1S4. 1658. and that to evade Amati's intentions he Venice and worked under Vimercati. 1645. and the family fell into trouble On the 29th October. followed by every imaginable misfortune. at Absom in the boy he worked with an organ-builder at Innspruck. contrived to reach Cremona. Stainer was and debt. is The is varnish brown> an(J of a beautiful quality. 1621. his native place. Tyrol. but as he was weak in body he took to a lighter occupation.


by the Archduke

raised to the rank of Archducal Retainer

Leopold, and on the 9th January, 1669, he received the distinction of " Court Violin-maker " from the Emperor.
After these honours he was accused by the Jesuits of the

crime of heresy, and lay in prison for six months in consequence. After this he got deeper into trouble, went out

His wife and eight house is still shown a stone bench to which he was chained when he was insane. Whatever may be attributed to the work of Stainer, it furnishes evidence of the master's great genius. The technical work has never been excelled, and if Stainer had not been obstinately and firmly attached to the high -arched
daughters survived him.

of his mind, and died insane in 1683.



model created by him, he would have followed the old Brescian pattern more, and the question is whether he could not then have excelled every one in power of tone, as he
certainly did in beauty.





were covered with the

finest pine-

There Stainer chose the planks for the bellies of his instruments, and as much as possible a round-veined maple for the backs and sides. That Stainer at one time lived in Cremona we see from a certain number of his violins, which are dated from that place they are for the most part small instruments, with the bellies of rather broad-grained wood. The labels in them are in his handwriting. (") When he returned to Absom he enlarged his model, without otherwise altering its character. His violins are rather broader and shorter than those of the Italian makers. The belly is made higher than the back the F holes are short, and spread out into circular holes the corners project widely. The neck has often, instead of a scroll, a well-carved





Stainer has put

a scroll,










Otto says he made his violins in three sizes, a large size, medium, Tartini used a fine Stainer violin, with a bright yellow varnish it was shown in the Exhibition at Milan in 1SS1. Mr. A. E. Donkin now possesses the well-known viola by him foimerly belonging




Count Castelbarco.





is exceedingly handsome. Occasionally Stainer has put a third sound-hole in the shape of a star under the finger-board it may be noticed that in these cases the


holes are narrower than usual.

His violoncellos are on the model of the contra-bass, that upper part of the sides slope downwards on a curve with the neck of the instrument. Stainer is said towards the end of his life to have made twelve violins of extraordinary beauty, and to have intended them as presents for the twelve Electors. This story of the so-called " Elector violins" must, however, be banished into the company of mere legends. (/ STAINER, Marcus. Knefstein, 187. 1659. A
to say, the

brother of Jacobus.


Marcus Stainer Burger und belonged to a monastic Geigenmacher in Knepstein anno 16— or der, and assisted his
brother in the business

two by him, which he called St. Peter and St. Paul these are said to have surpassed the best Italian instruments

of violin-making.


virtuoso Veracina possessed

fulness of tone.
in the


lost these violins in a ship-


Mediterranean Sea.



known, which are excellent. They are distinguished, at their best, by handsome wood, darkbrown brilliant varnish, and a large tone of a soft quality. (*) 188. STORIONI, Laurentius. Cremona, 17S0-1804.






Laurentius Storioni





Cremonae 17—

maker of any reputation. His violins resemble those
of Joseph Guarnerius, but


Genuine instruments by Stainer are scarce, while copii -. of all swarm no maker was more copied by rerman makers and by This great popularity assisted to English makers of a certain period. bring the Klutz family and their followers into high favour, a position
: <

which, like that of Stainer in a higher degree, has been declining foi a long period, and which threatens to sink yet This was Francesco .Maria Veracini (the younger', who wasthe (re) lie lost these vii pupil of Antonio Veracini, of Florence. generally called St. Peter and St. Paul, about 1746.


this family



also a certain
ol viols.

Andreas Stainer,




he was a maker









model, and

the the








of cutting his


holes in various directions.



dark brown, and is more in the Neapolitan than the Cremonese style. Vieuxtemps used a Storioni violin for some time for concerto-playing, which had a superb tone, and public attention was thus directed to this








Antonius Stradivarius Cremonensis among violin Faciebat Anno 17— A gt S overtops that





us more than a thousand instruments, and each one
Stradivarius was born in the city of


Cremona, and came

of a family of


note, which, as early as the year


through one Ottolinus Stradivarius, a senator, found mention
in history.
(*) is


year of his birth

not to be found in the registers of

the state, and

we should be

ignorance on this point, were

not accidentally for one of his instruments, of the year


1736, in which is found the inscription, "92 years old," in From this it appears that he was own handwriting.

born in 1644. (") Other credible data concerning his life are as follows He married and had four children three sons, Francesco, Omobone, and Paolo and one daughter, Catherina. With



respect to the


the following entry in the register of

deaths appears

" Catherine, daughter of Antonio Stradivari,

deceased, living in the parish of the Cathedral of Cremona,


He began
For the


make about


770, and died in 1799.

early references to members of the family, see " Cenni sulla celebre scuola Cremonea degli strumenti ad arco, non che sui lavori e sulla famiglia del sommo Antonio Stradivari." Cremona, Per sacerdoti Paolo Lombardini. tipografia Delia Noce, 1872.


actual inscription


" d'anni 92."

and two daughters. 1667. he acquired a handsome fortune . ovanni Antonia Zambelli. and Paolo.1 . Alessandro. Giulia. 1742. The back violinist Polledro. Church of that prove he vari married. as a tall thin — — Stradivarius sold his violins for not less than four louis d'or. 1727. 1667." (*) Francesco and Omobono carried on their father's business in the same house after his death. close to the Place S. 1708. and died 7th August. 1679. 1670. in the Chapel of the Rosary of S. known that Stradivari purchased. and " rich as Stradivari " was the expression used by the inhabitants of Cremona when they wished to describe a rich man. who generally wore a white woollen or cotton cap on his head. 12th February. No. died 26th January. died 8th July. When at his work and he was always at work he wore an apron of white leather. His house was in the Piazza Roma. bom 26th January. (a priest). died ist November. of Turin. on the 24th August. who at a great age. in 1729. and died. 174S. a family burial place in the Cathedral Domenico. 1743. 1671. As acquainted personally with Stradivarius. in the same year Francesco. unmarried. dud 29th November. 1720. (/') The — . born 1st February. 1677. 1699. 1701. and was buried 63 in the Church of Saint Domenico. who was born 19th September. but the registers of the was buried in the grave of Francesco Vitani. but Paolo became a dealer in cloth.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. unmarried. For his second wife Stradivari married. Francesca Ferraboschi. born 23rd December. burn 14th November. I . researches of Lombardini have shown that Antonio Stradion the 4th July. 1707. nearly seventy years old. Domenico. born 6th November. and Omobono. died 19th October. Domenico. born 27th October. We are indebted to the researches of Signor Sacchi at for details Cremona It is concerning the end of the great master. by whom he had live children foui Battista Giuseppe. born I ith November. died. It is still in good condition. and Cattarina. The omission of the name of the church in which the S. died nth May. eppe. and by her had four sons Francesco. 1732. 1704. 1703. a notary. died 174S. Mattheo. 3rd August. relates that his died a few years master had been well He describes him man. . born 25th May. 1700. died 1702: Giovanni Battista Martino. the widow of Jean-Jacques Capra. 1239. born 181I1 February. [781. in the midst of which stood the Church of S. who married one Farina. born 6th February. died 12th February. 1674. Francesca. 177'': and daughter.

" Sepolcro di Antoni Stradivari E of Eredi An. (r) It appears from the papers of Lancetti and Count Salabue that at the time of Stradivari's death ninety-one of his violins were in his In 1775 ten of these were in the hands of Paolo Stradivari . pleased to receive the exact information from you that the church in which your was buried is the Church of beyond all Domenico. Domenico.64 CREMONA. to Count Salabue and such models and tools subsequently came into the hands of Count Delia . The parish Church of S. and yet we find from his work that this must have been the fact. but Nicolas . there are violins with the mark of " Nicolas Amati. he sold them. possession." preserved in the town-hall Cremona. Mattheo. Domenico. Domenico became the burial-place for the parishioners. and that the Rosenkranz Chapel is the third chapel from the entrance on the right in the Church of S. and was buried svoi Church of S. Domenico had belonged to the parish of S. then nearly ninety-four years old. Chapel of the Rosary was led to the belief that the exact spot where his mortal remains reposed had been forgotten. 1729. stone bearing the inscription. Although not one of his instruments bears a date earlier than 1688. which runs father " I am S. Here Stradivari purchased the grave. and in 1720 further interments were prohibited. with the models and tools of Antonio Stradivari. the youngest : son of Stradivari. . has never been proved that Stradivarius was a pupil of Amati. As further information about the great master is wanting. Credit is due to the researches of Signor Sacchi for the discovery that the Church of S. whence the minor Church of S." is The 1737. is found in : have ascertained. Mattheo was too small. we must derive the rest from his instruments. died at Cremona. which give us a sufficient insight into his It life. later." in his latest period. Among the written by effects of the Abbate Lancetti was found a letter Count Cozio de Salabue to Paolo. Valle. which are beyond all doubt made by the hand of Stradivarius these have not been allowed longer to sail under a false flag." that (') In another " I letter of Count Cozio. a year doubt. in the Stradivari. as well as two violins by Francesco Stradivari.

and show the same veiled quality of tone. inlaid with ivory of these one violin came : into the possession of Ole Bull. W. n in of 1690. tus King . in n-s and 1690. E. For the full description and curious history of this m violin. Stradivari's finest work was executed for these special conmissions. (f) At this time he also made specimens known distinguished by this kind of which belonged to Louis Rode. Stradivari also made instrurm (tf) One of the first work is the- violin . The purflings are fine. The instruments of this period display wood of a fine quality of tone. though it is not beautiful. the latter colour being is generally found in those instruments in which the back jointed. The holes varnish clear is F differently coloured. Hill & Sons. Augu Poland. the corners are longer. to mo HI. The These colour of the varnish also varies between amber-yellow and clear red. a period in which Stradivarius adopted a It is longer pattern. of Spain. i 1 j < for the Duke of Alba. often clear red . This is considered to have been one of the concertos supplied. Hill's interesting publication on famous instruments and on famous makers "The Tuscan Strad. long violins have as fine a tone as the others. The became next period natter. the violinist: this instrument is now in the possession of an English collector. the is from 16S6 to 1694. Then comes in the middle. and made them broader and somewhat deeper. for example. of which one. the so-called "patron allonge. or dark.Messrs. and the whole instrument becomes larger and the scroll much more powerful. Some years later lie gave them a scroll with a bolder form. see the first of . often a bright golden colour." narrower and it for this reason appears to be longer. and for the Court of Modena. The archings : more elegant and less upright the design of the middle bouts is more expanded than in his later model. 65 have been provided with Stradivari labels. The year in which Stradivarius left the workshop of Amati must have been 166S. but is invariably beautifully transparent. the concerto made for the Court of Tuscany. In the year 1687 he made a quartet of instruments for the Spanish Court. a fact which would hardly be in the thought possible considering the difference model. the owner It may he p >inted out that some of of a quartet of Stradivaris. a very fine violin. who sold it to an English collector. From that time his instruments are in complete harmony with those of his master.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. is that which recently it is help the hands of Messrs. "I Medici. for Charles III.

model. The instruand other hands are also helping in the work. Full of rich experience gained from these experimental works. The outlines are now broadened approach the out. 1725 to 1736. in the rounding of the and cannot be conceived not. then. be thought that one instrument is constructed exactly like another. possibly for some small violins with some special orders. finished respects independently. exactly according to the consistency of the properties. Stradivarius. The decay of power may now be noticed the sure hand wavers. in order to combine the powerful tone of the Brescian makers with the beautifully clear Amati sound. he certainly brought it into form in a wonderful manner at this period of his labours. We now come to his last period. the varnish of the best quality. the archings in all respects most beautiful design. Cremona. but the perfection of workmanship prevails no more. were his sons. principle of marking only those with his name which . and the materials are selected with the scroll is neat. most accurate is care." from which it appears that he carefully adhered to the. It is thought that in they . in the place of the F holes. There are differences found in the thickness of the back and belly. wood or its acoustic which he had studied to a very exact degree.66 CREMONA. own hand. The but less deeply cut. however. which is from He attained this. Whatever may have appeared to the master as an ideal. when he was fifty-six years old. and the faithful assistant. similar ornamentation. ment gives as much tone as can be wished. assisted ? . and these give rise to the theory that Stradivarius worked on a wise principle. is The varnish of these later instruments " sotte brown and less clear than that disciplina. Carlo Bergonzi but as their own works. many at do not it is resemble the master's instruments of 1725 to 1736. art. the highest point of his 1700 to 1725." of an earlier date. with his all events in the important parts. Stradivarius entered his golden period. possible he may have wrought them. a few are marked la "sub or disciplina di Ant. must It to be more beautiful. Who.

S. in this collection were two violas by Stradivari. Pigott. whose representatives sold it after his death. inter alia. (6) The famous instrument from Spain in pieces by to Tarisio. caused those be distinguished with the latter mark which were made by his assistants or under (') his superintendence. The virtuoso Servais possessed one (f) of the (e) Vidal mentions a magnificent viola by Stradivari in tion of the Due de Camposelice. the violoncellist. It passed from him to Mr. George Hart. it was sold to a colle< tor. of the large pattern. has recently. G. Raoul it is one of the longer pattern. Charles Reade. Lucas. which ervatoire. been acquired by -Mr. one Stradivari the great Guarnieri. This belonged to Mr. mentioned above . (as did also the instrument belonging which had been in the possession of M. possession.000 lire. Mill & Sons). (4) The well-known violoncello of 17 1 Holden. of Dublin. Crossdill. all of the first rank . descended to Madame Servais. it is an Stradivari viola . came from the late Monsieur Chevillard. W. Place and of Thiboust of Paris. and has recently been in the hands of Messrs. whopreC. the widow of Servais fils. His son sold it to Franchomme. one violin by 1'ietro Guarnieri of Venice. (2) That of the late King of Portugal. happily. Among other fine instruments may be mentioned (1) that of Signor Piatti of 1728. E. do not show as many variations as they are of a large pattern. to It M. and one by Xicolo Gagliano. and arc in every respect not to be surpassed. and a quartet by Nicolas Lupot. E. to m English It is now in the pos rs. of 1725 it was obtained ! : : I 1) : < I . Gibson. C 1'awle violoncello of 1730. nine Stradivari violins. in 1SS4. and belonged was presented by Princess Voussoupow to Servais. His few violas . J. The violoncellos are made in his violins do two sizes. who sold it to I 1 1 H Uiver. which is believed to have formed part of the collection of the Signi Batta. it contained. one violin by Santo Seraphin. It may be instrument of the year 1728. who sold it for . in 1884. who It then passed into the hands of the late used it regularly in opera. the violoncellist. A. which was brought inti (3) The M:i [ohann Baptist Mara. The Cambesides the violins and two violoncellos by Antonio Stradivari. who died in Paris on the 1st 1S87 . John Whitmore Isaac. on the other hand. \Y. Hill & Son. thence to Mr. who sold about 18S7 to Monsieur Coutaut. A very fine viola of 1690 is in the Istituto Musicale of Florence.7 NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. a rare and one by Gaspard da Salo. which was subsequently in the collection of Mr. for 25.000 francs. of the smaller pattern. five violins by Giuseppe Guarnieri del Gesu. belonged to Jean-Louis Duport. of Boughton Park. of the violoncello. E. above. Court of Madrid. for 50. ( f) This violoncello of 1701 . and now to Mr. where there is also a fine Stradivari violoncello of 1790. poselice collection is worthy of enumeration it comprised. Bonamy Dobree. (5) The to Mr. Mr. and four violins by mentioned that the viola of Mr. 67 to he had himself made. The Adam Collection may be fitly compared with the Camposelice cabinet. belonging collector. and. and the Old B Worcester. thence to Lord Macdonald. it On Franchomme's death. the banker. Maucotel for ^200. Another grand specimen..£300 toG sented it to Signor Piatti. one violoncello. eight : the collec- September.

mentioned Marquis de Queux de Saintand illustrated by Vidal. B. recently belonging to Mr. and inlaid and ornamented. 1 707. One of the violins of this concerto was in the possession of Ole Bull and afterwards in the Plowden Collection. formerly belonging to Mr. of New York. " Les trois Nicolas. Waldemar Meyer (the George III. Muir. E. R. Tuscan violin. The violin belonging to the Hilaire. See their book. E. now belongs to Herr Georg Hausmann. It was brought into France by Tarisio. W. and sold by him to Silvestre. Wiener. These. recently in the possession of Messrs. " La 1702. It belonged to Clapisson. which is distinguished by great power of tone and beauty. (2) The Betts violin. The Vaslin and Gallay violoncello was brought from Italy to Paris by M. formerly belonging to M. labels. to an violin English 1699. Remenyi. but a few well-known instruments may be roughly enumerated.68 larger size. (1) The Viotti violin. of Lyons. After the death of Stradivarius a number of his unfinished instruments were discovered. and sold at the recent Maxwell sale for ^500. and continually cause when they have to be examined and valued. E. The Castelbarco violin. of Leith. 168S. The 1690. and was played upon by Croisilles in Clapisson's opera. M. now in the possession of the Duchesse de Camposelice." 1889. violin in the possession of Mr. but all are unequalled in every respect. Ludwig. Adams. Malcolm. W. furnished with genuine great (^) confusion came into the market. while that of the Pluvie Collection belonged to M. . formerly belonging to the Vicomte de Bioley. " The Tuscan Stradivari. or kit. the violins of Messrs. Croall. CREMONA. Hawley. The violoncello which formed one of the concerto made for the Spanish Court in 1687. Lutherie. is in the {g) Musee du Conservatoire. and now to Mr. B. by Stradivari. is still at Madrid. Hill & Sons. then to Sir P. Baudiot. M. Maxwell. and Lady Halle (the Ernst violin)." It is not known that any complete list of the authentic violins by Antonio Stradivari is in existence. of 17 1 7. Girard of the Societe des Concerts. W. Herr Hugo Becker possesses an excellent violoncello of 1708 and the fine Stradivari violoncello. and sold by them in August. D. according to the well-known story related by Charles Reade and others. de Barreau. Paris. violin). K. R. acquired by M. formerly in the possession of Mr. Wilhelmj. 1890. pere and Tarisio. R." 1890. The known as Le Mercure. The violoncellos of the larger size are known in large numbers. Gallay gave Tarisio ^800 for it. and subsequently to Mademoiselle The violoncello which formerly belonged to Wielhorsky was Jaures. The famous pochette. A . and others in the hands of collectors and performers which may be known to the reader. de Munck possesses a fine specimen. among which are not included the socalled Greville Stradivari. a superb instrument. collector. the violinist and composer. 1704. Davidoff . formerly in the possession of Robert Hausmann.

incomprehensible why he did not adhere to his father's model. A A An The excellent example. formerly M. The Chant du Cygne violin. 7 ' W. 1 7 14. now Mr. . For an see Mr. Hill . (1) (2) The The The of Leeds. and he also used a darker varnish of inferior quality.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. Alard Stradivari. R. W. It is inferior to that of his father. 725Son of Antonhe worked for Omobono. 5. Haddock. formerly 1716. violin. now belonging 17 1 (4) 15) A violin in the possession of Herr Joachim. formerly 1743. II. . The The Glandaz. Hart's " The Violin. A violin in the possession of Serior Sarasate. Cessol.srs. J. violin belonging to South Kensington. or Artot. About the tone of said. See known "The (3) Salabue Stradivari. Florence. as the Gillott Stradivari. b< h oi th< e - ii instrument. 1720. The violin called La Pucelle.. He selected an original pattern. for . 1743. 1736. A violin in the possession of Mr. violin. . 1 7 1 3. 1709. now used by Seiior Sarasate. The Dolphin to (1) (2) 13) Adam Collection. violin from the Boissier Collection at Nice. his instruments nothing good can be He died on the nth May. violin belonging to Mr. violin belonging to Mr. The Fountaine violin. Bennett. ('raw ford. in the maker's writing. 1710. 1732. now belonging to U.£620. (1) (2) Mr. "d'ai francs. Messie violin. 190. 1893. 6th. the late Duke of Edinburgh. for de Saint-Sennoch. The Woolhouse violin. with bold but roughly designed outlines.100 francs. Al- though the master-hand it is is not to be mistaken in his work. now belonging to Mr. 1723. G. Francescus Stradivarius Cremonensis ius Films Antonii faciebat Anno 17— several years with his brother Cremona. Ries. Lruments the lati ] hand oi Mi Hill & 1737. Francesco. sold L>ec.K. exhibited it was bought by Signor l< in l'iatti 1872 at from the Castelbani Collection at Na] The Muntz violin.V Sons. Arkwright. sold at the Hotel Drouot on the 14th February. was recently in the account of this Om . The F holes are quite different from his father's beautiful design. formerly in the possess Duke of Cambridge. the property of M. R. A violin in the possession of Herr Joachim. for 22. Orchar. 1878. sold al the H6tel Droui This instrument bears the words. 69 1 STRADIVARIUS. from the Mr. violin in the Istituto Musicale. E. 1717. Croall's. 1890.

Coni. He SURSANO. CREMONA. (z) known. —Anno 17 Antony son of Antonius. Venice. 1725- The second Omobonus Cremone known. thinly put on (') fashion of Nicolas Amati. Stainer at first model. Of He after fecit David Techier Liutaro Romae An." maker. 1714-1735. TANEGI A. 196. fecit Similar to Grancino. Stradivarius figly fecit Cremona. 1730. Spirito. il Rome. But little known. he was the oldest Milanese violin after the fashion of a (h) figlij A label of this maker is also known. Milan. 17— worked at Salzburg." Antonij Cremone. TECHLER. STRADIVARIUS. Techier was compelled to leave Venice on account of the pursuit of his competitors. D. which 192. His the instruments are of cellos. 193. Rome. . the Duke of Edinburgh. 195. Omobono. Of the Amati school. German an(} 194. Hieronymus. notably one which is the property of H.R. 1742. ' — Many fine violoncellos of his are Techier was born in 1666. much merit. Accord- "La Luthomonographie. David. died on the 5th of June 1742. Carolus Antonius Tanegia in Via Mediolane anno 17 — Rome.H. Milan. 1680-1743. especially his large violonafter the He used a yellow varnish. earlier violins not much can be said they are modelled very high. Omobonus Stradivari Fecit anno 17 a Td. He A worked but little. It has been found necessary to cut down the largest Of his instruments on account of their disproportionate construction. and later in better style after that of Nicolas Amati. 1560. who threatened to murder him.7° 191. TEODITI. are weak in tone. violoncello by him is h ( ) is a plain instrument without any particular merit as to tone. . and the first who made a ing to viola. TESTATOR Vecchio. and . lata Carlo Antonio. descent.

TESTORE. last Brother of the purfiing be excellent. TONONI. he worked also at Milan. ('") . Rome. special 203. . 17 10-1745. 1690- Carlo Testore Cremona del me fecit Anno 16- was probably a pupil ofJoseph Guarnerius. whom he CQpied his instruments take a He ^^ and high place in the opinion of connoisseurs. and TONONI." 1759. He worked Antonio Testore Milano 17 — to . and Giovanni. 1700. ( ) TESTORE. He made made number of violins of also tine cithers. His instruments are generally without 200. and one of his violins is known to Milano 17— ' Nicolas 199. 1 700-1 730. merit. 197. (*) Paolo Antonio. . Of no Rome.Venice. Milan. is good as a rule. Milan. TONONI. violins are 202. Carlo Antonio. is Rather a high model. (') Carlo Antonio. who worked known. he used a yellow varnish. an His inferior order label is. 201. trada largo al segno dell' Aquila worked very well. (J) small contra-bass often used by Bottesini for solo-playing was by (k) little is (7) considered lie maker. at it is had a son Giovanni. a certain the business : of him . The varnish is a bright yellow. The workmanship 198. copied Carlo Antonio Testore figlio Magfa Guamerius he giore del fu Carlo Giuseppe in Con j . The this : Guido. 1710. Joannes. Giovanni used a label. as well as in price. Felice. maker he worked after the model of : Joseph Guarnerius. 1750. He . . 204. 1 709-1 740. Cremona." .NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. 7 Bottesini possessed an excellent contra-bass by him. very good. They worked after various models the flat-modelled good the varnish is a clear brownish-red. "Joannes Tunonus fecit Bononise in platea Pavaglionis anno 1690. and 1730. . he "Paolo (m) Much confusion exists as to the relationships between the mem There was a Carlo Antonio Tononi who bers of the Tononi family. Bologna and Rome. TONONI. TONONI. i TESTORE. Venice. worked at Venice until about 1768. Bologna 17 10. Carlo Giuseppe. Carlo Giuseppe was a pupil of Cappa.

violins Some by him. VIMERCATI. the varnish a dark brownish-yellow. of Milan. 211. model. much excellence. Paris. Antonio Vinaccia was a maker of lutes. 1660. 206. Similar to the Brescian makers. He used a hand- some flat 208. the last. Good Paolo. with a golden varnish. He made Peregrino Zanetto Brescia 15— viols principally. Naples. possessed a violoncello of extraordinarily large noble tone. and good wood. attributed to him. ZANETTO. Jacobus Stainer worked Venice. 1680. VIMERCATI. but the authenticity of his There is a very fine violoncellos as original instruments is doubtful. Peregrine but are 1530-1540.72 CREMONA.) It was brought from Italy by (See ante. . But seldom found. toire. / ( ) Eichhorn. 1765. 209. (f) Antonio. Pietro. or Pelegrino. Luigi Tarisio. TORTOBELLO. VINACCIA. or Vetrini : he lived about 1629. 1826 to 1S46. Brescia. are known. He is His name also runs Pelignino. in the Musee du ConservaMontechiari. Son of he made small instruments yellow varnish. 1 640-1 660. a (0) noted maker of lutes and mandolins. 207. 17 10. 16—. {q) certainly known as a viol da gamba maker. the Carlsruhe player. violins also. VETTRINI. and dated 1547. and which and are valued as solo instruments. Zanetto. some violoncellos excellent. TRUNCO. Rome. the first professor of the violoncello at the Conservatoire. Of no im- portance. Cremona. and belonged to Norblin. (") Venice. (. after the style of the (") elder Amatis. for which high sums were offered him violin . The F holes are long and after the style of Joseph Guarnerius. bass-viol./) His name was Battista Vetterini. A follower of Maggini. see Appendix. and and a by Zanetto in the Niederheitmann Collection has a similar tone of The model is rather large and highly arched. 210. after the model of Nicolas Amati. There was also a Gaspare Vimercati about 1700. under him. Brescia. (/) For other members of the Vinaccia family. for the most part. 205.

Alessandro. follower of Pietro Mantua. Guarnerius. The scroll is whence handsomely curved. and resembles that of Gaspard di Salo. Good workmanship. but bad varnish. the graining runs in uneven lines. A 1765-1770. For violin-bellies 73 he used the wood of a crooked tree.NAMES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN-MAKERS. 212. ZANTI. .

rejoice and entreat. so mentalists. As different people are endowed with different minds. to possess an instrument with fine tone. and suited to every taste . the horn. What one finds soft and beautiful appears to another dull and faint what one takes to be strong and powerful sounds commonplace to another. and after it has worked upon our mind. as possessing the finest tone. and he can express every feeling on one and the and the artist has it particular touch of the strings with the bow. lies It their charm peculiarly in their combination or blending of sounds. however. and by a peculiar combination of positions. his feelings suggest to him. nor seen . so their opinions differ as to the quality of sound which an instrument possesses. in the first rank figure those of Antonio and Joseph Guarneri. . equally important to instru- and particularly to solo-players.74 CONCLUSION. What is a fine tone ? A tone can neither be weighed. the oboe. which please every ear and Among Stradivari delight every listener. we find it produce an effect on our innermost feelings through the power of hearing. nor measured. Why is this ? If we analyse the tone of these instruments by our sense of hearing. There are instruments. these. in his power by a by a particular management of the bow. flute. . which are designated by all. As it is a matter of the greatest importance for a singer to is it have a beautiful voice. to draw forth those delicacies of expression which The artist can chant and sing. comprises reminiscences of the clarinet. we make an estimate whether it is more or less beautiful. and these must be truly kings among musical instruments. without a difference of opinion.

from them. from that point of view a great gulf divides them. (the description of which is too long to be given here). There are violins which produce but one species of tone These are but tedious for instance." remains to be solved what the It originates in the simulnature of blending of sounds is. " he has already been bid such and such If we translate the expression " beauty of tone it into " tone blending of sounds. and if the owner is instruments . only a tone can be drawn. then should the in its career. art of And when this model is attained. he usually answers plausibly that the point. and keep rigidly to. 75 and the same instrument. that of the oboe. which can warm It signifies nothing player and enchant no listener. . many natural tones there are. no that the tone is loud and penetrating. thin. throughout the register. In the royal the tone. fifth. the fifth. a method is provided of estimating aliquot sounds by its system it may be seen how . the is and the seventh. and Resonatoren-Apparat. nasal. violin-making go upwards and onwards . and the stronger those are in the octave. taneous combination of aliquot tones (principal or natural tones) which belong to the same tonic. oboe-like questioned. the model which is provided for him by the greatest masters. Thus he needs but an instrument which contains the capacity of producing these nuances of expression and this is found in the highest degree in the instruments of the above-named masters. for which a price.CONCLUSION. But why should not that point be again attained which once has been accomplished? Until then the violinmaker can do nothing better than follow. and how they combine. Modern violin-making is in tone-production still far distant from supplying masterpieces like those achieved by a Stradivarius . the next octave. the more beautiful the more perfect is the instrument. the third. . it is exactly and that it is a famous historical violin.

A viol da gamba by him is preserved in the same museum. Giovanni Francesco. He worked in the earlier part of the present century. Venice. II Ciciliano. AGLIO. AD AN I. . lyra da braccio. Brescia. about 1738. yellowish varnish. AMBROSI. Bologna. Verona. though the two may perhaps be identical. He was a violaAn elaborately carved maker. or Abati. One He worked in the middle of school. " Gregorio Antoniazzi in Colle 1738. A dalP. 18—. ANDREAS. Ambrosi fecit Brixiae. (Lanfranco). Johannes." A celebrated is. . 17 — His label " Petrus Naples. There is a viol da gamba by this maker in the Museum of the Lyceo Filarmonico at the first known maker ANTONIAZZI. is ABBATI. — at Brescia. century. II Bononiensis. Antonio. Hieron. Giuseppe. Ferdinando. cither maker." ANTONIO. He There appears to have been also a Giambattista Abbati. He was lute-maker. A His name is also written Antognati." was exhibited in Vienna in 1892. Panerazio. ANTONIO. Schebek. noted for his basses. marked " Joannes Andreas Veronensis a uosto 1511. Milan. AMBROSIO. who worked about the same time at Modena. about 1770-1795. ANTONY. Modena. Brescia. &c. Giuseppe Mantua. His Colle. according to Dr. Pietro. ALESSANDRO. A good model.7 6 APPENDIX. ALBERTO. 1530. Bologna. 15—. A good violin with his label is in the collection of the Marquis de Saint-Hilaire in Paris. lute-maker. of the Grancino the eighteenth ALBERTI. Gregorio. MINOR MAKERS AND MAKERS OF LUTES. di 12 ANTAGNATI. about 1600. 151 1. Pietro. label is.

" was shown BASSO. Genoa in the middle of this century. Florence. 1574. Livorno. good repairer. About 1815. lute. Giovanni. 1738. BELAMI. Francesco A modern in special note. maker. BORTOLETTI. BARBANTI. and a reddish-brown varnish. BIANCHI. 16 12. BERTI. viols. A cithara BAJONI. BERATI. principally as a clavicembalo-maker. Pietro Antonio. Luigi.. He made some good violas. BER( HI. Antonio. Florence. Mantua. BELVIGLIERI. Brescia. 17 A who worked at BOM '. Milan. BARALDI. about 1565. Me is BASTOGI. A lutemaker. Orazio. An ancient pochette by him exists in the Museum of the Lyceo Filarmonico at Bologna. Venice. A marked " Bassiano Vienna in 1S92.1784. Luigi. There was a mandolin by this maker marked 1796 in the Zach Collection at Vienna. An Italian lute-maker. . BATTISTA. medium size. Gregorio. Michael. APPENDIX. who worked principally in Paris. Lorenzo. Milan. 17 001x10. Guadagnini. 1566. Felice. Crotona. An archi1668. 660-1 6 70. . BELLONE. A lute-maker who worked Venice BARNIA. He is known as a maker of the maker of no lyra di gamba. 1690-1700. a mandola-maker. Luigi. about 17S0. Paul. 17 — A maker of lutes. — A maker of MOXORIS. good wood. BOSI. Antonio. Cesar. Venice. Piadena. Joanes liuttaro in Roma lute-maker. 1745. Bologna. A mandolin-maker. Gaetano. 1666. Florence. A maker of BASSIANO. There was also one Giovanni Battistaat Naples about 1 751. BECHARDINI. BERETTA. . in Rome. Joannes. Venice. 1609. known Antonius. Venice. Fedele. Probably identical with the preceding maker. A mandolin Bologna. Silva. Nicolo. or Bertassi. maker. BERTI. about 1720. 1892. Corregio. theorbos. — A pupil of Giuseppe BERTASIO. Giovanni. 1742. about 1760. Floriano. BARBIj about 1744. 1840 to about 1S80. 77 1 BAGNINI.

Florence. Lorenzo. Paris. Marcus. BRENSI. 16 : Bernardo. 17 — BRANDIGLIONI. Milan. BRAGHIA. CARCANIUS. CASTELLANI. . Carlo. Venice. Turin. 1597-1610. anno 17 . Little or nothing is known of this maker. 16BUSSOLERO. 16—. 1500. of Cremona. BRESSANO. eighteenth century. Florence. A Francesco Carcassi is also known. Florence. Pietro. " or Calcagni. Bartolomeo. Milan. in 1820. Pietro. " Castagneri Gian Paolo nel palazzo di Soissons in Pariggi. CARCASSI. Son of Pietro. His label is. Luigi." Genuae. born 1S09. Baptista.. 16 1 S. BRANZO. part of the seventeenth century. Giovanni Pietro. He made cithers he died Luigi. maker of spinets. 1817. Modena. Francesco. Cremona. . "Hieronymus Brensius Bonon. — — CASSANELLI. 73 CREMONA. Lorenzo and Tomo. Very little is known of this maker he worked at the commencement of the eighteenth century. lute-maker. He mades lutes and archilutes. Verona. and used generally a bright reddish varnish. 1700. Rivanazzano. who worked with him. He is believed to have been a BUONFIGLIUOLI. . CASTELLANI. Ciano. CARBONI. Rome. Girolamo A lute-maker. about red varnish. Cremona. A maker guitars of and mandolins. 1735. who settled in Paris. Brescia. Barbara." He had a son Andrea. Cremona. about 1650. CARLOMORDI. Genoa. CAESTE. His label is. principally : Giovanni. Gaetan. CASTAGNERI." BRESA. or Brensio). CASPAN. 1620-1660. Giuseppe. . — He worked in the latter CALCAGNO. and Bueckenberg. : A BUEETENBERG. One . He was working in he has made a large number of instruments of 1878 medium quality. 16—. CALVAROLA. Padua. BUGGIANO. The name also runs Buchenberg (or Brensius. about 1740. . An Italian maker. Bergamo. Antonio. A viola da bracchio with his label is in the museum at Bologna the inscription is. Bologna. of the best makers of cithers. Gian Paolo. 1 753-1 769. 17 CABROLI. Of the Stradivari school Bernardus Calcanius fecit CALONARDI. Matteo. 1500.

B. The labels are in manuscript. CATENAR. " Marcus Antonius Cerin.) COMBLE. CELLINI. Messina. alumnus Anselmii Belosii fecit Venetian. Christoforo. Ambroise de Tournay. Giuseppe. 1671. Copyist of Nicolas Amati. lately. or Cocco. and have an excellent tone.. CERUTI. 169S. B. G. A firm is working : at Cremona under this name CHIARELLI. CAVALORIO. 1639. CATTENARO. 1 790-1800. A lute maker he died in 1527 or 1528. Born 1808. Turin. A maker of and theorbos. having succeeded Storioni in 1790. He failed in his F holes. " Henricus Catenar CATI. He made good instruments his work gained a number of medals at various exhibitions." (No. 1793. His basses arc noted. CERUTI. 1654. During the latter part of his life he carried on business at Tournay. Florence. Died in He made a few good instruments. His label is. He died in 181 7. Florence. is. CHIOCCI. they are not as a rule highly finished. 1850. 149. APPENDIX. Ceruti. He used a fine oil varnish. Cremona. lutes Andrea. 1740. 1793. Enrico. " fait a Tournay par Ambroise De Comble 1750. : Pavia. fecit Taurini anno 167 1. Venice. at the present time. All' insegna dell' Aquila d'oro Venetian. Marco Antonio. but possess merit. an. and viola A pupil of Belosio. Enrico. Domenico. and thickly laid on. 17 — COCKO. 1654. . 79 Pietro Antonio. His instruments arc not much known in England. A workman of Antonio Stradivari. He is said to hawbeen a pupil of Cappa." De Comble much worked from about 1720 till about 1756. Son of Giuseppe. Monaco. the property of Prince Caraman-Chimay. Lonigo. which are occasionally coarse and badly cut. A fine quartet of instruments by De omble. which causes him usually to rank as a Flemish maker. Venice." CERUTI. He was working very CHRISTA. was exhibited in th< Paris Exhibition of 1878. : The Conservatoire of Paris possesses an archilute with this maker's label it is. " Christofer Cocko. one. died recently. Gaetano. His label is. in the editor's possession. Giovanni. Padua. about 1720. displaying good workmanship and ( a beautiful reddish-brown varnish. Vide Fetis. sometimes approaching a golden colour. CERIX. CHIAVELLATI. Giuseppe Paolo. Son of G." Genoa.

Venice. DONATO. Gio. anno sal 1774. Duiffoprugcar. FERATI. He made a of violins. of his are known. 1750. 1702. His lutes are famous. — briiker.. FERRARI. in 1769. maker of lutes. Michele. : DECONET. also DRINDA. Battista. now working Venice. Luigi. EDLINGER. Antonio. A mandolins. has a viola A member of the family worked at at Padua Brescia. FENDT. Giacomo. He worked at Ferrara and Rome. A lute-maker. Herr Scholl. 16 15. " Jacobus Philipus Cordanus Fecit Genuse. DONI.) Lucignano. &c. number . FACINI. family existed. Sienna. Joachim. Serafino. 1529. COSTARO. labelled 17 12. FABBRIS. Jacopo Filippo. The elder Fendt. A maker of lutes. Cremona. The Italian form of Tieffen- A firm DELLA CORN A. and ante. Pietro. It would appear that an earlier maker of this Gian Giacomo Delia Corna. who worked at Naples in the second half of the eighteenth century. Florence. of Trieste. Carlo. — A . Gostino. D'ONEDA. He made principally basses. Sienna. 8o CREMONA. CUNI. Joseph Pianza. Of the EVANGELISTI. of the earlier part of the fifteenth century. about 1740. 17 But little known he is said to have made violins of a very flat model. Giovanni Paolo. CUPPIN. Brescia. Techier school. 1774. Rome. Brescia. 17—. 1530. 1729. about 1484 DIEFFOPRUCHAR. is considered to have worked under Bergonzi for a time at FABRICATORE. Some good instruments He was a monk. basses. makers of guitars. Venice. and used a brown varnish. (See Tieffenbriicker. 1764. Florence. 1732-1742. His name is also written Deconer. 1700-17 10. DOMINICELLI. Francesco de. Rome. Giambatcista. Rocco. There was also a Thomas Edlinger. DEGANI." CORNELLI. 18—. Genoa. family of Cremona. Giovanni. His label is. who worked at Augsburg. about 1625 to 1655. Bernardo. 17 — A EMILIANI. Hemade Prague maker. of Innsbruck. CORDANO. Their labels mention the names of Giovanni Battista Fabricatore and Gennaro Fabricatore. a viola da gamba maker. 17—. Carlo. Venice. DINI.

Florence. Giovanni Giuseppe. Agostino. Raffaello. at Carpi. 1790. Alfonzo. Bologna. alia Rua de Taffellanari. GALBUSERA. 1740. A worl of Nicolas Amati. " Prancesco Gatinari Fecit Taurini \nno with. is Turin. about 1641. Giuseppe and Carlo. " Donatus Filano fecit anno 1). little is Very known lutes and viols.) GATINARI. 1771. and was father-in-law of Albrecht Durer. with a light orange varnish. about 1764. about 1820 to This maker invented a guitar shaped violin. and may have been merely a dealer in bowed instruments." Conservatoire Nationale of Paris possesses two good mandolins by him of 1771 and 1772. instruments of no great power. (See Caspan. [641. f. Giovanni Giuseppe Fontanelli bolognese The Musee du and as a — . 160 161. Enrico. working at Vienna. Neap. and was connected with. 16S5. FIORINI. APPENDIX. 16 GASPAN. Florence. or was identical Xiirnberg maker of the same name. Florence. FORNARI. lutes. GiuMilan and Turin. Bologna. who worked from about 1570 to 1597. FREY. Fiorenzi. A pupil of Castagneri. seppe. A label of his in an instrument shown Budrio. FICKER. GATINARI. Sx relation of Carlo. A FERRARI. CAPPING. His son. . Pietro. is. GALBANI. Naples. of this maker. FONTANELLI. The name ascribed to one of thi 2 oldest native Italian makers. FILANO. He is known principally maker of wind instruments. GALTANI. or Frei. Cremona. the same date. Joannes Baptista. 1670. Paris. FIORINO. is 1867. Carlo Antonio. about 1 700 toliillll label is. Giacomo. 1830. Rocco. Prancesco. the — 1 1 1 1704" GENNARO. or Fiscer. Hans. 1 770-1 7S2. Milan. Bologna. 1773. 1892.. is. Milan. 1760 to about 1780. (Nos.) Venice. A famous maker of mandolins and " Bologna. Turin. but some violins of good quality pass under his name." There appears to have also been a Giuseppe Filano. A celebrated mandolin-maker. Giuseppe. 1733label 7 1 His an. Donato. He was a maker of FREDIMAUR. about FERRARI.

HARTUNG. GERONI.. Milan. A German A by or Harton. INDELAMI. 1573. 1727. years at Pietro. 18—. An Italian maker established "Louis Lagetto Luthier rue des Saints Peres Faubourg Saint Germain a Paris a la ville de Cremone. 16 GROSST. d'amour by this maker is known. of Italian origin. GIGLI. GIBERTINI. LAVAZZA. Bologna. A A guitar- GUDIO. lute-maker. JORIO. Parma. Cremona. JULI. Sienna. Giacomo. Giuseppe. Antonio Maria and Santino. He worked in the early part of this century. LANDI. Julio Cesar. : Lyons. in Monaco. Milan. Vincenzo. GREGORI. " Julius Caesar Gigli Romanus Fecit Romas. Martin. viola Hieronimus. who worked between 1680 and 1780. A maker principally known his spinets. Italian. GHERARDI. Giobattista." LAGETTO. 1800-1810. A JADRA. 1800. Paris: his label is. Pietro. Nicolas. anno 1761. Domenico. GIRANIANI. GIANOLI. 1830. Giovanni. Florence. Domenico. He made some good violins. Parma. GHIDINI. business in recent 18 14. 1750. Paris. 1676. 32 CREMONA. Modena. Venice." Carlo. Bologna. . KREBAR. 1750. Naples. 1609. a family of Spanish makers. KRAMMER. about . • Ostia. maker of lutes. 1 790-1 800. about 1750-1765. and theorbos. 1629. Livorno. I. Filippo. Michael. Rome. Hislabel is. Bologna. very fine GUERRA. GU ARM AND maker. Rome. about 1775. Bologna. Cremona. GUGLIEMI. maker established at Rome. Padua. — A maker of lutes Giovanni. GRISERI. settled at An KAISER. Marcus. GUILLAMI. 1602-1620. Luigi. Johann Gottfried. Matteo. 16 Monaco. KOLL. about 1750. 17—. — GRULLI. 1720. Antonio. A lute-maker a fine archilute by this maker is in the Musee du Conservatoire. HAMM. Cremona. 1568. A maker carrying on Filippo. 17—. 1730. pupil of Leonhard Tieffenbriicker. Padua.

Venice. An imitator of the Amatis. by him is in the Musde du Conservatoire. Livorno. . MEIBER1. A maker of mandolins. . 16—. Andrea. Antonio de. Giuseppe. 17 — Conegliano. about 1700. Rome. Parma. Gregorio. 1708. 17—. which MANTOVANI. Venice. 17 — MAFFEOTO. 17 — Omobono Stradivari. Francesco. Antonio. 18—. MELINI. A lute-maker. Parma. He worked in recent years 700-1 718. 1 83 in Their labels are. 18 16. 17 MELONI. Piacenza. MIGLIAIS. Naples. Son of Luigi. Turin. Antonio. his label. Of the LONGO. Ferrara and Bologna. Joseph. lute-maker of Padua he worked ." Ferrara.. Cremona. . APPENDIX. Giuseppe. — 1 — ." 709. Milan. LOLY. MARIA. Luigi. Cremona. 1696. Padua. MONTANI. " Luigi Marconcini in Ferrara. His label is. principally as a repairer. He was living in 18S7. MOLINARI. 17 -MARCONCINI. about 1690-1700. oi 17". a pupil of Michael Hartung. according to he worked " Animi causa. Pietro. Giuseppe. Giovanni Antonio. Treviso. Geronimo Pietro. A Grancino school. Giuseppe de." LEONT. Giovanni. Paris. Naples. A clavicembalo-maker." and "Santino Lavazza fece in Milano in contrada larga 17 18. Carlo. LORENZINI. MARINO. Florence. LIGNOLI. 1630. apparently. (No. A pupil of LUGLONI. MARCO. Guastalla. about 1690. about 1598. Giovanni. " Antonio Maria Lavazza fece Milano in contrada Larga. MERLGHI. MOLINARI. A fine specimen. A celebrated maker of mandolins and mandoras. . He made some good violins. 1675-1700. MERT. Bologna. MARCHI. about 1700. states that Gaspar. Enrico. 1800. Venice. MARCONCINI. Venice. Magno. Bernardo. An amateur. Parma. Ferdinando. LEONI. Jacopo. MARCHETTI. about 1774. 1 LUDICI. Raphael.. or Ludge. about 1790. He made principally theorbos and mandolins. Rome. He worked in the middle of the last century. Antonio. 1767. Florence. MARCELLI.

Alessandro. " Presbyter Antonius Morona. maker of fact. 1738. PLANI. virginals. PACHERELE. Cosimo. His label Bartolomio Obici in Verona. Rome. Giuseppe. about 1765. PEDRAZZI. J. ORTEGA. 1784. of contemporary PEZZARDI. Antonio. or Peregrino. : A Genoa. about 1680. The 17—. Spanish maker and repairer through whom Luigi Tarisio obtained the famous Stradivari violoncello of 1725. about 1745. Antonio. about 1790. PLATNER. of Maggini. Giuseppe. about 1590. Bologna. about 17 10. Ortega is believed to have worked in Italy in : ORLANDELLI. Agostino. citharas. About 1730. Pierre. NIGGEL. about It is 1600. Cremona." (Ante 147. MORONA.54 CREMONA. the father of Pelegrino. 17—. Genoa and Turin. though inferior a clear varnish. Paolo. Bologna. Of the Rome. A . about 174S. Antonio. Brescia. . A PAGANONI. maker of lutes. A viola d'amore maker. PASENALI.) ODANI. about 1630. B. NICHOLAS. Giacomo. 16—. 175 1." POLIS. Brescia. " Michael Platner fecit Romae anno 1747. Techier school. or Pezard. Venice. Giovanni. PANSANI. Venice. Venice. Sympestus. Marco. and very similar. Ignazio. about 1780. Bartolomeo. that this maker was. A maker PERIUS. Zanetto. Geneva. Luca de. which was exhibited by Monsieur Gallay at South Kensington in 1872 he gave ^800 for it. Florence. 1735. 1684. He died in 187 1. Antonio. Piacenza. Codogno. 1719. his youth. about 1778. OBBO. MONTECHIARI. PELIZON. native of Mirecourt. Gorizia. Verona. Madrid. Naples. " OBICI. PILOSIO. Valero. 1791. His label is. Venice and Rome. This label is. in the elder Zanetto (da Montechiaro). is. Antonio. Francesco". 17 — A maker of mandolins. Michel. Naples." NADOTTI. PAGANI. PECCENINI. 1840. and afterwards at Nice. who worked for Pressenda. ONGARO. Cremona. PANDOLFI. Insulanus ex Istria fecit. Pietro. 1731. NOVERSI. about 1749. A lutes and thought that some confusion as to dates exists here. 1560.

RAILICH. Turin. 705. Sebastian. between 1870 and 1880. Rocco. with varnish of a reddish-brown colour: he has of late years attained a high reputation in this country. and a considerable number of his violins have been imported to meet the demand. far above their real value. 17—. Giacomo. Pietro. Vincenzo. POSTIGLIOXE. and worked 1777. 1686. [oannes. about 1820. 85 POSTACCHIXI. Padua. -^ maker PRESSENDA. but absurdly high prices are often asked for them. ROSIERO. 1 . 17 20-1 730. A modern maker. modern maker." so there would appear to have been two makers at least of the name. about 1775.. Brescia. Sabattino. 1825. Milan." and there was a fine guitar in the Vienna Exhibition of 1S92 with the label. Francesco. ANT XI. Brescia. 1730. SACCHINI. 5 Milan. He was living PREDA. Giovanni. 1744. Venice. ROSSI. "17—. A RANT A. Giovanni. Gioffredo. Pietro. Vincenzo. Giovanni Francesco. 5 5 spinet-maker. died 1854. 1820-1830. Horn He was a pupil of Storioni. Cremona. Giuseppe Antonio. Milan. RAFFAELE. APPENDIX. recently workhe has made some excellent violins of ing in Venice : Stradivari model. Lugo. about 1780. Lodovico. Cremona. and a label is cited by Vidal. ROM — Romano in Borgo di Pavia. Pesaro. Andreas. Pietro. " Giovanni Railich Lautaro in Padova. 17—. PRESBLER. Annibale dei. Carmagnola. Firmo. He used a dark red varnish. and Turin. < Iremona. recently." ROSIAR. A lute-maker. or Romarini. 17—. Petrus. A maker of mandolins. RECHIARDINT. label of his runs. Fidrini. Milan. A good RASURA. He made a large number of of the Stradivari pattern. about RICOLAZI. Antonio. Venice. Antonio. His name is also found as Romano. 1620. A well-known dealer and repairer. Pietro ROCCA. of mandolins. 17 ROMANI. Cremona. > 577 - A famous RO'PA. RESPINI. Pavia. Turin. RIVOLTA. Turin. " Pietro Reilich fecit in Padua. violins of excellent quality. about 1840. ROCI II. Many of his violins are at Alba. Naples. noted for his inlaid work. A viola-maker. RINALDI.

A splendid SCOTI. but it is considered to be really the work of Maggini. Francesco. SEGHER. Venice. Antonio. His label is. Domenico. Giorgio. Paris. Modena. pupil of Nicolo SNEIDER. Milan. reputed to be by Son of Antonio. A maker of lutes and theorbos. Giacinto. . 86 CREMONA. Antonio. Francesco. working in 1626. Venice. Verona. and subsequently became the partner of Luigi Castellani at Florence. Venice. small guitar. Pavia. Venice. was A A exhibited in Vienna in 1892. about 1808. 16 this in in . — — Several instruments Vienna maker were shown 1892. A maker of lutes who worked seventeenth century. " Joseph Sneider Papiae Alumnus Nicolai Amati Cremonae fecit. The Musee du Conservatoire. 1649. guitar-maker. Matteo. Vincenzo. Amati." He also made guitars. A workman of Nicolas Amati. mandora by this maker was in the Vienna Exhibition of 1892." inlaid with ivory. until SPILMAN. Girolamo. Nicholas. anno 1703. 1661. A superb cither with his mark is in the Musee du Conservatoire. Giuseppe. Angelo. He worked at Cuneo about 1730. about 1808. 1645. Bologna. Fabrizio. Florence. (See ante). A celebrated lutemaker. " Giovan Smit Milano. Vidal gives a label. Gio. SALVATORIj in the SARACENI. Spirito. Giuseppe. SMIT. SELLAS. Born at Brescia in 1838. contains a very curious pochette by A this maker. about 1800. or Spirto. It would appear from a theorbo in the possession of the King of Saxony that there was a maker of this family named . 1760-1800. Jovanni. 1 740-1 750. SARDI. SICILIANI. SICILIANI. May 21st. SAVANI. labelled Milan. This maker appears. 1646. Giovanni. SANTAGIULIANA. 1703. 1630. Three superb archilutes by him are in the Musee du Conservatoire. 16 — SENT . A. 17—. SORSANA.. SENI. Carpi. where he is Conhe has a high reputation servatore of the Istituto Musicale as repairer and maker. SILVESTRI. Sursano. Dorigo. SOLIANI. 16—. Joseph. in Paris. " Matteo Sellas alia corona Venetiis 1630. Evelyn mentions him in his Diary. Worked in Italy and in Paris. Venice. Bologna. He is identical with Spirito. 16 Turin. SCARAMPELLA." SOCCHI. Paris. SCONVELT.

Vendelino. The . and theorbos. He theorbos. 1754. — in inscriptions in in and descriptions of the instruments exhibited 1892. Berlin. 17—. STREGNER. "Magnus Acadenty of Music:." TASSINI." with seven strings. and seem to have been connected with Gaspard Duiffoprugcar.) (Royal Dieffenbruger." Nineteen principal strings and four sympathetic strings. 17 " Giorgio Tanigardi fecit is." with twelve strings and eight sympathetic strings. about 1730. Leopolio. Modena. TADOLINI. lutes. Venice. Testore school. Aud.'' (e) Mandola.) (d) Lute. A maker of the lutes made and TEDESCO. Andrea. TAUS.APPENDIX. (G. (Mag. Rome. (Royal Academy of Music. Bartolomeo. 1614." rosewood inlaid with ivory. to have been unknown. (Prince Moritz Lobkowitz. Roma. 1621. by those of their most celebrated pupil. whose works he copied. "Magno Dieffopruchar Venetia. STATLEE.) (f) Archlute. Magno. "Magno . (see ante. A pupil of Nicolo Amati. (a) Chitarrone. 15 14. mandolins. Carlo. Anderl. of the Tyrol. or Stregher. Magno. TERNAGANINI. The F holes resemble those of Ventura Linarolli and the whole seems to be Venetian work. Berlin. TIEFFENBRUCKER. — His label . 1755. Modena. Venice. and Leonardo. A maker of Venice. 1606. (The Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. Vendelino Venere. Mantua. Mostar. " Gaspard Duiffopruggar Bononiensis anno 15 15. Rome. 162 1.) {c) Chitarrone or Roman theorbo. "Magno Tieffoprucar a Venetia.) (b) Lira da braccio. 17—. Vienna taken may well be collected here. Probably a native STEFFANINI. 16—.) 1621. Genoa. S7 Hajdecki*s recent notice. Hajdecki. . " Magno DuifFopruchar a Venetia. or Steger. TACHINARDI." Dieffopruchar a Venetia. 1607. Pietro. followed from the original catalogues. Duiffoprugcar). Cremona. TANIGARDI. 15 These celebrated lute-makers worked in Venice until about 16 12. A maker of mandoras. Donaldson. This author indicates a viol in the Modena Museum with an undated written label. Giorgio. Sienna. 1658.

(/w ) LI arp-cither." (g) Theorbo.) (/) Archlute. TRINELLI." also inscribed on the head in ink. Vienna. and made good instruments.." Sixteen principal strings and fifteen sympathetic strings. upon a kind of harp-frame. He copied TOKELLL Verona." (Archduke Franz." in Martin by 1831 Stoss. nine strings. 1700.) TIRLER. Crescenzio." (n) Theorbo. Rome. ob CREMONA. the invention of the contra-bass. UGAR. and fifteen on the left side. (King of Saxony. " In Paclova twenty-four strings. " Vendelinus Tieffenbriiker F. Angelo. UNGARINI. about 1590. TOPPANI. "1611 Padova Vvendelio Venere. The author in of " Dichiaratione della galleria armonica eretta Roma" This maker is credited.) Lyra da gamba. He worked at Naples in the early part of the present century. (Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. " In Padoa Vendelinus Tieffen(//) briiker. TRUNCO. Carlo. " Magno Tieffoprucar a Venetia.) Twelve (J) Theorbo. Bologna. 17 Citarcedus. with twenty on the opposite side.) " Benn Dellio Wenere in Padua 1622.) " Padova Vvendelio Venere de Leonardo Tiefenbriicker. Cremona. Villalunga. in Padoua. Baron Nathaniel von Rothschild possesses a cither reputed to be by this maker. 16—. but the modern method of stringing the instrument may perhaps be attributed to him with justice. (Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.) A small instrument with (/) Lute. TODINI. Raffaele." with Wendelio Repaired Venere (Archduke Franz. Augustinus Fabriano. TRAPaNI. . 1660. (Gesellschaft der Musik-freunde." principal and eight sympathetic strings. Fourteen principal strings and ten sympathetic strings. Rome. about 1740. de Leonardo Tiefembrucker. 16—. curiously enough. (Rome. Techier." Fifteen strings. 17—. 1587. 1676). Tiefembrucker 1582. Rome. TORTOBELLO.) " Padova Vvendelio Venere de Leonardo (k) Lute. (Gesellschaft der Musik-freunde. Rome. URBINAS. " Vvendelio Venere. Antonio. with Michele. 1675. (Archduke Franz. 1610. of Vienna. — A cither-maker. Vienna.

Gennaro. ZANOLI. De. 17 — Verona. 1534 T. A lute-maker. VENERE. VIRAHI. and worked till about 1883. Padua. there was a Vendelino Venere. ante. Three they made zithers and mandolins. VENZI. Padua. Brescia. Vidal revived the theory that this maker worked in Bresa. WENGER. Carpi. VITOR. VANDELLI. about 1815. The latter part of the — seventeenth century." M. Giovanni. A richly ornamented guitar by him is in the Musee du Conservatoire. " Hicronimus di vir in Bresa. VENETO. 16 VERLE. Luigi. ZANFI. (No. Padua. The son of Gaetano. VINACCIA. 1534. Giacomo. Andrea. Florence. VINCENZI. A Lutemaker. Brescia. S. A lute- Vincenzo. 1 766-1 774. and Gaetano. . 1582. 1622. Florence. Padua. VINACCIA. maker. This . Naples. Pasquale. 17 10-1730. A lute-maker: he worked aboul VIVOLI. This is the name found on a label in the lute discovered at the castle of Eisenberg. Uvendelio. about 1S00-1S30. sons of Antonio . 1523. Giovanni..) WAGNER. " In Padova Undelio Venere de Leonardo Tiefenbrucker. Hieronymus. VINACCIA. Giovanni. A follower of Maggini. ZANOLI. Girolamo. Joseph. Inst in Italy. of ATR. Antonio. Padua. Hajdecki. 1609. Francesco. in Silesia. Giacomo. said by one writer. A lute-maker. in the six teenth century. about [760-1820. Giambattista. VAROTTI. Naples." (See Tieffenbriicker. A maker of guitars he appears to have worked late in the seventeenth century.) The precise relationship. A lute-maker. then in Paris. about 1420. about 1770. Alexandre. Vidal gives a label found in a cither. "Padova Vvendelio Venere de Leonardo Tiefembrucker." This resembles somewhat that in the lute exhibited in Vienna in 1892. He was born in 1806. Paris. 169. to have existed between the Tieffenbriicker and Vendelino Venere has not been established so far. Vidal gives a label of his much apparent antiquity. and the most famous mandolin-maker of this century. about 1640. Bologna. Marx. a famous Venetian lute-maker. Venice. 1740. VOBOAM. APPENDIX. . Brescia. Bologna. Constance. 1773. 8o UNVERDORBEN. Modena. He was the first to use steel strings.

Mantua. 17 Giuseppe. about 1630. see Vidal's " Les Instruments a archet. M. is maker stated to have worked also at Padua. 1876 and also De Piccolellis' "Liutai antichi e moderni." ZENATTO. Pietro. — Mr.. For full description of many of the above-mentioned makers. ZANOTTI. His label was. . ZANURE. G. ZUCCHERO. 1734. Federigo." Florence. Muntz exhibited . Claye. Pietro. He used a yellow varnish of a deep shade. 1885. maker of inlaid Florence. 1509. Piacenza. 90 CREMONA. 1660. H. South Kensington Exhibition of 1872 a curious instrument of the violin family by this maker it was nearly as small as a pochette. Brescia. Brescia. Antonio. Le Monnier. Note. 15 — . 1509. ZANOTTI. "Pietro Zanure. — . He is and painted work. Treviso. Filippo. in the ZIMBELMANN. He made viols. and also was a celebrated known to have made spinets." Paris.

. 20 20 20 23 24 76 76 76 24 7° 76 76 Berati . Carlo ... ... . Bodio .... . Bomberghi 77 77 4 27 77 Antoniazzi . . Boccherini .. 76 76 24 Bortoletti Bosi 77 77 B Bagatella. •• Barbanti .. ......... . . ...... . .. .... . ... 77 77 Bellone ... ..... Paolo .. Andreas . Bajoni Balestrieri. • Thomas . ... Beretta . Braglia .... . de Bergonzi....... ... Antonio Pietro . .... ••• .. ... .. ••• 27 77 J7 II Ciciliano .- 19. Hieronymus ... ... ........ ••- the younger . iS Barzellini .. . -5 Abbati 76 . Barnia ..... .... Zosimo Ambrogi Ambrosi Ambrosio Andreas Anselmo Antagnati Bertasio.. ... . 76 76 18 iS 19 19 19 19 Bassiano Basso . ... Antonio.. ... II Bononiensis . Budiani.. Bechardini Bel ami .. Matthias Michael ....... .. 77 -5 77 Acevo Adani .... 77 77 :: . Bueettenberg 7* .... 77 25 Signor... 7° 19 19 Alvani Amati... .... 24 24 76 4 76 25 24 77 Branzo Brensi Bresa Brescia i ... Barbieri.. Aglio Albanesi .. Bcrti ... . ..... .... ••• ... Battista.. . . ... Baillot . 25 77 77 5 .. Brandiglioni . .. Antony Assalone .... ••• Bellosio..... Beriot.... 78 27 ...... Bianchi.9* INDEX OF NAMES... Bagnini... Pietro . Bono Bonoris Borelli .. 22 ........ .... • • . .. ... .. . 1 78 78 7^ 78 1 I r( lii Broi . Bastogi . Albani.. Paul .. Belviglieri Benedicti 77 25 Bente .... Francesco Nicolo Michel Angelo 25 25 26 26 27 77 Nicolas 13.... Alberti Alberto Allric Alessandro Aletzie 76 76 7 . . Antonio ...

Costa. .. • .... Camillo... 3i 3i 81 Si . . ........... ... Chiavellati ...... So So 81 81 Si 3i 81 81 3i Alfonso Carlo ... Buggiano Buonfigliuoli ... ...... . 29 80 So So So 30 30 70 So SO 80 57 8.. . Cremonese School Cuni Cuppin . .. della I9> 2 7 Costaro .. .... . 44. . • . Marco Antonio Giovanni Battista Giuseppe • Cervetto .. . xiii. ..... Calcagno Calcanius Calonardi Calvarola Camile.. 78 78 78 29 78 78 7S 29 29 29 79 79 79 79 29 79 79 79 79 79 79 4 80 30 3° Eberti ••• Edlinger Emiliani Evangelista 80 80 F Fabricatore Fabbris. .. .. . ..... .... . .... 46 79 79 79 79 ... . Enrico .. ix.... Facini . ..... .. . Carboni........ Luigi .......... ••• Cattenaro Cavalorio Celionatus Cellini .. Florentine School Florenus. Giachino Giofreda . . ... .. .. . ••• •• . .. Chanot Chiarelli xi... . . de Contreras Cordano Cornelli -. ... Castagneri Castellani... Carlomordi . Cerin Ceruti....... . 79 29 80 80 29 80 2 Cabroli Caeste Caesto 7s . Ferrari......... Giovanni ........ ••• .. .. Drinda . . ••• ...... Ficker Fiorini Filano Fiorillo . .... . . .. Fiscer .. Chiocci Christa Christophori Circapa.. ... Dominicelli Dominichino Domenicus Donato ••• D'Oneda Doni Dragonetti ........... ... . ........ Cocco 29 29 79 Florentus Fontanelli Fornari......... Agostino . .... ... . • .. . Duiffopruggar Dulfenn. ••• Caspan .. .. . ••• .... Guidante . ••• . Falco Farinato 80 So So 3i 3i Fendt . 28 7^ 20 7^ 7^ 28 28 28 28 28 28 7$ 7$ 7^ xi Dardelli Deconet Degani . 1. .. . Delia Coma Dini ............ Pietro Castello Castro Catena Catenar Cati . ••• 7§ 7§ 27 7^ Comble.. . .. .8 92 CREMONA.. . ••• ••• 7 ... . .. Cassanelli Cassino.. xiv..... •• Busan Busetto Busselero ..... 1) So 80 . Giuseppe Ofredus ... Carcanius Carcassi Carlino . .... ... Ferati . Cappa. ... ... ..... ..

. >> i 82 •• Andrea Giuseppe ... S2 Ht:nry . •• Gaetano Gaffino . .. ••• .. Fredrimaur Frey .... INDEX OF NAMES. Gugliemi Guillami Guletto .. . .. .. hael . Michael Angelo ... Gagliano.. 3» ...an ... 36 .. ...... 82 Grulli • • 35 35 36 K Kaiser Kerlino Klotz. .. 4 S7 S2 82 45 Gennaro Georgi . .. Raphael ....... 37 •• Giovanni ..B. .. •• . 4.. Gherardi Ghidini . S2 46 •• . ao ... 47 . .... •• .. .. .... Giuseppe. Gaspan Gattanani Gatanari...... Francesco •• ••• . •• . Galbusera Galerzena Galtani . . Pietro .. omseppe Antonio del Gesii .. •• . Francesco •• . King xi.. 82 Gregori .. Nicolo. . 3i 3 1 J.... . . •• . William Francalucci. ... 41 .. Antonio >t .. . ..n eri .viii.. . Guadagnini.. . Gianoli . . I . Felice Francois I.. . .. •• .. •• Gudio Giifira ...... 34 Si 81 81 Hamm Horil . Enrico .. Paolo 23.... ....... 82 ... Garani.. 34 34 81 Habeneck Hajdecki . . Gibertini Gigli • • . xiii ....11 82 46 47 » . 32 Si 32 Guarmand Guarnieri. . •• . Si Si Gaetano ... B. ...... „ .... i Matthias Sebastian 47 47 46 -17 •• . . 46 82 Giordane Giranini Giuliani Gobetti Gofriller Juliano . ..... Professor . B.. ....... ...... 40 Pietro Giovanni ... Egidio Hie younger 46 47 47 •• . ... ... ....... . 82 Grossi ... .. •• •• •• 39 39 ... Gusetto.. Antonio Ferdinando Gennaro Giovanni Giuseppe Januarius Nicolo . Gouvernari Gragnani 36 •• Grancino. the younger 38 3S x] Lorenzo . •• •• 35 35 82 82 82 82 82 82 35 S2 35 Indelami J Jacobs. . .. 45 45 82 82 82 82 45 45 34 Si •• •• •• .. Hartung . Georg J"'' ann (.. . Gerans ... . .... .... . Francesco .. G.. Guidantus Guidomini • .. xiv. .. PAGE 4 xiv 93 PAGE Forster.. 39 39 39 39 38 38 G Gabicelis Gabrielli • J. 45 Peeler. 46 82 Jadra Joannes.. Egi dio . . Alessandro ........ ( . 37 Giovanni Baptista .. . . • •• 34 33 34 34 33 34 33 34 Si Si Guarnieri... Jose) ill Mi... II Galbani.." .. Geroni . Jorio Juli .. .. .. . .

Longo . Marcelli Marconcini. ... Noversi. 84 84 56 52 Mantagazza Mantovani Maratti ... . . Luigi Marchetti Palma Pandolfi . Pezzardi Pfretschner. . 51 51 84 Lobkowitz.. 83 .. 84 2 ....... Montani Montagnana. .. .... Landi . De ..... . Lansa Lausa Leoni Lignoli ......... 84 52 84 84 84 G o. Mezzadie Migliais.. ... Domenico Montechiari Montegratia Morella Morona. Krammer Krebar . Panormo Pansani. • • . Piccolellis... .. Lavazza. Lorenzini Ludici Lugloni . Domenico Gaetano...... rii. PAGE 82 82 82 PAGE Roll ... . ...... . Pietro Santo Maler . Giuseppe. •• 84 53 53 53 84 84 84 84 84 . Prince Loly .. • •• • • Marco Marino Maria... • • 83 48 83 83 83 83 84 84 52 Obue Odani •-. . Johann G< )ttlob. Pazzini .. Carl Friec Irich ..... Meloni . .... Orlandelli Ortega 83 I.. Milano . Odoardi Ongaro •• M Maffeoto Maggini.... Picino Pilosio . ... Panzani. 84 Lafont . . . . • 48 49 5o 50 5o 83 50 83 83 S3 83 83 83 83 83 50 83 83 85 83 83 xiv P Pacherele Pagani .. . •• .. Antonio Joseph Montade 5o 83 50 83 83 50 Plani Platner Polis . •• . • • 84 . .. .. . • . 42 . .... .. 84 xiii Niederheitmann Niggel Novello. 4 L Lacasso... . Marco Antonio Pietro Valent ino . de . .... Paolo ...... ... Meiberi.. ... Lagetto. .......... Merighi..... • • • ....4. 53 53 53 Mert . Lolio O Obbo Obici 52... 84 . 94 CREMONA.. • • .... .. . 20... .. •• • • 52 52 52 • • Marchi .... 84 5i 51 Kreutzer . Molinari. . Pasenali Pasta.. Mertz. Professor V. Mellini ... Peccenini Pedrazzi Pelizon ....... Paganini ... . • Mariani... . .. . Man ...... Perius . • • Linarolli 47 4 82 82 48 48 48 82 83 83 48 xii N Nadotti Neapolitan School Nicholas .. 84 84 84 84 53 85 Polluska Postacchini - .. .. Landolfi . 51 .. • .

. 86 . . .. . •• . 55 Giovanni Baptista •• 55 . ............ .. ... Tirl. .... 59 61 . • • •• • Respini .. . Rossi 85 ... S6 58 5S 59 86 86 86 5 .. Taus Testore... .. Andreas Jacolms Marcus . .. .. Salvatori Sanoni .. .... Santagiuliani Santi . Antonio Gioacchino ....... Presbler 85 S3 S5 85 85 Schebek. 27 Rogieri ... ix......... ... . . Rocca . .. . 58 Serafino. . 70 7. . ..... I... Pressenda K Racceris Ratifaele •• Sent Sentino. ..... Spilman. Rosiero. •-. .....INDEX OF NAM]. Rota 85 •• Rovelli ... ...... . .. 23. Louis .. Ruggeri. Socchi . viii...... Sivori.. Rochi .. . 56 . . ...... Scarampella . . .. . . .... Sanzo .... 16........... . Omobono 62-69 .. 10.... 87 87 61 . ... . Rodiani. 85 . Charles xi.. .. . .. 69 . . ... Dr.. 56 .. xiii.... Soliani . Spirito 87 .-.......... Ranta .. 64 56 86 58 86 5* 5* 86 86 86 86 .... xii ...... ... . 54 ... 3.... Francesco 54 ••• Giacinto . 65 .. 87 Tanegia Tanigardi Tarisio.. 13.... 85 . Carlo Giuseppe Paolo Antonio .. .. ... Stradivari.. ....... 14. Rechiardini Reggieri Renisto. .... . Sursano.. Sacchini Salabue...... Ricolazi Rinaldi ... Testator 70 70 S7 Ternaganini in .. Antonio Francesco ... .... ......... .... .. .. ... . Raphael Rasura . .. . .. . 85 .... Siani ... 87 88 88 71 71 Carlo Anl Felice 1 .. . 85 85 85 53 85 48 85 54 54 85 85 85 85 8S Sepino Scuta ... 61 . 2... Rosiar . ..... ... 54 Romanini .. 95 Postiglione Pozzurnus Preda .. ... . .. 54 .. . C....... . Guido . Cozio di iaspard da ( .. 87 67 87 87 71 71 71 Tassini ... 70 ..... Sconvelt Scoti .. Rudger ... ... . - .. . . Licker ... Silvestri ......... Pietro Giacomo ..... Luigi . . Sicilian!..... .. . .... .. Statlee Steffanini Storioni. •• Reade.... Sorsana. 85 . .. 70 - T Tachinardi ..r Todini i. .. Santo Serasati .. 9.......... .... ... ... .... • Rivolta . . 54 •• Ruger .. . . 85 .. . Saraceni Sardi Savani ... ..... Romani.. Carlo Antonio ..... . . Techier ... 86 86 86 58 53 .... 86 86 Segher Sellas ..... . .. . .. Stainer... 70 87 Tedesco Teoditi... Streghner . ..... Rode...... .. .... ......... Smit Sneider....... . . Railich . Speiler ... 86 86 86 86 S6 59 85 4. .... 56 Vincenzo .

10. 88 88 72 88 88 72 2 • Vincenzi Viorillo. 89 89 89 61 . . ... . Veracini Verle Vettrini. . 89 72 20.. s9 Y 89 2 .. xii....... de Tyrolese School Virahi Vivoli . . Zanti xiv Zanure . . B.. Paolo Pietro . Venere Veneto Venzi . Youssoupow.-• . Tortobello Trapani ..... 89 89 89 89 89 31 • Viotti Vir Vitor. A. Giovanni Guido.. 32........ ...44 • • . . . ... Vidal. L. Antonio : Giambattista . Vinaccia. Zanotti. . Gaetano .. 71 71 71 Gennaro Pasquale Vincenzo • .... 72 89 89 S9 90 Giuseppe .. 72 72 72 Zenatto. Wenger... Vinci. Augustin xii Z Zanetto..... U Ugar Ungarini Urbinas Voboam-.. .. .. • Tononi.. 4 89 89 89 89 89 .. 89 89 V Vandelli Varotti . Zimbelmann Zucchero .... Leonardo da Vimercati.. Unverdorben . viii. 9. rii. .. . Peregrino Zanfi Zanoli. . Trinelli.. I'AGE PAGE Vinaccia.. xv Venetian School Venitien.. Antonio .. .. 5. ..96 CREMONA... Giacomo . J.... . 67 xi. 88 88 88 89 Vuillaume.. . Joannes ... W Wagner. 90 72 90 90 90 90 .. Trunco ... . • Toppani Torelli ... Prince N.. .




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