PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Legend:
O Precipitating & predisposing factors

O Disease process

O Complications

O Signs and Symptoms

O Management

Predisposing Factors
O Old age (72 yrs old)
O Socioeconomic
status
Precipitating Factors
O Exposure to chemical
irritants such cigarette
smoke

Muscle Contraction
Bronchial smooth muscle
cell hyperactivity
-ronchospasm
Obstruction of airfIow
Air trapping
impaired gas exchange Decrease ventiIation
ypoxemia ypercapnia ABG (07-17-10)
O PO2: 69mmg
(NV: 80-100mmg)
O O2 sat-93%
(NV: 95-100%)

ABG (07-17-10)
O PCO2: 80.5mmg
(NV: 35-45mmg)

Vasoconstriction of
-lood vessels
Respiratory
acidosis
Pulmonary
hypertension
Right sided heart
faiIure
O Bipedal edema
O Jugular vein distention
Ìncrease workload
in the right side of
the heart
O R: 112-pm
(NV: 60-100-mp)

O BP: 150/90mmg
(NV: <120/80)
Valsartan 8mg ½ ta-
Spironolactone 50mg
Digoxin 0.25mg 1 ta-
Low flow oxygen
therapy (2L/min) via
nasal cannula
Mucosal Edema
ypertrophy of -ronchial
mucus glands
Mucosal Ìnflammation
Mucus Secretion
Go-let cell
hyperplasia
Narrowing of -ronchial
lumen
Squamous cell
metaplasia
Accumulation
of secretions
O productive cough with thick and
mucupurulent sputum
O Decreased tactile fremitus
O X-ray (07-19-10): azy densities
are seen in the left lower lung
field





Com-ivent 1ne-
+ -udesonide ½
ne-
Hematology (July 17, 2010)
O Segmenters: 94
O WBC: 11,000
(NV: 5000-10,000)
O Lymphocytes: 43% (NV: 20-40%)
Cipro-ay 250mg 1
ta-
Budesonide ½ ne-
O RR= ŷź cpm
O Nasal flaiing anu use
of accessoiy muscle
O yspnea



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