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representations of all equipment, piping, and process instrumentation and the necessary connectivity and physical interrelationships required for safe and efficient operations consistent with the project scope. This section describes the content and development of P&ID’s. Following is a list of topics in this section. Topic What is a P&ID? Use of P&ID’s in PPAProject Methodology Staged Development of P&ID’s P&ID Legend and Reference Sheets Format of P&ID Sheets P&ID Index Flowsheet Equipment Shown on P&ID’s Piping Shown on P&ID’s Piping Line and Item Designation Piping Material Specifications Instrumentation Shown on P&ID’s Process Control Elements Shown on P&ID’s Electrical Equipment Shown on P&ID’s Utility Diagrams P&ID Data Extraction—.ALL-file Intelligent P&ID’s Topic Adding Notes to P&ID’s See page 5j–3 5j–5 5j–10 5j–13 5j–14 5j–18 5j–19 5j–24 5j–26 5j–32 5j–35 5j–39 5j–40 5j–41 5j–42 See page 5j–45
In This Section
The Figure items listed below are only available in hard copy. Figures are available in .pdf format for viewing and printing on the Process Engineering web site. Figure 5.J–1: PPALegend Sheet I Figure 5.J–2: PPALegend Sheet II Figure 5.J–3: V-475 P&ID (Example) Figure 5.J–4: V-4700 Crystallizer P&ID (Example) Figure 5.J–5: Utility P&ID (PPAtherm SR-1 Distribution) Figure 5.J–6: Utility P&ID (PPAtherm SR-1 Refrigeration)
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What Is a P&ID? Introduction P&ID’s show the orderly detailed arrangement of virtually every process component in the facility. They indicate the relative location in the process of each component, how they are interrelated, and special know-how notes regarding installation, operation, or specific design ideas or data. This schematic shows provisions for normal operations, as well as for startup, shutPPAn, maintenance, and emergency situations. Purpose The primary purpose of the Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) is to provide much of the basis for the detailed design of a facility. No symbol on a P&ID should exist without a specification that provides the detail for that component. Information on the P&ID’s must be consistent with the corresponding equipment specification, piping material specification, or instrument/analyzer specification. P&ID’s are used by the design disciplines during design activities. They can also be used during construction, operator training, startup, operations, and maintenance of the facility. P&ID’s have been described as a “graphical table of contents” for all specifications (equipment, piping, instrument/analyzers, insulation, tracing, tie points). P&ID’s and the accompanying specifications are the primary means of communication between Process Engineering and the design disciplines. P&ID’s are the key to successful facility design and operation and must be as accurate and complete as possible, without referencing the process function. P&ID’s must be reviewed, checked, and approved by all interested parties before detailed design can begin.
Basis for detailed design . etc.Identifies tracing and insulation .Shows connectivity .Identifies critical elevations and sizes • Calls for special notes.Guide for construction .Identifies in-line piping equipment .A P&ID Is … • Language of symbols • Schematic of a process plant that: . • Drawing that displays relative orientation and configuration • Communication tool that serves as: . details.Identifies vessels and equipment .Identifies line sizes and services .Identifies instrumentation .Guide for operation and maintenance • Graphical table of contents to other engineering documents Continued on next page 4 . instructions.
normally P&ID’s can be PPA RESTRICTED instead of PPA CONFIDENTIAL. such as seal legs. Physical dimensions for equipment are shown on the equipment specification sheets. the appropriate security classification of these documents for use by non-PPA engineering and construction contractors can be determined on a location or project basis. 5 . process information and process Other Considerations data are not shown on P&ID’s.What Is a P&ID?. That confidential information is shown on the process flowsheets and/or process control documents. Although P&ID’s are essentially schematics. the capability to communicate effectively is improved if the relative size and shape of equipment. See Chapter 3 of the PPAProject Methodology for Capital and Expense Projects manual for further information on security of project documents. and other lines where either gravity flow or relative elevations are critical for process operability. as well as elevations. pump suction lines. are indicated if practical. For a specific project. Examples would be reactors and seal pots. It is not always practical to show relative size when sizes are so different. With no process information shown on the P&ID’s. Physical dimensions outside the equipment should be shown if necessary for process functionality. Continued A P&ID Is Not … • • • • • Piping isometric or detail drawing Equipment construction diagram Scale drawing Control logic diagram Document containing process information For security reasons. including details of how the process is to be operated and controlled.
P&ID’s provide good documentation for the operating facility. and Instrument the Process Control Strategy. an objective is not to spend the time and money to fully develop P&ID’s until authorization is obtained and the probability of the project being completed is very high. This cost estimate is based on fully developed process flowsheets well before P&ID’s are completed. Process control might or Diagram might not be shown on the same flowsheet that contains (P&ID's) the material and energy balance and equipment descriptions. and therefore prior to proceeding beyond project definition. As a company. Full development of P&ID’s is expensive in terms of resources and money. Cost estimates for project authorization normally will be based on the Project Definition Cost Estimate. material and energy balances. The primary intent of developed P&ID’s is to document details of the selected chemical process for communication to Design Engineering disciplines for completing the detailed design. Later. Process issues should be decided upon. Most of the detailed development of P&ID’s will occur after project definition. and resolved on process flowsheets. This topic is intended to clarify the intent of PPAProject Methodology with respect to P&ID’s The intent of process flowsheets is to define the Intent of Flowsheets and chemical process to be built. process flowsheets include schematics of major equipment. developed. Continued on next page 6 . Therefore. PPA wants to minimize engineering costs prior to authorization. Objectives of Project Definition Project definition should adequately define the process and project such that a preliminary or final authorization can be obtained and such that no major process changes should be required after authorization. As used here.Use of P&ID's in PPAProject Methodology Introduction The roles of flowsheets and Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) in capital projects are significantly changed in PPAProject Methodology. Piping and equipment descriptions. not on P&ID’s. The primary intent of first-pass P&ID’s is to provide additional details to supplement or enhance the production of the Project Definition Cost Estimate.
The details associated with the various passes are defined later in this document. Continued on next page Project Design and Constructio n 7 . the process description and essential process decisions should be captured on process flowsheets and process control documents. P&ID’s are jointly developed by Process Engineering and Design Engineering to document and communicate process details to the design disciplines. and Process Design and Construction is done in an PPA Design and Construction (DDC) office. Description During the Project Definition Stage. and site people will participate in project design at DDC. other work flow processes are involved in the use and development of P&ID’s. If project definition activities are done at the site. For large projects. final development of P&ID’s will normally be done at DDC. Continued Work Flow Processes Involving Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) and Flowsheets Stage Project Definition Depending on the stage. This significant effort on P&ID’s should not be started until all project definition documentation has been completed and project authorization is assured. First-pass P&ID’s are developed to the level of details as required by the cost estimating discipline to obtain a Project Definition Cost Estimate.Use of P&ID's in PPAProject Methodology. the location of project activities does not define or limit participation. the project can be essentially kept at the site until the Project Definition Stage is complete and an authorization is obtained. However. Remember the DDC people will participate in project definition activities at the sites. P&ID’s should not be needed for process control definition in this stage.
fully developed P&ID’s. Even facilities for a new process will have many unit operations that are well established within PPA. should be marked up and given to the cost estimators for their needs. Process Control Strategy.. Following are some situations where P&ID’s might be considered during project definition. There are cases where it is necessary for the cost estimating function to have some P&ID information to adequately generate a Project Definition cost estimate. New first-pass P&ID’s could be required if the process flowsheets. For those unit operations—such as THROX units. Preferably these would be standard P&ID’s as established by the Technology Center. distillation columns. Situation Repeat Facilitie s and Retrofits New Technolog y 8 . etc. Continued Use of Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) During Project Definition Stage The cost estimating function within The PPA Chemical Company has stated that they normally can generate a quantity-based cost estimate for Project Definition for project authorization without having new. P&ID’s from existing facilities or example P&ID’s from Electronic Most Effective Technology Library (EMETL). These could be marked up by the project team and serve to help generate the first-pass of the project P&ID’s. The PPAProject Methodology does not say that P&ID’s are not allowed in project definition. Recommendation Use existing P&ID’s from Technology Centers or existing facilities. preliminary plot plan. do not provide adequate detail for cost estimators.. etc.Use of P&ID's in PPAProject Methodology. batch reactors.
If the existing technology P&ID’s will require considerable effort to update to current symbology (control valve tags and insulation codes for example). which requires at least first-pass P&ID’s. the goal is to minimize the amount of time and money spent on development of P&ID’s prior to the completion of project definition and obtaining the project authorization. However.Special Situation s for Partial P&ID Developme nt One situation that might be encountered is the need for an early air permit that requires flange and valve counts. Continued on next page 9 . The few required P&ID’s will define the project and do not require a significant amount of development time. In other cases a total project might involve only a portion of an existing facility and limited number of unit operations and flowsheets. then it may be more cost effective to develop new P&ID’s. Project and Engineering Management might identify other special situations.
The pass definition is content or detail related. Further detail is under the heading “Staged Diagram Development of P&ID’s” later in this section. Process Control. A summary of the recommended process is Instrument shown below. the detailed development of Joint Development of P&ID’s is a joint effort by Process Engineering and Design Engineering. In PPAProject Methodology. Check with the cost estimator to determine specific needs on a given project. Instrument/Analyzer Engineering. One is to convey information to the cost estimators during project definition. will provide further detail as the P&ID’s reach completion. Process Engineering will normally Instrument provide initial input to the P&ID’s based on project Diagram flowsheets and control strategy. The Process Control Definition Strategy is developed in a joint effort by Process Engineering. and the other is to provide a starting point for final P&ID’s for the project. Design Engineering. along with the Manufacturing Piping and Representatives. The general determination of how the process should be Joint Development of operated and controlled (Process Control Strategy) should be accomplished during project definition. Continued Definition of First-Pass Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) First-pass P&ID’s have two primary purposes. (P&ID's) particularly the piping and instrument/analyzer disciplines.Use of P&ID's in PPAProject Methodology. and the Manufacturing Representative. The details of Process the control hardware will be defined in the Project Control Design and Construction Stage. Pass Description and Timing 10 . A cycle to get all the major and secondary lines shown and another cycle to add all of the line balloon data is not two passes. Development of The number of passes for development of a P&ID should be minimized to reduce costs and unnecessary and repeated Piping and re-evaluations. Further guidance on P&ID development can be found below. Individual work processes for capital projects provide significant additional detail. Development (P&ID's) passes should not be confused with the number of passes through process graphics. Their activities and work products are described in PPAProject Methodology and the respective work processes.
while only parts of Step 14.05).First-Pass These are new P&ID’s based on process flowsheets and/or marked up existing P&ID’s or segments of P&ID’s.10 and 14. Professional P&ID designers should be able to construct good (and intelligent) first-pass P&ID’s from flowsheets or the other sources mentioned (start between PPAProject Methodology Steps 12.05. Libraries of standard and/or MET P&ID’s from Technology Centers and manufacturing facilities are desirable starting materials. The detail or content of first-pass P&ID’s should be an appropriate blend of Process Engineering’s work process for PPAProject Methodology Step 12. Continued on next page 11 .10 and 14. All of Step 12.10 should be done.05 will be required for first-pass P&ID’s.
Line diameter sizes. A recommended process is provided in this section.13 and 14. Because of the variety of information sources for P&ID’s and the variety of types of projects. a no change mind-set should be adopted by the project team for completed P&ID’s.15. this approach is a good starting point for consideration. and specifics regarding types of insulation and tracing are defined and added to P&ID’s (do between PPAProject Methodology Steps 14. FourthPass As-Built Update after Step 14. Continued SecondPass First-pass P&ID’s are marked up by the project team with special emphasis on process control and instrumentation. Introduction 12 . Staged Development of P&ID’s The number of passes for development of the Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) should be minimized to reduce unnecessary reconsideration and excessive costs. this process might require modification to meet the needs of a particular project.19) and authorization. Changes beyond this point can cause significant delays and extra project costs. procedures. and approvals necessary to make a change when absolutely required for the project. No Changes After Project Definition No Changes After Completion of Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) After P&ID’s have been developed and then reviewed in Step 14. piping material specifications. Complete after construction completion.10) and other designated input and evaluation efforts (Steps 14.14).Use of P&ID's in PPAProject Methodology.15. The project team should establish the criteria. The project scope and chemical process should be firmly defined in the Project Definition Stage prior to obtaining the cost estimate (Step 12.09).05 and 14. Third-Pass Additional equipment detail and feedback from HAZOP studies (Step 14. The project team must make a commitment to no changes on P&ID’s. and project scope. flowsheets. Therefore. However. no changes should be made to the process flowsheets and no significant changes made in project scope as P&ID’s are developed in the Project Design and Construction Stage.
Line bubbles including preliminary line sizes. (those lines that are shown on the process flowsheets). and process control instrumentation from the process control graphic. shutPPAn. etc. However. Following are some items that should be included on the first-pass P&ID’s.) piping materials of construction if other than carbon steel and piping pressure class if other than 150 psig or metric equivalent. Teflon-lined.First-Pass Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) There are many sources of information for P&ID’s. Repeat or retrofit projects should start with P&ID’s from existing plants. Process engineers or professional P&ID designers should be able to construct a good first-pass P&ID by expanding the process flowsheets for the project from project definition. especially for instrument items and control valve tag numbers. Title block information. Utility headers will be drawn later. EBVs. including control valves. P&ID’s should be developed based on the process flowsheets for the project. and recycle). FBVs. and utility lines. should have libraries of standard/MET P&ID’s for their processes. Tie points identified but not necessarily numbered. and the need for insulation and tracing by Y/N designation (the type of tracing can be shown if it is readily known). Process control equipment. main process lines. secondary process lines (includes known/hard-piped lines required for startup. as well as the manufacturing facilities. the responsible Technology Center. Item A Description Equipment with tag numbers. Ideally. Continued on next page B C D E F G H 13 . Starting from existing and/or Most Effective Technology (MET) P&ID’s can save time and improve standardization. manually-operated isolation and bleed valves (if readily known) and anticipated location of relief devices. Generic (stainless steel. Supplier packages shown inside dashed lines. monel. care must be taken to ensure that the first-pass P&ID’s are also consistent from the Project Definition Stage and that they utilize current symbology. in these cases.
the consistency of P&ID’s and specifications must be accomplished. Control valve sizes and reducers associated with them.14). In Step 14. Piping material specifications. Second-Pass Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) Item A B C D E F Third-Pass Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) Stage A B C D Fourth-Pass Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) 14 . The first-pass P&ID’s should be marked up by the project team with special emphasis on completion of process control and instrumentation.Staged Development of P&ID’s. The following items should be included on the second-pass P&ID’s.15. Piping reducers.10) as well as other designated input and evaluation opportunities (Steps 14. Continued I Basic pump installations. Additional items that should be located on the third-pass P&ID’s are listed below: Description Instrument tag numbers. The fourth-pass P&ID’s should capture all changes resulting from the team check in Step 14. MOD™ process control computer numbers if applicable. Pump installation details This pass in particular should incorporate feedback from the HAZOP studies (Step 14. Relief system sizes where possible.13 and 14. Line bubbles including final line sizes and insulation and tracing codes. Equipment nozzle sizes.15. In particular. Description Instrument and control hardware specifies. a thorough project team check of all P&ID’s and specifications is conducted.
After the plant has demonstrated the desired operating performance. These will be made a part of the plant operating discipline. Process Engineering should modify the as-built drawings one more time before turning them over to the production plant. 15 .02). as-built drawings and specifications should be placed in the site maintenance and plant operating archiving systems (Step 21.As-Built Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) At the end of the Project Design and Construction Stage. Process Engineering should assemble all process engineering data including as-built P&ID’s as specified in Step 17.11. If modifications have been made during startup.
Format 16 . All code letters used in the package are defined in the line service designation portion of the legend and reference sheets. • A drawing index. • Line service designations identify the name or type of fluid flowing in each line.J–2 at the end of this section. for each line is shown immediately below the line identification balloon on the left-hand side. • Instrument/analyzer designations.) • Tracing type. ‘V’ for vent fluid. where required.J–1 and 5. listing all drawings.P&ID Legend and Reference Sheets Introduction The legend and reference sheets identify the codes and symbols used for the various pieces of information on the Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's). Refer to the example legend and reference sheets. The sheets normally are numbered B1-D00002-Dxxxx and B1D00003-Dxxxx. or other piping component at each point. • Line sequence numbers are assigned to individual lines. consisting of the nominal pipe diameter in inches (or millimeters) and fractions thereof. should be included as the first sheet. The second sheet defines instrumentation identification and symbols. • A list of all piping item symbols used is necessary to clearly define the type of valve. where required. • Each line must be assigned a specification code per the job-related piping material specification. Examples are ‘P’ for process fluid. Content • A typical line identification is shown graphically and explained. connection. Figures 5. symbols. is shown. fitting. • A line size. This index should provide an index cross referencing equipment numbers with P&ID numbers. (A balloon is an elongated oval—usually 45 mm by 5 mm—used on pipelines to contain the line designation. • Insulation class and type. The first sheet defines all symbols and identifications for piping and general items. and explanations are included in the instrumentation legend and reference sheet to identify the instrument and analyzer types used in the facility design. and ‘C’ for steam condensate. for each line (or portion thereof) shall be shown immediately below the line identification “balloon” on the right-hand side. Legend and reference sheets are normally large-size drawings. number B1-D0001-Dxxxx.
Format of P&ID Sheets Introduction The standard P&ID format defined below shall be followed at all sites. Refer to the example Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) in following this section. Following are definitions of some terms used on P&ID’s: Definition Elongated ovals, usually 45 mm by 5 mm, used on pipelines to contain the line designation. Two concentric circles with the space between the circles filled in black, 5 mm inside, 6 mm outside, indicating know-how note or job instructions. Outline indicating information on something that has changed. Piece of equipment shown in dotted lines because it is shown in more than one place on the P&ID’s. Intermediate points where new facilities, being engineered or constructed by one group or agency, will meet facilities being engineered and constructed either another way or by someone else. An interface point might require a tie point. Point at which the new facility makes piping contacts with existing facilities. Symbol indicating the status of a piece of equipment—such as new, existing, relocated, future, or supplier- or ownersupplied. It is usually used to identify exceptions. A status bubble is a ¼-inch circle located next to the equipment bubble. Interface lines indicating contract or purchase order scope of work. The title block identifies the process plant shown on the P&ID (third line). Do not identify the product name or the chemicals used. An example of title block format:
Plant name Project/Process Equipment Drawing type Block
Definition of Terms Term Balloon
Tie point Item status legend (status bubble)
Contract breaks Title Block
Continued on next page
Format of P&ID Sheets, Continued Drawing Size P&ID’s are B-size drawings (A-size in Europe) with the overall dimensions of 22 inches × 34 inches or 24 inches × 36 inches. A space of 75 mm (3 in.) is reserved along the bottom of the sheet for special instructions and know-how notes. A space of 50 mm (2 in.) is reserved along the sides of P&ID’s for entrance and exit lines. During their development, P&ID’s contain progressively more and more information. Therefore, one major equipment item shall be normally shown on one sheet. However, a single complex and highly instrumented item can crowd even one sheet. In such cases, a second sheet showing, for example, the instrumentation separately shall be considered. An alternative is to consider breaking the unit into subparts. An example would be to show a reactor and its jacket system separately. The process section numbers should be coincident with those on the process flowsheet. If the project uses process sections, the process sections can be numbered in steps of 50 or 100, depending on the size of the project. Clearly show the scope of work for engineering when possible. Use status bubbles, tie points, interface points, clouds, and boxes, as appropriate, to indicate the scope of the work. Installation details shown on the legend and reference sheets are examples only. Nonstandard installation details can be shown on every P&ID on which they appear. However, a better way is to use know-how notes to refer to detail drawings. This makes it easier to release details to contractors without having to issue the P&ID’s. Continued on next page
Scope of Work
Format of P&ID Sheets, Continued P&ID Numbering A common method for numbering P&ID’s is to assign a group of drawing sequence numbers to each process section as identified on the index flowsheet. If process sections are assigned on the process flowsheets, the P&ID numbers are within the numbers of these process sections and raised in steps of 2 to 10. Examples: • Section 100 = B1-100-xxxxxx • B1-105-xxxxxx , where: B1 = drawing number prefix indicating a P&ID 105 = process section number as shown on index flowsheet xxxxxx = specific project number • B1-110-xxxxxx through B1-145-xxxxxx or B1-195-xxxxxx • Section 200 = B1-200-xxxxxx • B1-205-xxxxxx • B1-210-xxxxxx through B1-245-xxxxxx or B1-295-xxxxxx Critical Information Utility Lines Indicate critical liquid levels, critical equipment elevations, etc., for condensers, reflux drums, and reboilers, etc. A convention for utility line boxes is to place them at the top of the P&ID where possible (without cluttering the drawing) so utility lines enter or leave the page in a vertical direction. Another convention is to place the utility boxes as close to the utility source or termination point on the graphic as practical. Utility lines can also be considered to be process lines, using directional lines on the side of the sheet. Symbology Show correct symbols as shown on the legend and reference sheets and in accordance with the appropriate equipment, instrument/analyzer, or piping material specifications. Continued on next page
This is not cloud scoping. equipment. Conventio n 1 Description New. and piping. It is not necessary to draw equipment with dashed lines or cross-hatching to indicate a different status. and instrument/analyzers are to be shown as solid lines. According to the Common P&ID Program. the dominant status of the items in a drawing is defined in a default status statement in the lower right-hand corner of the drawing. 2 20 . etc.Format of P&ID Sheets. Item status scoping consists of a pattern of distinct dashed lines. and instrument/analyzers are to be shown dotted or can be shown as “clouded. Any items that differ from the default status are identified by status bubbles. This also applies to renovation projects. since status bubbles provide this information. future. which is used only for revisions made on finished and signed P&ID’s. Existing piping. equipment. instrument/analyzers. Clouds should be identified with a revision triangle to reference the date and reason.” Clouding might be better because it is easier to remove and produce a clean P&ID at the end of the project for facility records. existing. New piping.. Groups of items sharing a common status can be scoped using item status scoping. Continued There are two conventions in common use for showing Equipment Tag Identification equipment tags. Continue the use of status bubbles and status notes in lower-left corner. Use status bubbles to show exceptions. items shall be identified on each P&ID for equipment.
The format shall be the same as used for the process index flowsheet. Its use is optional. but it is often considered to be a valuable tool. It will indicate the P&ID sheet number where the equipment item can be found. but the amount of information that is transmitted to the user is limited.P&ID Index Flowsheet Introduction The P&ID index flowsheet schematically shows the interconnections of all major process and utility equipment to provide an overall view of the process on one drawing. The P&ID index flowsheet is numbered B1-00004-xxxxxx. The P&ID index flowsheet is the same as the process index flowsheet with all confidential process information removed. The purpose of the P&ID index flowsheet is essentially the same as that of the process index flowsheet. The content shall be essentially the same as found on the process index flowsheet for the project except that all confidential information is removed. The P&ID index flowsheet is a normally a large-size drawing. Purpose Format Content 21 . An abbreviated P&ID number will be shown on or adjacent to the equipment item.
Equipment Shown on P&ID’s Introduction All equipment related to the process and utilities within the scope of the project is shown on the Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) and identified by an assigned equipment number. such as the NFPA hazard symbol (diamond) for the contents of a piece of equipment or pipeline. size. and agitators should be shown. 22 . For example. It is suggested that each driver equipment number have the same equipment number as the accompanying equipment. turbine) shall have its own equipment identification. All connections. but that they have different equipment designation letters. The tag should list the letters first. and type are shown. dip pipes. not by process function. Equipment numbers shall correspond to the process section numbers stated on the process flowsheets. The vessel registration number and pipe specification code for direct connect instrumentation are also useful items to include on the P&ID next to the equipment item tag. then the numbers. Other optional information can be added. Insulation and tracing requirements for equipment are shown below the equipment number symbol. vessel jackets. Each driver (for example: motor. Refer to Section H of Chapter 5 for a list of commonly used equipment designation letters. sufficient information should be shown on the P&ID’s to ensure the correct connections to piping and instrumentation. Although most internal details are shown on the equipment specification data sheets. Every piece of equipment shall be identified by the Equipment Identification equipment type designation and a unique equipment number. including manways and other access requirements. This equipment number will not identify process functionality.
existing. supplier. sloped • Show with relative position: location relative to other equipment (for example: bottoms pump shown at column bottom) • Show as relative size: size relative to other equipment (for example: pumps usually smaller than associated equipment) • Duplicate equipment: both pieces are shown fully piped and instrumented • Equipment status: new. the shape of the equipment outline shall be standard equipment symbols. The size of each shall be proportional to its actual size in relation to other equipment on that sheet. pumps. vertical.or owner-furnished Continued on next page 23 . relocated. each equipment outline shall be shown at its relative field elevation and position.Equipment Symbols As much as practical. future. Following are suggestions for equipment layout: • Show as relative shape: spheres. tanks. columns. heat exchangers • Show with relative orientation: horizontal. When applicable.
Examples include elevated distillate collection drums designed for gravity flow to storage vessels. valve plug guide. Examples include bottom. etc.Equipment Shown on P&ID’s. baffles. low and high liquid levels. elevations above pump suctions. trays with temperature points. The type of connection should be properly represented. the seat ring. valve plug stem. feed. Number nozzles starting from the bottom of a piece of equipment going up. nozzle projections. tank partitions. dip tubes. valve plug. Show floor or structure elevations. Tracing. Continued Elevations Critical elevations and elevation differences shall be shown adjacent to the equipment. Certain items of internal equipment shall be shown for clarity or other reasons. Trim is defined as those parts of a valve body assembly—excluding the valve body. and cage. Refrain from using the letter ‘I’ and the letter ‘O’ because they are often confused with the numbers ‘1’ and ‘0’. guide bushing. When multiple nozzles on heads produce crowding. and top trays with their numbers. And bottom flange—that are exposed and in contact with the line medium usually consisting of. etc. and then from left to right horizontally. and Trim Nozzles Continued on next page 24 . but not limited to. Equipment insulation and tracing is specified below the equipment number symbol in the same manner as indicated for piping lines. bonnet assembly.). use tail lines or pointer lines. Identify trim materials of construction for the equipment. Heat Exchangers Shell Side Inlet A Outlet Relief Shell Drain Shell Vent V1 Tube Side B R1 DR1 C Outlet Relief Head Drain DR2 Head Vent V2 Inlet D R2 Internals Insulation. All equipment nozzles shall be identified on each piece of equipment by a single square with both the nozzle letter and the nominal size inside the square. vortex breakers. packed sections of towers. packed tower internals (supports. distributors. chimney trays.
as required B1. as required JV1. etc. 1" Manway Hand-hole Removable Baffle Sample Spare Vent Level Transmitter Level Trans. 1" flanged JD1. L3. 2" JA1. S2. etc. L2. w/ 2 taps Temperature Jacket Inlet Jacket Outlet Jacket Vent Jacket Drain 25 . T3. w/ 2 taps Level Switch Pressure Press. JD2. and the upper tap labeled B T1. and the upper tap labeled B L1. etc. JA2. as required C 10” minimum R as required (Consider using nozzle one size larger than relief size. P1B lower tap should be labeled A. etc. etc. P2. etc.) M 24" minimum H as required RB (Glass Vessels) 8" minimum Z 2" S1. A3. B2. 2” flanged P1. S3. 3" or 4" as required V 2" minimum L1. L3. etc. L1B lower tap should be labeled A. JA3. etc. L2. JB2. etc. etc. as required JB1. T2. list thrust load on P&ID. etc. Otherwise use 3" w/ diaphragm P1A. JB3. 2" with drip ring L1A. Trans. Continued Nozzles. B3. A2. continued For example. 2" for non-plugging service.Equipment Shown on P&ID’s. JD3. JV3. JV2. Also. P3. show nozzles on exchangers as follows: A X” DR1 X” R X” V1 X” b X” V2 X” DR2 X” D X” C X” Vessels Service Inlet Outlet Agitator Relief Designation Size A1.
flanged Continued on next page 26 .
a line shall connect the appropriate flanges or. if there is a direct connection. All nozzle sizes and letters on P&ID’s must exactly match those on the equipment specifications. the matching nozzle sizes on both shall be shown. Continued Nozzles.Equipment Shown on P&ID’s. If two pieces of equipment must be drawn separately for clarity. show nozzles on vessels as follows: L2 X” JV X” JB2 X” A2 X” V X” P X” A3 X” JA2 X” D XXXXX YYYY L1B X” A1 X” JA1 X” JD1 X” B X” JD2 X” L1A X” JB1 X” In instances where two pieces of equipment are connected flange-to-flange with no interconnecting piping (for example: certain reboiler connections to a tower). continued For example. Continued on next page 27 . dashed lines can be used.
Personnel protection areas should be indicated. etc. legs.Equipment Shown on P&ID’s. utility stations. Insulation shall be shown even on preliminary P&ID’s. can be grouped separately as “utility” P&ID’s. Typically. inspection ports. Equipment Supports Package Units Equipment Requiring Utility Service All equipment requiring a utility service. An index is normally provided that cross-references equipment numbers with P&ID numbers. including electrical. including manholes. Package units shall be indicated by being dashed box indicating what is and what is the supplier as part of the package unit. Continued Blinded Nozzles All blinded nozzles. handholds. Equipment such as unit space heaters. safety showers. and skirts shall be shown if integral and/or if needed for clarity. Show insulation specifications on vessels and equipment. spare nozzles. with instrumentation and piping shown. shall be identified on the P&ID’s. Utility and Process Safety equipment are treated as process equipment. Equipment supports. Insulation CrossReference 28 . utility headers are redrawn once detail engineering layouts have been completed. significant part of a package unit should with a proper tag number for tracking and enclosed in a not supplied by Each be identified maintenance. Valves connected to vessels but not in piping lines shall show size and whether blind flanges or threaded connections are used (such as for jacket vents). shall be shown.. etc.
air vents. but interpiping connections will be governed by the applicable piping material specification and might not be shown. Elbows and tees are not indicated on P&ID’s. One convention is to have utility lines run vertical as much as possible.. This includes drains. vents. A line is a piece of pipe. However. flush connections. isometrics. such as with unloading and loading units and switch-overs. The physical arrangement of the piping is not shown on Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's). Other conventions are to place the utility boxes as close to the utility source or termination point on the graphic as practical or to consider utility lines as process lines. The graphical protocol is to have process lines run horizontally as much as possible. Examples include: • Connection between two pieces of equipment • Connection between a piece of equipment and another line • Connection between two lines • Connection from a piece of equipment or line to a drain or the atmosphere • Header between two blind flanges or to pipe caps • Connection to or from an in-line analyzer • Line terminating to atmosphere or to a ditch without a flange All piping to be installed as a part of the project—plus information required to effectively communicate the connections to existing facilities—should be shown. reducers. If covering and/or tracing is required. Connections to existing piping or equipment will be identified by the use of tie points and interface points. Piping connections to equipment and line terminations are shown as flanged or threaded on the P&ID’s. Piping dimensions. Detailed piping is not shown. using directional lines on the side of the sheet. and stress considerations will not be shown on the P&ID unless there are overriding process reasons. startup screens.Piping Shown on P&ID’s Introduction Piping is shown schematically in a logical sequence. All items that affect process functionality must be specifically identified. Coupled lines. usually between two defined points. steam traps. reducers. break-out flanges. etc. and relief devices. can be shown. strainers. should be shown. the appropriate specifications will also be given. Continued on next page What Is A Line? Piping To Be Included 29 .
shall be shown on P&ID’s. In that case the location and size of reducers shall also be indicated. whether process or utility. or connection specified must be in the piping material specification. and piping material specification. the intent is that the P&ID’s. The sizes and types of valves will be consistent with the line size. the body sizes will be added during detailed engineering.Piping Shown on P&ID’s. Where it is important for the maintenance and operation of the facility. If any valve other than the default is to be used. along with the piping material specifications. This is also true for the valve portion of control valves. Bleed Valves Bleed valves shall be shown. Manual valves will be indicated by type. service. The valve. Standard symbols for various valve types shall be used and are defined on the legend and reference sheet. Unique and unusual valves should be identified as pieces of equipment (specials). identify commonly available types and sizes of valves. If more than one valve of the same type and size range is in the piping material specification. the full V-number of the valve must be shown on the P&ID’s. 30 . For control valves. fittings (such as caps and bull plugs) and connections (such as flanged or threaded couplings or unions) are shown on P&ID’s. job instructions must make clear whether the choice will be determined by economics only or whether the Project Manager (or Manufacturing Representative) will decide based on other factors. Indicate valve item numbers on the P&ID’s if the piping material specification offers a choice. fitting. However. Where multiple choices exist. Normally. the first valve listed will be the default choice. Special attention should be given to valves in corrosive or hazardous service that are drilled for vent relief. vent and drain valves for line pressure testing are not normally shown. Continued Other Items Specified All valves.
For example. Show the last line numbers used on that P&ID in the lower right-hand corner. All lines shall have one starting point. if the main line is A-1. either at an item of equipment or another line. 2. It can not have more than one ending point. 31 . such as piping drawings. instead of A-1. the jacket line will be JA-1. … All jacketed lines must have the same number as the main line that is jacketed. and piping material specification code. that is. Number all lines sequentially regardless of process prefix. N-1. Existing line numbers might remain when a P&ID is revised or redrawn since they are used in other existing drawings. etc. Each process line shall be identified with a line number that corresponds directly with the P&ID from which it originates and the equipment from which it originates.. a line that branches to two nozzles on a vessel is actually two lines. there is only one line numbered 1. size.Pipeline Numbering Each pipeline will have a label consisting of a unique identifier.
Example: P-12345-4”BC01 JS-12345-8”-AC03 Insulation and tracing shall be noted below the line identification balloon. one for the process line and one for the jacket. Continued on next page 32 . etc. The balloon shall contain the following information: YYY-XXXXX-ZZZ-0000 Piping material specification code Line size Line sequence number Line service designation The piping specification code comes from the piping material specification for the material in the pipe. Service designation shall be JS for steam.Piping Line and Item Designation Introduction Piping Line Designation Use standard symbols to identify piping lines. JW for water. 45 mm x 5 mm. minimum. Line designation shall be shown on the Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) and utility diagrams in a balloon. See the heading “Piping Material Specifications” in this section for further details. The sequence number of the jacket is the same as that of the corresponding line. Jacketed lines shall be identified with two separate line numbers.
Certain piping items with identifying symbols also require a designation and a sequence number in a 12 mm square.Piping Line and Item Designation. For example: P&ID Number Line Number B1-00120-xxxx yyy-12003-xxxxxx-xxx Changes in Piping Characteristic s A change in size along a line does not change the line sequence number. The next three digits represent a serial number. The first two digits in the line sequence number shall correspond with the third and the fourth digit in the five-digit sequence number of the P&ID that shows the start of the line in the direction of flow. filters) should receive a separate sequence number. The largest line size shall be shown on the piping line schedule. Continued on next page 33 . Continued Example A complete piping line designation should look like the example below. On small projects. For example: TRP XXX Piping Line Sequence Numbering Each line shall have a unique five-digit sequence number. Lines from/to spare equipment (for example: pumps. YYY-XXXXX-ZZZ-0000 T = ** C=* * Covered Line: W = Coated and wrapped F3 = Insulation class/thickness (typical) ** Specify tracing: ST = Steam EL = Electrical D = Dowtherm HW = Hot water GL = Glycol Piping Item Designation Piping items shall be identified on P&ID’s and utility diagrams with a symbol. a four-digit line number can be used. The P&ID . so that a shorter two-digit sequence number is obtained.ALL-file shows all sizes of a line.
using directional lines on the side of the sheet Utility piping lines are seldom shown continued to the margins of the process P&ID’s. The first two digits in the piping item number shall correspond with the third and fourth digit in the five-digit P&ID sequence number. or service line Jacketed line Piping To Be Shown All piping shall be shown and given a line sequence number regardless of size. utility. tracing. Utility lines serving a particular area or item of equipment should carry that P&ID number. this permits assignment of line numbers before utility P&ID’s are developed. Inside this box the name or line number of the utility is indicated and the drawing number of the utility diagram on which this piping. Process piping is to be shown horizontally as much as possible. underground process lines should be avoided. Except in rare instances. Pipe lines shown shall include process prefix. Continued Piping Item Numbering Each piping item shall have a unique three-digit sequence number. line number. instrumentation. fluid handled. Since utility P&ID’s are often developed after flowsheets and other P&ID’s are created. and utility equipment is shown. For example: P&ID Number Piping Tag Number B1-00120-xxxx TRP-121 (for a trap) Lines shall be drawn in different ways depending on service: Symbol Piping Line Symbols Type of Line Main process line Auxiliary process.Piping Line and Item Designation. or whether it is underground or above ground. Instead. and insulation code. specification. size. It would identify a utility line with the area or equipment it serves. 34 . Utility Lines Underground Lines Underground lines are documented in the same manner as above ground lines. each one begins or terminates at a 14 mm × 45 mm non-directional box shown in the body of the P&ID. Utility lines can be shown in one of the following methods: • Have utility lines run vertical as much as possible • Place the utility boxes as close to the utility source or termination point on the graphic as practical • Consider utility lines as process lines. The third digit is a serial number.
explanations. Specialty Piping Lines Continuing from One Sheet To Another Use double squares to show specialty piping items (for example: strainers. Show steam traps on P&ID’s as equipment items so the operating conditions can be correctly documented for design and operation. lines with no pockets. with the exception of utility lines. etc. Examples include: and Operating • Critical line elevations (or parts thereof) that satisfy Considerations a critical static head requirement • Critical line lengths that minimize a critical two-phase flow pressure drop or maintain a critical residence time • Sloped lines from one defined point to another to satisfy a critical draining requirement or a line with no pockets or low points to prevent accumulation of process material • Liquid-seal legs to maintain a positive seal against unwanted vapor flow • Identify only critical line lengths These. This convention needs to be observed to maintain intelligent P&ID’s for use of the . Lines shall be numbered as close to the edges of the sheets as practical. Traps Show steam trap piping on P&ID’s with line numbers. All pipe specification breaks shall be assigned a new P&ID line number. Continued Specification Breaks Show all specification breaks (piping. and specification material breaks where possible. as well as all other special piping configurations. Special Piping Special piping configurations shall be indicated on Configurations P&ID’s. traps. insulation breaks. • Identify critical operational considerations such as sloped lines. Lines going to a P&ID with a higher sequence number leave on the right-hand side of the sheet. vertical for gravity drops. A good practice to follow is that. slopes.) to get a detailed equipment report. flame arrestors.Piping Line and Item Designation. insulation. all lines going to a P&ID with a lower sequence number leave the sheet on the left-hand side. Process piping lines continuing from one sheet to another shall be matched at the edges of the sheets and shall be horizontal. etc. or liquidseal legs 35 . lines with no low points.) at their relative location in the process when possible.ALL-file. shall be shown in full detail on the P&ID’s with specific dimensions. tracing. etc.
Continued on next page 36 .
all relief/safety devices are extractable as specialty piping items and.Piping Line and Item Designation. This includes safety valves. Continued All pressure-relief devices (including associated piping) PressureRelief Devices shall be shown at their proper locations on the P&ID’s. pressurerelief valves. startup lines) and utilities as light weight. the set pressure shall be shown adjacent to the symbol. For each safety relief device. therefore. emergency-relief valves. Line Weight A common practice is to show all main process lines as heavy line style. are shown as double squares. Show secondary process lines (drains. Usually each relief device is to be numbered as a piece of equipment using double squares. Relief devices shall be numbered to match the equipment or piping that they are intended to protect. etc. On “intelligent” P&ID’s. rupture disks. 37 . vents. Critical dimensions and exact piping arrangements shall be recorded for pressure-relief devices on supporting documents.
equipment. Continued on next page 38 . The exact location at which the new line is to be connected is labeled with a tie point symbol. Other information relating to the connection should be entered on a tie point schedule. This normally will be the P&ID or utility diagram. and instrumentation can be shown dashed (ghosted). • A new section of piping only is added to an existing line. Therefore. A unique tie point number shall be shown inside. not in clouds. The tie-point designation shall also be used where: • A new instrument item is added to existing piping or equipment. If your project uses no more than three digits for P&ID numbers. It can consist of a reproducible piping drawing or a photograph. • An existing line is extended. all new items should be drawn with solid lines. it is necessary that this is shown and uniquely identified on a document of the existing facility. or instrumentation is being added to an existing facility and a new P&ID is being used. When new piping.Tie Points All tie points shall be shown and specification sheets generated. a rectangle showing dimensions from reference points if necessary. • A valve is added to an existing line or equipment item. Existing piping. Tie points are locations at which piping for the new facility connects with existing facilities. equipment. you can use the P&ID number as the first three numbers of the unique tie point number and then number the tie points sequentially on that P&ID page. Tie points should be clearly indicated.
shall be shown. Show exceptions.Piping Line and Item Designation. cooling. The first block valve shall be defined by type and size by using standard P&ID symbols. Operational Connections Insulation and Insulation and tracing shall be shown even on preliminary P&ID’s. PipingInstrument Specification Break First Block Valve A piping-instrument specification break is not required. All other piping items. Continued Demolition Drawings Demolition drawings are required to clearly define which piping and equipment is to remain and which is to be removed. All necessary operational connections. such as traps. Drains on lines shall have a minimum nominal size of ¾ inch (20 mm). All vents and drains shall be blinded or plugged off. compressors. etc. Instrument piping is not detailed. bleeds. and draining of pumps. blow-PPAns. however. flushing. This information can be conveyed in a similar manner as tie point information is conveyed. etc. purging. and steaming connections shall be shown. The default is after the first block valve. tracing. but should be compatible with process materials and/or given as a subpart of the specification for the process piping. shall be shown with size where applicable. Pipe fittings are not normally shown. The letters ‘PM’ adjacent to the flow element is recommended. quenching. and special connections. Piping material specification breaks (piping. Show all items for flushing. It is recommended that double the length of straight run pipe specified by the AGA or other bodies be used to improve accuracy. Paymeters Paymeters (accounting meters) shall be flagged or identified in some way. Piping Material Specifications 39 . Care should be exercised not to create too many as-built corrections as the demolition project progresses. such as bypasses. reducers. The types of materials are detailed in the piping material specification. Tracing insulation..J–1). etc. venting. fittings such as special clean outs. drains. All connections must be indicated on the P&ID independent of its application.) shall be shown by arrows at their relative location in the process when possible with the corresponding specification letters nearby (see Figure 5.
and complete MOC documentation of the specifications to comply with government requirements and PPA policies. or GPMMS at the DCL prompt ($). Piping material specifications are handled by a system that is separate from equipment specifications (SPECS). flanges. fittings. a piping material specification is a carefully assembled and matched “parts list” of all the components required to build a complete pipe line or system. PMMS. valves. The piping material specification systems (PMMS. Piping material specifications will be required for each project. Standardizatio Piping material specifications are standardized for specific chemicals and utilities within The PPA Chemical n Company. For details beyond those presented here. Electronic Specifications or GPMMS) can be accessed by logging on to the Engineering VAXcluster and typing PPASPE. Each Technology Center should have standard piping material specifications developed for the fluids used frequently within their technology. PPASPE. A “standard” piping material specification is commonly called a “pipe spec. breaks. testing. They are common. Importance Piping systems contain process chemicals and utilities and must be properly designed and maintained to prevent leaks. based upon sound mechanical and application technology. adopted specifications that represent the minimum acceptable criteria for safe and adequate material containment. These piping components are selected according to their ability to conform to common basic requirements or criteria. In Europe the system is called PPASPE. Those systems will be globalized in 1997 and become a single PPAPiping Materials Management System (GPMMS). and spills. and accessories to contain chemicals and utilities in a safe and cost-effective manner. In North America they are contained in an electronic system called Piping Materials Management System (PMMS) . Some piping systems will require registration. including: • Chemical or utility service • Pressure and temperature limits • Materials and methods of construction • Corrosion allowance • Compliance with industrial piping codes • Other requirements imposed by hazards of service or local regulations Criteria 40 .Introduction Piping material specifications define acceptable materials of construction. They are shown as the last four digits in the pipeline balloon on a P&ID. gaskets. contact the site piping discipline representative.” In its simplest terms.
psig at 100 Deg. approved. approved. this is related to a single.Welded 150 psig at 250. An example might be: XYZ Plant Master Process . without modification. F Continued on next page 41 . Specific Specifications suitable for a broader range of process streams and mixed compositions within a particular process unit. Within the facility or process unit. which indicate for which services the specification is suitable.High Pressure Dimethylamine (DMA) (Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) Trimethylamine (TMA) 300. Its use is governed by the piping material specification codes and the P&ID’s.Dry Gas .Steel . F Material: Carbon Steel A process-specific specification is a piping material Processspecification with a consistent material of construction. and suitable for use without modification. Usually. a process-specific specification also is regarded as a standard or “master” since it is complete. Deg. pure material rather than a mixed stream.Continued on next page Piping Line and Item Designation. Like all standards or “masters” it is complete. and suitable for use as is. Continued Sequence of Components For consistency in piping material specifications. It might or might not include specific chemical names in its description. the descriptions of piping components are assembled in the following sequence: • Bolting/fasteners • General and construction notes • Bolt lubricants • Pipe • Joint compounds • Branch connections • Valves • Pipe tubing • Instrument installation details • Fittings • Welding procedures • Flanges • Miscellaneous and • Gaskets accessories A product-specific specification is a piping material Productspecification that has been developed for a specific Specific Specifications chemical or service at a stated set or range of process conditions. An example might be: PPAMaster Chlorine .
GPMMS Database The PPAPiping Material Management System (GPMMS—a system scheduled for delivery in 1997) is a common. PPAor master piping material specifications will be owned by Technology Centers. including Technology Centers. based upon a broad spectrum of cumulative manufacturing experiences. applicable size ranges. plants. and appropriateness of numerous piping systems. descriptions. These specifications are meant to be used in all locations that employ that process technology. pressure/temperature code check table references. Continued Ownership Standard or “master” piping material specifications have been owned and maintained by a number of different organizations.Piping Line and Item Designation. PPAengineering computer database consisting of piping materials data. Houston PPA Center. Piping System Databases Piping system databases have two parts: • One part is a central catalogue that contains descriptions for all piping components. divisions. In the PPAsystem (1997). Changes or modifications to piping material specifications shall be in accordance with PPAMOC standards. Each Technology Center concentrates on areas of product expertise that are unique and specific to the business of its products. or temporarily by project teams. Furthermore. departments. or system. minimum and maximum allowable temperatures for the specified materials. blocks. There are internal rules for the sequence by which the collection is assembled to ensure that the format of a piping material specification is globally consistent. The main catalog is kept and maintained at DDC. The piping component catalogue is owned by PPApiping technology specialists. depending upon the range of common use. All catalogue datamanagement activities are performed according to guidelines established by PPApiping technology specialists. Technology Center specifications are to be used where specific chemical services interface to more than one manufacturing plant—such as styrene monomer. GPMMS Ownership The GPMMS program. The specification is simply a collection or association of items from the catalogue and appears as a piping material specification. Technology Center piping specifications incorporate the Technology Center Masters various product processing technologies. is owned by the PPAEngineering Application Resource Center in DDC. MOC 42 . and code check programs for use in constructing and maintaining PPATechnology Center piping material specifications. • The second part actually “builds” the piping material specification. including item numbers. correctness.
Piping items through the first valve on instrument/analyzer connections are part of the piping design and are shown on P&ID’s. The connections of field-mounted sensors and driven devices. unless otherwise indicated. Control Valves Control valves shall be indicated as fail close (FC). service. range. it can be shown if necessary to provide clarity or to ensure process functionality. Instrumentatio Connections from instrument and analyzers to both piping and equipment must be consistent with not only the piping n Piping material and equipment specifications. control. or fail last (FL). 44 . including control valves with their failure action. and perhaps the selected manufacturer.Instrumentation Shown on P&ID’s Introduction One of the functions of Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) is to define how the operating process is to be instrumented. Although instrument/analyzer piping is normally not shown. The logic for the operation of control instruments is best described in the Process Control Strategy as a part of the specific automation and control design or its equivalent. and shutPPAn processes might not be entirely evident from the P&ID’s. such as valves to equipment and piping. fail open (FO). Instruments Shown on P&ID All instruments and analyzers required for the project. Since these items do not necessarily appear on the P&ID’s. All items of instrument/analyzer piping can be covered in the appropriate piping material specification or as a subpart for instrumentation only. Each instrument or analyzer required for the project is identified and shown both schematically and symbolically on the P&ID’s. and the instrument/analyzer specifications give the particular type. their inclusion in the piping material specification must be verified. The instruments and analyzers required to adequately startup. must be clearly indicated. The applicable specification for instrument piping is the same as given for the piping or equipment to which the instrument/analyzer is attached. control logic is shown on the specific automation and control design or its equivalent. but also the instrument/analyzer specifications. All piping after the first valve is generally covered by the instrument/analyzer installation details. Special control valves shall be specified on specification sheets for the type preferred. This is especially true if computer control will be used. A diverter valve will usually fail last. shall be shown on the P&ID near the process equipment being controlled. A P&ID is not a control logic diagram. The general nature of the instrument or analyzer is shown on the P&ID.
Continued on next page 45 . If an element is used by more than one SIS it shall be designated with one SIS number per system.Safety Instrumented Systems All sensors and final elements of the Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) shall be designated with a number common to those elements but unique to that system.
A site example (Texas) for numbering loops is to start at the upper left-hand corner and number the loops as one moves to the lower right-hand corner. For example: FT-12043 A means: • ‘FT’ is the ISA function (flow transmitter) • ‘120’ is the P&ID number • ‘43’ locates it in square 43 on P&ID number 120 • ‘A’ is used to differentiate instruments with the same tag number An example grid is shown below. A site example (Terneuzen. Loops can be numbered so that the valve and transmitter working together at steady-state conditions can be identified by number and/or tie line.Instrumentation Shown on P&ID’s. This makes it easy to find an instrument on any P&ID. The last two numbers of the instrument consist of the numbers within the square where it is located on that P&ID. Continued Tag and Loop Numbers Tag numbers shall correspond to the P&ID number and loop number. The squares are numbered 00. Each instrument is located within one of the squares. Continued on next page 46 . which are derived from the distribution of inputs on the various input cards. Netherlands) for tag numbers for instruments is to have the instrument tag numbers correspond with the cubicle input numbers. A grid system is used in Michigan Engineering for assigning instrument tag numbers on P&ID’s. 01. up to 99. etc. Each P&ID is divided with an overlay into a 10×10 grid consisting of 100 squares.
orifice plates.Instrumentation Shown on P&ID’s. Continued Grid System for Instrument Tag Numbers FT . Instrumentation Shown on P&ID’s. orifice plates. Instrument Flow devices. shall be specified for the type preferred. Thermowells. and Numbering Instrument and analyzer symbols. designation. other than an orifice. See Section H of Chapter 5 for more information on instrument/analyzer specifications. Designation. Grid: PID overlay 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2nd number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 P&ID number ISA function Symbols. and numbering shall be in accordance with the Design Instrument/Analyzer discipline and their work process discipline. Control and interface relays shall be shown (if known). Continued Instrument How to Depict 47 .12043 A Used to differentiate between instruments with the same tag number. The digital output from most process control computers is 24 volts dc. Instruments on The table below suggests how instrument/analyzers and piping materials related to instrument/analyzers should P&ID’s be shown on P&ID’s. and orifice flanges shall be shown as separate items. and flanges Control and interface relays How to Depict Flow devices. An example of a control relay that is 120 volts ac would be one that is used to start a pump or operate a solenoid for instruments controlled by a computer. thermowells. Panel-mounted Local panel-mounted (field) instruments instruments shall be identified.
such as fieldmounted. recorders. shall not be shown on P&ID’s.. Instead. Its originating P&ID number should be indicated. Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) Loops Instrument ranges Instrument ranges for transmitters. etc. etc. SIS loops shall be identified. Block valves on instruments Purge systems and tracing Instrument lines to or from other P&ID’s 48 . Purge systems and heat tracing/insulation of instruments for winterizing or process shall be identified.Control room instruments Instruments shall be identified using appropriate symbols. controllers. Control valve body sizes normally should be added during design engineering. pressure switches. mounted behind a panel. panel-mounted. indicators. The first block valve on all instruments connected to process piping and equipment shall be shown. the instrument tag symbol should be shown ghosted on the P&ID in which it connects to another instrument. Instrument lines going to or coming from other P&ID’s shall not be drawn to the edges of the sheets. mounted on the process control computer.
Input and output signals (I/O) for process control systems and computers shall be shown.Process Control Elements Shown on P&ID’s Introduction Process control computer addresses shall be defined when known. overrides) will be shown when known. control and display systems shall be defined to the extent possible during detailed engineering. If a control system other than a PPA process control computer (MOD™ computer) is used. Process control computer aborts (shutPPAn alarms. Control Systems from Outside Suppliers Inputs and Outputs 49 . interlocks.
Local convention might require other symbols to be used. off (F. Process representatives supply the required information. but with electrical power available.ON). motors will fail on (F. and electrical requirements. etc. Failure Position of Motors Interlocks Switch Designation The failure position of electric motors shall be shown. Show hand-off-automatic/hand switch (HOA/HS) designations for all hand switches.LAST). Electrical engineers should discuss these requirements with the process engineers. Upon loss of control signal. Hardware and hard-wired interlocks and shutPPAns shall be shown. or last (F. the facility. Identification Electrical items (motors. tracing. a list separate from the equipment list). heaters.OFF). 50 . Significant electrical loads should be listed.Electrical Equipment Shown on P&ID’s Introduction The information needed to create the electrical equipment list (schedule) and the electrical one-line diagram for a facility is determined by people who have knowledge of the process. Following is a brief guideline on information the electrical engineer needs to generate a electrical motor list and a one-line diagram. The electrical items of Electrical can be objects for extraction into the equipment list Items (based on P&ID software) and into their own list (that is. ventilation. Electrical items should be identified by unique tag items. Electrical engineers create electrical equipment schedules and one-line diagrams. such as motors. process heating. and air conditioning for buildings.) shall be identified by unique tag items. and heating.
Utility Diagrams Introduction Utilities are systems that supplement the process system. and perhaps pressure relief. roads and buildings can be shown with lightweight lines. however. All known utilities should be included. etc. Although there is currently no standard for utility diagrams. Better practice. and eye-wash systems. However. safety showers. Numbering is similar to that of P&ID’s. fuel gas. wastewater collection systems. Whenever practical. etc. heat transfer fluids. virtually the same piping and instrument details. The advantage is that the piping arrangement is similar to the actual layout of the facility. Using utility diagrams to show most of the utility information helps to simplify the process P&ID’s. Utility information can be included in process P&ID’s in small projects (up to about four P&ID’s). Utility diagrams are Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) that present information on utilities. This can simplify pipe sizing. It is important that these diagrams complement information already shown on process P&ID’s. is to separate all utilities on even small project P&ID’s because small projects occur frequently over the life of a facility and utility information grows. tie-in locations. steam. condensate. For clarity. Purpose Content Format 51 . Use the same conventions as used for process piping on P&ID’s. blow-PPAn systems. and conventions are used on utility diagrams as on process P&ID’s. nitrogen. hot oil. routing. Check with the drafting experts at your site. Utility diagrams are B-size drawings (A1 size in Europe). In some locations. such as fire water. Location of utility stations should follow the plot plan. refrigeration. vent systems. They also include systems that might not tie directly into the process. such as (but not limited to) cooling water. air. It might be desirable to provide an approved plot plan according to the process flowsheet on Plot Plan status before creating utility diagrams based on a plot plan. symbols. utility diagrams based on a plot plan Utility Diagrams Based are provided. there are exceptions in some locations. layout of utility diagrams should reflect the physical layout of the facility. Refer to the example utility diagram at the end of this section.
site conventions need to determined in advance.Gas Service For gas services. such as: • Are step-PPAn pressure regulators for air and nitrogen to be shown on the utility page? • Should they be shown on each process page? • Should only the last step-PPAn regulator be shown on the P&ID? 52 .
but also descriptive data associated with the components on the drawings. The intelligent P&ID file. This includes not only the P&ID graphics or drawings. It is very important that everyone who creates and/or updates P&ID’s follow the proper procedures and protocols to preserve intelligent functionality. some skill might be required to generate the required reports. As a result. Contact the P&ID Resource Center in Houston for assistance or more information.ALL-File Intelligent P&ID’s Introduction Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) are created using the Common P&ID Program. piping. Listings of virtually any information contained in the P&ID’s can be obtained this way.ALL-file. Information available Report name Proj. Other programs then can extract all descriptive and relational data from the P&ID’s and store the data in a database.’ will be replaced with the actual project name. and instrument/analyzer lists and schedules for all components on the P&ID. output listings are available to the user. RA1 Following is a list of reports available after completion of the P&ID’s.P&ID Data Extraction—. Who Creates Intelligent P&ID’s? The Common P&ID Program currently runs on an Intergraph workstation-based MicroStation CAD system. they are transferred from Where Are the P&ID’s Stored? the workstation to a VAX computer. is located in a subdirectory on the VAX. However. Description Process report 53 . This system creates “intelligent” P&ID’s—intelligent because they contain all the graphic and nongraphic data on the P&ID. The function of the system is to provide equipment. Once P&ID’s are complete. Data stored in the .ALL-file are arranged in a defined format. the quality of the P&ID’s is enhanced. This requires an experienced and trained operator. This file is known as the . and programs can be written to read this file in a selective manner. including the connectivity relationships among the graphic figures and the documents on which they appear. The . ALL Proj. Purpose Once the P&ID’s are created. One benefit of the system is that it ensures connectivity of lines and correctness and consistency of information. or . The reports are usually generated by designers on behalf of process engineers.ALL-file because of its contents (all P&ID data). The word ‘Proj.ALL-file stores the information in a database. it is unlikely that a casual user would be successful in creating usable intelligent P&ID’s. Those with access to the program can access to the files and reports. Read and execution privileges are established by the originator of the documents.
RD1 Proj.Proj. RE1 Proj. RE2 Drawing data message report Equipment/nozzle data message report Equipment/nozzle list Continued on next page 54 .
RI2 Proj. RE5 Proj.idb interface program must be run on the NAME.P&ID Data Extraction—. available are QSCHED.ALL program before the ISCHED program can be run. Process engineers use the detailed reports from the program. RE3 Proj. RI3 Proj. to work with the instrument engineer to extract data such as instrument schedules and lists. TSCHED. for piping line schedules and equipment lists. It also keeps track of instrument tag numbers that have been added or deleted. RD2 Proj. RE4 Proj. RI1 Proj. They use the program. RN1 Proj. RL2 Proj.ALL-file database and manipulates it into a new data file.) This new file is the basis for instrument/analyzer specification development. Draftspers Primary ons Process engineers Seconda ry Instrument Seconda engineer ry 55 . Continued Report name Proj. RL3 Proj. (Note that the NAME. Use Draftspersons use it while debugging for accuracy.ALL-File Intelligent P&ID’s. LOG Primary and Secondary Users User Description Safety equipment report Piping non-standard material report Instrument data message report instrument/analyzer list Piping data message report Trim item list Tie point list Deleted drawing data report Deleted equipment/nozzle data report Deleted instrument data report Deleted piping data report Piping item list Mother and error report Following are this program. and require separate interfaces. Also such programs as LSCHED. RL4 Proj. RX1 Proj. which Need examples of primary and secondary users of and the information they can obtain. PIDINSTINT/ISCHED is a separate set of programs used by the instrument engineer. These programs extract instrument information from the . for example.
Continued on next page 56 . tie-point lists.Piping designers Seconda ry Piping designers use piping line schedules. and the piping item list.
LOG Title Piping line schedule Equipment and nozzle list.P&ID Data Extraction—.RL4 TEST.RI2 TEST. page 2 Safety equipment list Instrument list and legend Instrument list Piping item list Tie point list Trim item list Error log 57 .5-6 15.RE3 TEST.5-4 15. Continued Examples of reports Table Number 15.5-11 Several report outputs from a typical project are listed below.RL2 TEST.5-8 15. VAXmail Name TEST.5-3 15.5-2 15.5-5 15. page 1 Equipment and nozzle list.RE2 TEST.RE2 TEST.RI2 TEST.RX1 TEST RN1 TEST.5-10 15.ALL-File Intelligent P&ID’s.5-7 15.5-9 15.
Locate ________ (tag item ) in view of ____________ (tag item). Nozzle internals to be removable and accessible for maintenance. numeric symbols are not used in know-how notes. Valve to be locked closed. occasionally called job instruction notes. Standard notes are numeric and special notes are alphabetic (I and O excluded). The following standard know-how notes are in common use: Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Description Access platform required for maintenance. sketches. Valve to be locked open. Removable spool required. and the symbol is repeated in the 75 mm space reserved along the bottom of each P&ID. or words. Know-how notes on the P&ID’s are used for this. Locate as close to “_________” as practical. standard note 7. Continued on next page 58 . “note A” should always say the same thing throughout a set of P&ID’s. Locate at highest elevation of line.Adding Notes to P&ID’s Introduction Various notes can be added to Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) to call attention to special instructions or unique features or show changes or revisions. Normally. A short “tail” can be added to the know-how note symbol for clarity. or revision notes. Know-How Notes Sometimes detailed information must be provided that cannot be easily handled by normal methods. A central registry of notes should be maintained. Guidelines for creating and marking know-how notes should be defined by the project team early in the project. as it appears in the list of standard notes is note 7 on all P&ID’s. Flange required every ________ feet or meters. A two-character field is used because of the number of standard notes. Standard Notes Standard know-how notes appear the same way on all P&ID’s. Information can be provided in any convenient form— illustrations. they are variously called know-how notes. are shown adjacent to the item in question. Branch connection to be taken off top of header. Piping to be as short as practical. These notes. beginning with A. For example. Depending on their purpose. For example. “do” notes. A sequential letter is placed inside each symbol.
Sample graphics are shown below and on several P&ID examples. reference notes on the P&ID are appropriate. A triangle along with a cloud is used on existing P&ID’s to tag additions or demolition (revisions). Tracing for this “________” to be a separate loop by itself. tank trucks. Examples include gutters. “Do” notes shall be used when a nonstandard application or installation of instruments is required. job number and date should be shown. or instruments. Mount/locate _________ (tag item) accessible from grade.Adding Notes to P&ID’s. Continued on next page 15 16 17 18 19 20 “Do” Notes Additions or Demolition (Revisions) Additional Information Examples 59 . tank cars. Locate __________ (item) close/adjacent to _________ (item). elevated pump bases. Continued Note 12 13 14 Description Startup strainer required with removable spool. dikes. No legs/pockets in this line. etc. The cloud circumference should cross at tie points. The project. All washout valves shall be oriented PPAn. or ladder. No line required—flange/fitting to flange/fitting makeup. building walls. equipment. Where these are important to ensure process functionality. Often it is useful to reference elements that are not piping. Slope line toward _________ (item) as shown. Allow space at the end of exchanger (shell and tube) so tubes can be accessed for cleaning or removal of bundle. platform. dike drains.
½ and 7/16 inch Square or box Use Instrument item tag for locally mounted device Equipment item tag Equipment nozzle tag Double box Specialty piping item tag Instrument signal to or from a process control computer Know-how note Line balloon Status bubble Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) Tie point Piping and specification break for tracing and insulation Single diamond Circle with 5-mm ID and 6-mm OD Elongated oval Single ¼-inch circle Hexagon 18×16 mm box or 3/8 in. square TP T&C C Triangle Irregular shape Revision mark Cloud used to define area or scope of revision 60 . Continued Symbols and Tags Used on P&ID’s Symbol Description Single ½-inch circle Double circle.Adding Notes to P&ID’s.