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Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&ID’s)

Section Overview
Introduction Piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID’s) are schematic
representations of all equipment, piping, and process
instrumentation and the necessary connectivity and
physical interrelationships required for safe and
efficient operations consistent with the project scope.
This section describes the content and development of
In This Following is a list of topics in this section.
Topic See
What is a P&ID? 5j–3
Use of P&ID’s in PPAProject Methodology 5j–5
Staged Development of P&ID’s 5j–10
P&ID Legend and Reference Sheets 5j–13
Format of P&ID Sheets 5j–14
P&ID Index Flowsheet 5j–18
Equipment Shown on P&ID’s 5j–19
Piping Shown on P&ID’s 5j–24
Piping Line and Item Designation 5j–26
Piping Material Specifications 5j–32
Instrumentation Shown on P&ID’s 5j–35
Process Control Elements Shown on P&ID’s 5j–39
Electrical Equipment Shown on P&ID’s 5j–40
Utility Diagrams 5j–41
P&ID Data Extraction—.ALL-file Intelligent 5j–42
Topic See
Adding Notes to P&ID’s 5j–45

The Figure items listed below are only available Fold
in hard copy. Figures are available in .pdf out
format for viewing and printing on the Process pages
Engineering web site.
Figure 5.J–1: PPALegend Sheet I
Figure 5.J–2: PPALegend Sheet II
Figure 5.J–3: V-475 P&ID (Example)
Figure 5.J–4: V-4700 Crystallizer P&ID (Example)
Figure 5.J–5: Utility P&ID (PPAtherm SR-1
Figure 5.J–6: Utility P&ID (PPAtherm SR-1

What Is a P&ID?
Introduction P&ID’s show the orderly detailed arrangement of virtually
every process component in the facility. They indicate
the relative location in the process of each component,
how they are interrelated, and special know-how notes
regarding installation, operation, or specific design
ideas or data.
This schematic shows provisions for normal operations, as
well as for startup, shutPPAn, maintenance, and emergency
Purpose The primary purpose of the Piping and Instrument Diagram
(P&ID's) is to provide much of the basis for the detailed
design of a facility. No symbol on a P&ID should exist
without a specification that provides the detail for that
component. Information on the P&ID’s must be consistent
with the corresponding equipment specification, piping
material specification, or instrument/analyzer
P&ID’s are used by the design disciplines during design
activities. They can also be used during construction,
operator training, startup, operations, and maintenance
of the facility. P&ID’s have been described as a
“graphical table of contents” for all specifications
(equipment, piping, instrument/analyzers, insulation,
tracing, tie points).
P&ID’s and the accompanying specifications are the
primary means of communication between Process
Engineering and the design disciplines. P&ID’s are the
key to successful facility design and operation and must
be as accurate and complete as possible, without
referencing the process function. P&ID’s must be
reviewed, checked, and approved by all interested parties
before detailed design can begin.

A P&ID Is … • Language of symbols
• Schematic of a process plant that:
- Shows connectivity
- Identifies in-line piping equipment
- Identifies instrumentation
- Identifies line sizes and services
- Identifies tracing and insulation
- Identifies vessels and equipment
- Identifies critical elevations and sizes
• Calls for special notes, details, instructions, etc.
• Drawing that displays relative orientation and
• Communication tool that serves as:
- Basis for detailed design
- Guide for construction
- Guide for operation and maintenance
• Graphical table of contents to other engineering

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What Is a P&ID?, Continued

A P&ID Is Not • Piping isometric or detail drawing

… • Equipment construction diagram
• Scale drawing
• Control logic diagram
• Document containing process information
Other For security reasons, process information and process
Considerations data are not shown on P&ID’s. That confidential
information is shown on the process flowsheets and/or
process control documents, including details of how the
process is to be operated and controlled. With no process
information shown on the P&ID’s, normally P&ID’s can be
PPA RESTRICTED instead of PPA CONFIDENTIAL. For a specific
project, the appropriate security classification of these
documents for use by non-PPA engineering and construction
contractors can be determined on a location or project
basis. See Chapter 3 of the PPAProject Methodology for
Capital and Expense Projects manual for further
information on security of project documents.
Although P&ID’s are essentially schematics, the
capability to communicate effectively is improved if the
relative size and shape of equipment, as well as
elevations, are indicated if practical. It is not always
practical to show relative size when sizes are so
different. Examples would be reactors and seal pots.
Physical dimensions outside the equipment should be shown
if necessary for process functionality, such as seal
legs, pump suction lines, and other lines where either
gravity flow or relative elevations are critical for
process operability. Physical dimensions for equipment
are shown on the equipment specification sheets.

Use of P&ID's in PPAProject Methodology
Introduction The roles of flowsheets and Piping and Instrument Diagram
(P&ID's) in capital projects are significantly changed in
PPAProject Methodology. Cost estimates for project
authorization normally will be based on the Project
Definition Cost Estimate. This cost estimate is based on
fully developed process flowsheets well before P&ID’s are
completed. Most of the detailed development of P&ID’s
will occur after project definition. This topic is
intended to clarify the intent of PPAProject Methodology
with respect to P&ID’s
Intent of The intent of process flowsheets is to define the
Flowsheets and chemical process to be built. As used here, process
Piping and flowsheets include schematics of major equipment,
Instrument equipment descriptions, material and energy balances, and
Diagram the Process Control Strategy. Process control might or
(P&ID's) might not be shown on the same flowsheet that contains
the material and energy balance and equipment
descriptions. Process issues should be decided upon,
developed, and resolved on process flowsheets, not on
The primary intent of first-pass P&ID’s is to provide
additional details to supplement or enhance the
production of the Project Definition Cost Estimate.
The primary intent of developed P&ID’s is to document
details of the selected chemical process for
communication to Design Engineering disciplines for
completing the detailed design. Later, P&ID’s provide
good documentation for the operating facility.
Objectives of Project definition should adequately define the process
Project and project such that a preliminary or final
Definition authorization can be obtained and such that no major
process changes should be required after authorization.
As a company, PPA wants to minimize engineering costs
prior to authorization, and therefore prior to proceeding
beyond project definition. Full development of P&ID’s is
expensive in terms of resources and money. Therefore, an
objective is not to spend the time and money to fully
develop P&ID’s until authorization is obtained and the
probability of the project being completed is very high.

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Use of P&ID's in PPAProject Methodology,

Work Flow Depending on the stage, other work flow processes are
Processes involved in the use and development of P&ID’s.
Piping and
(P&ID's) and
Stage Description
Project During the Project Definition Stage, the
Definition process description and essential process
decisions should be captured on process
flowsheets and process control documents.
First-pass P&ID’s are developed to the level
of details as required by the cost estimating
discipline to obtain a Project Definition
Cost Estimate. The details associated with
the various passes are defined later in this
document. P&ID’s should not be needed for
process control definition in this stage.
Project P&ID’s are jointly developed by Process
Design and Engineering and Design Engineering to
Constructio document and communicate process details to
n the design disciplines. If project definition
activities are done at the site, and Process
Design and Construction is done in an PPA
Design and Construction (DDC) office, the
project can be essentially kept at the site
until the Project Definition Stage is
complete and an authorization is obtained.
However, the location of project activities
does not define or limit participation.
Remember the DDC people will participate in
project definition activities at the sites,
and site people will participate in project
design at DDC.
For large projects, final development of
P&ID’s will normally be done at DDC. This
significant effort on P&ID’s should not be
started until all project definition
documentation has been completed and project
authorization is assured.

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Use of P&ID's in PPAProject Methodology,

Use of Piping The cost estimating function within The PPA Chemical
and Instrument Company has stated that they normally can generate a
Diagram quantity-based cost estimate for Project Definition for
(P&ID's) project authorization without having new, fully developed
During Project P&ID’s. There are cases where it is necessary for the
Definition cost estimating function to have some P&ID information to
Stage adequately generate a Project Definition cost estimate.
The PPAProject Methodology does not say that P&ID’s are
not allowed in project definition. Following are some
situations where P&ID’s might be considered during
project definition.
Situation Recommendation
Repeat Use existing P&ID’s from Technology Centers or
Facilitie existing facilities. Preferably these would be
s and standard P&ID’s as established by the
Retrofits Technology Center. These could be marked up by
the project team and serve to help generate
the first-pass of the project P&ID’s.
New New first-pass P&ID’s could be required if the
Technolog process flowsheets, Process Control Strategy,
y preliminary plot plan, etc., do not provide
adequate detail for cost estimators. Even
facilities for a new process will have many
unit operations that are well established
within PPA. For those unit operations—such as
THROX units, distillation columns, batch
reactors, etc., P&ID’s from existing
facilities or example P&ID’s from Electronic
Most Effective Technology Library (EMETL),
should be marked up and given to the cost
estimators for their needs.

Special One situation that might be encountered is the
Situation need for an early air permit that requires
s for flange and valve counts, which requires at
Partial least first-pass P&ID’s. In other cases a
P&ID total project might involve only a portion of
Developme an existing facility and limited number of
nt unit operations and flowsheets.
The few required P&ID’s will define the
project and do not require a significant
amount of development time.
If the existing technology P&ID’s will require
considerable effort to update to current
symbology (control valve tags and insulation
codes for example), then it may be more cost
effective to develop new P&ID’s.
Project and Engineering Management might
identify other special situations. However,
the goal is to minimize the amount of time and
money spent on development of P&ID’s prior to
the completion of project definition and
obtaining the project authorization.

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Use of P&ID's in PPAProject Methodology,

Definition of First-pass P&ID’s have two primary purposes. One is to

First-Pass convey information to the cost estimators during project
Piping and definition, and the other is to provide a starting point
Instrument for final P&ID’s for the project. Check with the cost
Diagram estimator to determine specific needs on a given project.
Joint In PPAProject Methodology, the detailed development of
Development of P&ID’s is a joint effort by Process Engineering and
Piping and Design Engineering, along with the Manufacturing
Instrument Representatives. Process Engineering will normally
Diagram provide initial input to the P&ID’s based on project
(P&ID's) flowsheets and control strategy. Design Engineering,
particularly the piping and instrument/analyzer
disciplines, will provide further detail as the P&ID’s
reach completion. Further guidance on P&ID development
can be found below. Individual work processes for capital
projects provide significant additional detail.
Joint The general determination of how the process should be
Development of operated and controlled (Process Control Strategy) should
Process be accomplished during project definition. The details of
Control the control hardware will be defined in the Project
Definition Design and Construction Stage. The Process Control
Strategy is developed in a joint effort by Process
Engineering, Process Control, Instrument/Analyzer
Engineering, and the Manufacturing Representative. Their
activities and work products are described in PPAProject
Methodology and the respective work processes.
Development of The number of passes for development of a P&ID should be
Piping and minimized to reduce costs and unnecessary and repeated
Instrument re-evaluations. A summary of the recommended process is
Diagram shown below. Further detail is under the heading “Staged
(P&ID's) Development of P&ID’s” later in this section. Development
passes should not be confused with the number of passes
through process graphics. The pass definition is content
or detail related. A cycle to get all the major and
secondary lines shown and another cycle to add all of the
line balloon data is not two passes.
Pass Description and Timing

First-Pass These are new P&ID’s based on process
flowsheets and/or marked up existing P&ID’s
or segments of P&ID’s. Libraries of standard
and/or MET P&ID’s from Technology Centers and
manufacturing facilities are desirable
starting materials. Professional P&ID
designers should be able to construct good
(and intelligent) first-pass P&ID’s from
flowsheets or the other sources mentioned
(start between PPAProject Methodology Steps
12.10 and 14.05). The detail or content of
first-pass P&ID’s should be an appropriate
blend of Process Engineering’s work process
for PPAProject Methodology Step 12.10 and
14.05. All of Step 12.10 should be done,
while only parts of Step 14.05 will be
required for first-pass P&ID’s.

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Use of P&ID's in PPAProject Methodology,

Second- First-pass P&ID’s are marked up by the

Pass project team with special emphasis on process
control and instrumentation. Line diameter
sizes, piping material specifications, and
specifics regarding types of insulation and
tracing are defined and added to P&ID’s (do
between PPAProject Methodology Steps 14.05
and 14.09).
Third-Pass Additional equipment detail and feedback from
HAZOP studies (Step 14.10) and other
designated input and evaluation efforts
(Steps 14.13 and 14.14).
Fourth- Update after Step 14.15.
As-Built Complete after construction completion.
No Changes The project scope and chemical process should be firmly
After Project defined in the Project Definition Stage prior to
Definition obtaining the cost estimate (Step 12.19) and
authorization. Therefore, no changes should be made to
the process flowsheets and no significant changes made in
project scope as P&ID’s are developed in the Project
Design and Construction Stage.
No Changes After P&ID’s have been developed and then reviewed in
After Step 14.15, a no change mind-set should be adopted by the
Completion of project team for completed P&ID’s. Changes beyond this
Piping and point can cause significant delays and extra project
Instrument costs. The project team must make a commitment to no
Diagram changes on P&ID’s, flowsheets, and project scope. The
(P&ID's) project team should establish the criteria, procedures,
and approvals necessary to make a change when absolutely
required for the project.
Staged Development of P&ID’s
Introduction The number of passes for development of the Piping and
Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) should be minimized to reduce
unnecessary reconsideration and excessive costs. A
recommended process is provided in this section. Because
of the variety of information sources for P&ID’s and the
variety of types of projects, this process might require
modification to meet the needs of a particular project.
However, this approach is a good starting point for

First-Pass There are many sources of information for P&ID’s. P&ID’s
Piping and should be developed based on the process flowsheets for
Instrument the project. Process engineers or professional P&ID
Diagram designers should be able to construct a good first-pass
(P&ID's) P&ID by expanding the process flowsheets for the project
from project definition.
Repeat or retrofit projects should start with P&ID’s from
existing plants. Ideally, the responsible Technology
Center, as well as the manufacturing facilities, should
have libraries of standard/MET P&ID’s for their
processes. Starting from existing and/or Most Effective
Technology (MET) P&ID’s can save time and improve
standardization. However, in these cases, care must be
taken to ensure that the first-pass P&ID’s are also
consistent from the Project Definition Stage and that
they utilize current symbology, especially for instrument
items and control valve tag numbers.
Following are some items that should be included on the
first-pass P&ID’s.
Item Description
A Equipment with tag numbers, main process lines,
(those lines that are shown on the process
flowsheets), secondary process lines (includes
known/hard-piped lines required for startup,
shutPPAn, and recycle), and utility lines. Utility
headers will be drawn later.
B Title block information.
C Supplier packages shown inside dashed lines.
D Tie points identified but not necessarily
E Process control equipment, including control
valves, EBVs, FBVs, and process control
instrumentation from the process control graphic.
F manually-operated isolation and bleed valves (if
readily known) and anticipated location of relief
G Line bubbles including preliminary line sizes, and
the need for insulation and tracing by Y/N
designation (the type of tracing can be shown if
it is readily known).
H Generic (stainless steel, monel, Teflon-lined,
etc.) piping materials of construction if other
than carbon steel and piping pressure class if
other than 150 psig or metric equivalent.

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Staged Development of P&ID’s, Continued

I Basic pump installations.

Second-Pass The first-pass P&ID’s should be marked up by the project
Piping and team with special emphasis on completion of process
Instrument control and instrumentation.
Diagram The following items should be included on the second-pass
(P&ID's) P&ID’s.
Item Description
A Instrument and control hardware specifies.
B Piping material specifications.
C Line bubbles including final line sizes and
insulation and tracing codes.
D Equipment nozzle sizes.
E Piping reducers.
F Pump installation details
Third-Pass This pass in particular should incorporate feedback from
Piping and the HAZOP studies (Step 14.10) as well as other
Instrument designated input and evaluation opportunities (Steps
Diagram 14.13 and 14.14).
(P&ID's) Additional items that should be located on the third-pass
P&ID’s are listed below:
Stage Description
A Instrument tag numbers.
B MOD™ process control computer numbers if
C Control valve sizes and reducers associated with
D Relief system sizes where possible.
Fourth-Pass In Step 14.15, a thorough project team check of all
Piping and P&ID’s and specifications is conducted. In particular,
Instrument the consistency of P&ID’s and specifications must be
Diagram accomplished.
(P&ID's) The fourth-pass P&ID’s should capture all changes
resulting from the team check in Step 14.15.

As-Built At the end of the Project Design and Construction Stage,
Piping and Process Engineering should assemble all process
Instrument engineering data including as-built P&ID’s as specified
Diagram in Step 17.11. These will be made a part of the plant
(P&ID's) operating discipline.
After the plant has demonstrated the desired operating
performance, as-built drawings and specifications should
be placed in the site maintenance and plant operating
archiving systems (Step 21.02). If modifications have
been made during startup, Process Engineering should
modify the as-built drawings one more time before turning
them over to the production plant.

P&ID Legend and Reference Sheets
Introduction The legend and reference sheets identify the codes and
symbols used for the various pieces of information on the
Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's).
Format Legend and reference sheets are normally large-size
drawings. The first sheet defines all symbols and
identifications for piping and general items. The second
sheet defines instrumentation identification and symbols.
The sheets normally are numbered B1-D00002-Dxxxx and B1-
Refer to the example legend and reference sheets, Figures
5.J–1 and 5.J–2 at the end of this section.
Content • A typical line identification is shown graphically and
• Line service designations identify the name or type of
fluid flowing in each line. Examples are ‘P’ for process
fluid, ‘V’ for vent fluid, and ‘C’ for steam condensate.
All code letters used in the package are defined in the
line service designation portion of the legend and
reference sheets.
• Line sequence numbers are assigned to individual lines.
• A line size, consisting of the nominal pipe diameter in
inches (or millimeters) and fractions thereof, is shown.
• Each line must be assigned a specification code per the
job-related piping material specification.
• Insulation class and type, where required, for each line
(or portion thereof) shall be shown immediately below
the line identification “balloon” on the right-hand
side. (A balloon is an elongated oval—usually 45 mm by 5
mm—used on pipelines to contain the line designation.)
• Tracing type, where required, for each line is shown
immediately below the line identification balloon on the
left-hand side.
• A list of all piping item symbols used is necessary to
clearly define the type of valve, fitting, connection,
or other piping component at each point.
• Instrument/analyzer designations, symbols, and
explanations are included in the instrumentation legend
and reference sheet to identify the instrument and
analyzer types used in the facility design.
• A drawing index, number B1-D0001-Dxxxx, listing all
drawings, should be included as the first sheet. This
index should provide an index cross referencing
equipment numbers with P&ID numbers.

Format of P&ID Sheets
Introduction The standard P&ID format defined below shall be followed
at all sites. Refer to the example Piping and Instrument
Diagram (P&ID's) in following this section.
Definition of Following are definitions of some terms used on P&ID’s:
Term Definition
Balloon Elongated ovals, usually 45 mm by 5 mm,
used on pipelines to contain the line
Know-how note Two concentric circles with the space
between the circles filled in black, 5 mm
inside, 6 mm outside, indicating know-how
note or job instructions.
Cloud Outline indicating information on
something that has changed.
Ghost Piece of equipment shown in dotted lines
because it is shown in more than one place
on the P&ID’s.
Interface Intermediate points where new facilities,
point being engineered or constructed by one
group or agency, will meet facilities
being engineered and constructed either
another way or by someone else. An
interface point might require a tie point.
Tie point Point at which the new facility makes
piping contacts with existing facilities.
Item status Symbol indicating the status of a piece of
legend equipment—such as new, existing,
(status relocated, future, or supplier- or owner-
bubble) supplied. It is usually used to identify
exceptions. A status bubble is a ¼-inch
circle located next to the equipment
Contract Interface lines indicating contract or
breaks purchase order scope of work.
Title Block The title block identifies the process plant shown on the
P&ID (third line). Do not identify the product name or
the chemicals used. An example of title block format:

Plant name Block

Drawing type

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Format of P&ID Sheets, Continued

Drawing Size P&ID’s are B-size drawings (A-size in Europe) with the
overall dimensions of 22 inches × 34 inches or 24 inches
× 36 inches. A space of 75 mm (3 in.) is reserved along
the bottom of the sheet for special instructions and
know-how notes. A space of 50 mm (2 in.) is reserved
along the sides of P&ID’s for entrance and exit lines.
Crowded During their development, P&ID’s contain progressively
Drawings more and more information. Therefore, one major equipment
item shall be normally shown on one sheet. However, a
single complex and highly instrumented item can crowd
even one sheet. In such cases, a second sheet showing,
for example, the instrumentation separately shall be
considered. An alternative is to consider breaking the
unit into subparts. An example would be to show a reactor
and its jacket system separately.
Section The process section numbers should be coincident with
Numbers those on the process flowsheet. If the project uses
process sections, the process sections can be numbered in
steps of 50 or 100, depending on the size of the project.
Scope of Work Clearly show the scope of work for engineering when
possible. Use status bubbles, tie points, interface
points, clouds, and boxes, as appropriate, to indicate
the scope of the work.
Installation Installation details shown on the legend and reference
Details sheets are examples only. Nonstandard installation
details can be shown on every P&ID on which they appear.
However, a better way is to use know-how notes to refer
to detail drawings. This makes it easier to release
details to contractors without having to issue the

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Format of P&ID Sheets, Continued

P&ID Numbering A common method for numbering P&ID’s is to assign a group

of drawing sequence numbers to each process section as
identified on the index flowsheet. If process sections
are assigned on the process flowsheets, the P&ID numbers
are within the numbers of these process sections and
raised in steps of 2 to 10.
• Section 100 = B1-100-xxxxxx
• B1-105-xxxxxx , where:
B1 = drawing number prefix indicating a P&ID
105 = process section number as shown on index
xxxxxx = specific project number
• B1-110-xxxxxx through B1-145-xxxxxx or B1-195-xxxxxx
• Section 200 = B1-200-xxxxxx
• B1-205-xxxxxx
• B1-210-xxxxxx through B1-245-xxxxxx or B1-295-xxxxxx
Critical Indicate critical liquid levels, critical equipment
Information elevations, etc., for condensers, reflux drums, and
reboilers, etc.
Utility Lines A convention for utility line boxes is to place them at
the top of the P&ID where possible (without cluttering
the drawing) so utility lines enter or leave the page in
a vertical direction. Another convention is to place the
utility boxes as close to the utility source or
termination point on the graphic as practical.
Utility lines can also be considered to be process lines,
using directional lines on the side of the sheet.
Symbology Show correct symbols as shown on the legend and reference
sheets and in accordance with the appropriate equipment,
instrument/analyzer, or piping material specifications.

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Format of P&ID Sheets, Continued

Equipment Tag There are two conventions in common use for showing
Identification equipment tags.
Conventio Description
1 New, existing, future, etc., items shall be
identified on each P&ID for equipment,
instrument/analyzers, and piping. Use status
bubbles to show exceptions. Existing piping,
equipment, and instrument/analyzers are to be
shown dotted or can be shown as “clouded.”
Clouding might be better because it is easier
to remove and produce a clean P&ID at the end
of the project for facility records.
New piping, equipment, and
instrument/analyzers are to be shown as solid
lines. This also applies to renovation
projects. Continue the use of status bubbles
and status notes in lower-left corner. Clouds
should be identified with a revision triangle
to reference the date and reason.
2 According to the Common P&ID Program, the
dominant status of the items in a drawing is
defined in a default status statement in the
lower right-hand corner of the drawing. Any
items that differ from the default status are
identified by status bubbles.
Groups of items sharing a common status can be
scoped using item status scoping. Item status
scoping consists of a pattern of distinct
dashed lines. This is not cloud scoping, which
is used only for revisions made on finished
and signed P&ID’s. It is not necessary to draw
equipment with dashed lines or cross-hatching
to indicate a different status, since status
bubbles provide this information.

P&ID Index Flowsheet
Introduction The P&ID index flowsheet schematically shows the
interconnections of all major process and utility
equipment to provide an overall view of the process on
one drawing. The P&ID index flowsheet is the same as the
process index flowsheet with all confidential process
information removed.
Purpose The purpose of the P&ID index flowsheet is essentially
the same as that of the process index flowsheet, but the
amount of information that is transmitted to the user is
limited. Its use is optional, but it is often considered
to be a valuable tool.
Format The P&ID index flowsheet is a normally a large-size
drawing. The format shall be the same as used for the
process index flowsheet. The P&ID index flowsheet is
numbered B1-00004-xxxxxx. An abbreviated P&ID number will
be shown on or adjacent to the equipment item. It will
indicate the P&ID sheet number where the equipment item
can be found.
Content The content shall be essentially the same as found on the
process index flowsheet for the project except that all
confidential information is removed.

Equipment Shown on P&ID’s
Introduction All equipment related to the process and utilities within
the scope of the project is shown on the Piping and
Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) and identified by an assigned
equipment number. This equipment number will not identify
process functionality. All connections, size, and type
are shown, including manways and other access
requirements. Insulation and tracing requirements for
equipment are shown below the equipment number symbol.
Although most internal details are shown on the equipment
specification data sheets, sufficient information should
be shown on the P&ID’s to ensure the correct connections
to piping and instrumentation. For example, vessel
jackets, dip pipes, and agitators should be shown. The
vessel registration number and pipe specification code
for direct connect instrumentation are also useful items
to include on the P&ID next to the equipment item tag.
Other optional information can be added, such as the NFPA
hazard symbol (diamond) for the contents of a piece of
equipment or pipeline.
Equipment Every piece of equipment shall be identified by the
Identification equipment type designation and a unique equipment number,
not by process function. Equipment numbers shall
correspond to the process section numbers stated on the
process flowsheets.
Each driver (for example: motor, turbine) shall have its
own equipment identification. It is suggested that each
driver equipment number have the same equipment number as
the accompanying equipment, but that they have different
equipment designation letters. The tag should list the
letters first, then the numbers. Refer to Section H of
Chapter 5 for a list of commonly used equipment
designation letters.

Equipment As much as practical, each equipment outline shall be
Symbols shown at its relative field elevation and position. The
size of each shall be proportional to its actual size in
relation to other equipment on that sheet. When
applicable, the shape of the equipment outline shall be
standard equipment symbols. Following are suggestions for
equipment layout:
• Show as relative shape: spheres, tanks, columns, pumps,
heat exchangers
• Show with relative orientation: horizontal, vertical,
• Show with relative position: location relative to other
equipment (for example: bottoms pump shown at column
• Show as relative size: size relative to other equipment
(for example: pumps usually smaller than associated
• Duplicate equipment: both pieces are shown fully piped
and instrumented
• Equipment status: new, existing, relocated, future,
supplier- or owner-furnished

Continued on next page

Equipment Shown on P&ID’s, Continued

Elevations Critical elevations and elevation differences shall be

shown adjacent to the equipment. Examples include
elevated distillate collection drums designed for gravity
flow to storage vessels, low and high liquid levels,
elevations above pump suctions, etc. Show floor or
structure elevations.
Internals Certain items of internal equipment shall be shown for
clarity or other reasons. Examples include bottom, feed,
and top trays with their numbers, tank partitions,
chimney trays, packed sections of towers, trays with
temperature points, baffles, dip tubes, vortex breakers,
packed tower internals (supports, distributors, nozzle
projections, etc.).
Insulation, Equipment insulation and tracing is specified below the
Tracing, equipment number symbol in the same manner as indicated
and Trim for piping lines. Identify trim materials of construction
for the equipment. Trim is defined as those parts of a
valve body assembly—excluding the valve body, bonnet
assembly. And bottom flange—that are exposed and in
contact with the line medium usually consisting of, but
not limited to, the seat ring, valve plug stem, valve
plug, valve plug guide, guide bushing, and cage.
Nozzles All equipment nozzles shall be identified on each piece
of equipment by a single square with both the nozzle
letter and the nominal size inside the square. The type
of connection should be properly represented. When
multiple nozzles on heads produce crowding, use tail
lines or pointer lines.
Number nozzles starting from the bottom of a piece of
equipment going up, and then from left to right
horizontally. Refrain from using the letter ‘I’ and the
letter ‘O’ because they are often confused with the
numbers ‘1’ and ‘0’.
Heat Exchangers
Shell Side Tube Side
Inlet A Inlet C
Outlet B Outlet D
Relief R1 Relief R2
Shell Drain DR1 Head Drain DR2
Shell Vent V1 Head Vent V2

Continued on next page

Equipment Shown on P&ID’s, Continued

Nozzles, For example, show nozzles on exchangers as follows:

A R V1 V2
X” X” X” X”
DR1 b DR2
X” X” X”

Service Designation Size
Inlet A1, A2, A3, etc. as
Outlet B1, B2, B3, etc. as
Agitator C 10” minimum
Relief R as required
(Consider using nozzle
one size larger than
relief size. Also, list
thrust load on P&ID.)
Manway M 24" minimum
Hand-hole H as required
Removable Baffle RB (Glass Vessels) 8"
Sample Z 2"
Spare S1, S2, S3, etc. 3" or 4"
as required
Vent V 2" minimum
Level Transmitter L1, L2, L3, etc. 2" with
drip ring
Level Trans. w/ 2 taps L1A, L1B lower tap
should be labeled A, and
the upper tap labeled B
Level Switch L1, L2, L3, etc. 2”
Pressure P1, P2, P3, etc. 2" for
non-plugging service,
Otherwise use 3" w/
Press. Trans. w/ 2 taps P1A, P1B lower tap
should be labeled A, and
the upper tap labeled B
Temperature T1, T2, T3, etc. 2"
Jacket Inlet JA1, JA2, JA3, etc. as
Jacket Outlet JB1, JB2, JB3, etc. as
Jacket Vent JV1, JV2, JV3, etc. 1"
Jacket Drain JD1, JD2, JD3, etc. 1"


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Equipment Shown on P&ID’s, Continued

Nozzles, For example, show nozzles on vessels as follows:


L2 A2 V P A3
X” X” X” X” X”

X” X”
X” D X”

X” L1A


X” X” X” X” X”

In instances where two pieces of equipment are connected

flange-to-flange with no interconnecting piping (for
example: certain reboiler connections to a tower), the
matching nozzle sizes on both shall be shown. If two
pieces of equipment must be drawn separately for clarity,
a line shall connect the appropriate flanges or, if there
is a direct connection, dashed lines can be used. All
nozzle sizes and letters on P&ID’s must exactly match
those on the equipment specifications.

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Equipment Shown on P&ID’s, Continued

Blinded All blinded nozzles, including manholes, handholds,

Nozzles inspection ports, spare nozzles, etc., shall be shown.
Valves connected to vessels but not in piping lines shall
show size and whether blind flanges or threaded
connections are used (such as for jacket vents).
Equipment Equipment supports, legs, and skirts shall be shown if
Supports integral and/or if needed for clarity.
Package Units Package units shall be indicated by being enclosed in a
dashed box indicating what is and what is not supplied by
the supplier as part of the package unit. Each
significant part of a package unit should be identified
with a proper tag number for tracking and maintenance.
Equipment All equipment requiring a utility service, including
Requiring electrical, shall be identified on the P&ID’s. Equipment
Utility such as unit space heaters, utility stations, safety
Service showers, etc. can be grouped separately as “utility”
P&ID’s. Utility and Process Safety equipment are treated
as process equipment, with instrumentation and piping
shown. Typically, utility headers are redrawn once detail
engineering layouts have been completed. Personnel
protection areas should be indicated.
Insulation Insulation shall be shown even on preliminary P&ID’s.
Show insulation specifications on vessels and equipment.
Cross- An index is normally provided that cross-references
Reference equipment numbers with P&ID numbers.

Piping Shown on P&ID’s
Introduction Piping is shown schematically in a logical sequence. The
physical arrangement of the piping is not shown on Piping
and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's). Piping dimensions,
isometrics, and stress considerations will not be shown
on the P&ID unless there are overriding process reasons.
What Is A A line is a piece of pipe, usually between two defined
Line? points. Examples include:
• Connection between two pieces of equipment
• Connection between a piece of equipment and another line
• Connection between two lines
• Connection from a piece of equipment or line to a drain
or the atmosphere
• Header between two blind flanges or to pipe caps
• Connection to or from an in-line analyzer
• Line terminating to atmosphere or to a ditch without a
Piping To Be All piping to be installed as a part of the project—plus
Included information required to effectively communicate the
connections to existing facilities—should be shown. All
items that affect process functionality must be
specifically identified. This includes drains, vents,
flush connections, steam traps, air vents, reducers, and
relief devices. The graphical protocol is to have process
lines run horizontally as much as possible. One
convention is to have utility lines run vertical as much
as possible. Other conventions are to place the utility
boxes as close to the utility source or termination point
on the graphic as practical or to consider utility lines
as process lines, using directional lines on the side of
the sheet.
Detailed piping is not shown. Elbows and tees are not
indicated on P&ID’s. However, strainers, startup screens,
reducers, break-out flanges, etc., should be shown.
If covering and/or tracing is required, the appropriate
specifications will also be given. Connections to
existing piping or equipment will be identified by the
use of tie points and interface points.
Piping connections to equipment and line terminations are
shown as flanged or threaded on the P&ID’s, but inter-
piping connections will be governed by the applicable
piping material specification and might not be shown.
Coupled lines, such as with unloading and loading units
and switch-overs, can be shown.

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Piping Shown on P&ID’s, Continued

Other Items All valves, whether process or utility, shall be shown on

Specified P&ID’s. Where it is important for the maintenance and
operation of the facility, fittings (such as caps and
bull plugs) and connections (such as flanged or threaded
couplings or unions) are shown on P&ID’s. Standard
symbols for various valve types shall be used and are
defined on the legend and reference sheet. This is also
true for the valve portion of control valves. In that
case the location and size of reducers shall also be
indicated. For control valves, the body sizes will be
added during detailed engineering.
The valve, fitting, or connection specified must be in
the piping material specification. Indicate valve item
numbers on the P&ID’s if the piping material
specification offers a choice. If more than one valve of
the same type and size range is in the piping material
specification, the first valve listed will be the default
choice. If any valve other than the default is to be
used, the full V-number of the valve must be shown on the
P&ID’s. Special attention should be given to valves in
corrosive or hazardous service that are drilled for vent
The sizes and types of valves will be consistent with the
line size, service, and piping material specification.
Manual valves will be indicated by type. Where multiple
choices exist, job instructions must make clear whether
the choice will be determined by economics only or
whether the Project Manager (or Manufacturing
Representative) will decide based on other factors.
Normally, the intent is that the P&ID’s, along with the
piping material specifications, identify commonly
available types and sizes of valves. Unique and unusual
valves should be identified as pieces of equipment
Bleed Valves Bleed valves shall be shown. However, vent and drain
valves for line pressure testing are not normally shown.

Pipeline Each pipeline will have a label consisting of a unique
Numbering identifier, size, and piping material specification code.
Each process line shall be identified with a line number
that corresponds directly with the P&ID from which it
originates and the equipment from which it originates.
Existing line numbers might remain when a P&ID is revised
or redrawn since they are used in other existing
drawings, such as piping drawings.
Number all lines sequentially regardless of process
prefix; that is, there is only one line numbered 1, 2,
etc., instead of A-1, N-1, … All jacketed lines must have
the same number as the main line that is jacketed. For
example, if the main line is A-1, the jacket line will be
All lines shall have one starting point, either at an
item of equipment or another line. It can not have more
than one ending point; a line that branches to two
nozzles on a vessel is actually two lines.
Show the last line numbers used on that P&ID in the lower
right-hand corner.

Piping Line and Item Designation
Introduction Use standard symbols to identify piping lines.
Piping Line Line designation shall be shown on the Piping and
Designation Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) and utility diagrams in a
balloon, 45 mm x 5 mm, minimum. The balloon shall contain
the following information:

Piping material specification code

Line size

Line sequence number

Line service designation

The piping specification code comes from the piping

material specification for the material in the pipe. See
the heading “Piping Material Specifications” in this
section for further details.
Jacketed lines shall be identified with two separate line
numbers, one for the process line and one for the jacket.
Service designation shall be JS for steam, JW for water,
etc. The sequence number of the jacket is the same as
that of the corresponding line. Example:



Insulation and tracing shall be noted below the line

identification balloon.

Continued on next page

Piping Line and Item Designation, Continued

Example A complete piping line designation should look like the

example below.

T = ** C=* * Covered Line:

W = Coated and wrapped
F3 = Insulation class/thickness (typical)

** Specify tracing:
ST = Steam
EL = Electrical
D = Dowtherm
HW = Hot water
GL = Glycol

Piping Item Piping items shall be identified on P&ID’s and utility

Designation diagrams with a symbol. Certain piping items with
identifying symbols also require a designation and a
sequence number in a 12 mm square. For example:

Piping Line Each line shall have a unique five-digit sequence number.
Sequence The first two digits in the line sequence number shall
Numbering correspond with the third and the fourth digit in the
five-digit sequence number of the P&ID that shows the
start of the line in the direction of flow.
The next three digits represent a serial number. On small
projects, a four-digit line number can be used, so that a
shorter two-digit sequence number is obtained. For
P&ID Number Line Number
B1-00120-xxxx yyy-12003-xxxxxx-xxx
Changes in A change in size along a line does not change the line
Piping sequence number. The largest line size shall be shown on
Characteristic the piping line schedule. The P&ID .ALL-file shows all
s sizes of a line.
Lines from/to spare equipment (for example: pumps,
filters) should receive a separate sequence number.

Continued on next page

Piping Line and Item Designation, Continued

Piping Item Each piping item shall have a unique three-digit sequence
Numbering number. The first two digits in the piping item number
shall correspond with the third and fourth digit in the
five-digit P&ID sequence number. The third digit is a
serial number. For example:
P&ID Number Piping Tag Number
B1-00120-xxxx TRP-121 (for a trap)
Piping Line Lines shall be drawn in different ways depending on
Symbols service:
Type of Line Symbol
Main process line
Auxiliary process, utility,
or service line
Jacketed line

Piping To Be All piping shall be shown and given a line sequence

Shown number regardless of size, fluid handled, or whether it
is underground or above ground. Process piping is to be
shown horizontally as much as possible. Pipe lines shown
shall include process prefix, line number, size,
specification, tracing, and insulation code.
Utility Lines Utility lines serving a particular area or item of
equipment should carry that P&ID number. It would
identify a utility line with the area or equipment it
serves. Since utility P&ID’s are often developed after
flowsheets and other P&ID’s are created, this permits
assignment of line numbers before utility P&ID’s are
developed. Utility lines can be shown in one of the
following methods:
• Have utility lines run vertical as much as possible
• Place the utility boxes as close to the utility source
or termination point on the graphic as practical
• Consider utility lines as process lines, using
directional lines on the side of the sheet
Utility piping lines are seldom shown continued to the
margins of the process P&ID’s. Instead, each one begins
or terminates at a 14 mm × 45 mm non-directional box
shown in the body of the P&ID. Inside this box the name
or line number of the utility is indicated and the
drawing number of the utility diagram on which this
piping, instrumentation, and utility equipment is shown.
Underground Underground lines are documented in the same manner as
Lines above ground lines. Except in rare instances, underground
process lines should be avoided.

Piping Line and Item Designation, Continued

Specification Show all specification breaks (piping, insulation,

Breaks tracing, etc.) at their relative location in the process
when possible.
All pipe specification breaks shall be assigned a new
P&ID line number.
Specialty Use double squares to show specialty piping items (for
Piping example: strainers, traps, flame arrestors, etc.) to get
a detailed equipment report.
Lines Process piping lines continuing from one sheet to another
Continuing shall be matched at the edges of the sheets and shall be
from One Sheet horizontal. Lines shall be numbered as close to the edges
To Another of the sheets as practical. A good practice to follow is
that, with the exception of utility lines, all lines
going to a P&ID with a lower sequence number leave the
sheet on the left-hand side. Lines going to a P&ID with a
higher sequence number leave on the right-hand side of
the sheet.
This convention needs to be observed to maintain
intelligent P&ID’s for use of the .ALL-file.
Traps Show steam trap piping on P&ID’s with line numbers,
insulation breaks, and specification material breaks
where possible. Show steam traps on P&ID’s as equipment
items so the operating conditions can be correctly
documented for design and operation.
Special Piping Special piping configurations shall be indicated on
Configurations P&ID’s. Examples include:
and Operating • Critical line elevations (or parts thereof) that satisfy
Considerations a critical static head requirement
• Critical line lengths that minimize a critical two-phase
flow pressure drop or maintain a critical residence time
• Sloped lines from one defined point to another to
satisfy a critical draining requirement or a line with
no pockets or low points to prevent accumulation of
process material
• Liquid-seal legs to maintain a positive seal against
unwanted vapor flow
• Identify only critical line lengths
These, as well as all other special piping
configurations, shall be shown in full detail on the
P&ID’s with specific dimensions, slopes, explanations,
• Identify critical operational considerations such as
sloped lines, lines with no pockets, vertical for
gravity drops, lines with no low points, or liquid-
seal legs

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Piping Line and Item Designation, Continued

Pressure- All pressure-relief devices (including associated piping)

Relief Devices shall be shown at their proper locations on the P&ID’s.
This includes safety valves, rupture disks, pressure-
relief valves, emergency-relief valves, etc. Usually each
relief device is to be numbered as a piece of equipment
using double squares. Relief devices shall be numbered to
match the equipment or piping that they are intended to
protect. For each safety relief device, the set pressure
shall be shown adjacent to the symbol.
Critical dimensions and exact piping arrangements shall
be recorded for pressure-relief devices on supporting
On “intelligent” P&ID’s, all relief/safety devices are
extractable as specialty piping items and, therefore, are
shown as double squares.
Line Weight A common practice is to show all main process lines as
heavy line style. Show secondary process lines (drains,
vents, startup lines) and utilities as light weight.

Tie Points All tie points shall be shown and specification sheets
generated. Tie points are locations at which piping for
the new facility connects with existing facilities.
Therefore, it is necessary that this is shown and
uniquely identified on a document of the existing
facility. This normally will be the P&ID or utility
It can consist of a reproducible piping drawing or a
photograph. The exact location at which the new line is
to be connected is labeled with a tie point symbol, a
rectangle showing dimensions from reference points if
necessary. A unique tie point number shall be shown
inside. If your project uses no more than three digits
for P&ID numbers, you can use the P&ID number as the
first three numbers of the unique tie point number and
then number the tie points sequentially on that P&ID
page. Other information relating to the connection should
be entered on a tie point schedule. The tie-point
designation shall also be used where:
• A new instrument item is added to existing piping or
• A valve is added to an existing line or equipment item.
• A new section of piping only is added to an existing
• An existing line is extended.
When new piping, equipment, or instrumentation is being
added to an existing facility and a new P&ID is being
used, all new items should be drawn with solid lines.
Existing piping, equipment, and instrumentation can be
shown dashed (ghosted), not in clouds. Tie points should
be clearly indicated.

Continued on next page

Piping Line and Item Designation, Continued

Demolition Demolition drawings are required to clearly define which

Drawings piping and equipment is to remain and which is to be
removed. This information can be conveyed in a similar
manner as tie point information is conveyed. Care should
be exercised not to create too many as-built corrections
as the demolition project progresses.
Operational All necessary operational connections, such as bypasses,
Connections drains, blow-PPAns, flushing, and steaming connections
shall be shown. All other piping items, such as traps,
bleeds, and special connections, shall be shown with size
where applicable. All connections must be indicated on
the P&ID independent of its application.
Pipe fittings are not normally shown; however, fittings
such as special clean outs, reducers, etc., shall be
Show all items for flushing, quenching, cooling, purging,
venting, and draining of pumps, compressors, etc.
Drains on lines shall have a minimum nominal size of ¾
inch (20 mm). All vents and drains shall be blinded or
plugged off.
Piping- A piping-instrument specification break is not required.
Instrument The default is after the first block valve. Show
Specification exceptions. Instrument piping is not detailed, but should
Break be compatible with process materials and/or given as a
subpart of the specification for the process piping.
First Block The first block valve shall be defined by type and size
Valve by using standard P&ID symbols. The types of materials
are detailed in the piping material specification.
Insulation and Insulation and tracing shall be shown even on preliminary
Tracing P&ID’s. Piping material specification breaks (piping,
insulation, tracing, etc.) shall be shown by arrows at
their relative location in the process when possible with
the corresponding specification letters nearby (see
Figure 5.J–1).
Paymeters Paymeters (accounting meters) shall be flagged or
identified in some way. The letters ‘PM’ adjacent to the
flow element is recommended. It is recommended that
double the length of straight run pipe specified by the
AGA or other bodies be used to improve accuracy.
Piping Material Specifications

Introduction Piping material specifications define acceptable
materials of construction, valves, fittings, flanges,
gaskets, and accessories to contain chemicals and
utilities in a safe and cost-effective manner. Piping
material specifications are handled by a system that is
separate from equipment specifications (SPECS). In North
America they are contained in an electronic system called
Piping Materials Management System (PMMS) . In Europe the
system is called PPASPE. Those systems will be globalized
in 1997 and become a single PPAPiping Materials Manage-
ment System (GPMMS).
Piping material specifications will be required for each
project. They are shown as the last four digits in the
pipeline balloon on a P&ID.
Standardizatio Piping material specifications are standardized for
n specific chemicals and utilities within The PPA Chemical
Company. Each Technology Center should have standard
piping material specifications developed for the fluids
used frequently within their technology.
Electronic The piping material specification systems (PMMS, PPASPE,
Specifications or GPMMS) can be accessed by logging on to the
Engineering VAXcluster and typing PPASPE, PMMS, or GPMMS
at the DCL prompt ($). For details beyond those presented
here, contact the site piping discipline representative.
Importance Piping systems contain process chemicals and utilities
and must be properly designed and maintained to prevent
leaks, breaks, and spills. Some piping systems will
require registration, testing, and complete MOC
documentation of the specifications to comply with
government requirements and PPA policies.
Criteria A “standard” piping material specification is commonly
called a “pipe spec.” In its simplest terms, a piping
material specification is a carefully assembled and
matched “parts list” of all the components required to
build a complete pipe line or system. They are common,
adopted specifications that represent the minimum
acceptable criteria for safe and adequate material
containment, based upon sound mechanical and application
technology. These piping components are selected
according to their ability to conform to common basic
requirements or criteria, including:
• Chemical or utility service
• Pressure and temperature limits
• Materials and methods of construction
• Corrosion allowance
• Compliance with industrial piping codes
• Other requirements imposed by hazards of service or
local regulations

Continued on next page
Piping Line and Item Designation, Continued

Sequence of For consistency in piping material specifications, the

Components descriptions of piping components are assembled in the
following sequence:
• General and construction • Bolting/fasteners
notes • Bolt lubricants
• Pipe • Joint compounds
• Branch connections • Valves
• Pipe tubing • Instrument installation
• Fittings details
• Flanges • Welding procedures
• Gaskets • Miscellaneous and
Product- A product-specific specification is a piping material
Specific specification that has been developed for a specific
Specifications chemical or service at a stated set or range of process
conditions. Usually, this is related to a single, pure
material rather than a mixed stream. Like all standards
or “masters” it is complete, approved, and suitable for
use as is, without modification. An example might be:
Chlorine - Dry Gas - Welded
150 psig at 250. Deg. F
Material: Carbon Steel
Process- A process-specific specification is a piping material
Specific specification with a consistent material of construction,
Specifications suitable for a broader range of process streams and mixed
compositions within a particular process unit. It might
or might not include specific chemical names in its
description. Its use is governed by the piping material
specification codes and the P&ID’s, which indicate for
which services the specification is suitable. Within the
facility or process unit, a process-specific
specification also is regarded as a standard or “master”
since it is complete, approved, and suitable for use
without modification. An example might be:
XYZ Plant Master
Process - Steel - High Pressure
Dimethylamine (DMA)
(Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE)
Trimethylamine (TMA)
300. psig at 100 Deg. F

Continued on next page

Piping Line and Item Designation, Continued

Ownership Standard or “master” piping material specifications have

been owned and maintained by a number of different
organizations, depending upon the range of common use,
including Technology Centers, divisions, blocks,
departments, plants, or temporarily by project teams. In
the PPAsystem (1997), PPAor master piping material
specifications will be owned by Technology Centers.
Technology Technology Center piping specifications incorporate the
Center Masters various product processing technologies, correctness, and
appropriateness of numerous piping systems, based upon a
broad spectrum of cumulative manufacturing experiences.
Each Technology Center concentrates on areas of product
expertise that are unique and specific to the business of
its products. These specifications are meant to be used
in all locations that employ that process technology.
Furthermore, Technology Center specifications are to be
used where specific chemical services interface to more
than one manufacturing plant—such as styrene monomer.
Piping System Piping system databases have two parts:
Databases • One part is a central catalogue that contains
descriptions for all piping components. The main catalog
is kept and maintained at DDC. All catalogue data-
management activities are performed according to
guidelines established by PPApiping technology
• The second part actually “builds” the piping material
specification. The specification is simply a
collection or association of items from the catalogue
and appears as a piping material specification. There
are internal rules for the sequence by which the
collection is assembled to ensure that the format of a
piping material specification is globally consistent.
GPMMS Database The PPAPiping Material Management System (GPMMS—a system
scheduled for delivery in 1997) is a common,
PPAengineering computer database consisting of piping
materials data, including item numbers, descriptions,
applicable size ranges, pressure/temperature code check
table references, minimum and maximum allowable
temperatures for the specified materials, and code check
programs for use in constructing and maintaining
PPATechnology Center piping material specifications.
GPMMS The GPMMS program, or system, is owned by the
Ownership PPAEngineering Application Resource Center in DDC,
Houston PPA Center. The piping component catalogue is
owned by PPApiping technology specialists.
MOC Changes or modifications to piping material
specifications shall be in accordance with PPAMOC

Instrumentation Shown on P&ID’s
Introduction One of the functions of Piping and Instrument Diagram
(P&ID's) is to define how the operating process is to be
instrumented. Each instrument or analyzer required for
the project is identified and shown both schematically
and symbolically on the P&ID’s. The general nature of the
instrument or analyzer is shown on the P&ID, and the
instrument/analyzer specifications give the particular
type, service, range, and perhaps the selected
manufacturer. A P&ID is not a control logic diagram;
control logic is shown on the specific automation and
control design or its equivalent.
Instrumentatio Connections from instrument and analyzers to both piping
n Piping and equipment must be consistent with not only the piping
material and equipment specifications, but also the
instrument/analyzer specifications.
Piping items through the first valve on
instrument/analyzer connections are part of the piping
design and are shown on P&ID’s. All piping after the
first valve is generally covered by the
instrument/analyzer installation details. Although
instrument/analyzer piping is normally not shown, it can
be shown if necessary to provide clarity or to ensure
process functionality. The applicable specification for
instrument piping is the same as given for the piping or
equipment to which the instrument/analyzer is attached,
unless otherwise indicated. All items of instrument/anal-
yzer piping can be covered in the appropriate piping
material specification or as a subpart for
instrumentation only. Since these items do not
necessarily appear on the P&ID’s, their inclusion in the
piping material specification must be verified.
The instruments and analyzers required to adequately
startup, control, and shutPPAn processes might not be
entirely evident from the P&ID’s. This is especially true
if computer control will be used. The connections of
field-mounted sensors and driven devices, such as valves
to equipment and piping, must be clearly indicated. The
logic for the operation of control instruments is best
described in the Process Control Strategy as a part of
the specific automation and control design or its
Instruments All instruments and analyzers required for the project,
Shown on P&ID including control valves with their failure action, shall
be shown on the P&ID near the process equipment being
Control Valves Control valves shall be indicated as fail close (FC),
fail open (FO), or fail last (FL). A diverter valve will
usually fail last. Special control valves shall be
specified on specification sheets for the type preferred.

Safety All sensors and final elements of the Safety Instrumented
Instrumented Systems (SIS) shall be designated with a number common to
Systems those elements but unique to that system. If an element
is used by more than one SIS it shall be designated with
one SIS number per system.

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Instrumentation Shown on P&ID’s, Continued

Tag and Loop Tag numbers shall correspond to the P&ID number and loop
Numbers number. Loops can be numbered so that the valve and
transmitter working together at steady-state conditions
can be identified by number and/or tie line.
A site example (Terneuzen, Netherlands) for tag numbers
for instruments is to have the instrument tag numbers
correspond with the cubicle input numbers, which are
derived from the distribution of inputs on the various
input cards. A site example (Texas) for numbering loops
is to start at the upper left-hand corner and number the
loops as one moves to the lower right-hand corner.
A grid system is used in Michigan Engineering for
assigning instrument tag numbers on P&ID’s. Each P&ID is
divided with an overlay into a 10×10 grid consisting of
100 squares. The squares are numbered 00, 01, etc. up to
99. Each instrument is located within one of the squares.
The last two numbers of the instrument consist of the
numbers within the square where it is located on that
P&ID. This makes it easy to find an instrument on any
P&ID. For example:
FT-12043 A means:
• ‘FT’ is the ISA function (flow transmitter)
• ‘120’ is the P&ID number
• ‘43’ locates it in square 43 on P&ID number 120
• ‘A’ is used to differentiate instruments with the same
tag number
An example grid is shown below.

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Instrumentation Shown on P&ID’s, Continued

Grid System FT - 12043 A

for Instrument
Tag Numbers
Used to differentiate between instruments
with the same tag number.
2nd number
PID overlay
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

P&ID number

ISA function

Symbols, Instrument and analyzer symbols, designation, and

Designation, numbering shall be in accordance with the Design
and Numbering Instrument/Analyzer discipline and their work process
discipline. See Section H of Chapter 5 for more
information on instrument/analyzer specifications.
Instruments on The table below suggests how instrument/analyzers and
P&ID’s piping materials related to instrument/analyzers should
be shown on P&ID’s.
Instrument How to Depict
Flow devices, Flow devices, other than an orifice,
thermowells, shall be specified for the type
orifice preferred. Thermowells, orifice plates,
plates, and and orifice flanges shall be shown as
flanges separate items.
Control and Control and interface relays shall be
interface shown (if known). An example of a control
relays relay that is 120 volts ac would be one
that is used to start a pump or operate a
solenoid for instruments controlled by a
computer. The digital output from most
process control computers is 24 volts dc.
Panel-mounted Local panel-mounted (field) instruments
instruments shall be identified.
Instrumentation Shown on P&ID’s, Continued

Instrument How to Depict

Control room Instruments shall be identified using
instruments appropriate symbols, such as field-
mounted, panel-mounted, mounted behind a
panel, mounted on the process control
computer, etc.
Safety SIS loops shall be identified.
Systems (SIS)
Instrument Instrument ranges for transmitters,
ranges recorders, indicators, controllers,
pressure switches, etc., shall not be
shown on P&ID’s. Control valve body sizes
normally should be added during design
Block valves The first block valve on all instruments
on instruments connected to process piping and equipment
shall be shown.
Purge systems Purge systems and heat tracing/insulation
and tracing of instruments for winterizing or process
shall be identified.
Instrument Instrument lines going to or coming from
lines to or other P&ID’s shall not be drawn to the
from other edges of the sheets. Instead, the
P&ID’s instrument tag symbol should be shown
ghosted on the P&ID in which it connects
to another instrument. Its originating
P&ID number should be indicated.

Process Control Elements Shown on P&ID’s
Introduction Process control computer addresses shall be defined when
known. Process control computer aborts (shutPPAn alarms,
interlocks, overrides) will be shown when known.
Control If a control system other than a PPA process control
Systems from computer (MOD™ computer) is used, control and display
Outside systems shall be defined to the extent possible during
Suppliers detailed engineering.
Inputs and Input and output signals (I/O) for process control
Outputs systems and computers shall be shown.

Electrical Equipment Shown on P&ID’s
Introduction The information needed to create the electrical equipment
list (schedule) and the electrical one-line diagram for a
facility is determined by people who have knowledge of
the process, the facility, and electrical requirements.
Electrical items should be identified by unique tag
items. Significant electrical loads should be listed,
such as motors, process heating, and heating,
ventilation, and air conditioning for buildings. Process
representatives supply the required information.
Electrical engineers should discuss these requirements
with the process engineers. Electrical engineers create
electrical equipment schedules and one-line diagrams.
Following is a brief guideline on information the
electrical engineer needs to generate a electrical motor
list and a one-line diagram.
Identification Electrical items (motors, heaters, tracing, etc.) shall
of Electrical be identified by unique tag items. The electrical items
Items can be objects for extraction into the equipment list
(based on P&ID software) and into their own list (that
is, a list separate from the equipment list).
Failure The failure position of electric motors shall be shown.
Position of Upon loss of control signal, but with electrical power
Motors available, motors will fail on (F.ON), off (F.OFF), or
last (F.LAST).
Interlocks Hardware and hard-wired interlocks and shutPPAns shall be
Switch Show hand-off-automatic/hand switch (HOA/HS) designations
Designation for all hand switches. Local convention might require
other symbols to be used.

Utility Diagrams
Introduction Utilities are systems that supplement the process system.
Utility diagrams are Piping and Instrument Diagram
(P&ID's) that present information on utilities. It is
important that these diagrams complement information
already shown on process P&ID’s.
Purpose Utility information can be included in process P&ID’s in
small projects (up to about four P&ID’s). Better
practice, however, is to separate all utilities on even
small project P&ID’s because small projects occur
frequently over the life of a facility and utility
information grows. Using utility diagrams to show most of
the utility information helps to simplify the process
Content All known utilities should be included, such as (but not
limited to) cooling water, steam, condensate, hot oil,
fuel gas, heat transfer fluids, refrigeration, air,
nitrogen, etc. They also include systems that might not
tie directly into the process, such as fire water,
wastewater collection systems, vent systems, and perhaps
pressure relief, blow-PPAn systems, safety showers, and
eye-wash systems.
Format Utility diagrams are B-size drawings (A1 size in Europe).
Numbering is similar to that of P&ID’s. Use the same
conventions as used for process piping on P&ID’s. Refer
to the example utility diagram at the end of this
Although there is currently no standard for utility
diagrams, virtually the same piping and instrument
details, symbols, and conventions are used on utility
diagrams as on process P&ID’s. However, there are
exceptions in some locations. Check with the drafting
experts at your site.
Utility In some locations, utility diagrams based on a plot plan
Diagrams Based are provided. It might be desirable to provide an
on Plot Plan approved plot plan according to the process flowsheet
status before creating utility diagrams based on a plot
plan. The advantage is that the piping arrangement is
similar to the actual layout of the facility. This can
simplify pipe sizing, tie-in locations, routing, etc. For
clarity, roads and buildings can be shown with
lightweight lines.
Whenever practical, layout of utility diagrams should
reflect the physical layout of the facility. Location of
utility stations should follow the plot plan.

Gas Service For gas services, site conventions need to determined in
advance, such as:
• Are step-PPAn pressure regulators for air and nitrogen
to be shown on the utility page?
• Should they be shown on each process page?
• Should only the last step-PPAn regulator be shown on
the P&ID?

P&ID Data Extraction—.ALL-File Intelligent P&ID’s
Introduction Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID's) are created using
the Common P&ID Program. This includes not only the P&ID
graphics or drawings, but also descriptive data
associated with the components on the drawings.
Purpose This system creates “intelligent” P&ID’s—intelligent
because they contain all the graphic and nongraphic data
on the P&ID, including the connectivity relationships
among the graphic figures and the documents on which they
appear. The function of the system is to provide
equipment, piping, and instrument/analyzer lists and
schedules for all components on the P&ID. One benefit of
the system is that it ensures connectivity of lines and
correctness and consistency of information. As a result,
the quality of the P&ID’s is enhanced.
The .ALL-file stores the information in a database. Data
stored in the .ALL-file are arranged in a defined format,
and programs can be written to read this file in a
selective manner. Listings of virtually any information
contained in the P&ID’s can be obtained this way. Contact
the P&ID Resource Center in Houston for assistance or
more information.
Once P&ID’s are complete, output listings are available
to the user. However, some skill might be required to
generate the required reports. The reports are usually
generated by designers on behalf of process engineers.
Who Creates The Common P&ID Program currently runs on an Intergraph
Intelligent workstation-based MicroStation CAD system. This requires
P&ID’s? an experienced and trained operator; it is unlikely that
a casual user would be successful in creating usable
intelligent P&ID’s. It is very important that everyone
who creates and/or updates P&ID’s follow the proper
procedures and protocols to preserve intelligent
Where Are the Once the P&ID’s are created, they are transferred from
P&ID’s Stored? the workstation to a VAX computer. Other programs then
can extract all descriptive and relational data from the
P&ID’s and store the data in a database. This file is
known as the .ALL-file because of its contents (all P&ID
data). The intelligent P&ID file, or .ALL-file, is
located in a subdirectory on the VAX. Those with access
to the program can access to the files and reports. Read
and execution privileges are established by the
originator of the documents.
Information Following is a list of reports available after completion
available of the P&ID’s. The word ‘Proj.’ will be replaced with the
actual project name.
Report name Description
Proj. ALL
Proj. RA1 Process report

Proj. RD1 Drawing data message report
Proj. RE1 Equipment/nozzle data message report
Proj. RE2 Equipment/nozzle list

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P&ID Data Extraction—.ALL-File Intelligent
P&ID’s, Continued

Report name Description

Proj. RE3 Safety equipment report
Proj. RE4 Piping non-standard material report
Proj. RI1 Instrument data message report
Proj. RI2 instrument/analyzer list
Proj. RL2 Piping data message report
Proj. RN1 Trim item list
Proj. RX1 Tie point list
Proj. RD2 Deleted drawing data report
Proj. RE5 Deleted equipment/nozzle data report
Proj. RI3 Deleted instrument data report
Proj. RL3 Deleted piping data report
Proj. RL4 Piping item list
Proj. LOG Mother and error report
Primary and Following are examples of primary and secondary users of
Secondary this program, and the information they can obtain. Also
Users available are such programs as LSCHED, TSCHED, and
QSCHED, which require separate interfaces.
User Need Use
Draftspers Primary Draftspersons use it while debugging
ons for accuracy, for piping line
schedules and equipment lists.
Process Seconda Process engineers use the detailed
engineers ry reports from the program. They use
the program, for example, to work
with the instrument engineer to
extract data such as instrument
schedules and lists.
Instrument Seconda PIDINSTINT/ISCHED is a separate set
engineer ry of programs used by the instrument
engineer. These programs extract
instrument information from the
.ALL-file database and manipulates
it into a new data file. (Note that
the NAME.idb interface program must
be run on the NAME.ALL program
before the ISCHED program can be
run.) This new file is the basis for
instrument/analyzer specification
development. It also keeps track of
instrument tag numbers that have
been added or deleted.

Piping Seconda Piping designers use piping line
designers ry schedules, tie-point lists, and the
piping item list.

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P&ID Data Extraction—.ALL-File Intelligent
P&ID’s, Continued

Examples of Several report outputs from a typical project are listed

reports below.
Table Number VAXmail Name Title
15.5-2 TEST.RL2 Piping line schedule
15.5-3 TEST.RE2 Equipment and nozzle list,
page 1
15.5-4 TEST.RE2 Equipment and nozzle list,
page 2
15.5-5 TEST.RE3 Safety equipment list
15.5-6 TEST.RI2 Instrument list and legend
15.5-7 TEST.RI2 Instrument list
15.5-8 TEST.RL4 Piping item list
15.5-9 TEST.RX1 Tie point list
15.5-10 TEST RN1 Trim item list
15.5-11 TEST.LOG Error log

Adding Notes to P&ID’s
Introduction Various notes can be added to Piping and Instrument
Diagram (P&ID's) to call attention to special
instructions or unique features or show changes or
revisions. Depending on their purpose, they are variously
called know-how notes, “do” notes, or revision notes.
Know-How Notes Sometimes detailed information must be provided that
cannot be easily handled by normal methods. Know-how
notes on the P&ID’s are used for this. These notes,
occasionally called job instruction notes, are shown
adjacent to the item in question. Normally, numeric
symbols are not used in know-how notes.
Guidelines for creating and marking know-how notes should
be defined by the project team early in the project. A
central registry of notes should be maintained. For
example, “note A” should always say the same thing
throughout a set of P&ID’s.
A short “tail” can be added to the know-how note symbol
for clarity. A sequential letter is placed inside each
symbol, beginning with A, and the symbol is repeated in
the 75 mm space reserved along the bottom of each P&ID.
Information can be provided in any convenient form—
illustrations, sketches, or words.
Standard Notes Standard know-how notes appear the same way on all
P&ID’s. A two-character field is used because of the
number of standard notes. Standard notes are numeric and
special notes are alphabetic (I and O excluded). For
example, standard note 7, as it appears in the list of
standard notes is note 7 on all P&ID’s.
The following standard know-how notes are in common use:
Note Description
1 Access platform required for maintenance.
2 Branch connection to be taken off top of header.
3 Flange required every ________ feet or meters.
4 Locate as close to “_________” as practical.
5 Locate ________ (tag item ) in view of
____________ (tag item).
6 Locate at highest elevation of line.
7 Valve to be locked open.
8 Valve to be locked closed.
9 Nozzle internals to be removable and accessible
for maintenance.
10 Piping to be as short as practical.
11 Removable spool required.

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Adding Notes to P&ID’s, Continued

Note Description
12 Startup strainer required with removable spool.
13 Tracing for this “________” to be a separate loop
by itself.
14 Allow space at the end of exchanger (shell and
tube) so tubes can be accessed for cleaning or
removal of bundle.
15 No line required—flange/fitting to flange/fitting
16 Mount/locate _________ (tag item) accessible from
grade, platform, or ladder.
17 Locate __________ (item) close/adjacent to
_________ (item).
18 No legs/pockets in this line.
19 Slope line toward _________ (item) as shown.
20 All washout valves shall be oriented PPAn.
“Do” Notes “Do” notes shall be used when a nonstandard application
or installation of instruments is required.
Additions or A triangle along with a cloud is used on existing P&ID’s
Demolition to tag additions or demolition (revisions). The project,
(Revisions) job number and date should be shown. The cloud
circumference should cross at tie points.
Additional Often it is useful to reference elements that are not
Information piping, equipment, or instruments. Examples include
gutters, dike drains, building walls, tank cars, tank
trucks, elevated pump bases, dikes, etc. Where these are
important to ensure process functionality, reference
notes on the P&ID are appropriate.
Examples Sample graphics are shown below and on several P&ID

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Adding Notes to P&ID’s, Continued

Symbols and
Tags Used on
Symbol Description Use
Single ½-inch Instrument item tag for
circle locally mounted device

Double circle; ½ Equipment item tag

7/16 inch
Square or box Equipment nozzle tag

Double box Specialty piping item


Single diamond Instrument signal to or

from a process control
Circle with 5-mm Know-how note
ID and 6-mm OD
Elongated oval Line balloon
Single ¼-inch Status bubble
Hexagon Safety Instrumented
Systems (SIS)

TP 18×16 mm box or Tie point

3/8 in. square

Piping and
T&C C specification break for
tracing and insulation
Triangle Revision mark

Irregular shape Cloud used to define

area or scope of