CMT 564

WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
EXPERIMENT NO TITLE NAME MATRIC NO NAME OF PARTNER MATRIC NO GROUP : 2 : COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION : NOR AZMA BINTI ZAINUDDIN : 2009422574 : NURUL AIN BINTI OMAR : 2010235462 : ASB4CN2

DATE OF EXPERIMENT : 27 JANUARY 2011

RESULT optimum pH of coagulation Optimum dosage of coagulant Optimum dosage of flocculant 6.5 3.5 mL 2.0 mL

CALCULATION Dosage of coagulant + flocculant : 3.5 ml + 1.0 ml = 4.5 ml Dosage of coagulant + flocculant + quantity of waste water: 4.5 ml + 100 ml =104.5 ml Actual dosage of coagulant: 3.5 × 4.5% = 104.5× Y Y = 0.1507 % Actual dosage of flooculant: 2.0 × 4.5 % = 104.5 × X X = 0.0861 %

DISCUSSION The main purpose of the coagulation and flocculation process is the removal of turbidity from the water. During coagulation process, the coagulant chemicals (for this experiment we use ferric chloride as coagulant) neutralize the electrical charges of the fine particles in the water, allowing the particles to come closer together and form large clumps. The final step which is flocculation, a process of gentle mixing brings the fine particles formed by coagulation into contact with each other. For this experiment we use calcium carbonate as flocculant. This process allows large floc to form without being broken apart by the mixing blades. The floc will then settle out in the sedimentation basin, with remaining floc being removed in the filter. From this experiment, we determine the optimum pH of coagulation process by looking at the most largest amount of clumps that settle out at the bottom of conical flask.Theoretically, the effective pH for coagulation when we use as coagulant is between 4-12 and literally the optimum is 6.5. For this experiment, as expected we get pH 6.5 where there are large amount of clump settled out at the bottom of flask compare to others conical flask with different pH of solution. Either than pH, dosage of coagulant and flocculant also are the factors that control coagulation and flocculation. From the experiment, the optimum dosage of coagulant is 2 ml where it shows the least turbid sample and this should correspond to the optimal coagulant dosage chosen. The optimum dosage of flocculant is 1.5 ml. In order to determine the optimum dosage, the waste water will show the most amount of floc that are settle out at the bottom of conical flask. We also determine the optimum dosage of the flocculant by looking at most clearest supernatant.

QUESTION 1. Why must the flask be shaken gently after adding the flocculant? The water is shaken gently in order to encourage floc particles to clump together. Shaken to fast will break the large particles apart. However, stirring too slow can prevent the particles to clumps together. 2. Can flocculant be added before coagulant? Coagulant must be first added before flocculant in order to neutralize the charged particles. If flocculant added first little neutralized particles and they cannot agglomerate to form larger particles that can settle under gravity. 3. Coagulation and flocculation are sensitive to many variables. List the variables and explain its influence in the treatment. These processes will be affected by changes in the water's pH, salt content, and also the alkalinity of the water. It¶s because the levels of pH, salts, and alkalinity in water are all ways of measuring the amounts of positively charged particles (cations) and negatively charged particles (anions) in the water. As a result, all three factors influence the amount of coagulants which must be used to remove the turbidity in the water. Then the water treatment will be affected.

REFERENCES 1. http://www.finishingtalk.com/community/topic371-Jar-Test-Procedures-for-PrecipitantsCoagulants-and-Flocculants.html 2. http://www.dgrsol.com/tempWater/municipalWater/drinkingWater/coagulants.php 3. http://warponline.org/volume2/4.%20Improvement%20of%20Coagulation%20Flocculati on%20Process%20for%20Treatment%20of%20Detergent%20Wastewaters%20Using%2 0Coagulant 4. http://www2.emersonprocess.com/siteadmincenter/PM%20Rosemount%20Analytical%20 Documents/Liq_ADS_43-019.pdf