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marke4
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THE
EINSTEIN
THEORY
OF
RELATIVITY
Boofcs
by L
/?.
ancf H. G. Lieber
NONEUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY
GALOIS AND THE THEORY OF GROUPS
THE EDUCATION OF
T.
C.
MITS
THE EINSTEIN THEORY OF RELATIVITY
MITS,
WITS
AND LOGIC
INFINITY
Books of drawings by H. G. Lieber
GOODBYE
MR.
MAN, HELLO MR. NEWMAN
L.
(WITH INTRODUCTION BY
R.
LIEBER)
COMEDIE INTERNATIONALE
RINEHART AND WINSTON New York / Chicago / San Francisco . LIEBER Drawings By HUGH GRAY LIEBER HOLT.THE EINSTEIN THEORY OF RELATIVITY Text By LILLIAN R.
1936. November 1946 Fourth Printing. November 1947 Fifth Printing. including the right to repro duce In this of Canada. November 1966 Firsf Printing. July 1959 Tenth Printing. April 1961 Twelfth Printing. November 1 957 Eighth Printing. Canada. 1945. March 1954 Seventh Printing. by L. First Edition October 1945 Second Printing. R. book or portions thereof in any form.Copyright. Lieber All rights reserved. and H. G. Holt. Rinehart and Winston Limited. May 1950 S/xtfi Printing. April 1960 Eleventh Printing. April 1946 Third Printing. April 1964 Thirteenth Printing. July 1958 Ninth Printing. 1975 852510115 Printed in the United States of America .
To FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT who saved the world from those forces of evil which sought to destroy Art and Science and the very Dignity of Man. .
.
in On the other hand. But we doubt whether even the best of these can possibly give to a novice an adequate idea of what it is all about. without any mathematics at have been written. there are many discussions. including Einstein's own papers. Many "popular" discussions of all. which are accessible to the experts only.PREFACE In this book on the Einstein Theory of Relativity the attempt is made to introduce just enough mathematics to HELP and NOT to HINDER the lay reader/ "lay" can of course apply to various domains of knowledge perhaps then we should say: the layman in Relativity. Relativity. What in very clear when expressed mathematical language is sounds "mystical" ordinary language. vii .
We who believe that is there a class of readers can get very little out of either of these two kinds of discussion readers who know enough about mathematics to follow a simple mathematical presentation of a domain new to them. with sufficient details to bridge the gaps that exist FOR THEM both in the popular and the expert presentations. This book is an attempt to satisfy the needs of this kind of reader. built from the ground up. viii .
Introduction 91 95 101 XI. Effect on Tensors Change in the 1 Coordinate System 41 A Very Helpful Simplification ix 150 . III. The 39 44 Con VI. Some Consequences Relativity of the Theory of 69 Summary IX. The Remedy Solution of the Difficulty V. INTRODUCTION The MichelsonMorley Experiment ReExamination of the Fundamental Ideas II. What a Tensor? 127 of a XV. The Result of Applying the VII. Remedy The FourDimensional tinuum SpaceTime 57 VIII. A Point of Logic and a 83 The Moral Part II 87 THE GENERAL THEORY II A GUIDE TO PART X. A NonEuclidean World! 107 113 The Study of Spaces Is XIV.CONTENTS PREFACE Part I THE SPECIAL THEORY 3 8 I. The Principle of Equivalence XII. The XVI. XIII. 20 31 IV.
The Perihelion XXXII. Deflection of a Deflection of a Ray of Light Light. 160 167 173 1 A Physical Illustration XIX. "The Proof of the Pudding" XXX. 187 191 at Last Our Last Detour The Curvature Tensor Is 200 206 21 3 XXIV. The Third of the "Crucial" Phenomena 289 299 303 XXXV. cont. More About the Path of a Planet of Mercury 266 272 XXXI. Mixed Tensors XX. Of What Use the Curvature Tensor? XXV. Contraction and Differentiation Little g's 78 XXI. Surmounting the 237 255 XXIX. The XXII. XXIII. Summary The Moral Would You Like to Know? 310 318 THE ATOMIC BOMB . of Einstein's with Newton's 219 How Can the Einstein Law of Gravitation Be Tested? 227 Difficulties XXVIII. XXXIII. The Big G's or Einstein's Law Law of Gravitation of Gravitation XXVI.XVII. Comparison XXVII. 276 283 Ray of XXXIV. Operations with TenseXVIII.
Parti THE SPECIAL THEORY .
.
some maladjustment producing which ultimately causes a break. In order to appreciate the fundamental importance of Relativity. its 3 .* through which radio waves and all light waves are transmitted any modern child *This ether is talks quite glibly of course NOT the chemical ether which surgeons use! ft is it not a liquid. always preceded by a tension. What was in the maladjustment in Physics the latter part of the 19th century. a "revolution Whenever in it is takes place. presence is only conjectured because of the need for some medium to transmit radio and light waves. it is necessary to it know 11 how arose. which led to the creation of 11 the "revolutionary Relativity briefly: Theory? Let us summarize It it has been assumed that space is filled with ether. or gas. has never been seen by anybody. any domain.I. solid. INTRODUCTION. followed by a greater stability at least for the time being.
11 about "wavelengths in connection with the radio. in Eddington. Lorentz. then. so an experiment was performed Michelson and Morley (see p. also in the Enc. there must be an "ether wind/' just as a THROUGH the ether. Now. person riding on a bicycle still air. S. in 1 895. does it surround the earth and travel with it. 14th ed. The search for the ether wind was then resumed by means of other kinds of experiments. And This a unexpected result was explained by Dutch physicist. no ether wind was observed.! *See the M article Aberration of Light". by A. 4 . if there is an ether. through feels an air wind blowing in his face. to detect this ether wind/and much to the surprise of everyone. or does it remain stationary while the earth travels through it? Various known (acts* indicate that the ether does NOT travel with the earth. the Encyclopedia Britannica. Brit. the earth is moving If. tSec the article "Relativity" by James Jeans. in a way which will be described in Chapter II. 14th ed. 8) by in 1887.
But. to the consternation of the physicists. LAW what is he proposed published in one in his Theory of two papers.* He first found it necessary to reexamine the fundamental ideas upon which classical physics was based. and proposed certain vital changes in them. He then made A VERY LIMITED NUMBER OF MOST REASONABLE ASSUMPTIONS by means of from which he deduced his theory. page 324. in 1915. (2) Explaining the MichelsonMorley experiment in a much more rational way than had previously been done. that 11 and decided a natural "conspiracy must be a natural And as to operating.' until it seemed that 1 nature was in a "conspiracy' to prevent our finding this effect! At this point Einstein took up the problem. to which we shall refer later/ see SOME INTERESTING READING. So fruitful did his analysis prove to be that it he succeeded in: (1) Clearing up the fundamental ideas. again and again. *Both now published in one volume including also the papers by Lorentz and Minkowski. no ether wind could be detected. 1905 and the other Relativity. to answer the question this law. .
. (5) Explaining QUITE INCIDENTALLY a famous discrepancy in astronomy which had worried the astronomers for many (This also years is discussed in The General Theory). on as well as explaining ALL many SPECIFIC that outstanding difficulties had seemed to be entirely UNRELATED. As we shall see. and of further increasing our of the physical world by suggesting a number of knowledge NEW experiments which NEW discoveries. No has have led to other physical theory been so powerful though based on so FEW assumptions. and which have been so verified since then. the Theory of Relativity had a profound philosophical bearing of physics. (4) Deriving a NEW LAW OF GRAVITATION much more adequate than the Newtonian one (See Part II.(3) Doing away with other outstanding difficulties in physics.: The General Theory) and which led to several important predictions which could be verified by experiment. Thus.
.
On the problem that Michelson and Morley Let us now see what experiment they performed and what was the startling result. In order to get the idea of the experiment in very clearly it mind. in the direction indicated by the arrow: Now for a which would take longer man to swim to From A to B and back in A . first will be helpful to consider the following simple problem. 'Published the Philosophical Magazine. (1887). vol. THE MICHELSONMORLEY EXPERIMENT* page 4 we referred to set themselves. which can be solved by any boy who has studied elementary algebra: Imagine a river in which there is a current flowing with velocity v. 24.II. 8 .
be c + v. 8. and he would land at some point to the left of C in the figure on p. 9 . Therefore. AB and being parallel to the current.or from if A to C and back to A . his rate would be only c v f whereas. where a represents the distance and the time required for the trip AB . the current would carry him downstream. his rate the current. the time for the round trip ti or ti = = a/(c 2 /) 2ac/(c  + v 2 a/(c ). + v) Now how from let us see trip long the round A to C and back to A would take. from 8 to v). when swimming against the from current. would. in order to arrive at C . of course. in still AC perpendicular to it? Let the man's rate of swimming water be represented by c / then. A would be would be a/(c + Consequently. If he headed directly toward C . Therefore the time required to swim from A to fi would be a/(c v). A to 8 . the distances AB and AC are equal. when swimming with from 8 back to A .
A. where a is the distance from Similarly. carrying him at the rate v from D to C (without his making any further effort). In if other words. the water could be kept still until he swam at his own rate c from A to D . and then the current were suddenly allowed to operate. in A to C it is going back from C to easy to see that. 10 . then the effect would obviously be the same as his going directly from A iojC 2 with a velocity equal to Vc' v/ as is obvious from the right triangle: 2 ex \r Consequently/ the time required for the journey from A 2 to C would be a/Vc^.he should head just far for some point D enough upstream to counteract the effect of the current.v .
is greater than fa . TAKES LONGER TO SWIM UPSTREAM AND BACK THAN TO SWIM THE SAME DISTANCE ACROSSSTREAM AND BACK. 2 _ v 2 . But what has all this to do with the MichelsonMorley experiment? In that experiment. and consequently ft is greater than (since the denominator is ^ less than t\ Therefore that IT is. Assuming that v is less than c . f2 y\ In order to compare and more 2 . v Then we and get: ti fa = 2a/3 /c 2a/3/c. to B: a ray of light was sent from A Cr ^ HB 11 . the time would again be a/Vc Hence the time for the round trip from A to C and back fa to would be = 2a/vV ti _ A. the numerator). Vc 2 v 2 is therefore less than c 1 . let us write ft for c/ Vc 2 easily. 2 2 v being obviously less than and c the c 2 .by the same method of reasoning.
At 8 there was a mirror which reflected the light back to
so that the ray of light makes the round trip from
just as the
in
A,
back,
AioB and
swimmer did
the problem described above. since the entire apparatus shares the motion of the earth,
Now,
which is moving through space, supposedly through a stationary ether/ thus creating an ether wind
in the opposite direction, (namely, the direction indicated above), this experiment seems entirely analogous to the problem of the swimmer.
And,
and
therefore/ as before/
ti
ti
= 2a0Yc = 2aS/c.
0)
(2)
and
is now the velocity of light, the time required for the light to C and back to to go from
Where
c
*2 is
A
A
(being reflected from another mirror at
If/
ti
Q.
therefore, and t> are found experimentally/
by dividing (1) the value of /? would
then
by (2), be easily obtained.
2
And
since
= c/V c
T
2 ,
c being the known velocity of light, the value of v could be calculated.
That
is,
THE ABSOLUTE VELOCITY
would thus become known.
OF THE EARTH
Such was the plan of the experiment.
Now
what actually happened?
12
The experimental values of t\ and were found to be the SAME,
instead of
ti
\
ti
Obviously
this
being greater than ti was a most disturbing
result,
quite out of harmony with the reasoning given above.
The Dutch
physicist, Lorentz, then suggested the following explanation of Michelson's strange result:
Lorentz suggested that
matter,
owing
to
its
electrical structure,
IT IS
SHRINKS
and
this
WHEN
MOVING,
MOTION.*
contraction occurs
ONLY IN THE DIRECTION OF of shrinkage The he assumes to be in the ratio of 1/ff
AMOUNT
v (where /3 has the value c/Vc Thus a sphere of one inch radius
2
2
,
as before).
becomes an
with
its
ellipsoid when shortest semiaxis
1//3 inches long)
it is
moving,
(now only
*The two papers by Lorentz on this subject are included in the volume mentioned in the footnote on page 5.
In the first of these papers Lorentz mentions that the explanation proposed here occurred also to Fitzgerald.
Hence
it
is
often referred to as
1
the "Fitzgerald contraction" or the "Lorentz contraction* or
11
the "LorentzFitzgerald contraction.
13
in
the direction of motion,
thus:
a erection
to the
Applying this idea MichelsonMorlcy experiment,
the distance
AB (=
2
a)
on
p. 8,
becomes a/jS , and ti becomes 2a/3/c
instead of 2a/3 /c , so that now ft t2
/
=
,
just as the
experiment requires.
One
might ask
how
it is
that Michelson did not
observe the shrinkage? Why did not his measurements show
that
AB was
shorter than
AC
(See the figure on p. 8)? The obvious answer is that the measuring rod itself contracts
when applied to AB, so that one is not aware of the shrinkage.
To
this
explanation
MichelsonMorley experiment the natural objection may be raised
that an explanation
for the express
of the
which
is
invented
purpose
14
of smoothing out a certain and assumes a correction
of
is
difficulty,
JUST
too
artificial
the right amount, to be satisfying.
And
Poincare, the French mathematician/
raised this very natural objection.
Consequently, Lorentz undertook to examine
his contraction
in
hypothesis
other connections, to see whether it is in harmony also with facts other than
the MichelsonMorley experiment. He then published a second paper
in
1904,
giving the result of this investigation.
To present
let us
first
this result in a clear
form
restate the
argument
as follows:
vt
T
Consider a set of axes, X and Y, supposed to be fixed in the stationary ether, and another set X' and Y' , attached to the earth and moving with it,
15
with velocity v
,
as indicated
above
Let
X
7
and
V"
move along X, move parallel to
V.
Now
is
suppose an observer on the
measure
earth,
say Michelson,
trying to
it
the time
takes a ray of light to B , to travel from
A
and 8 being fixed points on the moving axis X .
both
r
A
At
the
moment
ray of light
starts at
f
when the
A
suppose coincide, and A coincides with D / and while the light has been traveling to B
the axis
that
Y and Y
V
has
moved
the distance vt
,
and B has reached the position shown in the figure on p. 1 5,
t
being the time
if
it
Then, we have x'
This
is
DB = x and AB =
takes for this to happen.
=
x',
(3)
x
vt.
only another way of expressing what was said on p. where the time for
9
the
first part of the journey was said to be equal to a/(c
v).*
And, as we saw there, this way of thinking of
did
the
phenomenon
NOT agree
Applying now
*Since
with the experimental facts. the contraction hypothesis
we are now designating a by x', = t , or x = ct we have x'/(c v)
But the distance the light has traveled
vf.
is x , and x
=
ct,
consequently x'
=x
vt
is
equivalent to a/(c
v)
=
t.
16
proposed by Lorentz, x should be divided by /3, so that equation (3) becomes
r
x7/3
or
x'
=
=
 vt  vt). (x
x
other fads,
(4)
Now
when Lorentz examined
on
p.
1
as stated
5,
he found that equation (4) was quite in harmony with ail these but that he was now obliged
to introduce a further correction
facts,
expressed by the equation
(5)
where /3 , t , v , x , and c have the same meaning as before But what is t?! Surely the time measurements in the two systems are not different:
Whether the
origin
is
at
D
or at
A
should not affect the
TIMEREADINGS.
In
t'
was a
other words, as Lorentz saw it, 11 sort of "artificial time
introduced only for mathematical reasons,
because
in
it
helped to give
facts.
t
results
harmony with the
had
But obviously
for
him
NO
As
PHYSICAL MEANING.
it:
Jeans, the English physicist, puts
"If the observer
could be persuaded
artificial way, wrong to begin with and then making them gain or lose permanently, the effect of his supposed artificiality
to measure time in this
setting his clocks
17
.
along the Xaxis. y . with respect to the unprimed coordinate system. 14th edition. respectively. it seemed to have NO PHYSICAL MEANING. 19 . since they show how to transform a set of values of x . 5) obviously the values of y and z (z being the third dimension) are the same as / and z . t into a set x'.would just counterbalance 11 the effects of his motion through the ether !* Thus. as we saw. z. article *See the on Relativity in the Encyclopedia Britannica. the equations finally proposed are: by Lorentz x' = = (x  vt) z' Note that 1 since the axes attached to the earth (p. t' coordinate system moving with constant velocity v. are moving along the Xaxis. whereas the Lorentz transformation really expressed the facts correctly. And. z . The equations are just given known as THE LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION. in a y.
20 His exceedingly reasonable examination . did not merely demand explanations of a certain number of isolated difficulties. And so he undertook to reexamine such fundamental notions as our ideas of LENGTH and TIME and MASS. As Einstein regarded the situation. III. REEXAMINATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS. 5). as well as of other experiments which seemed to indicate a "conspiracy" on the part of nature against man's efforts to obtain knowledge of the physical world (see p. according to Einstein. the negative result of the MichelsonMorley experiment. rather than a mere superficial difficulty.and was merely a set of empirical equations. these negative results. felt that there was something fundamentally and radically wrong physics. In he in other words. Let us now see what Einstein did. but the situation was so serious that a complete examination of fundamental ideas was necessary.
Everyone knows VELOCITY depends upon the distance (or LENGTH) traversed in a given TIME. LENGTH is and TIME. and hence ultimately the units of upon MASS. In all and TIME. LENGTH is and TIME.is most illuminating. LENGTH And so on. other words. the unit of force DEPENDS UPON the units of mass and acceleration. measurements in physics depend That is primarily on MASS. time and mass that are fundamental. hence the unit of velocity DEPENDS UPON the units of Similarly. since acceleration the change in velocity in a unit of time. But first let us remind the reader why length. hence the unit of acceleration DEPENDS UPON the units of velocity and time. and therefore ultimately upon the units of Further. LENGTH why and TIME. since force measured of by the product mass and acceleration. 21 . as we shall now see.
is on the earth/ and the other/ 5 / on the sun/ and imagine that signals are sent as follows: By his own watch/ 5 sends a message to which reads "twelve o'clock/" f receives this message say/ eight minutes later. stands for "gram" (the unit of mass). and 5 stands for "second" (the unit of time)/ G these being the fundamental units from which all the others are derived. Let us/ therefore/ imagine that one observer/ f . Suppose that two observers wish to compare their measurements of time. the time for a light (or radio) signal to travel from the sun to the earth/ and is approximately eight minutes.S. Let us now return to Einstein's reexamination of these fundamental units.the system of units ordinarily used is called the "C. If they are near each other they can. at each other's watches If they are far apart/ they can still compare each other's readings BY MEANS OF SIGNALS." where C stands for system. 22 . 93 000 000 miles light travels about 186 000 miles per second. of course/ look and compare them.^ "centimeter" (the unit of length).* *Since the sun is about from the earth.G. say light signals or radio signals/ 1 that is/ any "electromagnetic wave* which can travel through space.
it if his watch agrees with that of S n f< . Now let the signals again be sent as before: his message "1 2 o'clock. S sends but will take to overtake some longer time . 5 later. so that both the sun and the earth moving in the direction shown in the figure: are without any change in the distance between them. Thus 5 will conclude. at 12:16.now. f Say. from this series of signals." and. that his watch and that of f are in perfect agreement." but sincejf js moving awayjrom jjta IRelatter wiffnot reaclTE in 8 minutes. will read 12:08 when the message arrives. receives this message 8 minutes namely. of course. 23 . then sends back to 5 the message "12:08. 9 minutes. But let us now imagine that the entire solar system is moving through space.
accordingly sends a return message/ reading "12:09. must be noted. so that assumption is far from being an imaginary one. however. that this omniscient "we" who what can see exactly is "really" going on exist." Now 5 and in it is traveling toward this message/ will therefore reach him LESS than 8 minutes. Thus S receives at 1 2:1 6.If it Fs watch will read is in agreement with 12:09 that of 5. as it is Fs we know. this is only in an apparent error because.) 5 will not understand this why Fs message reads "12:09" instead of "12:08. when and the message reaches him. Of course. / Fs message just as before. Now if 5 and F are both UNAWARE (and. of their motion we in are undoubtedly moving that ways we are entirely unaware of. in the universe. does not and that all human observers 24 . say." and will therefore conclude that Fs watch must be fast. watch. and not to It at all any error in Fs watch. really due to the motion. in 7 minutes. indeed.
say.B. that other observers. of an object. that of not knowing about the motion in question. Now when let us see what will happen these observers wish To measure the length you can place it. whom . Whether this is absolutely true or not. find out how many units of length there are 25 . namely. to measure the length of something. then. the message telling him that if sets his clock back one minute. they cannot tell (see above). In suppose all the same way. 5 and all set their clocks to agree with that of by the same method of signals described above. with a ruler.C.are really in the situation in which 5 is. then their clocks will agree. and another mark at the other end. of j4. put a mark on the paper at one end of the object. are at rest WITH RESPECT TO S . They would all say then that all their clocks are in agreement.. but that is the best they can do. on a piece of paper. and therefore being OBLIGED to conclude that 's watch is wrong! And 5 sends therefore.ctc.
if would obviously be necessary make these two marks otherwise. and the other at the tail. by placing two marks on the walls of the tank. C B / V then the in fish allowed to swim the direction indicated at the by the arrow. all in after their clocks are agreement (see p. has reached C. But suppose the object say.between the two marks. then you would say that the length of the fish is the distance BC. undertake to measure the length of a train 26 . the mark 6 is made at a certain time. which would be a fishstory indeed! Now suppose that our observers. it to SIMULTANEOUSLY for. and then the mark is made when it head at some later time. This is quite simple provided that the object you are measuring and the paper are at rest (relatively to you). 25). a fish is swimming about its in a tank? To measure length while it is in motion. one at the head.
being all perfect agreement with each other. they can. one and at A'. since the two marks were made at SIMULTANEOUSLY. A f B f ^.. Suppose. according to them. Thus. their clocks in namely 12 o'clock. first. . that these clocks in have been set agreement with each other of signals described above.. is at that same moment.which is moving through their universe with a uniform velocity. t etc. that they are unaware of their motion. whichever observer happens to be place where the front end of the train. B . measure the distance between the two marks. a perfectly reasonable assumption. And suppose that there are two clocks on the train. who happens to be at the place where the rear end of the train. etc. and some other observer. this distance being equal to the length of the train. Let us now talk to the people on the train. after the train has gone. C. at their leisure. They send out orders that at 1 2 o'clock sharp. to put a mark at THAT spot. are the ones who are moving. to NOTE THE SPOT. the other at B'. Obviously the observers admit that the clocks at and B' wit! by the method A NOT A 27 . at the A'9 arrives at that moment. and that. B .
25).arc in agreement with each other. since they "know" that the train is in motion. when the people on the make the marks simultaneously. and therefore the method of signals used on the moving train has led to an erroneous setting of the moving clocks (see p. the measurement of the is LENGTH of the train NOT correct. the clocks etc. C. 8. say. have been properly and they therefore claim that the two marks were NOT and made SIMULTANEOUSLY. belonging to A.. What is the result of this difference of opinion? When and the clocks of A and B . but the people on the train that the clocks of A and 8 set. B . at that instant A and B each makes a mark at a certain spot. since they "know" it is that A. train Thus. that. both read 12 o'clock. that these marks were made do not admit simultaneously./ are the ones who are moving. then A and B claim. as judged by their own clocks. of course. C. claim that etc. the distance between the two marks 28 . Whereas the people on the train. which were set wrong. therefore.
prevents agreement in the measurement of LENGTH! Similarly. other physical measurements depend upon length. p. the earth turns on it goes around the sun. it and time.will NOT be the same as that before. Hence we see MOTION prevents agreement setting of clocks. mass. we mentioned on 21. Hence it would seem that observations made by people on the earth 29 . as a consequence of this. 79. And as all since. in the and. and perhaps has other motions as wefl. seems that therefore there cannot in be agreement any measurements made velocities! by different observers who are moving with different Now. observers on the earth partake of the various motions to which the earth is its subject axis. of course. affects motion also the measurement of mass different observers obtaining different results when measuring the mass of the same object. as we shall see on p.
.
TIME AND MASS involved an "idealistic" notion of 11 "absolute time which was supposed to be the same for all observers. then. and a that Einstein introduced more PRACTICAL notion of time of based on the actual way of setting clocks by means SIGNALS. but was sick from head to foot! find a Did he remedy? HE DID! IV.cannot agree with those taken from some other location in the universe. we see that THE OLD IDEAS REGARDING THE MEASUREMENT OF LENGTH. This led to the DISCARDING of the idea that 31 . THE REMEDY. and are therefore not really correct and consequently worthless! Thus Einstein's careful and reasonable examination led to the realization that Physics was suffering from no mere as single ailment. evidenced by the MichelsonMorley experiment alone. So far.
32 . before Einstein pointed out the considerations discussed in Ch. this from it is point of view say: NOT CORRECT to x' = x vt Michelson did* (see p. III.the is LENGTH is of an object a (act about the object and independent of the person III. say that NOT a FACT about an OBJECT.). for those were the prevailing ideas thoroughly rooted in everybody's mind. RELATIONSHIP between OBJECT and the OBSERVER.) who does the measuring/ since we have shown (Chapter that the measurement of length DEPENDS UPON THE STATE OF MOTION OF THE MEASURER. III. other words. *We do Michelson made not wish to imply that a crude error ANY CLASSICAL PHYSICIST would have made the same statement. moving relatively to each other with uniform velocity/ DO NOT LENGTH is FOR THE LENGTH OF Hence we may but rather a the GET THE SAME VALUE A GIVEN OBJECT. Thus two observers. a perfectly definite quantity. equation (3) since this equation implies that the value of x' as is ). 16. And similarly for TIME and MASS In (Ch.
relationships between the length and time measurements of different observers. Now must we what experimental data take into account here? They are: (1): It is FACT impossible to measure the "ether wind. And so Einstein said that instead of starting with such ideas. THE in length of the arm AB of the apparatus the MichelsonMorley experiment (See the diagram on p. for These ideas were contradicted by Michelson's EXPERIMENTS.namely. Nor is it correct to assume that (again as Michelson did) two different observers. it is or. impossible to detect our motion relative to the ether. 1 5). let us rather START WITH THE EXPERIMENTAL DATA." words. in other This was clearly shown by the 33 . which would imply that both observers agree in their time measurements. and basing our reasoning on them. which were so ingeniously devised and so precisely performed. and see they to what relationships will lead us.
of a bullet shot from the gun. say. happens to be the same as the velocity of the sound. as Einstein prefers to see 1 it. Suppose that the velocity. 5). suppose that both trains moving with the same velocity.MichelsonMorley experiment. The question is: How does the velocity of a bullet are (fired Now from the MOVING train) 34 relatively to the ground. FACT. To do it is this. by all other experiments devised to measure this motion (see p. this is the great "conspiracy* that started all the trouble. u . v . and most reasonably THIS IS A so. necessary to remind the reader of a few wellknown facts: Imagine that we have two trains. compare with . stationary. or. this Let us examine statement more to see exactly what it means. one with a gun on the front end. FACT (2): The velocity of light is the same no matter whether the source of light is moving or fully. as well as Indeed. a whistle. the other with a source of sound on the front end. in the same direction.
v . is since the bullet not only wiih given to but. (which alternate condensations and rarefactions of the air in rapid succession).that the velocity of the sound came from the whistle on the other in MOVING traveling? train. by the force of the gun. air. RELATIVELY TO THE GROUND. in But the case of the sound is a series of pulsations. has an inertia! velocity. relatively to the medium/ the which it is Are they No! the same? The velocity of the is bullet. in it its now propelled forward own velocity. which it has acquired from the motion of the train and which all is shared by wave objects on the train. u . addition. out with the velocity u relatively to the medium. regardless as to whether the train is moving or not. the first condensation formed in travels the neighborhood of the whistle. condensation So that this its has only own velocity inertia! and does have the due to the motion of the NOT velocity train. the velocity of the sound depending only upon the medium 35 . v + u .
). moving with velocity v. Tram u jt. ft. CASE Both trains II. moved one second u + v feet in 36 .. Thus/ the bullet has in Case II. etc.(that is. The following diagram shows the relative positions after one second/ in both cases: CASE Both I. but not upon the motion of the source from which the sound started. trains at rest. whether it is it is air or water/ etc. v UfV u 4*. and whether hot or cold..
it (2) on p.. As a matter it DOES. whether the source remains stationary as in Case I. as in Case Expressing it algebraically. ALL. WAVE MOTION. is what meant by FACT Now. appears. see that Thus we the velocity of sound is u feet per second relatively to the starting point. referring again to the by diagram on p. FROM THE STARTING Indeed. and that is of FACT.from the starting point. and one would therefore expect that it would apply also to LIGHT.. train that relatively to the MOVING (u (Case II. as a result of this. x' sound =  v)t x being the distance from T to the point where the sound has arrived after time t. or follows the sound. x = ut applies equally well for sound in both Case I. this fact is true of POINT. 36. 37 . 34. II. and Case x being the distance II.) we should for then have. whereas the sound has moved only u feet from the starting point/ in that one second.
38 . similarly. that Thus APPEARS (2) requires the velocity of light FACT be RELATIVELY TO THE to c MOVING EARTH it v (see diagram on p.* *FACT may be restated as follows: The velocity of light RELATIVE TO must be A MOVING c OBSERVER (For example. for light using the moving earth instead of the moving train. consequence of x' FACT (2) on p 34. according to which IMPOSSIBLE it to determine v. we should as a then have. ' . = (c  v)t where out in c is the velocity of light (relatively to a stationary observer and v space) the velocity of the earth relatively to this stationary observer is and hence the ABSOLUTE velocity of the earth. we could . he would be able to find v which is contrary to fact.From which. an observer on the moving earth) c. And. whereas FACT (1) (1) requires to be c. and t. by measuring x then calculate v the velocity of the train. Thus But it is we should be able to determine v. this contradicts FACT (1). u . and NOT vt . for otherwise. 36).
III. FACT(1) E'/.000 miles) while FACT it is EL be (2) requires that to c / equal Now needless to say that FACTS CAN NOT CONTRADICT EACH OTHER! Let us therefore see how. NOT V. moves from E to E' while a ray of light. according to the the velocity of light ALWAYS THE SAME. so the two facts contradict each other! stating it another way: If. be equal requires that to c ( = 1 86.And Or. in FACTS the light of the discussion in Ch. goes from the earth to L then . THE SOLUTION OF THE DIFFICULTY We IS have thus seen that facts. (1) and (2) can be shown to be contradictory. 39 . in the earth one second.
whether the source of is light stationary or moving light FACT (2) on p. and that in time. 40 . and the rays of light K SAME radiate out from that place in all directions. thus: K writes and K' x = ct . t . (6) ct'. may claim that he is at rest. and whether the velocity of is measured (See relatively to the medium in which it travels. t and t'. x and x'. K who unaware of his motion . and time. is through the ether (since he cannot measure it). K and K . f two observers. and K' are at the place. and each using his own measurements of length. Let us express these for (acts algebraically. who are moving with uniform velocity relatively to each other. respectively. c . 34). It is assumed that at the instant when the rays of light start on their path. writes x' = (7) both using THE SAME VALUE FOR THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT. Now according to equation (6). namely. 37). or relatively to a MOVING observer (See p.
has reached points at the distance ct from K.K' must have moved to the right. and hence all points on the circumference of the circle having the radius ct. instead of from K\ And this is what he means when he says x' = ct'. But W claims that he K moved is the one who and has has remained stationary/ on the contrary. that / TO THE LEFT/ furthermore that the light travels out f from K as a center. shown and that/ as in in the figure below/ the meantime. the light/ which travels out in all directions from all K . How can they both be right? 41 .
A f on the other side. another way of stating the APPARENT CONTRADICTION BETWEEN (1) FACTS Now. . at last.? They cannot possibly have both ' K and K as their centers! One This of is them must be right and the other wrong.We may be willing not to take sides in their controversy regarding the question as to which one has moved K' to the right or K to the left because either leads to the same But what about the circles? result. 39). DOES NOT AGREE THAT THEY ARE SIMULTANEOUS So that when K says that the arrival of the lisht at (rather than at C and A) his C and B ARE SIMULTANEOUS. statement DOES NOT CONTRADICT THAT OF K. the K' the light at C and A). (see p. since K and K' DO NOT MEAN THE SAME THING 42 . 41). Although K claims when that at the instant the light has reached the point C(p. it has also reached the point still. WE MUST REMEMBER THAT when K says arrival of two events happen simultaneously (namely. 28). we are ready for the explanation. and (2) (see p.
Hence we see they are not really contradicting each other. 25). instant. Ai C when when the light arrives there/ reads a LATER TIME than his clock at the light arrived at so that K maintains that the light reaches LATER than it reaches C. 28). but the clocks in the set one system have in in NOT been agreement with the clocks the other system (see p. That If we take into account the inevitable necessity of using signals in order to set clocks which are 43 .WHEN THEY SAY "SIMULTANEOUS. such that two the clocks in each system agree with each other alright. but ihat they are merely using different systems of clocks. the reading of K*s clock there is exactly the same as that of K's clock at C (K having set all clocks in his system by the method of signals described on while n K s clock at p. is. A C. Thus when the light arrives at A . for 11 K's clocks at C and A do not agree with K'*s clocks at C and A. and as NOT at the SAME that K claims.
And now a pleasant surprise awaits us. 24). chapter In the last we saw that by starting with two fundamental FACTS (p. 34). THE RESULT OF APPLYING THE REMEDY. actually agree with the experimental facts. when applied QUANTITATIVELY.at a distance from each other. we reached expressed the conclusion in the equations x and x' = = ct ct' (6) (7) 44 . But we must now find out whether these considerations. VI. it becomes IS clear that THERE due in NO REAL CONTRADICTION HERE. We in a now see general qualitative way. and that the arrivals of the signals at their destinations are influenced by our state of motion. differences but only a difference of description to INEVITABLE the setting of various systems of clocks. to seemed be at first. is that the situation not as it at all mysterious or unreasonable. of which we are not aware (p.
ct' X(x  ct) (8) where X is a constant. from (6) and (7). and we realized that these equations are (as if NOT contradictory. such as any high school boy knows.. By adding and subtracting (8) and (9) we and get: x' ct' = ax . 41. Similarly. x' + ct' = /x (x + ct) (9) H being another constant. between the measurements of the two observers. at first). in the opposite direction. . K and K relationships f .feet = actfex ju)/2 (10) (11) where a Let us in = (X f and b = (X fe ju)/2. 45 . shall derive. From (6) and (7) we get x and Therefore x' x'  ct ct' =0 = 0.which are graphically represented on p. is they appear to be we remember that there a difference in the setting of the clocks in the two different systems. now find the values of a and terms of v and c and /C (the relative velocity of the velocity of light. We now. K ). And is all the mathematics we need for this a little simple algebra.
(14) Hence K says that 11 *See Appendix in "Relativity by Einstein. K to K! . Therefore x = this vt. Pub. Take K For the time t .This is done in the following ingenious manner:* when x = . Comparing with (1 2). (1931). I 46 . by Peter Smith. x = x'/a. Y. t the distance traversed/ in time f by K moving with velocity v relatively to K. (13) now first: consider the situation from the points of view of K and K'. then x = bet/ a but x' From (10) = / (12) at the point K'\ And that x in this case is the distance from is. /Cgetsx' or  ax (from (10)). we get v Let us = be/a. N.
divide his x x. then f('s ifx. K should multiply his x a(1 by  v /c). only 1/a of a "true" But att' K. = 0. 2 In particular.to get the "true" value. K should . (16) becomes x In f a(1  vVc)x.1.usins(11) says fex=act and since from (10). Thus 47 . K says unit is that 2 really a(1 vr/c ) units long. ifx'1. x'. K' says: In order to get the "true" value. (15) (1 5) becomes 6x ac(ax x')/6c f 62^2 "x ax from which x' ax f . = a(1  6 /a 2 2 )x. K is says that K"s unit of length unit. (16) And since 6/a = = y/c from (1 3). by a/ in particular. (17) other words.
express this "correction* forms. is *Note that this equation NOT obtained by ALGEBRAIC SUBSTITUTION from (14) and (17). but is obtained by considering that the CORRECTIONS advised by K and K' in (14) and (17). Thus in (14) K says: "You must multiply your measurement by 1/a". may still K and 1 /('. write = a(1  s 2 ). since it is due in both cases to the relative motion.each observer considers that his own measurements are the "true" ones.* equation a for a we get = c/V?~v*. and advises the other fellow to make 1 a "correction. whereas in (1 7) K' says: "You must multiply your measurement by and since these correction factors must be equal a (1 48 . must be equal in magnitude as pointed out above.* And indeed. only that each observer attributes this motion to the other fellow. although the two observers. respectively. Hence. of the "correction" in different the MAGNITUDE recommended by each of them MUST BE THE SAME. from (14) and 1/a Solving this (1 7) we may v /c .
when at rest relatively to each other. vx/c ). we or get x' x' = = 0x .vt) .8vf /3(xrt) (18) which is the first of the Lorenti transformation of the set of equations on page 19! Furthermore. K and K would each claim that r f X (X ) axis/ 7 his own cylinder is OUTSIDE the other fellow's! We by thus see that the Lorentz transformation was derived Einstein (quite independently of Lorentz).vt/c). 2 Or. and whose axes coincide with the Now. y' Einstein shows as follows: = Let K and /C' each have a cylinder of radius r. /3(t  (19) another of the equations of the Lorentz transformation! which is That the remaining two equations = y and z' z also hold. Substituting in (10) this value of a and the value fee = ay from (13).Note is that this value of a /? the same as that of on p. unless / = y and z = z. from (1 8) and / x \x' = = ct ct' we or get ct' t' = = = P(ct /3(t . 1 1 . as a set of empirical equations NOT 49 . since t = t' x/c.
And the so. on the contrary. And that each observer may think he is right is and the oiher one and yet each one. of the equations of the Lorentz transformation. And = /3(t  vx/c ) NOT because it is it is just a mathematical trick WITHOUT any MEANING but again because the differences of the (see p. will be remembered. supposed. same form it arrives at the *This shrinkage. according to him. 19) the natural consequence of in the measurements two observers. occurs only in the direction of motion (see p. to the differences Einstein writes t' NOT due in the measurements made by K and 2 /C * (see p. wrong/ by using his own measurements. 45). 50 . as a result of a most rational change in our ideas regarding the measurement of the fundamental quantities length and time. but.devoid of physical meaning. x' is  /3(x  vt) so written as Lorentz because of any real shrinkage. 1 3). first namely. but merely an apparent shrinkage.
.
and if we apply the Lorentz transformation to this law. formulating the of the universe. says x' they are really agreeing as to the of the propagation of light. although it is now expressed in terms of the primed coordinate system. in spite of the change in measurements INVARIANTS due to the relative motion of K and K . the quantities which remain unchanged namely. in LAWS OF NATURE. we can now appreciate Einstein's Principle of Relativity: "The laws by which 52 . example. K = = ct LAW And similarly.when he expresses as. Hence Einstein says that although no one knows what the "true" measurements should be. each observer in may use his own measurements WITH EQUAL RIGHT formulating AND EQUAL SUCCESS THE or. Thus. it is when we find that is still the law the same. in order to see what form the law takes expressed in terms of 7 the measurements made by /C . yet. for a physical fact. when and K says f x ct' . K writes any if other law of nature.
the states of physical systems undergo change. are not affected whether these changes of to the state be referred one or the other of in two systems of coordinates uniform translatory motion. but "jerky". And by is if he cannot find out his mistake making observations within his train the same as it since everything there just would be at rest. own train 53 . and he would therefore be unable *0f course if the motion is not uniform.e. must have been observed long before Einstein?" In other words. his train were really Surely this fact. is and imagines whereas his that the other train is moving own at rest.. to an observer RELATIVELY on the train everything seems to proceed in the same way whether his system (i. " "But Perhaps some one will ask is not the principle of it relativity old/ and was not known long before Einstein? in a train Thus a person moving into a station with uniform velocity looks at another train which is at rest. his train) is at rest or in uniform* motion. and other similar ones. things on the train would jump around and the observer on the train would that his certainly know was not at rest.
Now Einstein EXTENDED this so that it would apply principle to electromagnetic phenomena (light or radio waves). This kind of relativity principle is the one involved in the question on page 53. according to this extension of the principle of relativity. Yes. this certainly was known long before Einstein. 36 we see that a bullet fired from a train has the same velocity RELATIVELY TO THE TRAIN whether the latter is moving or not. Let us see what connection it has as stated with the principle of relativity by him: Referring to the diagram on p. this But why should a great it extension be such achievement why had not been suggested before? 54 . Thus. and therefore an observer on the train could not detect the motion of the train by making measurements on the motion of the bullet. and WAS known long before Einstein.to detect the motion. an observer cannot detect his motion through space by making measurements on the motion of ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.
the SEEMINGLY IMPOSSIBLE EXTENSION phenomena 55 of the principle to electromagnetic was accomplished by him. so that the diagram shown above must be interpreted in the light of the discussion on p. explained on p.BECAUSE it according to fact (2) must be remembered that see p. the abovementioned extension of the principle of relativity requires that EL should be equal to c (compare the case of the bullet on p. 42. . the extension of the principle of relativity to electromagnetic phenomena seems to contradict fact (2) and therefore could not have been made before it was shown that fundamental measurements are merely "local" and hence the contradiction was only apparent. o  whereas. 42. as Thus we see that whereas the principle of relativity as applied to MECHANICAL motion (like that of the bullet) was accepted long before Einstein. 36). In other words. 39.
for the case in which and K' move relatively to each other with velocity.This extension of the principle. But before we we must how the first can discuss see this in detail ideas which we have already presented were put into a remarkable mathematical form by a mathematician named Minkowski. K UNIFORM We shall see later how Einstein generalized this principle STILL FURTHER. This in work was essential to Einstein as the further development of his ideas/ we shall see. of this generalization/ GENERAL theory of relativity. and which has been discussed here/ is called the SPECIAL theory of relativity. he derived A NEW LAW OF Newtonian first GRAVITATION/ than much more adequate even the and is law. 56 . CHANGING And. by means which he called the velocity. to the case in which K and that is. K? a move relatively to each other with an ACCELERATION. of which the latter a approximation.
quite independent of Space. and how Einstein then utilized this the further application of his Principle of Relativity. in *See collection of papers mentioned footnote on p. NEW It is now clear 1 from the Lorentz transformation (D. one coordinate system depends upon BOTH x and and that a length in t' t in another.VII. We shall now see how Minkowski* put in a in Einstein's results remarkably neat mathematical form. there is a closer connection between Space and Time than we had realized. depends upon Hence^ also BOTH x and t. In other words. resulting in a NEW LAW OF GRAVITATION and leading to further important consequences and discoveries. 5. THE FOURDIMENSIONAL SPACETIME CONTINUUM. x . that 9) measurement. as instead of regarding the universe being made up of Space. which led to The General Theory of Relativity. on the one hand. and Time. 57 .
Thus we may say that we live in a fourdimensional world. and z coordinates of the place any convenient reference system). only another way of saying live in live in fourdimensional we A WORLD OF rather than of EVENTS POINTS only. Thus. at a certain  everything that happens. with time flowing along irrespective of the points. we need three numbers to characterize a point in space. happens place AND at a certain time. namely. and since the time of the event needs only one number to characterize we need in all FOUR NUMBERS TO CHARACTERIZE just as AN EVENT. this is A UNIVERSE OF EVENTS. 58 and it takes . it. the (using x. This that does NOT mean we is but that Space. Now. every event is characterized by the PLACE and TIME of its occurrence. y. since its place may be designated by By three numbers. but rather.that the universe is NOT a universe of points.
.
in moving another coordinate system. z'. relatively to the first with uniform velocity. coordinates. X' and Y' (in the figure on the next page). the coordinates x'. and designate the same point by x and in this y' When coordinate system. each event. using the Cartesian system of coordinates. he then learns how to find 60 . f . and studies analytical geometry. the high school boy abovementioned new goes to college. given coordinate system. t'. y. 11 In studying "graphs every high school freshman learns how to represent a point by two that is. of the same event. x and y. as before. z. Now. having the same origin. we may also use another pair of perpendicular axes. 19) shows how to find y'. the Lorentz transformation (p. Now by in a if an event is designated the four numbers x. .FOUR numbers to designate each significant element. straight lines two perpendicular to each other. namely.
19). since the equations of *Seep. as shown in the figure above. 61 .. 310. fl 't^ \ \ \ J 6 \ the relationship between the primed coordinates and the original ones/ and finds this to be expressed x'cosfl x'sinfl as follows:* x anc y = =  /sine ) + /cos0 / (20) where 6 is the angle through which the axes have been revolved./ H . The equations (20) remind one somewhat of the Lorentz transformation (p.
selecting from the Lorentz transformation only those equations involving x and t . we may we wish say that to compare (20) with x' t' = /3(x. light in one second. taking the distance traveled is. we by take c = 1. that if. By ordinary algebraic operations.* *And temembering we are taking c = and that therefore that 1. and disregarding those containing y and z. for simplicity. 62 . as the unit of distance.vx)f x and t . Let us examine the similarity between (20) and the Lorentz transformation a little more closely. since the latter remain unchanged in going from one coordinate system to the other. Or.vt)) = P(t. Thus we wish to compare (20) with: / t x' t'  8(x /3(t  vt) 2 vx/c ).the Lorentz transformation also show how to go from one coordinate system to another. Let us first solve (21) for so as to get them more nearly in the form of (20).
namely that K must divide x by it is K f and he /? . 63 . in which it was shown that each observer gives the other one precisely the same advice! Note that the only difference is between (21) and (22) that + in y becomes v going from one to the other. to get the "true" which is equal to x x . '. 1 + vt'.. namely. tells K the same thing. and saying to K "Now you must divide x by /3. your x' has shrunk although you don't know it. Indeed. before you can get the relationship between x and x' that you expect. speaking. 16. this is quite in accord with the discussion in Chapter VI.we and get x t = = fat j8(t' + vt') + vx') } ) ' Before let us linger a we 90 any further. equation (3) on p. in other words. moment and consider equations (22): Whereas (21) represents /(speaking." In (22).
their claims are precisely identical.And this is again quite in accord with our previous discussion since each observer believes himself to be at rest. right*' (+ v). t is replaced t' by IT (where / = V 1 ). Let us of (22) in now return to the comparison that and (20): Minkowski pointed out (22). and this is exactly what equations (21) and (22) show so clearly. = /3x' /3r'  + i/3vr' fivx'. if. and the other fellow to be in motion. only that one says: "You have moved to the whereas the other says: "You have moved to the Otherwise. left*' ( v). 64 . and by IT'. then (22) becomes: x IT = = /3(x' /?(// + ivr') + VX') or / X \ IT = = frt' I/V + + by *i): Or (by multiplying the second equation x T Finally.
1/(1 r being taken equal to /3 = ( 2 i/5v)  = F 2 V= 2 (1  v 2 )  1 (see p. z . thus 2 + 2 since v ). observing the SAME event.substituting* cos0 for ]8 and sin0 for i these equations become ( x \ r = = x'cosfl x'sinfl r'sinfl ) + r'cosfl j EXACTLY In ff like (20)! K other words. R. and L. r plane. y. 2 Note that sin + cos 2 = 1 holds for imaginary angles as well as for real ones/ hence the above substitutions are legitimate. without changing the origin. another 25 of "NonEuclidean Geometry/' book by H. 62). 58) are x. 65 . r . in the x . finds that in his f system the four numbers are x'. and K '. y. then the form (23) of the Lorentz transformation shows to that go from one observer's coordinate system merely necessary to the other it is first coordinate system through an angle 0. 11) must be an imaginary angle: See p. Lieber. to rotate the *Since is greater than 1 (see p. G. i '. r . observes a certain event finds that and the four numbers necessary to characterize it (see p.
2 2 /x ( r = = 7 2 (x 7 ) 2 cos sin 2  2 (x ) + 2 2xYsin0 2x r $infl / cosfl / + (rj costf + (r') 2 sin 2 cos 2 fl then. = cos e = sin = iv. 65) f = z'). from (23). the magnitude of the angle depends upon v . x or (since 2 +r = and z z 2 2 (x') + ). obviously. p ifiv tan is.thus: (remembering that And and then That since we = y and z y took (p. And since. (rj y 2 = / = 7 z x 2 + y + + r 2 = (xT 66 + (y? + (z ) + 7 2 (rj . the relative velocity of K and K f .
)C + 2 y Thus. that is. also represents the square of the distance between two points. it will be remembered from Euclidean plane geometry. in our fourdimensional world (see p. in O A . that x* + 2 y represents the square of the distance and between and similarly. x 2 + 2 y +r+ r represents 1 * 2 the square of the "interval between two EVENTS. 61). also.Now. *> + 2 y = (xj 67 + (yj . And. Euclidean threedimensional space. 58). just as in plane geometry the distance between two points remains the same whether we use the primed or the unprimed coordinate systems (see p.
other quantities. in NOT x2 equal equal /). x'. remains the same. ARE in this invariants theory. The statement of their LAWS (see The "interval" between events. 66. three dimensions. no matter which of the two observers. invariants are the quantities These 68 . K or That /C'. the Einstein theory.(although x does NOT and y does So. measures is to say. although K and K' do not agree on some things/ as. DO example/ and time measurements. agree on other things: p. in our fourdimensional spacetime world of events. similarly. the "interval" between two events. + 2 y + z 2 = (x7 + (yj + (zj and. like the spacetime interval between two events. it. as we have seen on p. 51) In other words/ although length and time are in no longer INVARIANTS. for their length they (1) (2) Etc.
discussing Relativity. the things that we see or measure NOT are the realities. move f relatively to each other *Ail observers moving relatively to each other with UNIFORM velocity (see p. We if have seen that two observers.which have the SAME value for all observers. VIII. since they are the for all observers. since various observers do not of the get the same measurements same objects. from this point of view. 56).* same We in shall see. but rather certain mathematical relationships between the measurements 2 2 2 2 r ) z (Like x y + + + are the realities. 69 . fruitful The General Theory of how Minkowski's viewpoint of a fourdimensional SpaceTime World proved to be. SOME CONSEQUENCES OF THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY. K and K .* and may therefore be regarded as the realities of the universe. Thus.
measurements (See footnote on in this case. measurements of length and time are different. LENGTH and. . Now is this argument supposed to be from the point of view of an observer who 70 DOES take the motion into account.their with constant velocity. we promised that their In this also to show different. then the Lorentz transformation between the length and time measurements of K and K'. 50). and. We in a also know that direction the relative there is PERPENDICULAR motion of K and K f to NO difference in the p. We in a already know that if an object moves direction parallel to the relative motion of K and gives the relationship K . 12). the relationship between the time measurements may be found as follows: For this PERPENDICULAR direction Michelson argued that the time would be t2 = 2a/c (seep. on page 29. measurements of mass are chapter we shall discuss mass measurements. as well as other measurements which depend upon these fundamental ones.
since a = f u /t 71 . = u/t and a' Similarly. Since u = d/t and </' u' = c/'/f' represent the distance traversed by the object as where c/ and measured by K and and since J = </' (there being K f f respectively. it . write t = 2a/c t. replacing to by t'f the expression t' = 2a/3/c represents the time in the perpendicular direction as K tells K SHOULD be written. 70) f measurements in this direction and then t i/ = j8t .and hence already contains the "correction" factor /}/ hence. From a this we see that with velocity u direction. body moving in this will PERPENDICULAR appear to K and K to have different velocities: Thus. from the point of view of K. as shown above. = c///3t = (1//3)u. would. for his "true" time. of course. NO difference in LENGTH see p. Therefore t' = 8f gives the relationship sought above. Whereas K in his own system.
the question now how to get the Einstein found is MASS into the that the best game. provided they depend upon length and time. since there are THREE basic units in Physics and since the Lorentz transformation deals with only two of them. we In like manner find the relationships we may between various quantities in the primed and un primed systems of coordinates. (see p. 72 . Then. when an amazing this is done vista will come into view! CONSERVATION LAWS OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS: (1) Conservation of Mass: this means that no mass can be created or destroyed. measured by find that K and respectively.where a and as a' are the accelerations of the body. And. length and time. just as the old concept of the distance between two points (threedimensional) was "stepped up" to the new one of the interval between two events (fourdimensional). /('. approach to this difficult problem was via the Conservation Laws of Classical Physics. 67) so also the Conservation Laws will have to be "stepped up" into FOURDIMENSIONAL SPACETIME. But.
when a piece of wood its mass is not destroyed. thus: A2E = o.but only transformed from one kind to another. stands for the "change". Thus. express this mathematically thus: where 2 stands for the SUM. as usual. this total weight is the it is same as the weight of the original wood. the TOTAL is momentum BEFORE after collision: collision the SAME TOTAL A2mv = o. we take into account the part of the energy which is dynamo if. one weighs all the substances into which transformed/ together with the ash that remains. a Now. in a motor. electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy. so that = o says that the change in TOTAL ASm total mass is zero. then the energy by friction. for if is burned. TOTAL and BEFORE is the AFTER the transformation SAME. by collision. but only transformed from one kind to another. mv) between bodies. both cases. and A. so that We ASm = 2m o is the mass. say. brief. Thus. as the (3) Conservation of Energy: which means that Energy cannot be created or destroyed. exact form! (2) Conservation of Momentum: this says that if there is an exchange of momentum (the product of mass Mass Conservation Law in and velocity. And in transformed into heat energy. moving body has 73 . which is the very convenient. whereas in a the reverse change takes place.
is is equal to c/V c 2 y 2 . See. the velocity of! you i see that. J to the corresponding Classical Laws (which shows why those Laws worked so well for so long!) (b) the IDENTIFICATION of MASS and ENERGY! Hence mass CAN be destroyed as such and actually converted into energy! Witness the ATOMIC BOMB (see p. Macmillan Co. then 74 . where some of the kinetic energy is changed 2 into other forms. then AZ^r/nv 5^ o.* hence we must know what happens to them in Relativity Physics! You (a) will see that they will lead to: NEW Conservation Momentum and Laws for INVARIANT Energy. "Mechanics for Students of Physics and Engineering'* by Crew and Smith. 318). 238241 1 * Remembering that the "correction factor. pp. when v 1 = 1 grit. for example. Are you wondering what is the use of all Well. which are under the Lorentz transformation. there is no loss in kinetic energy of the whole system.KINETIC energy. expressible thus: two moving. and which reduce. for inelastic collision. thus making and hence no "correction* is necessary. the most this? PRACTICAL problems can be solved. so that then we have When 2 Conservation of Kinetic Energy: AS^mv (a special case of the more general Law).. for small v. say heat. ELASTIC bodies collide. c. small relatively to 2 v negligible. = o whereas. ft. by means of these Laws.
2. to it may prefer to II come back after reading Part of this book: The components of the velocity vector in Classical Physics.c/x. for n objects. modern compact notation: JxjJt 01.3) under (24) NOT an invariant the Lorentz transformation. by xi.Thus the Classical Mass Conservation Law was only an approximation and becomes merged into the Conservation of Energy Lawl Even without following the mathematics of the next few pages/ you can already appreciate the revolutionary these results.3) so that. 75 . the Classical Momentum Conservation Law is: =o But (24) is (/= 1. xs. and become imbued with the greatest respect for the human IMPORTANCE of MIND which can create all this and PREDICT happenings Here is previously unknown! MAGIC may be for you! Some others readers able to understand the following "stepping up" process now. these if we replace x. And. y.2. z in become.3). c/z/c/t. momentum components are: Similarly./c/t (/= 1.2. the m. c/y/c/t. X2. are: cfx/c/t.
4) (25) where s is the interval between two events.e.c/Vc _ 2 2 component 233) v or 2 of (25).2. as taking the now. m. as you know.c/xi/c/s} = o = 1. which Conservation Law.cta/cfs or mc. mc/Vl  v /c or mc(1 2 2  v 2 "* . * and it can be easily shown that c/s = c/t//3. substituting c/t//J is for </s. for small v. (26) BECOMES And and (24). should! FOURTH namely. and (i. . holds whereas (24) does makes it /3 = 1 and c/s NOT/ = c/f . 2 1 /c/0 = 1  . 1 v 2 3 v 4 . . the independent variable we must use t. 233).3) (26) the NEW Momentum since. /c ) (27) Expanding. itself invariant under the Lorentz transformation. /. we get mci8 which mc. 1 in going from 3dimensional space dimensional absolute time from Classical Physics) to 4dimensional SPACETIME. by the binomial theorem. 2 c/s = cVt2 2 2 (c/x + c/y + c/z 2 dividing (c/s by 2 c/t and taking c = ) (see p.^ + j^ + . Thus.the corresponding vector which IS so invariant is: =o 0=1. \ j. we get Since 2 cp + j. for large v. c/s being. we A/1 get v anc/ 2 c/s/c/t =  y = 1 //S 76 . s for instead of Now let us examine (25) which is so easily obtained from (24) when we learn to speak the NEW LANGUAGE OF Consider first SPACETIME! 3 components of (25): (i only the first Then is A{33m. .dtjds (see p. it and.3.2.
which if m is 2 then A2/nc is = constant. 74) A2mc ^ 2 2 o or c being a constant. for inelastic collision. thus (29) reduces to this Classical for small v. (29) Now. as it should! Law that Furthermore. for we can also see from (29) INELASTIC collision. even in Classical Physics CLASSICAL NEW we realize that the Mass of a body is NOT a its constant but varies with changes in energy amount of change in mass being too small to be directly observed)! (the Taking now (27) instead of (28).which/ (or small v(neglecting terms after v ). (28) 2 . as for elastic collision. multiplying 2 by c. not be limited to small v/ we shall 77 . approximately. for which A{2mv hence also 2 } ^o (see p. And. 2 A{Z(roc + 2 /nv )} = o. 2 (1 1 + r vr\ ~ 2 I. 74). c A2m ^ o which says that. any loss in kinetic energy is compensated for by an increase in mass (albeit small) a new and startling consequence for Physics itself! from this viewpoint Thus. we get me + ^mv Hence. even when v is small. 2 o and therefore also A2(J?mv ) = o the Classical Law of the Conservation of Kinetic Energy for elastic collision (see p.
318) of splitting an atom into two parts and since the sum of these two masses is a less than the mass of the original atom.and. which/ together with (25). the square of the enormous velocity of light! Thus even an atom is equivalent to tremendous amount of energy. o for the Conservation Law of Energy. not forget that 78 . Hence the ATOMIC BOMB! this terrible all (p. as NEW we saw above. For small Thus the expression for the NEW is: ENERGY (30) of a for body f = /nc /3. amount of equivalent to a 2 since the multiplying factor is c . even a is SMALL MASS^m. gives fo = me 2 . which. 318) Although stunned us let us gadget has into the realization of the dangers in Science. that you can see from (30) this loss in mass must yield of energy a terrific amount (even though this process does not transform the entire mass of the original atom into energy). is invariant under the Lorentz transformation. as previously thought! Furthermore. reduces to v. when a method was found (see p. Indeed. 2 v = o . the corresponding Classical Law. and which. multiplying we get A{2mc /3j = 2 by c as before. LARGE ENERGY. showing that ENERGY and MASS are one and the same entity instead of being distinct.
Let us therefore pursue our examination of the consequences of Relativity. Nachr. Wiss. for it quantitatively! instead of c/t. 79 . and makes unnecessary and undesirable to think mass depending upon velocity. experimenting with fast moving electrons. Gott. the idea of it which c/x /c/s replaces c/Xj/c/t. for large v not via the mass but is inherent in our NEW in RELATIVITY r LANGUAGE. putting the correction on the m. 143. in terms of Many c/s writers c(t/j8 in by on Relativity replace (26) and write it: A{Sinj8. course gives K12. Kaufman*. j3.. and indeed accounts Thus the use of c/s (where c/s = dtj(3) brings in . with the aid of (26) we can see that his result is perfectly intelligible.. 291. p. found that the apparent mass of a moving electron is greater than that of one at rest a result which seemed very strange at the time! Now.Phys. the products of this POWER! REAL In 1901 (before Relativity). Though * this of Gcscll. velocity. 1901 p. and 1902. the necessary correction factor. however. Math.the is POWER human behind it the MIND itself.(/Xj/(/t} = o.
80 .the same numerical result. if another observer. He rightly prefers that since we are learning a NEW language (Relativity) think directly in that language translating each term we should and not keep into our old CLASSICAL 11 LANGUAGE before We meaning. Now. uses the in his same Maxwell equations primed system. it is a concession to CLASSICAL LANGUAGE. its we "feel Let us next examine another consequence of the Theory of Relativity: When radio waves are transmitted 1 through an "electromagnetic field/ an observer K may measure the electric and magnetic forces at any point of the relationship field at a given instant. must learn to "feel" modern and talk modern. K'/ relatively to moving K with uniform velocity. and. according to the Principle of Relativity. The is between these electric and magnetic forces expressed mathematically the wellknown by Maxwell equations (see page 311). makes his own measurements on the same phenomenon. and Einstein himself does not like this.
of (1) It (2) By the addition namely. Thus the we have seen that SPECIAL Theory of is Relativity. just as.it is quite easy to show* that the electric force is NOT an INVARIANT two observers/ is for the and similarly the magnetic force also NOT AN INVARIANT although the relationship between the electric and magnetic forces expressed in the MAXWELL EQUATIONS has the same form for both observers. the principle of relativity the extension of * See the Einstein's first paper (pp. 5. 56). on p. has accomplished the following: revised the fundamental physical concepts. though x does equal x' f and y does equal y NOT NOT still the formula for the square of the distance between two points has the same form in both systems of coordinates. 52 in the & 53) in bo>k mentioned footnote on p. I which the subject of Part (see p. ONLY ONE NEW POSTULATE. 68. 81 .
*The reader may ask: call this a postulate? not based on Facts?" The answer of course is that (s it "Why a scientific postulate must be BASED on facts. 79). the course of time facts NEW 82 . In Part II we the shall see also how SPECIAL Theory served point for as a starting the GENERAL THEORY. Kaufman's experiments (p. results explained many experimental ISOLATED As. the MichelsonMorley experiment. So (a an ASSUMPTION really only most reasonable one. but it must 30 and hold also facts that are further than the for known facts still TO BE discovered. 6). 55).to ELECTROMAGNETIC made phenomena* (which extension was by it possible the abovementioned revision of fundamental units see p. in which becomes strengthened continues to agree with as they are discovered. formerly isolated. for which baffled the preEinsteinian physicists: example. (3) It ONE LAW led to the merging into of the two. and many others (p. principles^ of the Conservation of Mass and the Conservation of Energy. to be sure that it is since if it it agrees with facts now known).
FURTHER NEW IMPORTANT RESULTS. 33). to It is (2) The velocity of light is independent of the motion of the source The old PREEINSTEINIAN postulate and length measurements is. that are the same for all observers. 31) time and length measurements 83 . 34). (p. both old and new. A POINT OF LOGIC AND A SUMMARY It is interesting here to call attention to a logical point which is made very clear by In the Special Theory of Relativity. which make the theory the widest in scope of any physical theory. again. by means of only ONE led to results other assumption. (4) Einstein's replacement of this postulate by the operational that fact (see p.which. IX. (3) that time are absolute. to which we shall then refer by NUMBER: (1) impossible for an observer detect his motion through space (p. order to do this effectively let us first list and number certain statements.
whereas. Lieber). and (4) are embodied in (5) 7 then (2) and (5) constitute the BASIS of the theory. in the presence of (4). 52). (5) Einstein's Principle of Relativity (p. V. G. (2) and (4) are the fundamental ideas in and.) Hence it may NOT be true to say that two statements MUST be contradictory or without specifying the Thus. (Ch. the very same statements (1) and (2) are NOT contradictory. Einstein gives these as two POSTULATES whether two statements are EQUIVALENT or not *Similarly may also depend upon the environment (ee p. but relative to each observer.are NOT absolute.* may now briefly We summarize the Special Theory of Relativity: (1). 30 of "NonEuclidean Geometry" bv H. and L R. We have seen that retained (1)and(2) are contradictory IF (3) is but are (3) is NOT contradictory IF replaced by (4). 84 . ENVIRONMENT ARE contradictory. in the presence of (3) (1) and (2) EITHER NOT contradictory. since (1) it.
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and which shows there is an intimate connection between space and time.). fFor the relationships between other measurements. This connection was then EMPHASIZED who showed that by Minkowslo. may be regarded r plane from one set of rectangular axes to another the Lorentz transformation as a rotation in the x . in a fourdimensional spacetime continuum (see Chapter VII. 49) which gives the relationship of between the length and time measurements] two observers moving relatively to each other that with uniform velocity.from which he then deduces the Lorentz transformation (p. jee Chapter VIII. 86 .
MORAL Local. On the other hand. and that that the only PRACTICAL notions of time man can have are obtainable only the Einstein Theory that by some method shows that of signals. cannot serve for exploring the universe. and finding those relationships which remain unchanged in going from one local system to another. one may arrive at the INVARIANTS of our universe. 2.THE 1. "a priori thinking alone. By examining RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LOCAL MEASUREMENTS. By emphasizing the fact that absolute space and time are pure mental fictions. "provincial" measurements are not universal. since actual measurements are local and not universal. 'Idealism" alone. 11 is. although they may be used to obtain universal realities if compared with other systems measurements taken from certain of local a different viewpoint. 87 .
In short. the Einstein Theory shows also that practical is measurement alone also not sufficient for exploring the universe. EACH GUIDING the other a "dialectical materialism" is our most effective weapon. .and that only certain THEORETICAL RELATIONSHIPS are universal. a judicious combination Of THEORY and PRACTICE.
PART II THE GENERAL THEORY .
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be needed and important. The first three chapters of Part the meaning of the term ''General Relativity/* II give what it undertakes to do. and the fundamental mathematical ideas XV which will also easy reading III. of this POWER new operated. This law. II. but require the kind of care and patience and work go with learning to that run any The amazing NEW machine. and the TENSOR CALCULUS. though at first complicated 91 . and what are its basic ideas. EASE with which it is are a genuine delight! IV. introduce Chapters XIII.A I. GUIDE FOR THE READER. to Chapters XVI XXII build up the actual streamlined mathematical machinery not difficult. These are easy reading and important. this Chapters XXIII to XXVIII show how machine is used to derive the NEW LAW OF GRAVITATION. XIV.
SIMPLIFIED. then REALLY V. Chapters XXIX to XXXIV constitute THE PROOF OF THE PUDDING! easy reading again and show what the machine has accomplished. Then there are a SUMMARY and THE MORAL 92 .behind is its seeming simplicity.
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to The things that appear alike them both are the the 'TACTS of INVARIANTS.INTRODUCTION. it was shown that two observers who are moving relatively to each other with UNIFORM velocity can formulate the laws of the universe "W!TH EQUAL RIGHT AND EQUAL SUCCESS. on the SPECIAL Theory. and their actual measurements do not agree. In Part I. Since man does not the "true laws of know 1 God/ should any one human viewpoint be singled out as more correct than any other? why And it therefore fitting seems most to call THOSE relationships 95 . The mathematical relationships which both agree on are the "LAWS 11 of the universe. 11 even though their points of view are different. 11 the universe.
" which are VALID from viewpoints. it must be emphasized Theory. 96 . London. 1 *See "The Principle of Relativity* by A.. taking into consideration all experimental data DIFFERENT known up to the present time. Einstein and Others. This was accomplished Einstein in his first by paper* in published 1905. he published a second paper in which he GENERALIZED the idea to include observers moving with a (that is. Subsequently. it is and "the It that why called 11 GENERAL Theory of I Relativity. Now. was not an easy task. only that change of viewpoint was considered that in the Special which was due to the relative UNIFORM velocity of the different observers. was shown in Part that to make possible even the SPECIAL case considered there. published by Methuen & Co. relatively to each other CHANGING with an is velocity ACCELERATION)."THE laws. in 1916*.
This SINGLE new idea was SUFFICIENT to accomplish the task undertaken in the Special Theory. z. Perhaps the reader may ask why ONLY ONE was added? the emphasis on the fact that new idea Are not ideas good things? 97 . the change from the that TIME is absolute (that is. y . are measured relatively to a particular set of axes. x . 1 "THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE/ made possible the GENERAL Theory.for it required a fundamental change in Physics to remove the certain APPARENT CONTRADICTION between EXPERIMENTAL FACTS! Namely. it is OLD idea that the same (or all observers) to the NEW idea that time is measured to an observer. We shall now see that again by the addition of ONLY ONE called Einstein more idea. RELATIVELY just as the ordinary space coordinates.
Perhaps even the lay reader will appreciate this after reading this little book.And is it not desirable many of them as possible? To which the answer is that to have as the adequateness of a is new scientific theory judged (a) By and its correctness." will say. it everyone WHO can even be simple to will take the trouble to learn some mathematics. (b) By its SIMPLICITY. No doubt everyone appreciates the need for correctness. Though this mathematics was DEVELOPED by experts. but perhaps the lay reader may not realize the great importance of SIMPLICITY! he iJBut. "surely the Einstein Theory is anything but simple! Has it not the reputation of being unintelligible to all but a very few experts?" Of course "SIMPLE does 11 not necessarily mean * "simple to everyone/* but only in the sense that *lndeed. it can be UNDERSTOOD by any earnest student. 98 . of course.
QUITE INCIDENTALLY. furthermore. And. now see Let us what is meant by of Equivalence/* it "The Principle and what accomplishes. A NEW LAW OF which is GRAVITATION even more adequate than the Newtonian one.if all known physical (acts are taken into consideration. since it explains. the General Theory PREDICTED this is of NEW FACTS. experimental facts which were left unexplained theory. which have since been verified course the supreme test of any theory. 99 . the Einstein Theory accounts for a large in number of these facts the SIMPLEST known way. But to let us get to work show all this. It is impossible to refrain from the temptation to brag about it a bit in anticipation! And to say that by making the General Theory Einstein derived possible. and which had troubled the astronomers for a by the older long time.
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does not know all this. per second every second. 100) 32 ft.XL THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE. And of course we know that the tray shares the motion of everything in the box. so that there other bodies. is no force of gravity And the suppose that box and all its contents are moving (in the direction indicated in the drawing on with a changing velocity. being an intelligent man. 101 . us. Consider the following situation: Suppose lives in a that a man. he proceeds to study the behavior of things around him. but. who cannot look outside of the box. Mr. Now Mr. We We watch him from the outside. from the earth all and from there. K. increasing p. but he cannot see notice that he has a tray in his hands. K. away spacious box.
Mr. since is we know that the box moving upwards with an ACCELERATION. K also sees it happen. everything at rest. and K attributes this to 11 11 "A He force of gravity. he says that everything was until he let go the tray. that very soon the up with the tray floor we expect will catch and hit it.and therefore remains relatively at rest to him namely. But he does not think of this it in way/ is to him. is Now K begins finds that there an attraction between every two bodies. we it see this actually happen. still but explains differently. and then the tray FELL and hit the floor. of course. to study this "force. some external force. like friction. Now we know that the tray will move upward also with CONSTANT velocity/* and. *Any moving with object CONTINUES in a to move CONSTANT speed it is STRAIGHT LINE due unless to inertia. in his hands. And. actually Suddenly he continue to lets 30 the tray. (or 102 . stopped by example.
He also makes other experiments. In that all bodies other words. and indeed this increased pull is supposed to be JUST BIG ENOUGH TO OVERCOME IN the larger resistance. and thus produce THE SAME ACCELERATION Now. the harder gravity pulls it. And then he finds that ANY FALLS object which he releases with the acceleration. K is a very intelligent 103 . studying the behavior of bodies pulled along a smooth table top. SAME by is saying that the force of gravity such that the greater the resistance to motion which a body has. and he concludes is that the resistance proportional to the "inertial mass" of a body. he explains the fact fall with the acceleration. and finds that different bodies offer different degrees of resistance to this pull.and and its strength is proportional to 1 their "gravitational masses/ varies inversely as the square of the distance between them. if ALL BODIES! Mr. SAME and therefore decides that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass of a body are proportional to each other.
physicist. His explanation and mine I are equally good." This is what Einstein called the Principle of Equivalence. K is an Einsteinian relativist. But experimental (acts show accident to be true.Newtonian he says. this and experiments cannot be denied. may see this entire room moving upward with an acceleration. of looking at phenomena. of course see He would 104 . K 1 . Relativist K continues: "let me try to see things from f the viewpoint of my good though I neighbor. from our different viewpoints." But it if On the other hand. K . outside. continues to worry him. and attribute all these happenings to this motion rather than to a force of gravity as am doing. (he means us). "How strange that these two distinct properties of a body should always be exactly proportional to each other. he reasons entirely differently: "There is nothing absolute about my way Mr. have never met him.
instead of finding out by long and careful that EXPERIMENTATION the gravitational and inertial masses are proportional. Thus. MUST be the And so.the floor of this hit room come up and I ANY object which it might release. if were not a relativist and hence I I quite accustomed to give equal weight to my neighbor's viewpoint! Of course as we have told the story. facts are although the in either explainable way. which of course is actually the case. K"s point of view is the simpler one. 105 . to and would therefore seem ENTIRELY NATURAL him for all objects released at a from a given height given time to reach the floor together. as my Newtonian ancestors did/ he would predict that this A PRIORI case. we know that K is really right: f But remember that in the actual world we do We not have this advantage: cannot "know" which of the two is explanations "really" correct. and throws light on happenings which could acquire only by arduous experimentation.
this only the beginning. we is it said in Chapter X. 106 . as Einstein did. Thus we already see an advantage in Einstein's Principle of Equivalence. led to his of Gravitation which (or new Law RETAINED ALL THE MERITS OF NEWTON'S LAW. and has additional merits which Newton's Law did not have.But. since they are EQUIVALENT. we may select the simpler one. as And. NEW As we shall see.
XII. the Principle of Equivalence. even when the actually upside pail down! And he knows that the centrifugal "force" is due to the motion only. the water will not out of the pail. then. if he slows down the motion. since. K may replace 11 the idea of a "force of gravity by a "fictitious force due to motion/ 1 * the next question is: "How does this A In new Law help us to derive 11 of Gravitation? answer to which ask the reader to recall we a few simple things which in he learned elementary physics in high school: 11 *The idea of a "fictitious force due to motion is familiar to everyone in the following example: Any if he swings youngster knows that a pail full of water in a vertical plane fall is WITH SUFFICIENT SPEED. Granting. according to which Mr. 107 . A NONEUCLIDEAN WORLD. the water WILL a fall out and give him good dousing.
will change the course of the object. a force acts and we say the that body has acquired an ACCELERATION. 108 . a velocity represented by AC due to the fact that some force (like the wind) its pulled it out of then obviously course.If at it on a moving object an angle to this motion. even though its speed may have remained unchanged! This can best be seen with the aid of the following diagram: If AB if represents the original velocity in (both magnitude and direction) is and the next second the object moving with .
knows from the "Parallelogram of forces. 109 . it is moving with an acceleration since it is always changing its direction.* the very fact that it changed in DIRECTION shows that there is an ACCELERATION! Thus. >ACand AB. even as you and I. if an object moves in a circle/ with uniform speed. each second. since ACCELERATION defined as the change in velocity. he is naturally curious about the world. is And. and wishes to study it. even equal that if AB and AC happen to be in length. Now lives is on imagine a physicist a disc which who revolving with constant speed! Being a physicist. even though *This distinction is we tell him 11 that between "speed 1 and "velocity" discussed on page 28. if even the speed of the object has merely has remained unchanged. is. then BC is the acceleration. 1 ' as any aviator.BC must be the velocity which 11 had to be "added" to to give the "resultant AB AC. And. or even any high school boy. Thus BC is the difference between the two velocities.
larger circumference. insists that the laws of the universe "WITH EQUAL RIGHT AND EQUAL SUCCESS : and therefore claims he but is is that not moving at all merely in an environment 11 in which a "force of gravity is acting (Have you ever been on and actually Let us felt this a revolving disc 11 "force ?!). described in the Special Theory. since the shrinkage in length. "See Part I of this book. but this is not the case with his measurements of the radii. a large one and a small one (concentric with the axis of revolution of the disc) and proceeds to measure their radii and circumferences.he is moving with an acceleration he can formulate he. being a democrat and a relativist. 110 . now watch him become interested know whether in circles: tackle a problem: We He see him wants to the circumferences of two circles are in the same ratio as their radii. When he measures the we know. from a study of the Special Theory of Relativity* that he will get a different value from the one WE should get (not being on the revolving disc). He draws two circles.
you are probably no worse than we are. his value is not very different from ours is since the speed of rotation small around a small circle. it turns out that finds that the circumferences NOT is in the same ratio as the radii! that Do we and tell him he is wrong? that this that not according to Euclid? is he a fool for trying to study Physics on a revolving disc? Not at all! On the contrary. you don't have to use Euclidean geometry it if does not work on a revolving disc. therefore And he are so.takes place only IN THE DIRECTION OF and not in a direction which MOTION. to the direction of motion Furthermore/ when he measures the circumference of the small circle. 111 . finally. relativists. all right. being modern "That is quite we say neighbor. is PERPENDICULAR (as a radius is). is and the shrinkage negligible. for now there are nonEuclidean geometries which are exactly what you need Just as we would not expect Plane Trigonometry to work on for a large portion of the earth's surface which we need which Spherical Trigonometry. in the anglesum of a triangle isNOTlSO .
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we by can. from the above considerations. is applicable. first Let us consider the familiar Euclidean plane. we see that in a space having such a gravitational field NonEuclidean geometry. a "force of gravity is and. 113 . XIII. it regard as a system in 11 which acting. the Principle of Equivalence. rather than Euclidean. This will lead to the mathematical consideration of Einstein's Law of Gravitation and its consequences. THE STUDY OF SPACES. We shall how now illustrate the geometry of a surface or a space may be studied. Everyone knows that for a right triangle on such a plane the Pythagorean theorem holds: Namely. In short/ instead of considering the discworld as an accelerated system.as we might naively demand after a high school course in Euclidean plane geometry.
that s 2 Conversely. the distance from A 114 ALONG THE CURVE: . obvious that to Furthermore. it is true that IF the distance between two points on is a surface given by 2 (1) s = * 2 + y> THEN the surface A it is MUST BE EUCLIDEAN PLANE.
is no longer the hypotenuse of a right triangle. the curve AB is so nearly a straight line. CANNOT write however. 2 here s = x 2 + 2 y ! we A and 8. and of course we If. that we may actually regard ABC as in a little right triangle which the Pythagorean theorem does hold. 115 . sufficiently near together. take two points.
by so that (2) may be written It will to replace 2 (3) c/s  2 c/x L + c/xA Now on a what is the corresponding situation nonEuclidean surface. such as. designating the position of each by its latitude and longitude: 116 . respectively. to show that the sides are small.Only that here we shall represent by as c/s is . the surface of a sphere. A and 8 . its three sides c/x and in c/y . done the differential calculus. be found convenient x and y xi and xi . for example? Let us take two points on this surface. So (2) that here we have 2 c/s = 2 </x + 2 c/y Which and is still has the form of (1) characteristic of the Euclidean plane.
**"^^ \ TV Let Df be the meridian from which longitude is measured the Greenwich meridian. A the number of degrees in . Similarly. a and 0). latitude of Then the longitude and are. the arcs ^F and AG (or in the corresponding central angles. 117 . the north pole. respectively. And and let DK be a part of the equator.
since the angle at is C a right angle. we have (4) AB* let us = see A? + BC* And now what if this expression becomes in we change (4) the Cartesian coordinates (in the tangent Euclidean plane) to the coordinates known as longitude and latitude on the surface of the sphere. Obviously AB has a perfectly definite length irrespective of 118 .the longitude and latitude of are. Then. 8 the number of degrees in the arcs CF and BK. we may en a consider it to lie Euclidean plane which practically coincides with the surface of the sphere this little in region. is the triangle /ABC sufficiently small. respectively. and the sides of the triangle to be straight lines (as ABC on page 1 1 5). is The problem again to find the distance between If A and B.
c .
in (4). Therefore. replacing a by may be written 2 and j8 by (6) c/s = i>c/x? + tfdxt . A comparison of (6) and (3) will show that *any that high if an arc. substituting we have 2 (5) c/s = tJc? xi + . thus: let r be the radius of the latitude circle FAC. school student knows x represents the length of is the number of and it. and R the radius of the sphere. Then Similarly BC =/?$. but>4C and BC. the Cartesian coordinates in the tangent Euclidean plane may be transformed into longitude and latitude on the surface of the sphere. this And.which coordinate system we use. radians in then And therefore x = 120 .
and use oblique coordinates instead of the more familiar rectangular ones thus: 121 . The question naturally arises. the expression (or is 2 c/s as not quite so simple it was on the Euclidean plane. we know the algebraic expression which represents the distance between two points which actually holds on a given surface. 30 back to the Euclidean plane. we then immediately decide whether the surface can is Euclidean or not? it Or does perhaps depend upon the coordinate system used? To answer let us this. surface and is this a way between them? to distinguish That if is.on the sphere. does this distinction between a Euclidean and a nonEuclidean always hold.
we can represent the length of a side of a triangle 122 . course we can.The coordinates of the point A now xand y are represented by which are measured parallel to the X and Y axes. and are now NOT at right angles to Can we now find the distance between and A using these oblique coordinates? Of for. each other. by the wellknown Law of Cosines in Trigonometry.
2 </$ = 2 c/x + 2 c/y 2c/x</ycosa. respectively. we would have obtained or (8) * Js 2 = 24) 2 c/x + x? (See page 1 123 . becomes 2 (7) c/s  2 c/x + Jxl  2 c/xrc/X2cosa. 2 the expression for is not as simple as c/s it was before. Here we see even on a that Euclidean plane. by: 2 s = x 2 + 2 y 2xy cos a. if we had used polar coordinates on a Euclidean plane. for a very small triangle. And. if we again replace x and y by this xi and X2 . Or. And.lying opposite an obtuse angle.
Then (8) is obvious from the following figure: o 124 . which (1) O OP OX. . makes with a fixed line (2) the angle.The reader should remembering that verify this. the polar coordinates of point P are its distance. xi . from a fixed point. x2 .
125 .Hence we see depends upon (a) that the form of the expression for c/r BOTH the KIND we and pF SURFACE are dealing with. this deeper examination we must know how. We a shall soon see that whereas mere superficial inspection 2 of the expression for </s is not sufficient to determine the kind of surface a we are dealing with. And this brings us to the study of tensors: What are tensors? what use are they? and are they used? Of HOW Let us see. (b) the particular COORDINATE SYSTEM. "CURVATURE TENSOR 11 of the surface. DEEPER examination of this expression help us to DOES For know this. from the expression for the sVcalled 2 c/s .
.
and hence TEMPERATURE But a SCALAR. if we 70 say that the temperature at a certain place is Fahrenheit. whose MAGNITUDE is and whose DIRECTION is 100 miles. a person's AGE is a SCALAR. EAST. whereas vector has both magnitude and direction. if we say that an airplane has gone one hundred miles east. which A a scalar is a quantity has magnitude only.XIV. Thus. is there obviously NO is DIRECTION to this temperature. whereas 127 . Similarly. WHAT * IS A TENSOR? The reader is no doubt 1 familiar 11 with the words "scalar and "vector. obviously its displacement from its original position is a VECTOR.
the is VELOCITY VECTOR. but which are called TENSORS. when we have illustrated and defined these. we must then speak of its SPEED. we a shall find that is SCALAR VECTOR shall a TENSOR whose RANK is ZERO. or THREE." "Thirty miles an hour 128 . And. the reader can easily find further of both scalars examples and vectors. discuss We shall now some quantities which come up in our experience and which are neither scalars nor vectors. but if we are interested ALSO in DIRECTION. etc. and do not care about DIRECTION of motion. is its VECTOR. we must speak of its VELOCITY. and a is a TENSOR is and we a see what whose RANK meant by is ONE. Thus TENSOR of RANK TWO. "TENSOR" is a more inclusive term. ""speed" and "velocity is *A distinction is often made between the latter a the former Thus when a SCALAR. in we are interested HOW FAST a thing ONLY moving.* with which an object moves a and so on." its but its VELOCITY would be EAST. Thus the SPEED of an automobile would be designated by "Thirty miles an hour.
thus: T B X' . AB . Suppose that we have any vector. in a plane. let us consider the following facts about vectors. and suppose that we draw a pair of rectangular axes. X and y. Before we the physical meaning of a tensor of rank two.of which "SCALAR discuss 11 and "VECTOR 11 are SPECIAL CASES.
that . the resultant effect as that of a force is the same AB alone. the components of AB would now be In AD and DB. depending upon our choice of axes. Similarly. if we use THREE two axes in SPACE rather than we as in plane.Drop from a perpendicular BC 8 to the Xaxis. is the is and CB as Xcomponent oF AB the /component of from we know the elementary law of "The parallelogram of forces/* if a force acts on a particle AC and CB also acts on it. Then we may say AC for. can break up a vector in a into THREE components shown the diagram 1 31 . other words. on page 130 . the vector AB may be broken up into in components various ways. Of we had used the dotted lines as axes instead. And the that is why are called >AC and CB "components" course if of AB.
and then drawing the perpendiculars to the DC and DE X and Y axes. the three components of AB L and.D By dropping the perpendicular BD from 8 to the XYplane. the components depend upon the particular choice of axes. as before. we have namely. Let us now illustrate the physical meaning of a tensor of rank two. As a rule the strain 131 . respectively. Suppose we have at a rod every point of which is there a certain strain due to some force acting on it.
and. but breaks along certain lines where. the strain is greatest.* if Now. the strain is not the same in all directions. 132 . FORCE at the point A causing the strain at A) represented in both magnitude and direction by/B *When an breaks object finally under a sufficiently great strain. for one reason or another. (that is the the STRESS is.is not the same at all points. it does not fly into bits it as would do if the strain were the same at all points and in all directions. even at any given point.
the effect of a force upon a surface on the force depends but size NOT ONLY ALSO on the can itself and orientation of the surface. and whose magnitude the AREA of CDEF. UNIQUE 133 . In other words. direction will indicate ORIENTATION of the surface will represent CDEF. Now. is and there of choosing one of these to represent the orientation of this surface. if we PERPENDICULAR such a line is take a line through A to the plane CDEF. we can draw no way this line many different directions. in Namely. how by If we indicate the orientation of a surface a line? a line through we draw A in the plane obviously in CDEF . one vector.and if we are interested to this force know the effect of the surface upon CDEF (through A} f we are obviously dealing with a situation which depends not on a but on SINGLE vector. TWO vectors: AB . BUT. which represents the force and another vector (call it question. whose the /AG).
TENSOR now in of RANK TWO. in represented the following figure Now is if OG.and CAN if therefore be used to specify the orientation of the surface CDEF. c/S . then obviously this vector AG indicates clearly both the SIZE and the of the surface ORIENTATION CDEF. the STRESS at A upon the surface CDEF depends upon the AB and AG . the vector which represents the size and orientation of ABC then. a vector. upon a small surface. 134 . F. perpendicular to ABC . direction perpendicular to and of such a length that Hence. we draw in a CDEF it represents the magnitude of the area of CDEF. and is called a TWO vectors. consider the stress. let us order to do so. convenient way Let us find a of representing this tensor. Thus. And.
represents in magnitude and direction the projection 08C of ABC upon of And the similarly.z c it is quite easy to see (page 1 36) that the Xcomponent of OG the XZplane. OG represent the projections 0/C and 0/B respectively. 135 . 7 and Z components .
To show both in that OK represents OBC magnitude and direction: T That is it does so in direction obvious. As we regards the magnitude must now show OK _ OBC OG ABC' (a) between Now OBC = ABC ABC and OBC x cos of the dihedral angle (since the area of the projection of a given surface is equal to ihe area of the given surface multiplied by 136 . since OK is perpendicular that to OBC (see p. 1 34).
Pxz / We must emphasize the significance of this notation: In the first place. let us designate the pressure due to this component alone upon the three projections by Pxx respectively. since fx (which acts is the upon EACH Xcomponent of F) one of the three abovementioned projections. which acts if the force F. Substitution of this in (a) gives the required OBC _ OK OGABC Now. respectively. / Pxy .OAC*ndOAB. its we can examine total effect separately the effects of its three components fx i fy i by considering and fz upon EACH of the three projections OBC. 137 . dihedral angle equals anale and since are respectively perpendicular to ABC and OBC . on ABC . Let us designate these projections by dSx / dSy end dSz . Now. is itself a vector.the cosine of the dihedral angle between the two But this planes). GO/C 06 OK and cos ZGOKisOK/OG.
the the AREA Thus the product PXX dSx gives the force acting upon the projection dS. ALONE.v means the pressure due to fr upon the projection dSy Etc. whereas. FORCE PER UNIT AREA. and similarly. the second subscript designates the particular projection upon which the pressure acts. these three pressures from the component emanate alone. that is So the TOTAL FORCE MULTIPLYING PRESSURE by ' obtained by of the surface. Thus p/. due to the action of f.the reader must distinguish between the "pressure" on a surface and the "force" acting on the M The p ressurel1 k the surface. It . follows therefore that fx = pxx'dSx + Pxy'dSy + pxz'd And. ' Note the DOUBLE PXX i subscripts in i Pxy PXZ refers to the fact The that first one obviously all f.. ~ >y fx Pyx'dSx f Pyy'dSy PZX dSx ' + Pyz'J +p zz = ~\~ fzy dSy ' dS 138 .
in general.p Z2 ' + ' + ' ' C/Sz we is see that just a vector. since each of the two vectors involved has only two components in a plane. + Pyx + PZX Thus stress uSx H~ Pyy uSy p yz dSx PZU dSy ~\.Hence the TOTAL STRESS. is Such a quantity called A TENSOR OF RANK TWO. but has NINE components in 1 30) THREEdimensional space. if we are dealing with ndimensional space. F. tensor suffice: For the present let this illustration of a Later It is if we shall give a precise definition. = PXX cfix ~T Pxy ' ' ' * cr jj/ ~r PXZ ' dSz C/S2 . on the surface c/S. and therefore. a tensor of rank two would then have components instead of nine. 139 . instead of 3 And. there would now be only only FOUR 2X2 components for the tensor X 3 as above. obvious that dealing with a plane we were instead of with threedimensional space. with three components in not threedimensional space (see p. F=(x+(y + or i ?.
in ndimensional space/ a VECTOR VECTOR has only n components: Thus. in a TENSOR To sum In up: ndimensional space. Whereas. and so on. instead of in a as in the case of a SQUARE ARRAY TENSOR of RANK TWO. TENSOR of rank THREE has n components. a a a VECTOR has n components.a tensor of rank two has n components which are therefore conveniently written in a SQUARE array 1 as was done on page 39. ndimensional space 3 of rank THREE has n components. Similarly. 140 . Hence. a in a PLANE it has in TWO components/ has THREEdimensional space components/ THREE and so on. TENSOR of rank TWO has n components. the components of a are therefore written in a VECTOR SINGLE ROW. The importance of in Relativity tensors will as become clear we 90 on. 2 3 and so on.
In Part I of this book (page 61) we had occasion to mention the fact that the coordinates of the point A 141 . THE EFFECT CHANGE IN ON TENSORS OF THE COORDINATE A SYSTEM.XV.
in the unprimed coordinate system can be expressed in terms of its coordinates in the primed coordinate system by the relationships w / Ov / = = (y x x co$0 y x sin0 + / cos0 of f as is known to any young student elementary analytical geometry. and its let o'x and c/y represent components in the UNPRIMED SYSTEM. and dx and c/y' its as components in the PRIMED shown on page 143. SYSTEM 142 . Call the vector cfs. Let us now see this what effect change in the coordinate system has upon a vector and its components.
Obviously
is
c/s itself
not affected by the change
of coordinate system,
but the
in
COMPONENTS
of
</s
the two systems
are
as
DIFFERENT, we have already pointed out
1
on page
30.
Now
are
if
the coordinates of point
in
A
x and y
one system
143
and
in the other, x' and the relationship between these four quantities
is
/
given
And
we
c/x
by equations (9) on p. 142. now, from these equations, by
differentiation*,
can,
find the relationships
between
and c/y and 7 c/x' and c/y
It
.
will
be noticed,
in
equations (9),
that
x depends upon BOTH x and y', so that any changes in x' and y'
will
BOTH
the
c/x ,
affect x.
Hence
namely
will
TOTAL
change
in
x,
depend upon
Partially
TWO causes:
in x',
(a)
upon the change
c/x' ,
namely
and
(b) Partially
upon the change
7
in y',
namely
c/y
.
Before writing out these changes, it will be found more convenient
to solve (9) for x and y in terms of x and y.
7 7
*See any book on
Differential Calculus.
fAssuming of course
that the
in (9)
determinant of the coefficients is not zero.
(See the chapter on "Determinants" "Higher Algebra" by M. Bocher.)
in
144
In
other words,
to express the
NEW,
in
primed coordinates, x' and /,
original ones,
terms of the
OLD,
x and y ,
rather than the other
way around.
This will of course give us
x' ==
N (10) '
<
,
ax
ex
\
y
=
J
+ 6y + dy
,
,
where a,
It
fc,
c,
are functions of 0.
will
be even
better
to write (1 0) in the form:
(11) x '
x2
=
621X1
using xi and XL instead of x and y , 2 (and of course x[ and x' instead of
x'
and /);
and putting different subscripts on the single letter a ,
instead of using
four different letters:
a
,
b
,
c
,
d
is
The advantage
not only that
easily
of this notation
we
can
to
GENERALIZE
n dimensions
from the above
twodimensional statements,
but,
as
we
shall
see
later,
itself
this
notation lends
to
a beautifully
CONDENSED
work with.
way
of
writing equations,
which renders them
very
EASY
to
145
Let us
now proceed
with
the differentiation of (11):
we
get
k'
(1 2) * '
I \
C/X2
= =
ail( 'Xl
"^ ai2C^X2
521C/X1
+
a 2 2C/X?
The
MEANING
of the a's in (12)
should be clearly understood: Thus an is
the change in
x'\
due
to
in
A
UNIT
CHANGE
xi,
so that
when it is multiplied by the total change in xi , namely
c/xi ,
we
get
THE THE And
612
CHANGE CHANGE
similarly in
IN IN
*(
DUE TO
* ALONE.
CHANGE
in
a^cfa,
represents
the change in xi and therefore
PER UNIT
x2 ,
the product of a\? the total change
gives
in
and x / namely dx
,
THE THE
Thus
the
is
CHANGE CHANGE
IN x{ IN x2
DUE TO ALONE.
in xi
TOTAL CHANGE
by
given
just as
the total cost of
a
number of apples and oianges would be found
cost of
by multiplying the
ONE APPLE
by
the total
number
of apples,
146
and
ADDING
one
this result
to a similar
for the oranges.
And
similarly for
Jx 2
in (1 2).
We
a
may
therefore
replace an
by dx(/dx\
symbol which represents the partial change in xj per unit change in xi*, and is called
the "partial derivative of xi with respect to xi ."
Similarly,
dx{
'
3l2
~
/
cl21
~
9x2
T~~ OXi
/
^22
_
9X2
9x5 " ^ 0X2
And we may
in
therefore rewrite (1 2)
the form
dx{
f\
j dx\ H *^i
i
dx{
f\
OXi
0X2
<?X2
(13)
</X2 2
=
9X2 , T'CfXi
+
,
T~
0x2
But perhaps the reader
is
getting a
is
it
little
tired of all this,
and
what
wondering
has to
do
with Relativity.
*Note
is
that a
i A A
PARTIAL
MJM
d
change
letter
always denoted by the
"d"
in contrast to
which designates a
TOTAL
change
147
c
so that the business of the physicist really becomes to find out which physical quantities are tensors. similarly. Now. 96. What we can already say is is that since General Relativity concerned with finding the laws of the physical world which hold good for ALL observers/ and since various observers differ from each other. 149 . in that as physicists. as we saw on page 143. we see then that Relativity is concerned with finding out those things which remain INVARIANT under transformations of coordinate systems. tensors in general are such INVARIANTS. and are therefore 1 the "facts of the universe/ since they hold good for all observers.To which we may give him a partial answer now and hold out hope of further information in the remaining chapters. only they use different coordinate systems. is a vector such an INVARIANT/ and. *See p.
and so on. Before A VERY HELPFUL SIMPLIFICATION further we go any let us write equations (13) on page 147 more thus: briefly (. And of course all these are things which can be VERIFIED BY EXPERIMENT.Besides. since each event its the (see Part of this book. 1 must explain the meaning of "curvature tensor/ since it is this tensor we which CHARACTERIZES then a space. page 58) 150 . *FOURdimensional. And with the aid of the curvature tensor of our fourdimensional world of events. XVI. and in what path we shall find out how things move a ray of light travels as it passes near the sun. as we promised on page 125.* in this world what paths the planets take.4) ** THREE TIME is characterized by spacecoordinates and of its occurrence I.
dxi + . <r = 1 and = 1 . similarly. 151 . are substituted for cr (keeping the must be Thus. 0x2 just like the FIRST equation in (13). and 2 . and.A careful study of (14) will show (a) That (14) really contains it TWO equations (although since. means that when the various values of <J ." since that is what 2. and again "summing on the <r's . dxi j dx2. we see that of (13). 4) becomes it dxi = dx( dxi . tells us to do. we get dx2 which Thus If = 3X2 I T'cfxi OXi +OX I 5X 2 J 2 ax2 t is the SECOND all equation in (13). as its looks like only one). The symbol 2. for (1 constant in any the resulting two terms \i one equation) ADDED /i together. 2 . (14) includes A is still further abbreviation introduced by omitting the symbol 2. by taking ju = 2 . just as we did (13). give we M 1 possible values. (b) namely 1 and 2 . we have c/x[ and c/Xj on the in left.
for in it example. Just why we use SUPERSCRIPTS instead appear of subscripts will later (p. c/xi and cfe are the components of system c/s in the UNPRIMED let us represent them more briefly by A respectively. in is to be made SUBSCRIPT. 1 72). ] and A 2 The reader must these with NOT confuse EXPONENTS 2 SUPERSCRIPTS is not the "square of" A but the superscript serves merely the same purpose as a thus >4 .WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT WHENEVER A SUBSCRIPT OCCURS TWICE IN A SINGLE TERM (as. <r the righthand will member that of (14) ). be understood a SUMMATION ON THAT (15) U . namely. that means 2a is understood. 152 . And since now. Hence we may d*" <Jx' write (14) as follows: = dx '*<lx *' dx. which we shall know that the presence of the in TWO </s the term on the right. finally. SUBSCRIPT. to distinguish the components from each other.
c v .
*Except only that the values of (x a ) and (x/) must be in onetoone correspondence. 154 . that a vector whose components 2 are A 1 and if A in a certain coordinate system. a certain vector we have is. (1 5) or (16) represents the change in the components of a vector NOT ONLY for the but for of coordinates:* change given in (11). ANY transformation Thus a point in suppose x. to and a in we change new coordinate system accordance with the transformation represented then by (11) on page 145 .And will the components of c/s in the PRIMED 1 coordinate system now be written A' and A'\ Thus (1 5) becomes And if so. (16) the in tells us what will components of this be same vector coordinate system. are the coordinates of one coordinate system. the new (PRIMED) Indeed. A" .
x2/ . then. . representing set of equations Xp by Ifj. = x{ If = { r~ OXi C/Xi + ' ^ C/X2 +  . Hence gives the manner of transformation of the vector dxa to ANY other coordinate system (see the only limitation mentioned in the footnote on page 1 54). since ft JJ J'CTX2 ~r T" ^ 0X2 afl . obviously ' . 0X2 etc. . A CONTRAVARIANT the meaning of VECTOR  "CONTRAVARIANT" 155 . . . TO BE A VECTOR. .and suppose that xj = ft (xi .) = ft x! 2 etc. ^ ~ HI J OXi OXi or. =f>(xa ) this entire Or. And in fact ANY set of quantities which transforms according to (16) is DEFINED or rather... \Xa)f where the f s represent any (unctions whatever..
and a = 1 2 . the vector itself is an INVARIANT under the transformation of coordinates (see page 143). and so on.or four. 0x3 5x 3 156 . 3 and (7 = 1. 2 .or ndimensional vector. . It should be noted further that (16) serves not only to represent a twodimensional vector. <r if = JLI = 1 . The reader must not forget that in whereas the separate components the two coordinate systems are different. (r may take. 1 . (16) represents a 3dimensional vector. 3 . 1 72). we have but if a M  twodimensional vector/ 1 . For the case M ^ 1 / 2 . since all that is necessary is to indicate the number 2 and of values that M and Thus.will appear later (p. 3 . 2 . but may represent a three.2 (16) obviously represents THREE EQUATIONS the righthand in which members terms: each have THREE (JX[ ux2 0x3 3*2 axi A /! l + i dXo r } fa' I* A+ .
For example. 3. since 7 and in it 5 occur TWICE the term on the right.Similarly we may now give the mathematical definition of a tensor of rank two. . 3 and ALSO a = 1 .* or of any other rank. and But 5 = 1 = 1 . NO SUMMATION on the a and j8 is to be performed since neither of them occurs term/ TWICE so that in a single any particular values of cv and p must be retained throughout ANY ONE equation. is understood that must we SUM for these indices over whatever range of values they have. It will be remembered (see page 128) that a VECTOR is a TENSOR of RANK ONE. /3 = 2 . 3 . 2 . we have 7 = 1 . 2 . for the case a = 1 . 2 3. Thus a contravariant tensor of rank is two defined as follows: (17) Here. Thus if we are speaking of THREE DIMENSIONAL SPACE. 2 . 157 . .
__ . in four dimensions. 9X3 9X2 that 9X3 9X3 will be observed 7 and <5 have each taken on their THREE possible values: in 1. which resulted NINE a = 1 terms on the right/ whereas and ft = 2 have been retained throughout.^.2. dx[ dxj " ' ' "I n a ^ . /\ _ ~ <9x[ ' V~~ dxs ~ All ' r\ ^ . 12 . dx ?. dx! 3*2 ' ' Jl 3 9xi 9xi 9xi 0x2 9xi 0x3 . ??!. (1 7) represents nine equations each containing nine terms on the right.3. Whereas. Obviously (17) for twodimensional space.2. will represent only four equations each containing only four terms on the right. 6x2 9xi . 158 .. AV .(1 7) gives the equation: . And now there will since a and /3 may each have be the three values./31 + 9X3 9xi It dx dx l. *. 1 50. NINE Thus such EQUATIONS in all. if we are considering threedimensional space. . 1.3. as we must have in Relativity* *See the footnote on p.. 9x2 9x2 9x2 9x3 + ^.
But when he will see in the next chapter how are easily such sets of equations MANIPULATED. each containing n terms in the righthand member. depend upon the dimensionality of the space in question. consists of n equations. a contravariant tensor of is RANK THREE defined by (18) A'tol^^A vXp ox? dx ff and so on. in general. Similarly. ndimensional space. will he be really delighted. number of equations represented by (18) and the number of terms on the right in each. defined by (17). we are sure of that.(17) will represent sixteen equations each containing sixteen terms on the right. As the before. a tensor of RANK TWO. The reader can already appreciate somewhat the remarkable brevity of this notation. And in . 159 .
with reference to a given set of axes. Let us now prove that this quantity is also a vector: is Since A* its a vector.XVII. is: law of transformation (19) /V x = : M"(see Similarly. And of let 6 be another a . for B" X (20) B' = ox. namely. ^B\ Taking corresponding components. by adding the corresponding components Aa and B we obtain a quantity also having two components. Then. OPERATIONS WITH TENSORS. take the vector (or tensor of rank one) 2 1 and having the two components Af a A A in a plane. For example. a such vector. 160 . 2 . A + 1 B and l A +B 2 2 which may be represented by and C respectively.
Furthermore. Similarly for tensors of higher ranks.. dx a Thus a we see that is the result VECTOR (see p. 0x2 The sum of these gives: Similarly. in full: f\ AH lAli *. note that (21) may be obtained QUITE MECHANICALLY by adding (19) and (20) AS IF each of these were A SINGLE equation containing only SINGLE term on the right.we get. A 161 .. Dl D ~r 1 axi ^ Xl D2 D . /I ^ i OXi 0X2 and B/l = ^ Xl TT .. 155). dxi 6x2 in: Both these results are included Or (21) c^^e..
c .
Thus. /.2) we write the result immediately: (24) (X //t/ ..instead of A SET OF EQUATIONS EACH CONTAINING SEVERAL TERMS Thus the notation ON THE RIGHT. By "multiplying (22) by (23)" we mean that EACH equation of (22) is to be multiplied by 163 EACH equation of (23) . that let us examine (24) carefully and see whether it really represents correctly the result of multiplying (22) by (23).2X To convince the reader it is quite safe to write the result so simply./* by (23) ""^^ 0g..C* = 1. This in is even more impressive the case of multiplication. AUTOMATICALLY shall takes care that the corresponding components be properly added./31.g. to multiply (22) A' x = M' ^ (A.
A'T. /* 1 . 164 .  ox* 0x2 Similarly we shall set three more such equations/ whose lefthand members are. A'B'\ A". we may by taking X = obtain (25) from (24) 1 = . respectively. 9xi 9xi 9x2 9xi 9xi 9xi . since no summation [that in is. is indicated on X and /x neither X nor is repeated any one term of (24)].in in the way in which this would be done ordinary algebra. we must first multiply by f \r j fj y We (25) 8 et. retaining these values throughout. Now. Thus.B' 2 . and whose righthand members resemble that of (25).
1 and 2 . 22 . except that by by the simpler taking A symbol C 1 .But since a and ft each in OCCUR TWICE the term on the right. instead of two. components: . 165 . AW or C and AW or C 21 . Thus (24) actually does represent COMPLETELY the product of (22) and (23)! Of course. And hence we may use G* instead of A* V.2 gives the fourth and last. we obtain another of the equations mentioned on page 164. terms on the right. each containing and the product of (22) and (23) *Note that either A" B 11 or C<* allows for FOUR Namely. gives the third of these equations/ and finally A = 2 . they must be allowed to take on all possible values. And X = 2 . AW or C AW or C". /* = 1 . /* a^ *. M . (22) and (23) would each represent THREE THREE equations. and SUMMED. = = 2 /? in (24). instead of two. namely. we replace A'B** thus obtaining (25). in threedimensional space. and summing on a and as before. Similarly.
elementary algebra! multiply in MANY we EASILY simple monomials we Furthermore. and. specifically. OUTER 166 . instead of four. m and n In general. in by (24)! And. instead of four. RANK gives a tensor of RANK TWO. four dimensions (24) would represent SIXTEEN equations. see from (24) that the is also a PRODUCT of two tensors TENSOR (see page 157). respectively. that the product of two tensors each of ONE. This process of multiplying tensors is called multiplication. and so on. if two tensers of ranks . I : Thus the tensor notation enables us to multiply WHOLE containing as SETS as OF EQUATIONS TERMS IN EACH. the result a is TENSOR OF RANK m + n. terms on the right. are multiplied together.would then consist of NINE NINE But is still equations. each containing this result represented of course.
XVIII. But first let us discuss a physical illustration of ANOTHER KIND OF TENSOR. B A ^This is to be distinguished from the 1 CONTRAVARIANT tensors discussed on pages 55ff. shall and which we describe later (page 183).to distinguish it from another process known as multiplication which is also important in INNER Tensor Calculus. A COVARIANT TENSOR:* Consider an object whose density is different in different parts of the object. A PHYSICAL ILLUSTRATION. 167 .
.
then ^ and ^  " dxi dx2 represent. the partial variation of in \l/ the xi and x> directions. So that if we designate by ^ the density at A. 9x1 3x2 three variables. but a density is obviously NOT a And directed quantity. respectively. A . although a ^ in itself is NOT depend upon quantity. the the CHANGE $ DOES DIRECTION IS therefore a and DIRECTED are whose components 9xi Now let us see this what happens to quantity is when the coordinate system changed (see page 149). but varies from point to point.We may then speak of the density at a particular point. 9x2 Now if we have say^^andz. SCALAR since the density of the given object is not uniform throughout. DIRECTED quantity. . f d$ 9xi in terms o!  . . it will vary as we go from A to B . Thus. We are seeking to express d\[/ r d\l/ . 169 . . . (see page 127). d\l/ . Now.
in expressing this in symbols: . c/z f _ cfz Jy (26) In cfx~d[ydx we have our problem above. the following similar situation: affect A change in x( will BOTH and the xi will affect 1/7 and x2 (see p. Note since also that the curved all "d" is used throughout in (27) the changes here 170 . change in x affects y/ which in turn affects z . by the change in z per unit change or. 145). (26). in x{ as in (26). resulting changes in XL and X2 hence Note that here right we have TWO terms on the instead of only ONE. may be found by multiplying the change y per unit change in x y. since the change affects BOTH in xi and x2 and these whereas a in turn BOTH affect ty. z per unit change in x..such that y and z depend upon x it is obvious that the change IF IT in . CANNOT in BE FOUND DIRECTLY. and that is all there was to it.
v / we may (30) write (29) as follows: AljfrA. as before. And. that the coefficient is on the right in (30) the reciprocal of the coefficient on the right in (16). CXM (30) with (16) 0*^ = If we now compare we note a VERY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE. writing A^ 4 for the represented J'in W C/ JC two components \ I and >A ff for the two components. And since ^ is influenced also by a change in x2/ this influence may be by similarly represented And. we may combine (27) and (28) by means of the abbreviated notation: where the occurrence of a TWICE in the single term on the right indicates a summation on a . as usual. finally. namely.are PARTIAL changes (see footnote on page 147). 171 .
PRIMES BELOW/ 1 172 . to distinguish the two kinds of vectors. represent a vector in any number of dimensions. in which the PRIMES in the coefficients (see (30).* 1 56). for higher ranks.so that (30) does NOT satisfy in the definition of a vector given But it will be remembered that (16). And we the mathematical definition of A COVARIANT Note that VECTOR. depending upon the range of values As before (page (30) may given to JJL and 0" . TENSOR OF RANK TWO defined by and so on. (31) COMPARE CONTRAST carefully ^Observe that the SUBscripts are used for the COvariant vectors. LOW. and for ANY transformation of coordinates. (16) is the definition of A CONTRAVARIANT VECTOR (30) introduce to the reader in ONLY. 171). and and (17). it is customary to write the indices as SUBscripts in the one case in and as SUPERscripts the other. p. A COVARIANT is Similarly. are in the DENOMINATORS To remember this more easily a young student suggests the slogan "CO.
n a ox\ and Sx= dx( is " c= Also. is Addition of covariant vectors performed in the same simple manner 1 as for contravariant vectors (see p. . the SUM A\ of r~7*. it is also possible to multiply a a COVARIANT tensor by CONTRAVARIANT one. the operation defined on page as is 166 OUTER MULTIPLICATION the same for covariant tensors: Thus. 61 ) Thus. 173 thus. the OUTER PRODUCT A( of = ^A a and is dx a Furthermore.XIX. MIXED TENSORS. 3x x .
V .
are multiplied together so as to form their the result OUTER PRODUCL is a TENSOR of rank m+ 175 . of rank TWO. called A the MIXED TENSOR generally. and is (32) C/5. any two tensors of ranks m and n. A.the OUTER PRODUCT of A( = J. respectively.:= ^'ax"' C' Comparison of (32) with (31) and (17) shows that it is NEITHER a covariant NOR a It is contra variant tensor. More OUTER PRODUCT of and is rfr  *** * That if is.
and suppose the tensor of rank n indices of contravariancef + m indices of covariance* contravariance/f" and n 2 indices of then. having mi indices of covariance* and (such that has mi m^ = m). the rank of (33) and that of (34) is 2 . 176 . Furthermore. the rank of their outer product. hence.f All in this has already been illustrated the special case given above: Thus. TWO <5). their outer product will be a MIXED mi and +m tensor having indices of covariance* m2 + rt2 indices of contravariance. (35). and (34) also has index of covariance ONE therefore their outer product. is 5. (35). is 3 . since (33) has indices of contravariance (a/ and (34) has TWO * /?) SUBscripts. t SUPERscripts.thus. and similarly. has indices of covariance (7. suppose the tensor of rank is m a MIXED m tensor. (33) has ONE index of covariance (7) (5).
however. for fourdimensional space} and so on. (35). for fourdimensional. Thus the outer product of A* is and B75 simply C$ ! Let us remind him.ONE has index of contravariance (K). (35). tFour for twodimensional space. 177 . that behind this notation. their outer product. obtained by multiplying *Namely. /3. and so on. TWENTYSEVEN SIXTYFOUR for threedimensional. THREE indices of contravariance (. And is their outer product. K) O We hope the reader appreciates it the fact that although it takes many words to describe these processes is extremely EASY to DO them with the AID of the TENSOR NOTATION. NINE SIXTEEN for threedimensional space. the processes are really complicated: Thus (33) represents a whole SET of equations* terms on the right each having MANY* MANYj (34) also represents a SET of equations! And each having terms on the right. EIGHT for twodimensional space.
EACH EACH equation of (33) by one of (34). containing THIRTYTWO equations for twodimensional space. the TENSOR CALCULUS. and we hope that will this little book make it intelligible even to laymen. And with a correspondingly large number of terms on the right of each equation! And yet 11 "any child can operate as easily as it pushing a button. (35). This powerful easily operated machine. CONTRACTION and AND DIFFERENTIATION. TWO HUNDRED AND threedimensional space. FORTYTHREE for ONE THOUSAND AND TWENTYFOUR all for fourdimensional space. and LeviCivita was devised and perfected by the mathematicians Ricci in about 1900. widely known. and was known to very few people until Einstein Since then it has made use of become it. 178 . XX. and so on. resulting in a SET of equations.
.
But what use did Einstein
make
of it?
What
is its
connection with Relativity?
are nearly ready to Fulfill the promise made on page 1 25.
We
When we have explained two more operations with tensors, namely, CONTRACTION and DIFFERENTIATION, we shall be able to derive
the promised
CURVATURE TENSOR,
of Gravitation
from which
Einstein's
is
Law
obtained.
Consider the mixed tensor (33), p. 175: suppose we replace in it
7 by a,
obtaining
f\<x
dx a dx x dxM
^~f
a
\
**"
By
the summation convention (p.
1
52),
the lefthand
so that
member is to be summed on (36) now represents
only equations instead of eight,* each of which contains
TWO
TWO terms
since
on the
left
instead of one;
furthermore, on the RIGHT,
a occurs twice we must sum on a
for
here,
each pair of values of v and X
:
Now,
*Secp. 177.
180
when
v
happens to have a value
from X,
DIFFERENT
then
dx, dx^
__
dx
v
__
dxa dxx
f
dxx
other
BECAUSE
the x's are
NOT functions of each
p
(but only of the x"s) and therefore
there
is
NO variation of x
x,
with respect to
a
DIFFERENT
be
namely xx
.
Thus coefficients of
will all
A?
when A
^
v
ZERO
these terms drop out.
and
will
make
v.
BUT When A =
then
dx,
dx
_
a dxx dx'
_
.
dxl dx x
Thus (36) becomes
(37)
dx' 3xx a
A'
=
g^
which we must sum on the right for X and M
in

still
To make
all this
clearer,
let us write
out explicitly
the two equations represented
l
by
l
(37):
2
'\
+ A'?
=
l
^ UXi
d
UXi
(A\
+
Al
)
!?
+ A'f =
f (A? +
181
^l
1
)
^ + A?) + ^ (A? + Al
+
(Al
OX'2
2
).
Thus (37)
may be
written
more
briefly:
08)
where
cge
C'^/T + ^T, C = A'\ + X?
2
2
and
C2
In
=
A[
2
422
other words,
by making one upper and one lower index
ALIKE
in
(33),
we have REDUCED
a tensor of rank a tensor of rank
THREE ONE.
to
The important thins to note
or
as
is
that this process of reduction
CONTRACTION,
it
is called/ leads again to
A
TENSOR,
it is
and
foi
obvious that
every such contraction the rank is reduced by TWO, since for every such contraction
two of the
partial derivatives in
the coefficient
cancel out (see page 181).
We
how
shall
see
later
this
important
process ot contraction
is.
if
Now, we form
the
the
OUTER PRODUCT
(p. 1
of
two
tensors,
in
way already described 182
75)
and if the result a mixed tensor,
then,
is
by
as
contracting this
mixed tensor
is
shown above,
get a tensor which
called
we
an
in
INNER PRODUCT
contrast to
their
OUTER PRODUCT.
OUTER
product of
Thus the
A*
is
and B7
(see page
1
Ck
if
77);
now,
in this result
we
replace
7 by
8 ,
obtaining
CS, or
Da
(see pages
1
80
to
1
82),
then
D A*
is
an
INNER
product of
and B\
And now we come to DIFFERENTIATION.
We
if
must remind the reader that
y
=
uv
where // u, and v are variables,
then
dy
c/x
_
dv
c/x
c
j,
f?f*
c/x
Applying this principle to the differentiation of
(39)
A* = ^'A', OXff
differential calculus
*See any book on
183
with respect to
x,' ,
we
get:
Or, since
dA
dA* dxr
hence (40) becomes
( 41 \
^
=
dxT
From (41 ) we see that if the second term on the right were not present, then (41) would represent
a
mixed tensor
in certain
of rank two.
And,
this
special cases,
second term does vanish,
cases,
so that
in
SUCH
differentiation of a tensor
leads to another tensor
whose rank
is
one more than
the rank of the given tensor. Such a special case is the one
in
which the coefficients
dx.
in
(39)
are constants,
as in (13)
on page 147,
since the coefficients in (1 3) are the same as those in (1 1) or (10);
184
and are therefore (unctions of 6 , 6 being the angle through which the axes were rotated (page 141), and therefore a constant.
In
when the
other words, transformation of coordinates
is of the simple type described on page 141
,
then
ordinary differentiation of a tensor leads to a tensor.
BUT, IN
and IN
so,
GENERAL,
these coefficients are
NOT constants,
GENERAL
give a tensor evident from (41).
differentiation of a tensor
does
as
is
NOT
BUT
there
is
a process called
COVARIANT DIFFERENTIATION
which and which we
ALWAYS
leads to a tensor,
shall presently describe.
We
the
of
cannot emphasize too often
IMPORTANCE
any process which leads to a tensor, since tensors represent
the
"FACTS
11
of our universe
(see page 149).
And, besides, we shall have to employ
COVARIANT DIFFERENTIATION
in deriving
185
t/ X .
FOURdimensional. c/s .the longpromised CURVATURE TENSOR and EINSTEIN'S LAW OF GRAVITATION XXI. but also for any THREEdimensional space. THE LITTLE g's. this holds Jf = g^Jx^Jx9ff NOT ONLY for ANY or SURFACE. the square of this distance. or. 2 namely. 2 we in can include these expressions for c/s ALL the SINGLE expression (42) and. rather. But now. To explain covariant differentiation we must in first refer the reader back to chapter XIII. indeed. 187 . with the aid of the remarkable notation which we have since explained. takes on various forms depending upon (a) the surface in question and (b) the coordinate system used. which it was shown that the distance between two points.
for any region Pee page 1 52. 2 and ^ = obtaining 2 1. (43) c/s = guc/xic/Xi ' g2lC/X2 C/Xi + + gi>c/xrc/x2 ' g22C/X> C/X2 / since the presence of ju and in P TWICE in the term on the right (42) /* requires SUMMATION may be 2 on both and p. in general. 2 c/xic/X2 + and.f Of course (43) c/s written: (44) = giic/x? + g. AROUND exponent matter. to show how (42) represents equation (3) on page 116. we find that the coefficients in (3) have the particular values: = ffll 1 = I ff!2 . jjfel = 7 22 = ^Except only at a socalled "singular point" of a space/ that is. any ndimensional space!* Thus.2. 188 . we take M = 1 . a point at which matter is actually located In other words.or.  Note that in c/xi (as well as in c/x:) the upper "2" is is really an and NOT a NOT SUPERSCRIPT an since (44) ordinary algebraic equation and is in the ABBREVIATED TENSOR NOTATION. f42) holdr. comparing (44) with (3).
we now have: gn = 1 . and so on. 3. g2 i = . in = r\ ffi2 = . gu and. for ordinary Euclidean threespace. general 9?" And = 9w in (42) on page 187. Of course. 2 the familiar expression c/s = = c/x? + + c/xl + c/xi 2 2 2 c/s c/x c/y + 2 c/z / and similarly for higher dimensions. 322 = = /?* / (7) on page 123.Similarly. so that (42) becomes. in (42). we shall get the value for c/s2 in a THREEdimensional space: 2 (45) c/s = guc/xi + gi2C/xrc/x2 + gisc/xrc/xs 4. 912 ^ . in particular. Note the that gi2 and in g?i have SAME value. g22 = 1 / gas = 1 / and for all the other g's are zero. 3 and ^=1.g>2]dx2dxi + Thus. using the common rectangular coordinates.2.2.1. gn =* 1. in (6) on page 120.cos a. 189 . g2i = cos a. indeed. THIS PARTICULAR CASE. we take /*. g2 2 1. if.
Thus/ for a given space/ two. that TENSOR. And is since a space characterized by its g's. COVARIANT TENSOR OF RANK TWO. for a given set of coordinates. is appropriately designated with SUBscriptsf: and hence TWO Let us now briefly far: sum up the story so By introducing the Principle of Equivalence Einstein replaced the idea of M a force of gravity" by the concept of a geometrical space (Chap.313. and It is easy to show* that set of g's. three. the is knowledge things of the g's of a space essential to a study of how move in the space. 190 . and hence Einstein's essential to an understanding of Law of Gravitation. tSeep. we get a certain set of g's. XII). *Seep.172. and. or ndimensional. is any such (which the represented by gv) of a constitutes COMPONENTS in fact. four.
that let us take /x = 1 . to derive the Einstein Law of Gravitation. 2 and v = 1 . is. 2 . ff21 ff22 I which is called a MATRIX. 191 . ourselves for the moment to TWOdimensional space. then gMV will have FOUR components. the COVARIANT DERIVATIVE known as of a terror contains certain quantities CHRISTOFFEL SYMBOLS* which are functions of the tensor g^ discussed in chapter XXI. namely. set and also of another which g^ (note the SUPERscripts here) we shall now describe: let us limit For simplicity. Christoffcl. OUR LAST DETOUR As we said before (page 185). we must employ COVARIANT DIFFERENTIATION. let us And in a arrange these coefficients thus: SQUARE ARRAY. 921 Now since gt2 for the = (see page 1 89) *Named mathematician.XXII. the four coefficients on the right in (44). Now.
.
* carefully The reader must DISTINGUISH between *The reader probably knows that a square array of numbers with single bars on each side 5 6 3 2 is and called a determinant. since it is symmetric with respect to the principal diagonal (that in is. .this is called a SYMMETRIC MATRIX. the one which starts the upper lefthand corner). shown in the following: we a get what is known as DETERMINANT. n columns. at =*J I I c A determinant does not necessarily have to have but TWO may have n rows and rows and columns. and is then said to be of order n The way to find the VALUE of a determinant of the nth order is described in any book on college algebra. that its value is found thus: 5X36X2 = 1512Or. more generally. 193 . IF we now replace the double bars on each side of the matrix as by SINGLE bars.
which. namely. *For readers unfamiliar with determinants this term is explained on p.a square array with SINGLE bars from one with The and has DOUBLE bars: FORMER a DETERMINANT is a SINGLE way in VALUE found by combining the "elements" in a certain as mentioned Whereas is the footnote on p. 195. 2 / v = 1 . 193. I . the coefficients of the separate terms on the right in (44). the DOUBLEbarred array a set of SEPARATE "elements. And now in let us form a new square array of the following manner: DIVIDE the of the determinant COFACTOR* EACH ELEMENT on page 193 by the value of the whole determinant. simply by g. 2) or. of a tensor. still better. as we mentioned on page 1 90. by g. are the separate COMPONENTS The determinant on page 193 may be designated more briefly by ! g. Oi = 1 ." in be COMBINED They may be just NOT to any way. thus obtaining the corresponding element of the NEW array. 194 .
while in the second case prefixed a rule is: .The is COFACTOR of a given element of a determinant found by striking out the row and column containing the given element. respectively/ thus to go from "5" to "4" it takes one step. element in one the upper lefthand corner) to the given element. 4 is: Similarly. 195 . and evaluating the determinant which is left over. is EVEN or ODD. hence the cofactor of "4" must have a MINUS 2 prefixed before 3 ' 8 But 7 all this is explained in more thoroughly any book on college algebra. or prefixing the sign according to a certain rule: + Thus. and so on. Note that in the first case we we prefixed the sign . in the determinant 523 4 6 1 8 / the cofactor of the element 5. 1 is: = 7 8 1X78X0 = 70 = 7. + The the prefix a + the or according as of steps required to NUMBER first go from the (that is. the cofactor of 2 8 3 7 = (14 24) = 10.
We can now give the definition of the Christoffel symbol {^v. twodimensional space. it is time. A CONTRAVARIANT OF RANK TWO. combined the as shown in (46) and multiplied by components in of the tensor g^ . TENSOR That also SYMMETRIC can easily be shown by the reader. This which new array.Let us at the now 90 back bottom of p. Thus. *There arc other Christoffel symbols. this and. to the array described 194. we shall designate by p g" can also be shown to be a TENSOR. : the abovementioned Christoffel symbol involves partial derivatives of the coefficients in (44). \] which It we need. by for: is designated is and a symbol In other words. but we promised the reader to introduce only the barest minimum of mathematics necessary for our purpose! 196 .
a each have the values 1 . 2 .aM. X . 197 } . (11 * I I / 1) { I 2 a 11 <J I \dxi 12 i 4 9n 11 dxi  9n ^T dxi 2 g and similarly (or the remaining SEVEN values of obtained by allowing M to take . would contain this calls for a TWICE. we are ready to define the covariant derivative of a tensor. we have.since M . 1 SUMMATION Now that on the a (see page the meaning of 52).2. {11 . . on their two values Note that in evaluating we SUMMED a to allowing above. 1 on the a. ^{r. Ar a covariant tensor of rank one. from which it is only a step to the If new Law is of Gravitation. take on BOTH values. v and X for each. we know the 3index Christoffel symbol X}. 1. for example. } BECAUSE if EACH TERM and (46) were multiplied out.. its COVARIANT DERIVATIVE xr with respect to is DEFINED as: (47) dA. v . .
if . 1930 198 . Eddington. we get the COVARIANT DERIVATIVE: (b) from the MIXED tensor. starting with tensors of rank TWO. 60 of 1 "The Mathematical Theory of Relativity/ by A. r] *.*See p. we have the following three cases: (a) starting with the CONTRAVARIANT tensor. the S. we have by a contravariant tensor of rank one. COVARIANT DERIVATIVE: '. represented its Aa .It can be shown to be a it is TENSOR in fact/ a COVARIANT TENSOR OF RANK TWO* and may therefore be designated by A. 4". Edition. we get the A:. +ln . COVARIANT DERIVATIVE the with respect to x. is TENSOR: < 48 > K.T Similarly. Or.
1 88) so that = flfll I / l2 = . And similarly (or the COVARIANT DERIVATIVES of tensors of higher ranks. 22 199 . example. . for in to be constants. the case of a Euclidean plane. find we may which is ITS covariant derivative then the of SECOND COVARIANT DERIVATIVE the original tensor. ff21 = . A. COVARIANT DERIVATIVE: T Arrp = AA  jT^ UXp {*P/ *} Ar  \Tp / *} A. Of course since the covariant derivative of a tensor is itself a tensor. and so on for higher covariant derivatives.(c) from the we set the COVARIANT tensor. using rectangular coordinates. Note that IN ALL CASES COVARIANT DIFFERENTIATION OF A TENSOR leads to a TENSOR having ONE MORE UNIT OF COVARIANT CHARACTER than the given tensor. Note also that when the g's happen as. in which case we have (see p. .
But of course this is NOT so IN GENERAL XXIII.all constants. is since the derivative of a constant zero. Starting with the tensor. .K!A. and every term of the Christoffel symbol has such a derivative as a factor/ so that (47) becomes simply ~~ . THE CURVATURE TENSOR AT LAST. Having now built up the necessary machinery.197). 200 . the reader will have no trouble in following the derivation of the new Law of Gravitation. That is. in this case. then obviously the Christoffel symbols here are all ZERO. *See page 196. A.(seep. the covariant derivative becomes simply the ordinary derivative. form its covariant derivative : with respect to x r (49) A = d .
.
A ^ i v/JCp < ) {"/ "I 9A .of Now form the covariant AT (see page 1 99) xp : derivative with respect to (50) A = rp d !<rp.  [rp.. = l/ ^ff T.* ~ ( ) ( ffr'/ i ^^a ^7" UJ\p A .. e) A. dA. Substituting (49) in (50). or o 4 202 .. we A get A. ej A. obtaining a SECOND is covariant derivative of Aa . which a COVARIANT TENSOR OF RANK THREE.
. These. dx dx/ dxTdxp ff 3 Ar d~A p . respectively. COVARIANT TENSOR OF RANK THREE Now.^~ and T ..a} A. by ordinary calculus. comparing (51) with (52) we shall find that they are NOT alike THROUGHOUT: Only SOME of the terms are the SAME in both.e} f {tp.f + !PT / ) ( ) l (T6 / a ) l l A. in REVERSE namely. Let us see: the FIRST term 2 in each is: j V. we would of course have obtained the following result instead: f M<rT + which a is 3 ) A ' } ax~ {<7T. 203 . FIRST with respect to xp and THEN with respect to xr .If we had the taken these derivatives order. Vf\a ) {pT'tlfc again . but the remaining terms are different.
for is a (unction of x and / . 2 dydx (treating y as constant) SAME FINAL this is true result. z x 2 + 2xy. we would get Y \0 = 2x (treating x as constant) and the 7. example. if we reverse the order of differentiation. The SIXTH term (and the SEVENTH) is the same in both since the reversal of r and p in *For. = 2x + 2 2y (treating y as constant) and v v" dxdy THEN = (treating x as constant). suppose that z as. Then .* SECOND term the same as of (51) the FOURTH in term of (52) since the occurrence of a (or e) TWICE the same term implies a SUMMATION ! and it is therefore immaterial what letter is used (a or e) f Similarly for the FOURTH term of (51) and the SECOND of (52). is An index which thus easily replaceable is called a "dummy"! 204 . finding FIRST the derivative with respect to y with respect to x . and And.The is ARE the same. And t IN GENERAL.
\ Hence by we } get f {^ } A* Aa oxp { or (53) And since addition (or subtraction) of tensors gives a result which is itself a tensor (see page 161) the lefthand member of (53) is A COVARIANT is TENSOR OF RANK THREE. 205 . g. now. *Seepa 9 e196. is SYMMETRIC.* and remembering that the tensor gM . But. since An is an arbitrary covariant vector. hence of course the righthand member also such a tensor.M (see page is 1 89). is. that ft. But the are THIRD and FIFTH to subtraction terms of (51) in NOT equal any of the terms (52).does not alter the value of this Christoffel symbol: This can easily be seen by referring to the definition of this symbol. Similarly the last term in the same both (51) and (52).
the quantity must also be a tensor square brackets. in if which.its coefficient. this bracketed expression must be a since it MIXED tensor of RANK FOUR. CURVATURE TENSOR and is known as THE RIEMANNCHRISTOFFEL TENSOR. XXIV. on inner multiplication by A. Let us examine so that its it carefully we may appreciate meaning and value. 206 . is must give a result which of rank THREE. OF WHAT USE IS THE CURVATURE TENSOR? In the first place that we must remember it is an abbreviated notation for in the expression in square brackets (53) on page 205. This AT LAST is the longpromised ( P a 8 e187). Furthermore. we substitute for the Christoffel symbols. in namely. according to the theorem on p. 31 2. it and indeed must be of the form (see page 31 3).
in it threedimensional space 4 would have 3 or 81 components. as we can easily see: In if. and so on. (crp. Similarly. in square brackets 207 . then each of the indices. Thus. would then have sixteen components. in this tensor. accordance with the definition on page 196. which we have to deal with a FOURdimensional continuum this tensor has 44 or 256 components! We it is hasten to add that not quite so bad as that.and so on. the first place. in the expression (53) on page 205. a if we are studying twodimensional surface. e} their values in we First find that we have partial derivatives an expression containing and second . of the g's which are themselves the coefficients in the expression for 2 c/s (see p. in For the purposes of Relativity.* *That in is. 1 87) How many Obviously components does that the RiemannChristoffel tensor have? depends upon the dimensionality of the space under consideration. will so that B*TP have two possible values.
hence. since a n .1.2. tThc reader would do well to compare this expression with the one obtained from it by an interchange of r and p throughout. which we may arrange as follows: a2t 322 332 ^42 a23 a.4).3. in itself we shall linger so interesting here for a moment: a.} 324 331 44 ast 641 ^43 And (that suppose is. = an implies that an = then.. the above array becomes: 324 323 324 Thus there are only SIX distinct quantities instead of sixteen. the result is merely to change Hence. and similarly for the remaining terms results only in the principal diagonal. that a a)3 = a fta a reversal of the in a two subscripts change of sign of the term). its sign.j . (wherea= Suppose we have 16 quantities. 208 . 2.we interchange r and p . Such an array is called ANTISYMMETRIC.j.J of the possible 16 combinations of r and p only 6 are independent: This that is .. 1 . 3 7 4. and .
209 . has only 20 components and consider for a NOT 256! Now let us moment of this tensor the great in the study of spaces. TEN since the elements would NOT be zero *See A. come back we now have to six to the discussion combinations of r and p to be used with sixteen combinations of giving 6 X 16 or <r and a. distinct elements. in a SYMMETRIC matrix we have Note were it that if the first matrix on p. 208 SYMMETRIC. S.Compare a this with the definition of array SYMMETRIC And so. Fddington's The Mathematical Theory of Relativity. for the situation in Relativity. Furthermore. 96 components instead of 256.J on page 208. in would reduce to the principal diagonal in that case. matrix we have ap = whereas. on page 193. fThus in IMPORTANCE an ANTISYMMETRIC a/3 . it can be shown that we can further reduce this number to 20. page 72 of the 1930 edition.* Thus our curvature tensor.
because every term contains a Christoffel symbol (see page 205). 210 .Suppose we have a Euclidean space more dimensions. three. Here the g*s are all constants. 25. therefore. its obviously components in any other coordinate system would also be zero (consider this in the simple case on page 129) c And so. and. all the components of the curvature tensor will be zero too. BUT.* Hence. or ordinary rectangular coordinates. 2 whereas from a mere superficial inspection of the expression for cfe whether Euclidean or not.! an examination of the curvature tensor (which of course is obtained from the coefficients tell we cannot the space is in the expression for 1 1 2 c/s ) *Sec page JScc page 89. since the derivative of a constant is zero the Christoffel symbols will also be zero (see page 200). if in the components of a tensor any given coordinate system all are zero. and suppose we use of two.
and he must not forget to SUM whenever an index appears TWICE IN ONE TERM. the reader should try the simple exercise of showing that He must bear in for (8) on B?TP = mind that here p. have the possible values since the space here is and 2. and use these values in the bracketed expression in (53) on page 205. *To have a clear idea of the meaning of the symbolism. remembering of course is that the meaning of [ap 1 1] . 123. twodimensional.* The same for all is true coordinate systems and for any number of dimensions. Thus. etc. using various coordinate systems. shall find that in all the components of B"Tp three cases ARE ALL ZERO. 312 = g2i = o. etc. p 1 . whether we use (3) on page 116 or (7) or (8) on all page 123. given by all the definition on page 196. c . provided that we remain in Euclidean geometry. ANY 211 . <r also that .can definitely give this information. 911 = 1. gfc^xj. no matter what coordinate system is used 2 in setting up cfs . of which represent the square of the distance between two points ON A we EUCLIDEAN PLANE. indices.
.
given a Euclidean space. other words. twice left. obtaining (55) Since in B a = 0. In LAW (54) replace p by a . XXV. THE BIG G'S OR EINSTEIN'S OF GRAVITATION..Thus (54) is B. We how is shall the now see new Law of Gravitation EASILY derived from this tensor. 213 . given this tensor equal to zero. then we know that the space must be Euclidean. we according to the usual convention. It can be shown that is this also a SUFFICIENT condition. rp = condition a NECESSARY that a space shall be EUCLIDEAN. CONVERSELY. the term on the must. In this tensor will be zero. a appears . is whatever coordinate system AND used. sum on a.
t\ V .
namely. The QUITE INNOCENTLOOKING EQUATION (56) IS EINSTEIN'S LAW OF GRAVITATION. B's by CONTRACTING is B. when er = r (55) becomes Thus. = 1 7 Bin Similarly for <r + Bin r + = Bin + B?u = 0. we get 0121 + Bl22 + Bi23 + Bi24 = and r and so on. SECOND rank. G ffT . look into (56) is let us carefully. which a tensor of the we get a tensor of the FOURTH rank. as explained on page 182. for the 16 possible combinations of <r We (56) may therefore write (55) in the form G = ffr as In where each G consists of 4 shown above. Perhaps tht reader is startled by But this sudden announcement.so that (55) represents 4X4 in a SIXTEEN equations corresponding to the values of <r and r only fourdimensional continuum. other words. and see what behind its innocent simplicity. = 1 . 2 .' rp . 215 .
a]  {err. B*rt> represented the quantity in brackets in the righthand member of equation (53) on page 205. by the definition of the Christoffel symbol (page 196) represents an expression containing first and second little g's. namely. we can see from (53) that Gar represents the following expression: \ r\ (57) {era. it Hence.*} {. (57) takes 16 different values as <r and r each take on their 4 different values.<*}. letters in while the other Creek (57). which. the first place must be remembered that before contraction. of course. as usual. a] + {aa. when we contracted by replacing p by a . a}  ^ {<"". partial derivatives of the And. e} (er.and why the In it it deserves to be called Law of Gravitation. a and e. in turn. 216 . are mere dummies (see page 204) and are to be summed (since each occurs twice in each term).
2. not quite so complicated it as appears at But why do we call it a Law of Gravitation at all? It will be remembered that a space. and to write out in particular one of the 16 expressions represented by (57) <r by putting. 217 . of these.To get just clearly in mind what (57) means. Thus (56) is completely determined by the nature of the space which. and.* new Law of Gravitation first. is its characterized by 2 expression for cfs (see page 187). the values 1. only that the 6 are independent. of any number of dimensions. *Se p. It can easily be shown that (56) actually represents NOT So is 16 DIFFERENT equations but only 10. 3 6 to assume. is the reader advised to replace each Christoffe! in symbol accordance with the definition on page 196. say = 1 and r = 2 .4. . and allowing a and in succession. by the Principle of Equivalence determines the path of a freely moving object in the space. 242.
* is will appreciate that part of Einstein's GENIUS! particularly *The reader who is interested in this point wish to look up a book called "The Law of Gravitation in Relativity" by Levinson and Zeisler. unpleasantly surprised and thinks that the choice has been made rather ARBITRARILY! book 1 May we in therefore suggest to him to read through the rest of this order to find out the CONSEQUENCES Law predict that he will of Einstein * choice of the of Gravitation. even granting the Principle of Equivalence. is Newton's Law of Gravitation. 11 rather than a "force of gravity. that is.But. granting that the g's alone determine the Law ask: of Gravitation one may still Why Law is this particular expression (56) taken to be the of Gravitation? To which the answer it is is that is the SIMPLEST expression which ANALOGOUS to Perhaps the reader at this reply. granting the idea that the nature of the space. may 218 . We and be convinced this of the WISDOM of this choice. determines how objects (or light) move in in that space other words. 1931.
term in (84) accounts for the "unusual" path of the planet Mercury. ADDITIONAL which the Newtonian equation (85) did not account for at all. that the equations giving the path of a planet. thus: *See the chapter on the "Theory of Attractive Forces*' in Ziwet and Field's Introduction to Analytical Mechanics. according to Newton. 219 . to a first approximation. Everyone knows that. But we are anticipating the story! Let us a form now which express Newton's Law in will show the analogy clearly. XXVI. derived are the by Newton. so that the latter can do ALL and the that the Newtonian equations do.* two bodies attract each other with a force which is proportional to the product of their masses. on page 271 . SAME. FURTHERMORE.He will see. and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. COMPARISON OF EINSTEIN'S LAW OF GRAVITATION WITH NEWTON'S. for example. as the Einstein equations.
not necessary to it hold up all but one needs only support it right under its center of gravity. We (58) may therefore write a = where the constant C now includes since we are speaking of . the gravitational field around mi *Thus it is a fact that to support a it is body over. the force m> would move due to F acting on it. of masses mi and m . If we divide we get both sides by m% fc/m ~ _F_ __ 1 o~~ ni2 r" And. Mow we may consider that mi 5 is in surrounded by a "gravitational field* which the gravitational force at A (see the diagram on page 221) is given by the above equation. > as each concentrated at a single point 11 * (its and "center of gravity r is then precisely ). as if its entire mass at that point. were concentrated 220 . according to Newton.In this formula we regard the two bodies. a the acceleration with which = /3l2 . the distance between these two points.
221 . Thus take the origin to be at mi and the mass 012 at A i then OA = let 2 r. at and (since in AB represent the acceleration m is being pulled toward mi) A both magnitude and direction. better. obvious that X a x r' Therefore Or. if Now it is X is the xcomponent of a . *See page 127.Now. and it acceleration is a vector quantity/* may be split up into components:! . fSee page 129.
x 2 + 2 y + r).to show that the direction of X is to the left.ay. ^* 7  y=   3 and. we would have By also Z= get: p differentiation. similarly. z 2 obvious from the diagram if on page 131 i AB = ' dr then x = r dx Substituting this in the it above equation. Substituting in this equation the value of a from (58) we get: y A . From these we (59) get: 3X.az _ TV" [ ox ay az 222 . since r (as is 2 6 r = . in 3dimensional space. similarly. we dx But. becomes dx r 6 And.And.
and z . y . is See footnote on page 21 9. is namely (60). * V V 223 . generally 'known as the Laplace equation and is more briefly 2 denoted by v ^ where the symbol that V 2 merely denotesf the second partial derivatives with respect to x . (60) dV ax is 2 "*" ^ a/ * dz 2 2 "*" where a (unction such that and is called the 1 * */ "gravitational potential obviously (60) is merely another way of expressing the field equation (59) obtained from Newton's Law of Gravitation. respectively. written: .This equation may be . from (60). are to as be taken and added together. We see that the gravitational field equation obtained from Newton's Law of Gravitation an equation containing the second partial derivatives of the gravitational potential. This form of the law. then. shown in (60). fThe symbol 2 and is read *'nabla square". is read "nabla".
.
which. HOW will REASONABLE it is be evident when we test it by EXPERIMENT! It has been said (on page 21 5) that each G consists of four B'S O Hence. if the B's are all zero.Whereas (56) is a set of equations which also contain nothing higher than the second partial derivatives of the g's. but the converse is obviously NOT true: all Namely. by the Principle of Equivalence. does not necessarily follow that the B's are zero. by the idea of the characteristic property of the SPACE in question (see Ch. replace the notion of a gravitational potential derived from the idea of 11 a "force of gravity. all then the G's will be zero. XII). even it if the G's are zero. It is therefore reasonable to accept (56) as the gravitational field equations which follow from the idea of the Principle of Equivalence. 925 .
more than since this. But. 213). Thus. naturally asks: still one "How Law be can this new of Gravitation tested EXPERIMENTALLY?" 226 . if the condition for Euclidean space is fulfilled. Off Tp ~ Ba = V / automatically follows/ then thus G<rT = is true in the special case of Euclidean space. does hence NOT NECESSARILY fi's imply that the are zero. Now but all this sounds very reasonable. namely. to have the fi's all zero implies that the space is Euclidean (see p. namely. in the space around a body which creates a gravitational field.But we know that. can be true EVEN IF THE SPACE IS NOT EUCLIDEAN.
his predictions were all fulfilled.* *See pages 21 5 to 21 7. and. and caused a great stir not only in the scientific world. is Thai what we shall show next. r = new represents Einstein's Law of Gravitation/ and consists of 6 equations containing partial derivatives of the little g's. But doubtless the reader would like to know the details of these experiments/ and just how the abovementioned Law is of Gravitation applied to them. 227 . HOW CAN THE EINSTEIN LAW OF GRAVITATION BE TESTED? We have seen that G. but penetrated even into the daily news the world over. as every child now knows/ when the experiments were actually carried out.Einstein suggested several ways in which it might be tested. XXVII.
.u .
by changing to polar coordinates with the aid of the diagram on page 230. *See page 123 229 . Now. in other words. we know in that twodimensional 2 c/s EUCLIDEAN 2 space we have = c/r + rW.* Similarly. if we use the customary polar coordinates. first we must know what is the expression for d* which applies to our world (see Chapter XIII).In order to test this law substitute in it we must obviously the values of the g's which actually apply in our ohysical world. for threedimensional EUCLIDEAN we have space the wellknown: 2 c/s = 2 c/r + rW + 2 2 r sinW</> The reader can 2 c/s easily derive this from  c/x? + Jxl + Jx] (on pa g c 189).
for 4dimensional spacetime 230 .where xi X2 xs = = = = x r = 01 = OMcos cos <t> / POM r cos = </> < r sin ^ cos < y z = LM = = PM = OM sin cos 0. = r sin sin And.
But 7 on page 67 we showed in that order to get in the square of an "interval" spacetime in this form/ four plus signs. can readily see: is Note in that the general form for fourdimensional space Cartesian coordinates. x2 = = 0. analogous to the 3dimensional one on p. 2 c/s = Jx 2 + 2 dy + 2 </z + 2 c/r . 11 "Special Relativity. 2 from which c/r = .cW.we have 2 fc/s =  Jr 2  rW . to take r with all we had NOT equal to the time. we must take r = 231 ict. BUT to take T i =  ict* where c = = the velocity of light. x = t 7 and c as we taken equal to 1). 189. but that was because we also took c = 1/ otherwise. we took r = it. and the above expression becomes: *As in a matter of fact.fWe/flcfy + 2 (61 a) or 2 = = [c/s c/x? . .xl^ 9. x3 x?sinVc/xi 4 f c/xi (where xi r. t.
V .
in the GENERAL theory (page 96) where we are considering accelerated motion (page 102). I 233 . since in actual fact. c/s = c/x 2 Jy 2 c/z 2 +cW.And. becomes (61 The reader must this clearly realize that formula still applies to EUCLIDEAN which the is spacetime. e'c/x X2 / Xa / X4 represent of this book. to it is make c/s come out reel instead more reasonable to write 2 of imaginary. c c/t is always found to be 2 Sreater than (</x + 2 c/y + 2 c/z ). a). therefore. spacetime 2 what expression shall for c/s we use? In the it is first place reasonable to assume that (61 b) Js 2 =  e* </x?  e* (xldxl + + (where Xi *See Part . which in polar coordinates. and therefore have a NONEUCLIDEAN (see Chapter XII). 2 2 furthermore. involved in SPECIAL theory of Relativity* where we considered only observers moving with UNIFORM velocity relatively to each other. But now.
and v are (unctions of xi only). the omission of terms like Now. cfxi terms cfa . 187) from astronomical evidence it seems that is our universe (a) ISOTROPIC and (b) HOMOGENEOUS: is. (which since ARE included in (42).the polar coordinates r. how does dx JxT where ff <r ^ r represent this mathematically? Well. That the distribution of matter (the nebulae) is the SAME ALL DIRECTIONS and (a) IN (b) FROM WHICHEVER POINT WE LOOK. BECAUSE: (A) we do not include product of the form or. consequently. IJL . respectively. of the form dx c/xr where ff cr ^ r . 0. the expression for c/s if would be in different we turn opposite directions 234 . p. a term like c/rc/0 (or C/0C/0 or c/rc/(/>) would be for 6 (or different </> or r) positive or negative. and t. obviously. more generally. $. and A . 2 and.
which would contradict the
experimental evidence that the universe is ISOTROPIC
And
from
of course the use of
2
the same expression for
c/s
ANY point
HOMOGENEITY.
it is
reflects the idea of
And
so
we
see that
reasonable
2
to have in (61 b)
only terms involving c[0 , c[</> , c/r in which it makes no difference
whether
2
2
,
we
substitute
+c/0 or
c/0, etc.
Similarly,
since in getting a measure for
2
c/s /
a
we are considering STATIC condition,
is
and not one which
from
changing
moment
to
moment,
we must
for
in
therefore not include
terms which will have different values
+dtand
c/f/
other words, we must not include
product terms like c/rc/t,
In short
etc,
\we must not have any terms involving
cfx^c/Xr
where
or
^T,
but only terms involving
dx dxr where
ff
(7
=
T.
(B)
The
in
factors
e
x
,
e
M
, e",
are inserted
the coefficients
*
to allow for the fact
*Cf.(61a)and(61b).
235
that our space
is
now
NONEUCLIDEAN.
Hence they are so chosen as to allow freedom to adjust them
to the actual physical world /since they are variables),
jnd yet
iheir
it
FORM
is
such that
to manipulate
will
in
them making the necessary adjustmentshall see.*
be easy
as
we
Now,
(61 b) can
be somewhat
simplified
by
replacing
2
e*x?
by
(x() ,
and taking
x( as a
new
coordinate,
thus getting rid of e" entirely/
and we may even drop the prime, since any change in c/xi which arises from the above substitution can be taken care of by taking X correspondingly different.
Thus (61 b) becomes, more simply,
2
(62)
c/s
= 
e\/x?

xldxl
 xrsinWx2 +
.
2
e'c/x4
And we now
have to find
the values of the coefficients e and e"
in
x
terms of xi.j
^Further justification for (61 b)
may be found
R. C. Tolman's
Relativity
p.
in
Thermodynamics
& Cosmology,
239
ff.
ISee page 934.
236
We warn the reader that this a COLOSSAL UNDERTAKING,
is
we
but, in spite of this bad news, hasten to console him by
telling
him
that
terms will reduce to zero, and the whole complicated structure
many
will
we
melt down to almost nothing; can then apply the result
to the physical data with the greatest ease.
To any reader who "can't take
1
'
it
we
suggest that
he omit the next chapter and merely use the result
to follow
Einstein
the experimental tests of the Law of Gravitation
given from page
255
on.
BUT HE WILL MISS
A
LOT OF FUN!
XXVIII.
SURMOUNTING THE
DIFFICULTIES.
So
far,
we have
SLI
then, the following values:
=
*
x
/ ff22
= cr
and gar
=
x?
,
g33
= 
2
x?sin
x2 , g44
=
e*
when
^
r.
(see (62) on p. 236.)
Furthermore, the determinant
is
g (see page 194)
simply equal to
principal diagonal,
the product of the four elements in
its
237
since
ail
the other elements are zero:
Hence
Also 7
in this case,
and
T
g*
=
when a
^
r.
f
We
in
need these relationships determining e* and e in (62).
shall shall
Now we
how
see
the big G's will help us to Find the little g's
and how the little g's will help us to reduce the number of big G's 10
ONLY
THREE!
show
that
First let us
the set of quantities
is
SYMMETRIC,}:
and therefore
*See the chapter on determinants in any college algebra,
to Find out
a
how
to evaluate
"
determinant of the fourth order.
M tSee the definition of g on page 196. 193. {Seepage
239
Gar =
as
reduces to
TEN
on
*
equations
instead of sixteen/ v and r each take
1
their values
,2/3,4.
that
p.
To show
this,
we must remember
on and let us examine {act, a} which occurs in (57):
ffT
G
really represents (57)
216;
By
definition (page 196),
But,
remembering
that
the presence of in term
a and
c
TWICE
EACH
(after
multiplying out)
on implies that we must the reader will easily see that
SUM
a and
e
many
and
of the terms will cancel out
that
we
shall qet
Furthermore, v the definition of g" on page 196, the reader may also verify the fact that
by
i
dg
2ff
=
1
dg
where g
is
the determinant of p. 239.
And,
from elementary calculus,
*See pase 193.
240
239 becomes xi sin X2) it is more reasonable to select v g f which will but since g always negative make the Christoffel symbols. a} (see pp. 252 that X 4 2 and therefore g on p. 205). <\ (63) G = ffT {era. Hence. a] = {re. a}  jar. in and hence also the terms the new Law of Gravitation. 204.Similarly. /} = we get: :> log vgr. by the its interchanging a and r . e} {er. (we shall show on p. Substituting these values in (57). 241 . first term of (63) remains unchanged. REAL rather than imaginary. aj + We can now easily see that (63) represents 10 equations and not In sixteen/ (or the following reasons: the first place/ {er. factors two merely change places *Notc that we might also have obtained is V + _ g. = y.
the second. he may look this up on page 115 of M 1 The Mathematical Theory of Relativity/ flf by A.! is But perhaps the reader are still thinking "only six" equations no great consolation.* Hence (63) reduces instead of 1 6 . Eddington. the 1930 edition. Thus. And. third and fourth terms of (63) are also unchanged by the interchange of a and r. explained on page 204). as 10 equations we said before. if we arrange the 16 quantities in in a G JT square array: Gn vJ21 Gi2 tf22 Gis VJ23 G \3 Gsi G41 Gs2 642 that 633 Gl3 G 6 We this have is just shown a SYMMETRIC to matrix. he is interested. S. in other words.(since as and a are mere dummies. particularly if he realizes *See page 239. We how shall not burden the reader with the details of (63) to only that is further reduced SIX equations. 24* .
to a really simple form. and r = 1 . obvious then 243 . In we each Christoffel symbol in (63). say <r in order to see just what particular values of . must substitute specific values for the It is Greek letters. now proceed to indicate further simplification takes place. and yet to keep up his courage too by the knowledge it that does eventually boil down might not appreciate simple form it.how long each of these equations But does he realize this? he would do well to take cr and r = 1 . is ! ONE is of the equations in (63) really like! (don't forget to Is sum on the dummies I) just Is the reader wondering what we are trying to this a subtle do to him? mental torture by which we alternately frighten The fact is that and console him? we do want to to frighten him sufficiently realize make him the colossal amount of computation that is involved here. He the if final he did not know this the labor that produced With we shall how the apology.
9~ r ~^ d d . r} since this is the same as (or. as usual. by elementary {<r<r. flT*=1/ff~ (P. (b) those of the form (c) those of the form r or . 244 . and. by definition (page 196). in that case. Now. a} } dS _ jL( v~ ^'l Adx 2g 4.<r} calculus./ and therefore which. r} (see p. But since the only g's which are not zero are those in which the irrdices are alike (see p. Note that it is unnecessary to consider the form {rer. Hence f _ (jcr. p}. we must sum on a. 204).239). gives (a) = ^ ^ log gro. r and (d) those of the form {err .9~ \ I (T <y 5x ff 3x. 237) and.that there will (a) those in all be four possible types: letters are alike: which the values of three Greek g Thus: ffo a} 0<r .
og(O calculus. *"' = Mi!*" + 2 Vox. Let us now evaluate these various forms for specific values: Thus. take. are those for which a = g from being zero and since r ^ a (for otherwise we should have case (a) ) we get or /L\ (b) Likewise (c) {CTT.Similarly. gives which. Hdx a / Here the only values keep the outside of a T that ra factor .T} = g ^ log grr and (d) {<rr /P }=0. cr = 1 1 r) : Then {11/1} = g ^7 lo 33n x Butgn= c (Seep. 239). by elementary 245 . in case (a). will 1dx. hence {11 f i}=l.
{33 . 2 / Now. But. since X is a function of x\ and is therefore held constant only/ while the partial derivative with respect to x> taken.2} =0. first (r = 1 . specific values how many in all. 2} =  ^ x2 is gn =  ~ 2flL> 2 ~3x2 But. likewise.41=0. hence and therefore (22. And.2} and so on. we shall have Obviously (a) has 4 specific cases. all the other variables are held constant. Similarly. *Se page 234. take for case (b). hence {11. r = then {11 . since i4 if *J in taking a PARTIAL derivative with respect to one variable.3) = {44. Let us see =0. in.L 4 A where V represents  or / 6x1 since xi dr = r (see page 233). 246 .
1 . namely.2. since for each value of a = 1 . 3 . the 9 remaining ones being (64) 'Remember that x2 = .3.4. r can have 3 of (for its possible 4 values here a ^ r) / (c) will also have 12 cases. and (d) will have 4 but since {or . The reader should verify the fact that 31 of the 40 reduce to zero. p} this X 3 X 2 = 24 = cases. = (b) will have 12 specific cases. [TV . reduces to in all 1 2. 204). Hence there are 40 cases. 2 . p\ (see p. 4 . <r which have already been evaluated above.
248 . and. similarly (or the other G's. and e and which terms drop out (because they contain zero factors} how SUM will be found on page 31 7. lest this final the reader think that is the promised simplified result. when we give to the various Greek letters their possible values. a great meny (over 200) terms drop out ! And there remain now only FIVE equations. the reader how showing to on a. each with a much smaller number of terms. we find that. in V. And.Note that /= d oxi ~=% or . Now. in (63). Here we give the equations which result after the zero terms have been eliminated. hasten to add that the BEST is yet to come! we Just Gii is obtained. since so many of the ChristofFel symbols are equal to zero. These are written out in full below.
3] (83.1} {14. 2} {21.3} + 12.4)141. .1} {11.1}+ 13.Gu= 11. 2} 14. 2} ST {33. = 0. . 249 .3} + 2{33. = 0. 0.1} / = 0.3} 133.41(44. 3} {31.2}{23. / = 2{33 1}{13.3) = 0.11ir .4} = Similarly.
If we now substitute these equations the values given in (64). = Similarly 0* G = 33 2 sin 0e x l + r (/  X')  2 sin = 0. = = 0. in we get = 424 v " + ""  xv . d X \" and v" = j 250 .
But. (66) =  v + I where / is a constant of integration. And we now. our universe would be Euclidean./ = ~ dv T" dr ' d\ or T" or Therefore. and adding the get A' result to Gn (65) = . thus reducing the number of equations to FOUR. also that . dividing G x 44 by e*~ . since at an infinite distance from matter. Note 633 includes 622 so that these two equations are not independent hence now the equations are THREE. 251 .and 612 becomes: r cotfl  r cotfl = which is identically zero and therefore drops out.* *See page 226. by A integration.
too. we would have: that is. (or Cartesian coordinates. when = . 622 on page 250 becomes e'(1 put (68) If +n/) = . we get or or dy ^~ _ e v " dv dr Hence (68) becomes (69) 7 + fy = 1. then. 1. as of course we In it must do. we 7 = e and differentiate with respect to r . 252 . *See pages 189 and 231. Hence (67) \=v. other words. X also equals .and then. must be zero. / . if (61 b) is to hold also for this special case. should then have A = . from (66). v since. v = 0. the coefficient of c/x? and of dx\ must be 1 under these conditions/ hence. Usins (65) and (67).
Thus we have succeeded an e and x in finding e' *From elementary theory of differential equations. from which get 7 = 253 . log r (1 7) constant. We may then write r (1 we A 1 7) = 2m 2m . The constant m will later be shown to have an important physical meaning. integrate both sides thus: log (1 or 7) = = log r + constant. . and therefore r (1 7) = constant. we write (69): or or cf T_ = Jr r 17 Having separated the ' we can now variables.This equation may now be easily integrated/ obtaining (70) T = 1  ~ where 2m is a constant of integration.
.
and G = 44 . 11 The the first test is naturally to see what new Law of Gravitation has to say about the path of a planet. And the hence new Law of Gravitation.7i</r2 . x3 . t = x4 . now little fully determined by the g s of (71). "THE PROOF OF THE PUDDING. consisting now of only the THREE remaining equations: Gn = are .in terms of xi e" : = x 1/e =7 = 1. G = 33 . It was assumed by Newton that 1 * a body "naturally moves along a straight line 255 . We can now proceed it to test this result to see whether really applies to the physical world we live in.rV0 = = r sin c/</ where.2m/r = 1 2 2 2 2/n/x. r = xi / x2 . as before (p. and (62) becomes: (71 ) ctf = . 233). XXIX.
.
But we shall give the reader a rough idea of the plan. according to Einstein if it moves "freely 11 on the surface of a it SPHERE 1 would 30 along the is. would move along the corresponding geodesic for the particular surface or space. since a planet must move along such a geodesic. it for other surfaces. body moving on a frictionless Euclidean plane. together with references where 257 . or spaces of higher dimensions. Similarly.if it is not pulled out of force acting its it: course by some As. In order to find the equation of a geodesic it is necessary to know something about the 1 "Calculus of Variations/ so that we cannot go info details here. a for on example. along a great And. Now what our problem is is to find out the geodesic in our nonEuclidean physical world. for this surface. namely. "nearest thing to a straight line/ that along the GEODESIC circle.
A and B . S.it is obviously possible to join thus: them by various paths. that further. Bliss. LeviCivita. But how do we set up the problem mathematically so that we may solve similar problems in other cases? *(1) For fundamental methods see "Calculus of Variations/' by G.he may look up this matter Suppose. on a Euclidean plane. 258 . p. Eddington. which of is all possible paths the geodesic here? Of course the reader knows the answer: It is the straight line path. 59 of the 1930 edition. (3) Or see pages 1281 34 of 1 "The Absolute by Differential Calculus/ T. (2) For this specific 1 problem see "The Mathematical Theory of Relativity/ by A. B Now. A.* we have given two points. For example.
we know that if from ordinary calculus a short arc on any of these paths is represented then by f. B f JA A represents the total length of that entire path. if y is = f(x). And this of course applies to any one of the paths from A to B. How do we now select from among these the geodesic? This problem is similar to one with which the reader undoubtedly familiar. c/s . find the values of y y for which 16 an "extremum" or a "stationary. in Such values of y are shown the diagram on the next page at a . is namely.Well. 6 . and c: 259 .
6 . A This is expressed in the calculus of variations by (73) JA f c/s  analogously to (72). or c. 258 and 259. To find the equation of the geodesic/ satisfying (73). to go back to our problem on pp. is not as simple as finding 260 . Similarly/ a . the geodesic we are looking for would make rB f JA a stationary.a and/ (or all these/ we must have dy/dx or = (72) <fr=ffo)c/x is = where x.
fSee (46) on p. furthermore. x3 / three coordinates xi. Let us consider (74): In the first place. 258.a maximum or minimum in ordinary calculus. and we shall give here the result:* only (74) + W .3. by choosing Cartesian coordinates. so that (74) would become (75) ~ in *For details.2. for ordinary threedimensional Euclidean space a would have three possible values: since we have here 1. X2. we would have ffll (see page == 1 89): 522 = ff33 = 1 and & = and therefore for /i ^ v which involves derivatives of the g'sf would be equal to zero. 196. 261 .. look up the references the footnote on p.
3) which is a short the three equations: / 77 \ (77) But what the is PHYSICAL MEANING we consider an observer of (77)? *lf who has chosen his coordinates in such a way that C/X2 C/Xl in = = C/X3 = 9 other words. and for whom the object standing still is therefore with reference to his ordinary spacecoordinates. of the nature of "time/" for this reason c/s is often called "the proper time" since it is a "time" itself.Now. then. That c/s is becomes to say.2. so that only time is changing for him. an observer who a is traveling with moving object. for the moving object 262 . for him (61 a) 2 becomes c/s 2 = = = 2 c/x4 2 or or c/s c/t c/s c/t. if in (75) we replace c/s by it dt * becomes (76) = 0 way of writing (* = 1.
by means of elementary differential calculus. if x. v2 instead of Furthermore. Xs x. va and vi . the motion is NOT uniform. z.vv . vy . by v = ds/dt are Or. v=s/t. express the velocity AT AN INSTANT. the projections of then _ e/x ~ _ ~ dy __ di in the abridged notation. . /. . and vx . and z s on the and Z axes. respectively. since acceleration is the change in velocity per unit of time. 3) where we use instead of xi. we can. motion.2. Y.Why. everyone knows (or uniform that. = ^ vx .Vz' ('=1. v. where v a it is the velocity with which body moves when goes a distance of 5 feet in t If seconds. X2 . 263 . y. and vz are the projections of v on the three axes. X.
s = at+ b. are applied to the special case of THREEDIMENSIONAL EUCLIDEAN SPACE.we have Jv or (78) a <T =^ 1. when the equations namely. and hence the acceleration must be zero. (74). which is the equation of A In STRAIGHT other words. by integrating again. for a geodesic. they lead to the (act that 264 . thus: itself or From or this we set. LINE.2 tr1 V* * I 2 * / 3) */ Thus (77) states that the components of the acceleration must be zero. v = by integrating. a constant. r and therefore = a constant.
in this special case IS THE GEODESIC A STRAIGHT LINE! We and hope (he reader is DELIGHTED NOT DISAPPOINTED is to get a result which so familiar to him. and hence (74) is THE PATH OF A PLANET for! which we are looking *Seep. and we hope in (74)! it gives him a friendly feeling of confidence And that of course he must realize (74) will work also for any nonEuclidean space. (74) represents the path of an object moving in the presence of matter (which merely makes the space nonEuclidean). 190. since may be given values. since it contains the little g's which characterize the space/* and for cr any dimensionality. with no external force acting upon the object. 265 . any number of In particular. in our fourdimensional nonEuclidean world.
by (67). r the values of \a/3 terms of X . (74) in Einsteinian physics is an abridged notation for FOUR equations. in Newtonian physics. The reader must bear that in mind whereas (76). f we therefore have [ct$ r a} in terms of and 0. and does not yet apply to GENERAL our particular physical world. is therefore not specific until we substitute the values of the g's and which apply in in a specific case the physical world. v . we have And. since e" = 7 and 7 is known in (see page 252) terms of r from (70). 266 . MORE ABOUT A Of a THE PATH OF PLANET. Further. course (74) is only expression. since the Christoffel symbol involves the g's.XXX. represents only three equations. A hence we know {&$ . r and 0. v . on the other hand. in Now in (64) . a}  v . <?} in terms of and 6.
2} Also.3.2}. by page 204. must sum on these as usual. {22. But. (or one of the equations of (74). and a and /3 each runs its course in from 1 to 4.2.4.2}. we see that most of these are zero. from (64).2}. [13. {24.2}. the value a = 2 .2}. 267 .2}. {12. =  sin0co$0. so that we must consider terms in we containing.2} = {12. {21. {14. etc which a always equals 2 . {21. {11.as its <J takes on FOUR Taking first possible values: 1. a and /? each occur TWICE the second term.2}. remembering that x2 = (see page 233). and. 2}. the following: /rn\ we a 2 (79) +{^} dx . the only ones remaining being and {33.2}. f ^ a dxa = ^  And since now. have. respectively. {23.
must move in a plane. eoi . 1 dr dd tm fl. just as in Newtonian physics. then j and cos0 = di and hence If we now substitute all these values in we see that this equation is satisfied. further._.. showing plane. that the path of the planet is in a Thus from (80) we have found out that a planet.Thus (79) becomes fftfYk <PO (80) + ./</</> . (80).. Y =0. Let us now examine (74) and see what tell the 3 remaining equations in us it about planetary motion: 263 . If in we now choose our such a way coordinates that an object begins moving 6 in the plane = = 7T/2 . according to Einstein. and hence thus = ir/2 is a solution of the equation.
= 3 . ~r = and sin0 = 1 . 269 .For <T = 1 . we get (83) ^ +F f** or as as o. hence this equation becomes And for a similarly. (79) sives ( 82 ) as 2 r as as and for cr = 4. (79) becomes Or But since then we have chosen In 6 = 7r/2 .
analogous to a Newtonian physics. and u 1/r. 270 . But it must be remembered that in Einsteinian physics. Eddington (the 1930 edition). W (84) ___ m A 5 == n where c and h are constants of integration. that is. And hence (84) would represent the path of *For details see page a planet. we get* 2 c/ u . for it is moving in the presence of matter. a planet moving around the sun. 86 in "The Mathematical Theory of Relativity/' by A. tosether with (70). (83). straight line in sense. and in a is therefore. S. and (71). owing to the Principle of Equivalence (Chapter XI).And now from (81). an object is constrained by any external force NOT even when as. Thus (84) represents the path of an object moving freely. example. not constrained by any external force. (82).
271 . but rather with the equations representing the path of a planet in in Newtonian physics. it move GRAVITATIONAL FORCE has in been shown Newtonian physics that a body 1 moving under a "central force/ (like a planet moving under the influence of the sun) moves in an ellipse.From this point of view we are not interested in comparing (84) with the straight line motion in Newtonian physics. __  m TO jLTsi * (85) * where r is " * the distance from the sun to the planet.* And the equations of this path are: 2 e/ u ~r u . *Sec Ziwct and Field: "Mechanics/* or any other book on mechanics. the planet is supposed to under the of the sun. with the central force (the sun) located at one of the foci. of course. which. m is the mass of the sun. as mentioned on page 270.
* Thus the we see that Newtonian equations (85) are really a first approximation to the Einstein equations (84). Let us now see is how the situation affected by the additional term 3mir. instead of dt in (84). They are indeed for IDENTICAL EXCEPT the presence of the term and of course the use of </s 3mu2. in time We notice at once the remarkable resemblance between (84) and (85). THE PERIHELION OF MERCURY.a is 4> is the semimajoraxis of the ellipse. XXXI. retraced each time the planet *See 262. Owing to the presence of the term 3mu2 (84) is no longer an ellipse but a kind of spiral in is which the path NOT p. that is why satisfactorily they worked so for so long. the angle swept out by the planet t. 272 .
shifted as shown the following diagram: in which is. S.makes but in is a complete revolution. the "perihelion/* that the point in the path nearest the sun. 273 . at the focus/ is at the first time around/ A at at 6 C the next time/ the next/ and so on.
274 .In a planet other words. Lest the reader think that the astronomers *For details see aqain in the Eddington's book referred to footnote of page 270. Now when is it is obvious that a planetary orbit very nearly CIRCULAR this shift in is the perihelion not observable. namely. but there is a slight shift in the entire path. the planet IS MERCURY. There is one. And the shift of the perihelion can be calculated by means of (84). however. this is unfortunately the situation with most of the planets. does not 30 round and round in the same path. each time around. and therefore can serve as a MEASURED method of TESTING the Einstein theory in actual fact. and in which this shift measurable.* This shift can also be experimentally.
thus leaving a shift of 43 seconds per century in UNACCOUNTED FOR the Newtonian theory. Think of the DELICACY 275 . that the discrepancy even in the case of Mercury is an arc of ONLY ABOUT 43 SECONDS PER CENTURY! Let us make clear what we mean by 19 "the discrepancy: when we say that the Newtonian theory requires the path of a planet to be an ellipse. the presence of other planets causes socalled "perturbations.can make only crude measurements. let us say in their defense. it must be understood that this would hold only if there were a SINGLE planet. whereas observation shows that the actual shift is 574 seconds." so that even according to Newton there would be shift in some the perihelion. But the amount of shift due to this cause has long been known to be 531 seconds of arc per century.
276 . S. DEFLECTION OF in A RAY OF LIGHT. worried them deeply since they could not account for the presence of this shift. QUITE INCIDENTALLY EXPLAINED THIS DIFFICULTY for the ALSO. in presence of the term 3mu' (84) leads to the additional shift of perihelion of 42.of the measurements and the patient persistence by by over a long period of years generations of astronomers is that represented the above figure! And this figure was known to astronomers It long before Einstein. see p.: the Special Theory of Relativity. And then the Einstein theory. Eddington. fFor the details of the calculation which leads from (84) to this correction of perihelion shift. We saw the previous chapter that the experimental evidence *See Part I.* with the intention and NOT AT ALL of explaining the shift in the perihelion of Mercury. 88 of the 1930 edition of 1 "The Mathematical Theory of Relativity/ by A. which originated in the attempt to explain the MichelsonMorley experiment.9"  ! XXXII.
277 . Whereas. but NOT upon a ray of light. This was in connection with the path of a ray of light as it passes near a large mass like the sun. according to classical physics. It will be remembered that according to the Einstein theory the presence of matter in space makes the space nonEuclidean and that the path of anything moving freely (whether it be a planet or a ray of light) will be along a geodesic in that space. Let us now consider further experimental verification of the theory. the force of gravitation could be exerted only by one mass (say the sun) upon another mass (say a planet). and immediately served as a check of the theory. and therefore will be affected by the presence of these obstacles in space. but this time the evidence did not precede but was PREDICTED BY the theory.in connection with shift of the the perihelion of at Mercury was already hand when Einstein's theory was proposed.
* as required by classical physics? Now to it is make this obviously impossible observation since under ordinary circumstances. even by classical theory. be the sun WOUL6 have a gravitational effect upon a ray of light. calculated even as DOES NOT AGREE we shall with experiment. itself: whose on account of the brightness of the sun Not only would the star be invisible.Here then was a definite difference in viewpoint between the two theories. was necessary were considered to wait for a total eclipse. 278 . 287). the AMOUNT of deflection on this basis. however. or does it continue on in a straight line. but the glare of the sun would make to it impossible direction at all. and the facts should decide between them. look so in that it And *lf. light to a stream of incandescent particles instead of waves. show later (see p. For this it was necessary to observe what happens to a ray of light coming from a distant star as is it it passes near the sun bent toward the sun. we cannot look at a star rays are passing near the sun. as predicted by Einstein.
since such an eclipse lasts only a few seconds. upon developing the the positions of the plates/ stars could be compared with their positions in the sky when the sun is present. NOT 279 . at the next total eclipse astronomical expeditions were sent out to those parts of the world where the eclipse could be advantageously observed/ and. so that afterwards. they had to be prepared to take photographs of the stars rapidly and clearly.when but the sun glare is is its up in the sky hidden by the moon. so that the stars become distinctly visible during the day. Therefore.
when the sun and the ray is deflected and becomes ACF . v4 . NOT And. from a star. 280 . when the sun is in that part of the sky. also.The following diagram shows B /A F the path of a ray of light. AOE . IS present.
AND IF they showed that all the stars in the part of the sky near the sun were really displaced (as from A to B) AND the IF MAGNITUDE of the displacements agreed with the values calculated by the theory. the star APPEARS to be at B.so that. we now we get if divide this expression but Jx c/y </z "~T i ~~r i ~~r are 281 . if such photographs could be successfully obtained. of Let us now determine the magnitude of this displacement as predicted by the Einstein theory: We that in have seen (on page 233) 1 the "Special Theory of Relativity/ in which applies 2 c/s EUCLIDEAN spacetime. 2  cW  2 (c/x + c/y + by 2 c/z )/ 2 cfc . when viewed from F. then of course this would constitute in favor very strong evidence the Einstein theory. Thus.
Using the same device for space of higher dimensions. we were aided by the Euclidean plane which practically coincided with the given surface in that small region. and the above equation becomes: a . 118) that in studying a nonEuclidean twodimensional space (namely. But what about our NONEUCLIDEAN containing matter? It will be remembered (see p. v moving thing (see p. such as our world is. studying a small region of NONEuclidean fourdimensional spacetime. c/$ = 0. of = c Now when 1* the "moving thing a lightray. world. also utilize the EUCLIDEAN 4dimensionaI spacetime which 282 .the components of the velocity. FOR LIGHT. happens to be then v = c . then obviously the above quantity in brackets is v2. and we get. we in can. 263). the surface of a sphere) in a certain small region.
we must add the further requirement: = 0. in Substituting c/s the second equation of (84). in as we pointed out Chapter XXXII. on page 261 .practically coincides with in that small region. (84). A using this result in (71). 283 . DEFLECTION OF A LIGHT (Continued) RAY OF In chapters XXIX and we the condition for a geodesic XXX showed that given on page led to (74). it And hence will in apply our FOR LIGHT even NONEUCLIDEAN world. the 260 which. we shall obtain THE PATH OF A RAY OF LIGHT. together with little g's of (71) gave us the path of a planet. together with the condition (or a geodesic. XXXIII. And now. And in now. order to find the path of A RAY OF c/s LIGHT.
S. integration* gives. 284 . and so. it becomes And. neglecting the x terms on the right in the above formula. + for the equation of the curve 2 y on page 280. 1930 edition. A RAY OF LIGHT.we get which changes the first equation of (84) to which is the required PATH OF And by this. Now. the asymptotes of the curve may be found by taking y very large by comparison with x . in rectangular coordinates. since a (page 280) is a very small angle. *For details see page 90 of Eddinston's "The Mathematical Theory of Relativity/' the A.
a being its value in small. we get tana from which it is = 4/?m 4m 2 fl2 easy to find . 285 . what in in is the actual value of the case under discussion. which R = and the radius of the sun m is its mass? *For the proof of this see any book on calculus. and mi and m> are the slopes of the two lines. sin a R 4m + 4m2/R And.using the familiar formula for the angle between two lines (see any book on tan OL Analytics): __ mi ~~~ iii2 f where a is the desired angle. or look up a table of trigonometric functions. radian measure is equal to so that sin a * we now have /O/A (86) a = R 4m + 4mVR a  Now.
is and again onesixtieth of that tSee page 315.75 seconds. 4m 2 may be comparison with so that (86) reduces to the very simple equation: 4m from which we easily get 1 a = In it . 286 . the reader will stop a a displacement of an angle of 1. 280. other words. in the figure on p.47 kilometers neglected by /?. f 1.75 seconds! If moment to consider how small is an angle of even one DEGREE. was predicted by the Einstein theory that. as shown and that. a ray of light passing near the sun would be bent into a curve (ACF). and then consider that onesixtieth of that is an angle of one MINUTE.000 kilometers.Since and m= R = 697. consequently a star at A would APPEARtobeatB.
he should. small is he a will realize how 1 displacement of . the trouble that the reader has been put to. to find out the issue. far from losing his respect and faith in scientific method. according to the Newtonian theory.75 seconds! Furthermore.an angle of one SECOND. that. *See the footnote on p.* the displacement would be only half of that! And it is this TINY difference that must distinguish between the two After all theories. the all more filled with ADMIRATION AND WONDER to think that experimental work IS that in astronomy SO ACCURATE 278. ON be THE CONTRARY. And perhaps he thinks that a decision based on so small a difference can scarcely be relied upon! But we wish to point out to him. 287 . perhaps he is disappointed to learn how small is the difference between the predictions of Newton and Einstein.
11" and 1. for this displacement: 1.1 5". the 1922 expedition of the Lick Observatory. 288 . in *See also the discrepancy the shift of the perihelion of Mercury. respectively. as. values which have since been confirmed at other eclipses.1 2" and 1. who using obtained. and that they DO distinguish between the two theories and decide in favor of the DO as Einstein theory. for example. is shown by the British following figures: The gave expeditions.30". the results of Campbell and Trumpler. 1.72" in 0. that So all by now physicists agree that the conclusions are beyond question.82" 0.61 "0. in 1919. to Sobral and Principe.98" 0. two different cameras.these small quantities* are measured WIFH PERFECT CONFIDENCE. on page 275.
by XXXIV. closing this chapter. without any of the stupid racial prejudices then (and alas! still) in rampant the world. from reminding the reader that 191 9 was right after World War and that Einstein was then classified dS a I. THE THIRD OF THE "CRUCIAL PHENOMENA. And it must be remembered that the Einstein theory was 289 . the experimental data for which was known long before Einstein BUT NEVER BEFORE EXPLAINED. went to a great deal of trouble to equip and send out expeditions to test a theory 11 an "enemy. 11 We have already seen that two of the consequences from the Einstein theory were completely experiment: (1) verified by One. GERMAN scientist. concerning the shift of the perihelion of Mercury. and yet. the British scientists.We in cannot refrain.
it to QUITE INCIDENTALLY! (2) The other. It was never suspected before Einstein that a ray of light when passing near the sun would be bent. XXXIII). Now there was still another consequence of this theory which could be tested experimentally. see the footnote on 278. concerning the bending of a ray of light as it passes near the sun. Everyone probably knows that if you hang a triangular glass prism in the sunlight. according to Einstein. QUANTITATIVELY as well as QUALITATIVELY (see Chap. The explanation of this phenomenon p.* It was for the first time theory. In order to appreciate it we must say something about spectra.NOT expressly designed explain but did this shift. to everyone's surprise. PREDICTED by was actually this and. *But. will appear on the wall where the light strikes after it has come through the prism. like a rainbow. verified by experiment. 290 . a band of different colors.
XXXIII. light. *This is bending of a light ray called "refraction. if it is "composite" light. 291 .is quite simple. as may be seen from the diagram: A When it a beam of white light. strikes the prism ABC." to and has nothing do with the bending discussed in Ch. like sunlight or any other white of which is composed light of different colors (or different wavelengths).* Furthermore. is but bent. D. SD. does the NOT continue in SAME direction. The reader may look up "refraction" in any book on elementary physics.
the light from 5 1 is "monochromatic/ that is. namely. shown. being deflected least. since the amount of bending. we have instead of a "rainbow/* a single bright line on XY . light of a SINGLE wavelength only. as shown in the diagram on p. by the time they reach the wall. depends upon the color or wavelength of the light in question. 292 . the light of longest wavelength. instead of "composite. Now may be obtained such monochromatic light from the incandescent vapor of a chemical element thus sodium.each constituent bends a different amount. and when these constituents reach the other side." like sunlight. 291. red. so that. as we said above. burns with a light of a certain definite wavelength. Now. they are bent again. of the prism. BC. as XY . the colors are all separated out. if obviously. when heated. having a DEFINITE position. characteristic of sodium. Hence the rainbowcolored spectrum.
vibration. since each atom has a definite period of vibration. it is a sort of natural clock as c/s. thus giving rise to a DEFINITE color is which i visible in DEFINITE so. And if you look at a spectrum you can tell from the bright lines in it just what substances are present at 5. disturbance being a lightwave of definite wavelength corresponding to the period of vibration. 293 . Now then.And This similarly (or other elements. cause a disturbance in the medium around this it. in vibrating. and should serve a measure for c/s an "interval" Thus take be the interval between the beginning and end of one and eft the time this takes. using space coordinates such that dr= S= d<t> = 0. according to Einstein. position in the spectrum. to or the "period" of vibration. and. is explained as follows: The atoms of each element vibrate with a certain DEFINITE period of vibration. then. characteristic of that substance.
is m and r would then have to be the mass and radius of the earth. c/s is INDEPENDENT of the atom/ then. Now. similarly. But since ds the spacetime interval between the beginning and end of a vibration.that is. where 7 = 2/n  (see p. the coordinates of an observer for whom the atom is vibrating at the origin of his space coordinates (in other words. say. and so on: Thus 7 DEPENDS upon is the location of the atom. an observer traveling with the atom). if is an atom of. if an atom of the substance vibrating near the earth. we for should have to substitute m and r the mass and radius of the sun/ and. as judged by an observer consequently of the location traveling with the atom. equation (71) becomes <tf = yd? 1 or c/s= Vydt. since 294 . sodium vibrating near the sun. 253).
on the other hand. though sodium from a source in a laboratory gives rise to a line in a definite part of the spectrum.obviously eft would have to be DEPENDENT UPON THE LOCATION. a bright line in a would then give part of the spectrum from that ordinarily due to sodium. And now let us see a HOW MUCH of and whether it is change in the period of vibration is predicted by the Einstein theory borne out by the facts: If Jt and dt' represent the periods of vibration near the sun and the earth. light of a and hence would emit wavelength. according to the above reasoning. then or 295 . respectively. which. Thus. sodium on the sun. would have a DIFFERENT DIFFERENT DIFFERENT period of vibration.
using the values of and R given on page 286. 296 .* m 7? m Or. 2m R _ ~ <( . qet get we This result implies that an atom of a given substance should have a slightly LONGER is is when when it it period of vibration near the sun than near the earth. and hence a slightly LONGER wavelength and therefore its lines SHIFTED should be a little toward the of the spectrum (see p. 286). 292). hence cfc & V^un J.Now Tearth is very nearly 1 1 . ^Neglecting higher powers of A since p is very small (see the values of m and R on p. . _ !l m* _ f T + . RED end This was a most unexpected result! and since the amount of shift was so slight.
which has a relatively LARGE MASS thus and SMALL RADIUS. on the S. similar Furthermore. BUT FIN ALLY. experiments were performed by W. the very careful measurements made by Evershed definitely settled the issue IN FAVOR OF THE Adams known as EINSTEIN THEORY. and this caused many physicists to doubt the validity of the Einstein theory. star the companion to Sirius. Here too the verdict was definitely IN FAVOR OF THE that EINSTEIN THEORY! So today 297 . For several years after Einstein announced this result (1917) experimental observations on this point were doubtful. in 1927.it made the experimental verification very difficult. making the ratio S7eft 1 +r much in larger than the case of the sun (see p. which we have already discussed. 296) and therefore easier to observe experimentally. in spite of its other triumphs.
* (b) the shift in the perihelion of Mercury (see Ch. EXPLAINED FACTS NOT EXPLAINED AT ALL BY PREVIOUS THEORIES such (a) as: The MichelsonMorley experiment. (c) the increase in mass of an electron (3) IT when in motion. f PREDICTED FACTS The bending of a NOT PREVIOUSLY KNOWN AT ALLlight ray passing near the sun (see Ch. "The Special Theory.) (Seep. which/ in turn. 11 tSee Chap. led to the ATOMIC BOMB! ff. (b) The shift of lines in the spectrum (see p.all physicists are agreed that the Einstein theory marks a definite step forward for: (1) IT EXPLAINED PREVIOUSLY KNOWN FACTS MORE ADEQUATELY THAN PREVIOUS THEORIES DID (2) IT (seep. 298 . XXXI). (a) when (c) The identity of mass and energy. 296). 318 And by and all this using VERY FEW *See Part I. 103). XXXII). VIII.
without regard to the special conditions mentioned in I. study the universe from their different points of view and yet obtain the II. 97). In it the SPECIAL Relativity Theory was shown that two different observers. under certain SPECIAL conditions. in the slightest degree "farfetched" or "forced." not And what greater service can any physical theory render than this ! We has trust that the reader this little been led by book to have a sufficient insight into the issues involved. I. this democratic hold also for was found to ANY two observers.VERY REASONABLE hypotheses (see p. 299 . and to appreciate the great breadth and fundamental importance of THE EINSTEIN THEORY OF RELATIVITY! XXXV. In SAME LAWS and the SAME the GENERAL Theory. SUMMARY. result FACTS. may.
To accomplish this Einstein introduced the PRINCIPLE by which the idea of a OF EQUIVALENCE. by means of which the CURVATURE TENSOR was derived. beautifully! And READ AGAIN pages 298 and 299 1 300 .III. FORCE OF GRAVITY was replaced by the idea of the CURVATURE OF A SPACE. IV. The study of this curvature required the machinery of the TENSOR CALCULUS. V. This led immediately to the NEW LAW OF GRAVITATION THREE CRUCIAL which was tested by the PHENOMENA and found to work VI.
THE MORAL .
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by more human. OBSERVATIONAL 303 . of.THE Since man has been so successful MORAL can we in science. There NOTHING ABSOLUTE Absolute space and absolute time have been shown to be myths. not learn from THE SCIENTIFIC and WAY OF is THINKING. We must replace these old ideas concepts. what the human mind HOW is capable it achieves SUCCESS: in science.
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II. But what we observe is profoundly influenced by the state of the observer. various observers may still study the universe WITH EQUAL RIGHT AND EQUAL the SUCCESS. 305 . in spite of these differences. and therefore various observers get widely different results even in their measurements of time and length! Ill However. and CAN AGREE on what are to be called LAWS of the universe.
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STREAMLINED. 307 . POWERFUL MATHEMATICS.IV. To accomplish this we need MORE MATHEMATICS THAN EVER BEFORE. MODERN.
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309 . VI. Thus a combination of PRACTICAL REALISM (OBSERVATIONALISM) and IDEALISM (MATHEMATICS). and not by any casual child who thinks that the world may be changed as easily as rolling off a log.V. we know that they are subject to change and we are thus PREPARED FOR CHANGE. But these changes are in science NOT the made WANTONLY. BUT CAREFULLY by BEST AND CAUTIOUSLY MINDS and HONEST HEARTS. TOGETHER have achieved SUCCESS. And knowing that the laws are MANMADE.
/ = x' sinfl + / cos0. .'.+ x smO /  ' y co$0 /.WOULD YOU ARE DERIVED: LIKE TO KNOW? (20) HOW THE EQUATIONS ON PAGE 61 x . x = = = a cosfl (x' =  (x' fc) cos0 y' tanfl) cos0 x' cos? y' sinf?. \f y^cfc/^ f COSC^ ^+ } a sinfl = y cosO + i (* ~ a / = .
L .HOW THE FAMOUS MAXWELL EQUATIONS LOOK: X Y Z represent the f f components of the ELECTRIC FORCE at a point x . 311 . of the at the MAGNETIC FORCE at same point and the same instant. t. y . M N represent the components . z in an electromagnetic field/ at a given instant.
any choice that of the covariant vector Aa / To prove Now it since X XA a is a tensor: is a contravariant vector. or product two tensors.III. theorem may be quite easily proved This as follows: Given for that XA a is known to be a contravariant vector. IS ITSELF A TENSOR. etc. Or (3) See if it satisfies the following theorem: A QUANTITY WHICH ON INNER MULTIPLICATION BY ANY COVARIANT VECTOR (OR ANY CONTRAVARIANT VECTOR) ALWAYS GIVES A TENSOR. (1 8). difference. HOW TO JUDGE WHETHER A SET OF QUANTITIES IS A We TENSOR 9R NOT: may apply various criteria: (1) See if it satisfies any of the definitions of tensors of various character and rank given in (1 6).. etc. (1 7). 312 . must obey (16). or in (32). (31). or in (30). thus: (X Aft) = (XA a ). etc. Or (2) See of if it is the sum.
yr A Af _ /A/9 dx. hence XI _ which C'X^ ~ ' C/X0 ax T oxa ^ y A satisfies (1 7). by substitution. Now is let us show that the set of little g's in (42) a tensor: 313 . And Thus if XA = B.but A' s = X y hence. thus proving that X must be a CONTRAVARIANT TENSOR OF RANK TWO. dXfl ' \ dx y ox a ^ /i/sA Ary or j/ S\0 /y/ VA 3x5 3x^ y\ AI "^ 6xT 3xa TV~~ _ ^ v. a tensor of the form and so on. y then X must be a tensor of the form / similarly for other cases: and then if XA* = Barp a C^ C rp / X must be .. But /A^ does not have to be zero.
by the same theorem. A COVARIANT And. A COVARIANT OF RANK TWO. 52. but A CONTRAVARIANT hence. VECTOR. again. a contravariant vector. gMI dx^ must be TENSOR OF RANK ONE. 128). then the righthand A of (42) 1 is also TENSOR OF RANK ZERO/ c/x. then. since C/XM is by the theorem on page 312. . and therefore it is g^ must be TENSOR appropriate to write it with as TWO SUBscripts of we have been doing in anticipation this proof. 314 . is. by 5) on p.SCALAR i. Knowing that 2 c/s is a A TENSOR OF RANK ZERO member (1 (see p.e.
315 . 219). and so on. Now. F m j. the "dimensionality" of 2 an acceleration is i/7 . hence fcmm' 2 _ m . the mass of the sun. the mass of the earth. and r the distance between them. and Time: Thus the "dimensionality" of a velocity is L/T. j or m = v r2 i. Therefore. Length. in Newtonian physics. m and j also. WHY MASS CAN KILOMETERS: BE EXPRESSED IN The reader may be surprised to see the mass expressed in kilometers! But it may seem more reasonable" from the following considerations: In order to decide in what units a quantity we must in is expressed 14 consider its "dimensionality terms of the fundamental units of Mass.. the force of attraction which the sun exerts being F = is upon the 2 earth where m fcmm'/f (see p. being the centripetal acceleration of the earth toward the sun (another one of the fundamental laws of Newtonian mechanics).IV.
L m is L = V 'r p since a constant. published by the Galois Institute of Mathematics of Long Island University in Brooklyn. is a very important tool in scientific thinking). N. Y. like V. 316 ..the "dimensionality" of . A. mass also So far as considerations of "dimensionality" are concerned/ the same result holds true also for Einsteinian physics. he enjoy reading a paper on "Dimensional Analysis" by will Dr. If the reader has never before this encountered idea of "dimensionality" (which. by the way. N. has no "dimensionality/* And now if we the time take as a unit of time/ it takes light to go a distance of one kilometer/ n of time and M a call this unit kilometer (thus 300/000 kilometers would equal one second/ since in light goes 300/000 kilometers one second)/ we may express the "dimensionality" of 3 2 L /T or simply / then thus m thus: we may in express kilometers. Lowan.
31 r + If this mathematics BORES you BE SURE TO READ 317 PAGES 318323! . HOW Gu LOOKS IN FULL: 13.3)131.V.
= me tells us Thus. for inelastic collision. even though they are the same still/ what we consider to be even a SMALL MASS ENORMOUS when translated is into ENERGY terms. the resulting loss of mass would release a tremendous amount of energy! And so various methods were devised AN ATOM by scientists like Meitner. the Theory of Relativity not only that mass and energy are one and the same but that. as for elastic collision.THE ATOMIC BOMB is: We saw on p. for then sum of the masses of the parts is LESS than the mass of the original atom. the square of the velocity of light! 2 How to get at this great storehouse of energy locked up in atoms and use it to heat our homes. But. if one could split atoms. to drive our cars and planes. m. so that a mass as tiny as an atom has a tremendous amount of energy the multiplying factor being c . and therefore Fo . Frisch. fo will also remain unchanged. 78 that the energy which a body has when fo at rest. Fermi. and so on and so on? Now. this is and the the situation IS when SPLIT UP. and others 318 . Thus. so long as m is constant. will change.
S. power by the ENEMY of the human the President naturally saw the importance of having these experiments conducted where there was some hope that they would be used to END the war and to PREVENT by future wars instead of those who set out to take over the earth for themselves alone! Thus the ATOMIC BOMB in was born the U. 1940. to a tremendous amount of energy.to It "bombard was Finally 11 atoms. whose combined mass is less than the mass of the uranium atom itself. shown that when Uranium atoms were bombarded with neutrons* these atoms split up ("fission") into two nearly equal parts. as the Einstein formula shows. And now has that a practical method of releasing this energy been developed. 319 . Harvard University Press. the MORAL is obvious: it We MUST scientific realize that has become too dangerous to fool around with GADGETS.A. thus released by the fission! When Einstein warned President Roosevelt terrific that such experiments might lead to the acquisition of new sources of race. this loss in mass being equivalent. is WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING in the MORALITY which * Read about these amazing experiments in "Why Smash Atoms?" by A. K. Solomon.
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Mathematics SAM. Art. by regarding him merely as for Even using the atomic energy "peaceful" pursuits. We must SERIOUSLY EXAMINE SAM FROM THIS VIEWPOINT. *See our book "The Education of of this vital point. u lc wise guys refused to take it but many have seriously. and have distorted meaning! its And now. IC Mits" for a further discussion 321 . These are NOT mere idle words. we are is getting ANOTHER CHANCE SAM we now also warning us that MUST UNDERSTAND is the MORALITY for which HE now offering us. And he will not stand our failure to accept a source of gadgets! it.* Religion has offered us a Morality.Science. We and must ROOT OUT the DOCTRINE is AND DANGEROUS that SAM amoral FALSE is indifferent to Good and Evil. for short.
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So DO NOT or BE AN you ANTISAMITE. SAM will get with his atomic bombs. and the Beautiful which are in his mind and heart. will NOT satisfy SAM. moreover. He if is so anxious to HELP us only we would IT listen BEFORE IS TOO LATE! 323 . And. he is giving clear new and meanings to 1 these fine old ideas which even the sceptical 11 "wise guys will find irresistible.like heating the furnaces our homes/ IS in and NOT ENOUGH. is For he desperately trying his to prevent us from merely picking pockets to get at the gadgets in them/ and is begging us to see the Good/ the True. his cyclotrons/ and all his new whatnots.
1945 by Albert (12) "The Law of Gravitation in Relativity" by Levinson and Zeisler.. (2) The original paper ment: Philosophical Magazine. Oxford.. Pub. by Blackie & Calculus" by Son. N. Chicago. Pub. Y. Y. Tolman. (3) "The Theory of Relativity" by R.SOME INTERESTING READING: (1) "The Principle of Relativity" by Albert Einstein and Published by Methuen and Company. Co. London. of L. by (7) Articles in the Enc. Brit. (6) S. C. by Univ. and "Relativity" by J. by Dutton & Relativity" Co. on the MichelsonMorley experi24 (1887). S. Levi (10) "Calculus of Variations" by G. (11) "The Meaning of Relativity" Princeton University Press. Others. Y. (8) "Relativity Thermodynamics and Cosmology" by Pub. (1931). N. R. Eddington. by Clarendon Press. Cambridge University Press (1930). Pub. (5) "Relativity" by Albert Einstein. P. by John Wiley & Sons. Court Pub. T. London. (4) "The Mathematical Theory of Relativity" by A. A. on: "Aberration of Light" by A. Jeans. Bolton. of Chicago Press. 324 . Absolute Differential Pub. Smith. (9) "The Civita.. Bliss. Vol.. Published by Peter "An Introduction to the Theory E.. 14" ed. D. N. Eddington. Carmichael. Open Einstein.
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