Networking Standards and References

Standards 
Plays an important role in networking.  Without standards, manufacturers of
networking products have no common ground on which to build their systems.  Interconnecting products from various vendors would be difficult, if not impossible.

Reference and Standard-Setting StandardOrganizations 
There are several sources for standards.
Vendors may provide standards and references. Anybody who ever purchased in IBM clone can testify to that. Also standards may be created by organizations devoted to setting them up. Among the most well known are the International Organization for Standardization (called by the old acronym of ISO) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE or "I triple-E"). triple-

1. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 
The ISO was founded in 1946 and is currently
headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.  Its mission at its inception was to create international standards regarding the threads of screws used for manufacturing world-wide. As worldneeds for other standards arose, the ISO (then called the International Standards Organization, hence, ISO) stepped in to handle the task, and their influence crept into all areas of manufacturing and services.

1. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)- Con¶t. (ISO)in the electrical and electronics area.  Many of the standards set up in those areas were created by an older standards-setting standardsorganization called the International Electrotechnical Commission, or IEC, also based in Geneva.  However, the ISO has responded to the needs of computing standards by forming a joint committee with the IEC dealing with information technology. 

The primary focus for the ISO hasn't really been

1. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)- Con¶t. (ISO)though they did not necessarily create them but borrowed them from other sources .  An example is the 802 series of standards developed by IEEE and reissued by the ISO as the ISO 8802 protocols. These deal with subjects such as Ethernet LANs and token ring LANs.  The International Organization for Standardization is made up of over 160 technical committees with over 2,300 subcommittees across the globe. Most of these committees work with national standards organizations from several countries. All told, there are over 75 of these national groups. 

The ISO has published networking standards even

1. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)- Con¶t. (ISO) Perhaps the most notable contribution that the
ISO has provided to networking is the OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection).  The OSI model basically details all the functions of networking and provides a framework in which all vendors around the world can create systems that can communicate with one another. All networking vendors to some degree have adopted and supported the OSI standards.

2. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
standards area of networking. This organization is huge with over 300,000 members made up of engineers, technicians, scientists, and students in related areas.  The Computer Society of IEEE alone has over 100,000 members. IEEE is credited with having provided definitive standards in local area networking.  These standards fall under a group of standards known as the 802 Project executed by the Computer Society's 802 subcommittee. 

The IEEE has done notable work in the

2. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) ± Con¶t. 
The 802 standards were the culmination of work
performed by the subcommittee starting in 1980.  The first published work was 802.1 which specified a framework for LANs and internetworking.  This was followed in 1985 with specific LANLANoriented standards titled 802.2 - 802.5.  . Most of the work performed by the 802 Project committee revolves around the first two layers of the OSI model initiated by the ISO.

Here is a summary of what committees there are and what standards areas are being defined within IEEE: 

802 IEEE committee responsible for setting
standards concerning cabling, physical topologies, logical topologies and physical access methods for networking products. The Computer Society of IEEE's 802 Project Committee is divided into several subcommittees that deal with specific standards in these general areas. Specifically the Physical layer and the Data Link layer of the ISO's OSI model are addressed.

connectivity.  802.1B This set of standards specifically addressed network management.  802.1D Standards for bridges used to connect various types of LANs together were set up with 802.1D.  802.2 Called the Logical Link Control (LLC) standards, this specification governs the communication of packets of information from one device to another on a network. Specifically it deals with communication, not access to the network itself.

Here is a summary of what committees there are and what standards areas are being defined within IEEE: - Con¶t.  802.1 This work defines an overall picture of LANs and

Here is a summary of what committees there are and what standards areas are being defined within IEEE: - Con¶t. network for multiple topology systems using Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). A prime example is Ethernet and StarLAN systems. These LAN types operate at 10 Mb/sec.  802.4 Standards developed for a token-passing tokenscheme on a bus topology. The primary utilizer of this specification was the Manufacturing Automation Protocol LANs developed by General Motors. Operates at 10 Mb/sec. 

802.3 Defines the way data has access to a

Here is a summary of what committees there are and what standards areas are being defined within IEEE: - Con¶t.  802.5 This standard defines token ring systems. It involves the token-passing concept on a ring tokentopology with twisted pair cabling. IBM's token ring system uses this specification. The speed is either 4 Mb/sec or 16 Mb/sec.  802.6 Metropolitan Area Networks are defined by this group. MANs are networks that are larger than LANs typically falling within 50 kilometers. They operate at speeds ranging from 1 Mb/sec up to about 200 Mb/sec.  802.7 These are standards concerning broadband LANs.

Here is a summary of what committees there are and what standards areas are being defined within IEEE: - Con¶t. 

802.8 This group sets up standards for LANs
using fiber optic cabling and access methods.  802.9 This specification covers voice and digital data integration.  802.10 These members set standards for interoperable security.  802.11 Wireless LANs are the subject of this particular subcommittee's works. Both infrared and radio LANs are covered.

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