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Sierra Writing Center

Term Paper Handbook for MLA Format 2009 Update

<http://www. Paris. 2009. Updated September 2009 Sierra College. 10 Sept. Cover Art: Mark of the Publisher Gillet Hardouin. 2000. 7th edition. California . Rocklin. Source: Medieval Woodcuts Clipart Collection.htm>.CONTENTS MLA Style Research Paper 1-8 First Page Format 1 Pagination 1 Sample First Page 2 Parenthetical Citations—Overview 3 Quoting 3 Sample Page with Block Quotation 4 Parenthetical Citations (with Examples) 5-6 Works Cited Format 7 Sample Works Cited Page 8 MLA Style Documentation Models for a Works Cited Page 9-13 Book 9 Chapter or Work in a Book 9 Article or Definition in a Reference Book 10 Scholarly Journal Article 10 Magazine Article 10 Advertisement 10 Newspaper Article 11 Article from an Online Database 11 Reprint of an Article in a Volume of Literary Criticism on a Database 11 Internet Site or Home Page 12 Internet Document on a Website 12 Online Encyclopedia 12 Book on the Internet 13 Work of Visual Art 13 Personal Interview 13 Lecture 13 DVD or Video 13 This handbook includes updated formats from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.godecookery.com/clipart/ people/clpeop56. 2009. James L Matterer. Web.

Pagination Your last name and page number should appear in a header in the upper right-hand corner. It consists of your name. The first line of the essay is double-spaced from the title and indented one half-inch (one pre-set tab). quoted. with one space between your name and the page number. one inch from the top of the page. The first letters of the main words should be capitalized. The heading begins in the upper-left corner. underlined. Center the title. The title should not be boldfaced. one half inch from the top of all pages. and the date. the course. Double space all information. or italicized. the instructor's name. 1 . First Page Format The first page of an MLA style paper must include a heading. Double space from the last line of the heading to the title.MLA STYLE RESEARCH PAPER Some important aspects of the Modern Language Association (MLA) style paper are exemplified in the following sample pages of a student's research paper.

Schuman extends the concept of interlanguage. This sentence from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights means. creole is a technical term meaning a language which comes into being through contact between two or more languages" (50). naim dem born free and dem de equal for dignity and di rights wey we get " ("Dis Come" 18). Creoles form when speakers of different languages live in close contact and must communicate in a common language. a separate . . like all human languages. Researchers notice similarities between creoles and second language learning. . Robert Krohn English 2 28 May 2009 Second Language Acquisition and Creole Languages "Everi human being.Lerner 1 Margaret Lerner Prof." in one of the many creole languages found around the world. Whinnom calls them both forms of "linguistic hybridization" (91). comparing it to the creation of a creole. vocabulary. "usually creoles come about through a situation of partial language learning" (51). As Sebba points out. Caribbean creoles developed when speakers of different African languages had to communicate with each other in English." but linguists have found that creoles. "Implications" 145). are governed by their own grammatical rules. Some might think of this as "broken English. Creoles are sometimes described as mixed languages. For example. English-based creoles take much of their vocabulary from English. nevertheless genuine linguistic system" (Schumann. "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. He defines interlanguage not as "mistakes or deviant forms. . and oral traditions can be traced to Africa" (Sebba 51). . Creole languages may help us to understand second language acquisition as a process of creating and refining an individual's language system. Sebba explains. . "In linguistics. "while elements of the pronunciation. [but] . grammar.

Whenever you include information in your paper from another source. An example of this method appears on page 4 of the sample student paper. These are common examples of how parenthetical citations occur. you must use quotation marks (" "). Quoting When you copy exact words that you find in a text. (Sebba 51) and (Schumann. sentence.Parenthetical Citations—Overview If you are not familiar with parenthetical citations. use the block quotation method. When you use a quotation of an indirect source—that is. Double space blocked quotations like the rest of the paper. You will also find the following examples: Sebba . On page 1 the first parenthetical citation reads ("Dis Come" 18). You must copy the word(s). your source has quoted from another source—you must include the name of the original speaker or writer of the quotation and cite the source where you found it. or passage precisely as it appears. then carried to the normal margin on the right. The original speaker or writer of the words may be identified in the sentence or in the parenthetical citation. "Implications" 145). A blocked quotation is indented one inch (two tabs) from the left margin. study the examples that occur throughout this student essay. Study the sample student paper. ask a Writing Center staff member for clarification. For passages longer than four lines. . for a clearer understanding of this method. and you must be sure to give credit to the author in the form of a parenthetical citation and on your Works Cited page. . (50). if no author) in the parenthetical citation. If you have further questions. The in-text parenthetical citation and the Works Cited page correlate. you must give credit to that source. and study the following pages on parenthetical citations. including the Works Cited page. Put the abbreviation qtd. 3 . in (meaning quoted in) before your source's author (or title. This credit occurs within the text in the form of a parenthetical citation and at the end of the paper on the Works Cited page.

seeing SLA as just one aspect of acculturation ("Acculturation" 27). However. He concludes that the degree of a learner's acculturation could not . not to instrumental motivation. the wish to become part of the target language culture. On closer examination. so she does not take into account that people successfully learn English as a foreign language through instruction. in Kaspar and Rose 19). the findings seem to show that social factors are not as important as motivation. later research has not supported this model. Therefore it can be hypothesized that the amount and kind of motivation the second language learner has plays a decisive role in the degree to which he will acculturate toward the "model" language group and accounts for his degree of linguistic development toward the "model" language.Lerner 4 psychological factor of motivation has the highest correlation with level of development of negation. Like Schumann. the desire to achieve a goal such as career advancement (Gardner and Lambert 17). We can surmise that such learners have an instrumental motivation since they are not living in contact with the target language culture. Schumann asserts that acculturation is the cause of second language acquisition. Stauble limits her discussion to "natural" language acquisition. Schmidt reports that factors including "high integrative motivation to use the second language for communication have led to a considerable increase in overall communicative competence but have had little effect on improved grammatical competence" (qtd. (50) This assertion applies only to what psychologists call integrative motivation. however. Stauble reasons: Based on the results of this questionnaire a learner's motivational orientation is the determining factor in this notion of parallel development between acculturation and language development. Schumann uses these findings to argue that acculturation is the main factor in language acquisition ("Acculturation" 27).

On Becoming 123-26). 4. 5 . the decade from 1958 to 1968 was a time of many civil rights demonstrations (119). Example: “If you are a beginning writer. The citation should follow the end quotation marks for a short quotation but precede the sentence punctuation. however. If there are more than three authors. provide the author’s last name and the page numbers with no punctuation between them. A parenthetical citation should appear at the end of a direct quotation. give all their last names. 3. Example: An aspiring novelist should be fluent in more than one language (Gardner. When the author or title is named in your text. you may mistakenly believe you are a poor writer because you cannot produce a final copy on your first try” (Markline et al. If a work has two or three authors. Example: “The period from 1958 to 1968 marked the most active years in the United States for demonstrations and actions that opened up opportunities for black Americans” (Jacobs 199). 2. Example: According to Jacobs. you may list all the authors’ last names or use the first author’s last name followed by the Latin et al. paraphrase. paraphrase or summary to indicate which source you have used. In a blocked quotation. 101). the punctuation precedes the citation.Parenthetical Citations (with Examples) A formal MLA style research paper requires both in-text parenthetical citations and a Works Cited page at the end of the paper. you must list the name of the work (shortened title) in the parenthetical citation. you do not need to repeat it in the parenthetical citation. as well as inform the reader of the location (page numbers) in the source from which your quotation. 1. Parenthetical citations must easily guide readers from the cited material in your text to the correct source on your Works Cited page. When the author or title is not named in your text. or summary was taken. When your Works Cited page contains two or more works by the same author.

quote and capitalize the word. 6 . which relies on plot and action (Gardner 333. 8. Gardner speaks of the nature of those who write fiction. Example: One chapter reports that the serious writer is always well-disciplined (“Writing Life” 16). Example: Two works on writing fiction point out that characterdriven plots tend to be more literary." Modern). 6. To cite a dictionary definition. Example: The National Audubon Society found significant changes in its annual bird count that may reflect global warming. loss. If the name is long. Example: Perry's use of the word liberal refers to education in the liberal arts ("Liberal. If the author of your resource material is a public or private organization. Example: Novelist Donald Samson said his first novel was ignored by the critics. Information from a personal interview is cited by using the source’s last name in the parentheses. 10. Example: In On Becoming a Novelist. If you refer to information from an entire text. cite each source by author and page number. No parenthetical citation is necessary if the source’s name is included in the text. add another piece of information from the source to differentiate the two: Examples: Dickinson was a recluse who did not accept change ("Emily. and sales tend to be less than for genre fiction. If you cite two anonymous works with the same title. 7. 11. To refer to material from two different sources. you do not need to cite the page numbers. use it in the text so as to avoid a lengthy parenthetical citation. 9. Among Dickinson's most prevalent themes are death. Harris 324). and separate the two with a semicolon. rather than just part of it. following it with a comma and the number of the definition.5." Dictionary). cite the work by the organization’s name. and regeneration ("Emily. An anonymous work must be cited by a shortened title of the book or article." 1a).

2. or • title. Note the following characteristics of the Works Cited page: 1. 3. is centered. double space lines within the entries and between the entries. Entries are double-spaced—that is. You must adhere to the MLA format (punctuation and spacing) for these entries. an. No extra space occurs between entries. Entries are listed in alphabetical order by • author's last name. if the source does not have an author. use three hyphens followed by a period for each entry after the first. 7 . 4. do not repeat the author's name. When using more than one work by the same author. Ignore the articles a. Your name and page number appear in the upper right corner. See the MLA style Works Cited models on the following pages.Works Cited Format The Works Cited page is placed at the end of your essay and lists all the resources you have referred to in your paper. Works Cited. and the when alphabetizing. The title. 5. Instead. 6.

Sebba.2 (1974): 145-52. Print. ProQuest Research Library. Pidginization and Creolization of Language. 26 May 2009. Kasper. Mark. Print. Ann-Marie. John H. Attitudes and Motivation in Second-Language Learning. "Linguistic Hybridization and the 'Special Case' of Pidgins and Creoles. Rowley: Newbury House. ProQuest Research Library. Web.. Gabriele.4 (1996): 50-63. "How Do You Spell Patwa?" Critical Quarterly 38. and Kenneth R. 26 May 2009. Print. "Theories of Second Language Pragmatic Development. Gingras. Stauble. 91-115. Robert. Lambert. "Second Language Acquisition Theories: Overview and Evaluation. "The Implications of Interlanguage. Rosario C. 27-50.Lerner 9 Works Cited "Dis Come Vex Everibodi. Print. Arlington: Center for Applied Linguistics. 1971." Spec. London: Cambridge UP. . Web. 26 May 2009. and William E. Ed. Christina." TESOL Quarterly 8. Gitsaki.4 (2002): 13-61." Ed." Harper's Magazine March 2003: 18-20.2 (1998). ---. Whinnom. C. 1978. Keith. issue of Language Learning 52. Print. "The Process of Decreolization: A Model for Second Language Development. Web." Language Learning 28.1 (1978): 29-54. Pidginization and Creolization for the Study of Adult Second Language Acquisition. Print." Journal of Communication and International Studies 4. Dell Hymes." Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Teaching. Gardner. Schumann. "The Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition. 1972. Rose.

if no place is listed): Publisher (shorten the publisher's name). Example: Baldwin. Ruszkiewicz. James. and Writing. judgments. "Article Title. Print. 9 . The Bonesetter’s Daughter. 2001. Medium of publication. "Sonny’s Blues. Print. The following are some models of how sources of evidence must appear on the Works Cited page at the end of the paper. Boston: Bedford. as well as increase the researcher's knowledge in the field. and John J. demonstrate scholarly exploration of the topic. However. New York: Putnam.MLA STYLE DOCUMENTATION MODELS FOR A WORKS CITED PAGE Writers of research papers often incorporate personal insights. first name. Editor's first and last names. 2008. 2010. Amy. Page numbers. For cities outside the U.11th ed.S. Note: When there are two or three authors or editors. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter or Work in a Book: Author's last name. eds. Drama. Place of publication (if several cities are listed.p. use the normal order (first name first) for all except the first author. The Presence of Others. year of publication. Example: Lunsford. ************************************************************ Book: Author's last name." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction. Kennedy and Dana Gioia.. add an abbreviation of the country. X. Medium of publication. year of publication. give only the first. Andrea A. Poetry. 5th ed. but documented external data (facts or opinions attested to by an authority or other useful source) establish the researcher's credibility. Example: Tan. and experiences as elements of their work. follow the punctuation style and spacing exactly. because many sources will not fall precisely into the following categories. Print. use N. New York: Longman. you may need to seek an instructor's assistance. For each entry." Book Title. Ed. first name.J.. Book Title. Edition number. 51-72.

Print.issue number (year): pages." Journal Title volume number. "Food for Thought. Medium of publication. Print. include the day in the date." The CATESOL Journal 9." Def. Scholarly Journal Article: Author's last name. 1985. include the term Def." Time 24 Aug." Omni Sept. "Article Title. 2001: 46. Medium of publication. first name. first name. Rolling Stone 14 May 2009: 9. "Language of the Night. Brigitte." Magazine Title date: page numbers. Print. "Article Title. Advertisement. Publication information." Reference Book Title. Example: Harary. 1993: 46-7. Edition number and/or year of publication. first name. Example: Smith. Advertisement. Calvin S. 4a. Example: Marshall.Article or Definition in a Reference Book: Author's last name. Example: Hall. "Article Title. 2nd ed. Example: "Home. and the definition number and letter. Example: Ray-Ban. Medium of publication. Note: When no author is listed. For a dictionary. Print. Keith. "Dreams. Print.2 (1996): 127-132. Medium of publication. "Reexamining the Role of Adult Educators. Advertisement: Name of product. 1985 ed. begin the entry with the article title." Encyclopedia Americana. The American Heritage Dictionary. Note: When citing a weekly magazine. John K. 10 . Magazine Article: Author's last name. Print. Print.

“Article Title. "Along the Sacramento. Rpt. pag.). in Literature Criticism from 1400-1800. the database. 3 Jan. Article from an Online Database: The Sierra College Library subscribes to databases such as ProQuest. Database. Vol. you must cite its original publication information. and the date of access. 1994: 42. 9 Sept. first name.) Author’s last name. (Use n. “Joseph Warton’s Criticism of Shakespeare. ProQuest Research Library." Newspaper Title date.” Periodical Title and publication information for the printed source (including date of publication and pages." Parents Nov. Example: Martin.” Tulane Studies in English 14 (1965): 17-27. Rpt. 128.Newspaper Article: If the article is not printed on consecutive pages. Date of access. the publication medium. 11 . "Article Title. Example: Griffith. “Article Title. Web." San Francisco Chronicle 27 Nov. if given). Detroit: Gale. For an article found on one of these databases. Medium of publication. 2006. Songbirds Flourish Again.” Periodical Title and publication information for the original printed source (including date of publication and pages or n. Trudeau. "The Diet-Exercise Payoff.d. Medium of publication. Example: Schneider. pag. Date of access. put the first page and a plus sign. Reprint of an Article in a Volume of Literary Criticism on a Database: Author’s last name. 2006. if there is no date and n. 17-27. Web. final ed. first name. or n. Print. 2007. if there are no page numbers listed. 2009. Author's last name. Ed. Thomas J. first name. Literature Resource Center. Database. Phyllis. edition: page. Glen. Schoenberg and Lawrence J. in publication information of the reprinted source.d. Publication medium.: A1+. Philip Mahone.

Publisher or sponsoring organization (use N. if not available). Date of access. Web. Date of access. “Document Title. Web. 2000. 2008. if required>. The Nature Conservancy of California. Publication medium. if required. Date of access.p. first name (if available).cfm?id=2892>.cosumnes. Web. Example: Cosumnes River Preserve. 12 . 9 Sept." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.org/news/ features/sotry. thus the citation begins with the site title. Online Encyclopedia: Author’s last name.d. 1 May 2002. year. if given. World Wildlife Federation.panda. Note: In this example. <http://www. first name. Emma. Site Title (or a description like Home page or Course home page). Publisher or sponsor of the site (N. date of publication (use n.d.) Author’s last name. date of publication (n. "Conflict Resolution Can Help Save Tigers. <http://www. Publication medium. Medium of publication. and the title of the document in quotation marks." WWF Global Network. Publisher or sponsor of the site.” Site Title. 7 Nov. can be broken at the end of a line after a slash mark. if not available).” Title of Encyclopedia. 28 May 2002. Author’s last name. “Article Title. Internet Document on a Website: If you are citing a document that is part of an Internet site. Example: "Sigmund Freud. if required>. 2009. include the author. if not available). Example: Duncan. no author name is given. 13 Sept. first name. <Internet address. 2000.org>. if not available).p. Encyclopaedia Britannica.Internet Site or Home Page: Include the URL if required by the instructor or if the source cannot be accessed through a simple Internet search. <Internet address. (An Internet address.

ARTstor. if relevant. first name. Example: Picasso. 10 March. Date. Madrid. Perf. first name. Location. 2009. year. "Title" or description. 2009. London: Service and Paton. Reina Sofia Museum. Class Lecture. Date of composition. year. 2008. Example: DeFoe. Place of publication: Publisher. Rocklin. Personal Interview: Last name. DVD or Video: Title. Guernica. Oil on Canvas. Publication medium. 10 Sept. Note: If the work of visual art is viewed in a database. 13 . Gutenberg Project. Medium of composition. Date of interview. Christopher Nolan. Dir. Jane Eyre. Guernica. Database or Website Title. <Internet address. Date of access. Web. 1897. Charlotte. Warner Bros. Christian Bale and Heath Ledger. Performers. 2009.. omit the medium of composition and add the database information and date of access. writers and producers (optional). first name (of the interviewee). Madrid. 2009. Example: Dark Knight. Pablo. 2009. if required>. 1937. Title of work. first name. Museum or institution that houses the work. City where museum or institution is located. Personal or telephone interview. Sierra College. Example: Rodriguez. Work of Visual Art: Artist’s last name. Lecture: Speaker's last name. Distributor. DVD. 10 Sept. Example: Picasso. 1937. Web. Medium of publication. Title. Original release date. 9 Sept. Director's first and last names.Book on the Internet: Author’s last name. David. Personal interview. Reina Sofia Museum. Example: Brontë. Daniel. Pablo.

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