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Stress Analysis of Piping1

Stress Analysis of Piping1

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Stress Analysis Of Hot Wall Flue Gas Piping At FCCU Plant, Reliance

K.L.E. Society’s College Of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum

1

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION TO STRESS ANALYSIS

Pipes are required for carrying fluids. These fluids can be of various states of
matter. Gaseous fluids ( like LPG ), Liquid Fluids ( like Water ) and Solid or Semi-solid
( like plastic pellets ).

The pipes in Process Industry like in Reliance are used for transferring fluids at
higher temperature and pressure.
The various processes in a Process plant cause the liquids to be pressurized and to
be heated up. Thus the liquids passing through the pipes attain a high pressure and/or a
high temperature.

When a metal is heated it expands. If this metal of pipe is allowed to expand
freely, there is no overstress in the same. But suppose the free movement is restricted by
any means, stress is introduced in the system.
The case becomes more complicated by considering weight of the pipe, the
insulation, weights of the valves, flanges and other fittings and the pressure of the fluids
that is flowing through the piping.

So the task of the Stress Engineer is

1) To select a piping layout with an adequate flexibility between points of anchorage
to absorb its thermal expansion without exceeding allowable material stress levels,
also reacting thrusts & moments at the points of anchorage must be kept below
certain limits.
2) To limit the additional stresses due to the dead weight of the piping by providing
suitable supporting system effective for cold as well as hot conditions.

Piping systems are not self supporting and hence they require pipe supports to
prevent from collapsing. Pipe supports are of different types like Rest, Guides, Linestops,
Hangers, Snubbers, and Struts. Each type of pipe support plays a vital role in supporting
the pipe system. Pipe supports are desirable to reduce the weight, wind and where
possible, expansion and transient effects, so that piping system stress range is not
excessive for the anticipating cycles of operation, us avoiding fatigue failure. Limiting the
line movement at specific locations may be desirable to protect sensitive equipment, to

Stress Analysis Of Hot Wall Flue Gas Piping At FCCU Plant, Reliance

K.L.E. Society’s College Of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum

2

control vibration or to resist external influences such as wind, earthquake, or shock
loadings.

All these objectives are achieved by :-

1) Limiting the sagging of the piping system within allowable limits
( i.e. In Sustain case the max vertical movement should be less than 10mm ).
2) Directing the line movements so as protect sensitive equipments against
overloading ( i.e. nozzle loads are always kept under the allowable nozzle
loading provided by the vendor ).
3) Resisting pipe system to collapse in case of earthquake, wind or shock
loadings.

Stress Analysis Of Hot Wall Flue Gas Piping At FCCU Plant, Reliance

K.L.E. Society’s College Of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum

3

Chapter 2 : PIPE SUPPORTS

Pipe supports[4] are essential features of piping systems as most piping systems
can be described as irregular space frames which usually are not self supporting and
therefore they must be provided with supports to prevent sagging. The loads imposed on
the pipe must, in all cases be transmitted from pipe to the supporting structure. Limiting
the line movement at specific locations may be desirable to protect sensitive equipment,
to control vibration or to resist external influences such as wind, earthquake, or shock
loading.

Support restraints and braces are therefore desirable to reduce weight, wind and
where possible expansion and transient effects, so that the piping system stress range is
not excessive for the anticipated cycles of operation, thus avoiding fatigue failure.
Piping supports are required for the following purpose :-
• To limit the sagging of the piping system within allowable limits (Rest, Hangers)
• To limit or direct line movement at specific locations so as to protect sensitive
equipment against overheads (guides, Linestops, directional restraints)
• To control vibrations (vibration dampers)
• To resist external influences such as wind, earthquake, and shock loading
(Snubbers)
The most common types of supports used to support piping are mentioned below :-
• Gravity support – Rests, Hangers
• Thermal restraints – Guides, anchors, directional restraints
• Special purpose supports – Sway brace, vibration dampers.
• Dynamic restraints against shock, occasional loading – Snubbers.
Supports to reduce friction loadings- PTFE, Slide plates, rollers and Graphite plate.

Stress Analysis Of Hot Wall Flue Gas Piping At FCCU Plant, Reliance

K.L.E. Society’s College Of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum

4

2.1 Rigid supports

The main purpose of the rigid supports are to provide supports in one or more
directions. Different types of rigid supports are Rest, Guide and Linestops.

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