# MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL

CERTIFICATE
(STPM)

(MATHEMATICAL NOTATION,
DEFINITIONS, AND FORMULAE)

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MATHEMATICAL NOTATION,
DEFINITIONS, AND FORMULAE

(This booklet is for the use of candidates who take
Mathematics S, Mathematics T and Further
Mathematics T in the Malaysia Higher School
Certificate examination)

Numerical Methods
Newton-Raphson iteration for ( ) 0 f x =
( )
( )
1
'
n
n n
n
f x
x x
f x
+
= −

Trapezium rule:
( ) ( )
0 1 2 1
1
2 ...
2
b
n n
a
f x dx h y y y y y

≈ + + + + +

where
( )
r
y f a rh = + ,
b a
h
n

=

Correlation and regression
Pearson correlation coefficient:
( )( )
( ) ( )
2 2
i i
i i
x x y y
r
x x y y
− −
=
− −

∑ ∑

Regression line of y on x:

y a bx = +
Where
( )( )
( )
2
i i
i
x x y y
b
x x
− −
=

, a y bx = −
Set of numbers

» The set of natural numbers, 1, 2,3...
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )

» The set of integers, ..., 3, 2, 1,0,1, 2,3...
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
− − −
» The set of rational numbers, : , , 0
a
a b b
b
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
∈ ≠ »
» The set of real numbers
» The set of complex numbers

Logarithms
log
log
log
b
a
b
x
x
a
=

Series

1
1
1
2
n
r
r n n
| |
|
|
\ ¹
=
= +

2
1
1
1 2 1
6
n
r
r n n n
| | | |
| |
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹
=
= + +

2
3 2
1
1
1
4
n
r
r n n
| |
|
|
\ ¹
=
= +

1 2 2
... ... ,
1 2
n
n n n n r r n
n n
n
a b a a b a b a b b
r
| | | |
| |
| |
| |
|
|
| | |
|
| |
\ ¹
\ ¹
\ ¹ \ ¹
− − −
+ = + + + + + +
where n∈»
Coordinate Geometry

The coordinates of the point which divides the line
joining
( )
1 1
, x y and
( )
2 2
, x y in the ratio : m n is
1 2 1 2
,
nx mx ny my
m n m n
+ +
| |
|
+ +
\ ¹

The position vector of the point which divides the line
joining points which have position vectors a and b in
the ratio λ:µ is
µa+ b

λ
λ

The distance from
( )
1 1
, x y to 0 ax by c + + = is
1 1
2 2
ax by c
a b
+ +
+

The distance from
( )
1 1 1
, , x y z to 0 ax by cz d + + + = is
1 1 1
2 2 2
ax by cz d
a b c
+ + +
+ +

Hyperbolic Functions
( )
( )
1
sinh
2
1
cosh
2
x x
x x
x e e
x e e

= −
= +
( )
( )
( )
sinh sinh cos cosh sinh
cosh cosh cosh sinh sinh
tanh tanh
tanh
1 tanh tanh
x y x y x y
x y x y x y
x y
x y
x y
± = ±
± = ±
±
± =
±
2 2 2 2
cosh 2 cosh sinh 2cosh 1 1 2sinh x x x x x = + = − = +
3
3
sinh3 3sinh 4sinh
cosh3 4cosh 3cosh
x x x
x x x
= +
= −

sinh sinh 2sinh cosh
2 2
sinh sinh 2cosh sinh
2 2
cosh cosh 2cosh cosh
2 2
cosh cosh 2sinh sinh
2 2
x y x y
x y
x y x y
x y
x y x y
x y
x y x y
x y
+ −
+ =
+ −
− =
+ −
+ =
+ −
− =

( )
( )
1 2
1 2
1
sinh ln 1
cosh ln 1 , 1
1 1
tanh ln , 1
2 1
x x x
x x x x
x
x x
x

= + +
= + − ≥
+
| |
= <
|

\ ¹

Integration
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
2 2
'
ln
1 1
tan
1
sin
1
sinh
1
cosh
dv du
u dx uv v dx
dx dx
f x
dx f x c
f x
x
dx c
a x a a
x
dx c
a
a x
x
dx c
a
x a
x
dx c
a
x a

= −
= +
| |
= +
|
+
\ ¹
| |
= +
|
\ ¹

| |
= +
|
\ ¹
+
| |
= +
|
\ ¹

∫ ∫

Maclaurin expansions
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 1 ... 1
1 1 ... ..., 1
2! !
n
r
n n n n n r
x nx x x x
r
− − − +
+ = + + + + + <
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 1
3 5
2
2 4
1
2 3
1 ... ...
2! !
1
sin ... ...
3! 5! 2 1 !
1
cos 1 ... ...
2! 4! 2 !
1
ln 1 ... ..., 1 1
2 3
r
x
r
r
r
r
r
r
x x
e x
r
x
x x
x x
r
x
x x
x
r
x
x x
x x x
r
+
+
= + + + + +

= − + − + +
+

= − + − + +

+ = − + − + + − < ≤

Trigonometry

( )
( )
( )
sin sin cos cos sin
cos cos cos sin sin
tan tan
tan
1 tan tan
A B A B A B
A B A B A B
A B
A B
A B
± = ±
± =
±
± =

2 2 2 2
cos 2 cos sin 2cos 1 1 2sin A A A A A = + = − = −
3
3
sin3 3sin 4sin
cos3 4cos 3cos
A A A
A A A
= −
= −

sin sin 2sin cos
2 2
sin sin 2cos sin
2 2
cos cos 2cos cos
2 2
cos cos 2sin sin
2 2
A B A B
A B
A B A B
A B
A B A B
A B
A B A B
A B
+ −
+ =
+ −
− =
+ −
+ =
+ −
− = −

If
1
tan
2
t x = , then
2
2
sin
1
t
x
t
=
+
and
2
2
1
cos
1
t
x
t

=
+

MATHEMATICAL NOTATION. AND FORMULAE (This booklet is for the use of candidates who take Mathematics S. Mathematics T and Further Mathematics T in the Malaysia Higher School Certificate examination) . DEFINITIONS.

.

a = y − bx Where b = ∑( x − x) i i 2 i ..Numerical Methods Newton-Raphson iteration for f ( x) = 0 xn+1 = xn − f ( xn ) f ' ( xn ) Trapezium rule: ∫ b a 1 f ( x ) dx ≈ h  y0 + 2 ( y1 + y2 + .. + yn−1 ) + yn   2  where yr = f ( a + rh ) . h = b−a n Correlation and regression Pearson correlation coefficient: r= ∑ ( x − x )( y − y ) ∑( x − x) ∑( y − y) i i 2 i i 2 Regression line of y on x: y = a + bx ∑ ( x − x )( y − y ) .

.3....     1      2        r  where n∈» .+  n  a n−r b r + . − 3.2. − 1. 1.1.... − 2.b ∈ » .+ b n .       a : a ...Set of numbers   » The set of natural numbers.3.2.. .         » The set of integers.0.   b  » The set of real numbers      » The set of complex numbers Logarithms logb x loga x = logb a Series  r = 1 n  n + 1  ∑ 2    r =1   r 2 = 1 n  n + 1  2 n + 1  ∑   6     r =1 n n r =1     ∑ n  r 3 = 1 n 2  n + 1  2 4     a +b     n   n n = a n +   a n−1b +   a n−2b 2 + ..b ≠ 0   » The set of rational numbers.

z1 ) to ax + by + cz + d = 0 is ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d a2 + b2 + c2 . y2 ) in the ratio m : n is  nx1 + mx2 ny1 + my2  . y1 ) and ( x2 .   m+n m+n   The position vector of the point which divides the line joining points which have position vectors a and b in the ratio λ:µ is µa+λ b λ +µ The distance from ( x1 . y1 ) to ax + by + c = 0 is ax1 + by1 + c a2 + b2 The distance from ( x1 .Coordinate Geometry The coordinates of the point which divides the line joining ( x1 . y1 .

x ≥ 1 1 1+ x  tanh −1 x = ln  .Hyperbolic Functions 1 x −x (e − e ) 2 1 cosh x = ( e x + e − x ) 2 sinh ( x ± y ) = sinh x cos y ± cosh x sinh y sinh x = cosh ( x ± y ) = cosh x cosh y ± sinh x sinh y tanh x ± tanh y 1 ± tanh x tanh y cosh 2 x = cosh 2 x + sinh 2 x = 2cosh 2 x − 1 = 1 + 2sinh 2 x tanh ( x ± y ) = sinh 3 x = 3sinh x + 4sinh 3 x cosh 3 x = 4cosh 3 x − 3cosh x x+ y x− y cosh 2 2 x+ y x− y sinh x − sinh y = 2cosh sinh 2 2 x+ y x− y cosh x + cosh y = 2cosh cosh 2 2 x+ y x− y cosh x − cosh y = 2sinh sinh 2 2 sinh x + sinh y = 2sinh sinh −1 x = ln x + x 2 + 1 cosh −1 2 ( x = ln ( x + ) x −1) . x < 1 2  1− x  .

. −1 < x ≤ 1 x 2 x3 ln (1 + x ) = x − + − .... + x r + . + + .. 2! r! ( −1) x 2 r +1 x3 x5 sin x = x − + − ... + + ... x < 1 x2 xr e = 1 + x + + .. 3! 5! ( 2r + 1)! ( −1) x 2 r x2 x4 cos x = 1 − + − ... 2! 4! ( 2r )! ( −1) x r + ... ( n − r + 1) r! Maclaurin expansions = 1 + nx + x 2 + ...Integration ∫u ∫ dv du dx = uv − ∫ v dx dx dx f '( x ) dx = ln f ( x ) + c f ( x) 1 1 x dx = tan −1   + c ∫ a2 + x2 a a 1 x dx = sin −1   + c ∫ a2 − x2 a ∫ ∫ (1 + x ) x n x dx = sinh −1   + c a x2 + a2 1 x dx = cosh   + c a x2 − a2 1 n ( n − 1) 2! n ( n − 1) ... + + ..... + 2 3 r r +1 r r ...

Trigonometry sin ( A ± B ) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B cos ( A ± B ) = cos A cos B sin A sin B tan ( A ± B ) = tan A ± tan B 1 tan A tan B cos 2 A = cos 2 A + sin 2 A = 2cos 2 A − 1 = 1 − 2sin 2 A sin 3 A = 3sin A − 4sin 3 A cos3 A = 4cos3 A − 3cos A A+ B A− B cos 2 2 A+ B A− B sin A − sin B = 2cos sin 2 2 A+ B A− B cos A + cos B = 2cos cos 2 2 A+ B A− B cos A − cos B = −2sin sin 2 2 sin A + sin B = 2sin 1− t2 1 2t If t = tan x . then sin x = and cos x = 2 2 1+ t 1+ t2 .