AW101 Occupational Safety And Health 1

AW101
Occupational Safety And Health 1

Chapter 4
Workplace Environment And Ergonomics

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Contents 1-4
4.1 Describe the history of ergonomics 4.1.1 State the history of ergonomics 4.1.2 Defines statutory requirements related to ergonomics in OSHA 1994 4.1.3 Determine objectives of ergonomics
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Contents 2-4
4.2 Understand workstation design principle 4.2.1 Illustrates sitting work position 4.2.2 Illustrates standing work position 4.3 Understand ergonomic risk 4.3.1 Explain Musculo-SkeletalDisorders (MSD)
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AW101 Occupational Safety And Health 1

Contents 3-4
4.4 Understand Workplace Environment 4.4.1 Explain indoor air quality and its effect to the respiratory system 4.4.2 Measure lighting and sightedness 4.4.3 Measure temperature and humidity 4.4.4 Measure noise and hearing quality

Contents 4-4
4.5 Appreciate the proper and safe methods of ergonomics in the workplace 4.5.1 Practice the proper and safe methods of ergonomics in the workplace including working position, workplace design, standing bench and computer arrangement.
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Contents
• History, Statutory requirement & Objective • Design Workstation-Sitting & Standing • Risk-Musculo-Skeletal-Disorders (MSD) • Workplace Environment
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Ergonomics

HISTORY OF ERGONOMICS
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Background
• Ergonomics derives from two Greek words: ergon, meaning work, and nomoi, meaning natural laws. Combined they create a word that means the science of work and a person’s relationship to that work. • In application ergonomics is a discipline focused on making products and tasks comfortable and efficient for the user. • Ergonomics is sometimes defined as the science of fitting the work to the user instead of forcing the user to fit the work. However this is more a primary ergonomic principle rather than a definition.
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Definition
Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.
Source : International Ergonomics Association

Source : www.about.com

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Definition
Ergonomics is defined as the science related to man and his work, embodying the anatomic, physiologic, and mechanical principles affecting the efficient use of human energy.
Source : www.about.com

History of Ergonomics
• The term "ergonomics" has its roots in Ramazzani’s study on ill-effect of poorly design tools on health of worker in the 1700s. • 1949-The term "ergonomics" was adopted at national ergonomics society in England was founded. • 1961-International Ergonomics Association was founded.
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History of Ergonomics
• In 1857, Wojciech Jastrzebowski created the word "ergonomics" in a narrative he wrote about the science of nature. • World War II in 1943, an Army officer, Alphonse Chapanis, learned that if the control layouts in the cockpits of planes were simplified, the pilots made fewer errors.
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History of Ergonomics
• After World War II , ergonomics not only in productivity, but also the safety of the workers. • Research take place in various areas: • the affect of heavy labor on the heart; the maximum loads that should be pulled, pushed or carried; • the amount of muscle force that should be required to perform
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Statutory Requirements
• Statutory requirements related to ergonomics in OSHA 1994. • Part IV-General Duties Of Employers And Self-Employed Persons • Part V-General Duties Of Designers, Manufacturers And Supplier • Part VI-General Duties Of Employees
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Objective Of Ergonomics
• Methods to do things quicker, more efficiently and at the same time, reduce as much physical and emotional stress as possible. • The less strain we feel on our bodies, the easier for us to do the tasks. • Able to do more work, accomplished in the same amount of time.
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AW101 Occupational Safety And Health 1

Objective Of Ergonomics
• Approach used to obtain an effective match between worker and work system to optimize; Efficiency Quality Safety Health
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Work Station Design

SEATING & STANDING POSITION
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Seating Work Position

Seating Work Position

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AW101 Occupational Safety And Health 1

Sitting Work Position

Standing Work Possition

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Standing Work Position

Industrial Ergonomic Workstation

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Musculoskeletal Disorder
A broad range of conditions of varying degree associated with the upper extremities (hand and arm) such as inflammation or trauma mostly of the tendon, muscle-tendon junction or surrounding tissue; inflammation of tissue of the hand; compression of the peripheral nerves serving the upper limb; and include temporary fatigue, stiffness of the muscles comparable to that un accustomed exertion.
SOURCE : GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEO DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s), DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES 29 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS 30

Ergonomic Risk

MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDER (MSD)
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Musculoskeletal Disorder
• Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are disorders of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage, and spinal discs. MSDs do not include disorders caused by slips, trips, falls, motor vehicle accidents, or similar accidents. Examples of MSDs include carpal tunnel syndrome, rotator cuff syndrome, de Quervain's disease, trigger finger, tarsal tunnel syndrome, sciatica, epicondylitis, tendinitis, Raynaud's phenomenon, carpetlayers' knee, herniated spinal disc, and low back pain. SOURCE: U.S. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

Musculoskeletal Disorder
• Part risk for MSD

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Types of Disorder/Injury MSD
■ repetitive strain injury (RSI) ■ cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) ■ work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) ■ musculoskeletal injury (MSI, MSK) ■ occupational overuse syndrome (OOS), and ■ sprain and strain.
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MSD Hazard
• • • • Primary MSD hazards Force, Fixed or awkward postures, Repetitions

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MSD Hazards - Force
• The amount of effort made by the muscles and the amount of pressure on body parts as a result of different job demands • A task requires them to exert a level of force that is too high for any particular muscle, it can damage the muscle or the related tendons, joints and other soft tissue.
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MSD Hazards - Postures
■ how long workers need to hold a specific posture (fixed posture) ■ how many times an awkward posture is used in a given period of time, and ■ the amount of force being exerted when an awkward posture is used..

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AW101 Occupational Safety And Health 1

MSD Hazards - Repetition
• Highly repetitive tasks can lead to fatigue, tissue damage, and, eventually, pain and discomfort.

A Guide to Ergonomics at the Office and in the Field

Adobe Acrobat Document
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Others Reference

Adobe Acrobat Document

http://www.ohcow.on.ca/press_release/msd/prevention.pdf

http://www.ohcow.on.ca/press_release/msd/resource.pdf

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AW101 Occupational Safety And Health 1

Work Place Terminology
• Video Display Unit / Terminal – means any alphanumeric or graphic display screen, regardless of the of the display process employed. • Brightness – means the attribute of visual sensation according to which a surface appears to emit or reflect more or less light. • Illumination – means the measure of the stream of light falling on a surface. The light may come from sun, lamps in a room or any other bright surface. The unit of measurement is the lux (lx). Imperial unit for illumination is foot-candle.
SOURCE : GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEO DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s), DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES

Work Place Environment

INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ)
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Work Place Terminology
• Luminance – means the measure of the brightness of a surface; the perception of brightness of a surface is proportional to its luminance. Therefore, luminance is a measure of light coming from a surface. Since it is a function of the light that is emitted or reflected from a wall, furniture and other objects, it is greatly affected by the reflected power of the surface. The luminance of a lamp on the other hand is and exact measure of the light they emit.
SOURCE : GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEO DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s), DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES

Indoor Air Quality

Adobe Acrobat Document

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SOURCE : CODE OF PRACTICE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES, 2005 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS 44

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AW101 Occupational Safety And Health 1

Duty of Employer
• An employer should ensure that his employees or any other occupants at the place of work are not exposed to any of the contaminants listed in Table 1 exceeding the corresponding maximum limits • all his employees are informed, instructed and trained
SOURCE : CODE OF PRACTICE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES, 2005 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS 45

Indoor Air Quality (1AQ)

SOURCE : CODE OF PRACTICE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES, 2005 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS 46

Background of IAQ
• Good IAQ is desired for a healthy indoor environment. • Poor IAQ can cause short-term and long term health problems. • Health problems associated with poor IAQ include allergic reactions, respiratory problems, eye irritation, sinusitis, bronchitis and pneumonia.
SOURCE : CODE OF PRACTICE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES, 2005 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS 47

Source of Poor IAQ
• a) the occupants exhaled carbon dioxide gas • b) inadequate materials or materials with technical defects used in the construction of the building; • c) the work performed within (such as cleaning of carpet); • d) excessive or improper use of normal products (pesticides,

SOURCE : CODE OF PRACTICE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES, 2005 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS 48

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Parameter to Indicate IAQ
• • • • a) Chemical contaminants b) Physical conditions, c) Biological agents, d d) Radiation

Health Effect Due to Poor IAQ
• The health effects due to IAQ can be categorized as follows: a) Health effects due to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from passive smoking; b) Sick building syndrome; and c) Legionella disease.
SOURCE : CODE OF PRACTICE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES, 2005 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS 50

SOURCE : CODE OF PRACTICE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES, 2005 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS 49

Lighting and Sightedness

Work Place Environment

LIGHTING AND SIGHTEDNESS
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SOURCE : GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEO DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s), DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES 52 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS

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Temperature and Humidity
• Adequate ventilation and air conditioning system are required • Purchase equipment with low thermal emissions. • recommended ambient air temperature is 23-27 degrees Celsius and the maximum relative humidity is 75%.
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Work Place Environment

TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
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SOURCE : GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEO DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s), DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES 54 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS

Noise and Hearing Quality
• Recommended ambient noise level for VDU work is between 40-60 dB(A).

Work Place Environment

NOISE AND HEARING QUALITY
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SOURCE : GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEO DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s), DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES 56 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS

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AW101 Occupational Safety And Health 1

Noise Meter (dB)

Noise Sign, Aid and Tool

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Reduced Noise Exposure-1

Reduced Noise Exposure-2

MHTML Document

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Safe & Ergonomic Workplace VDU
• Getting Comfortable - Adjust your chair, workstation,

Ergonomic in Work Place

PRACTICE ERGONOMIC IN WORK PLACE
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SOURCE : GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEO DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s), DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES 62 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS

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AW101 Occupational Safety And Health 1

Computer Table Office

Ergonomic Office Chair

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Safe & Ergonomic Workplace VDU
• Keying In - good keying position, keep your wrists straight when keying

SOURCE : GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEO DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s), DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES 67 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS

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Ergonomic Keyboard

Safe & Ergonomic Workplace VDU
• Using a Mouse - easy reach, Support your forearm on the desk, don’t grip the mouse too tightly

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SOURCE : GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEO DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s), DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES 70 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS

Safe & Ergonomic Workplace VDU
• Reading the Screen VDU- Adjust the brightness, contrast, text size, colours that are easy on the eye

Safe & Ergonomic Workplace VDU
• Posture and Breaks - Don’t sit in the same position for long periods

SOURCE : GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEO DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s), DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES 71 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS

SOURCE : GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEO DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s), DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES 72 Prepared by Mohd Sharif JKE, POLISAS

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Reference
• GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY Adobe Acrobat AND HEALTH IN THE OFFICE Document • CODE OF PRACTICE ON INDOOR AIR Adobe Acrobat QUALITY Document • GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR WORKING WITH VIDEOAdobe Acrobat Document DISPLY UNITS (VDU’s) • MSD Prevention Guideline for Ontario, Occupational Health and Safety Council of Adobe Acrobat Document Ontario (OHSCO)
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