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A Run

A Run

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Published by: balu54 on Mar 04, 2011
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Electronics and Communication Dept.

SRI SATYANARAYANA ENGINEERING COLLEGE (AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED INSTITUTION) (Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to J.N.T.U, Kakinada) Kurnool road, Ongole-523225, Prakasam (Dist.), A.P.


The Purpose of Proposing this paper is to develop a system for detecting the fatigue of the driver during the journey, and to issue a warning signal to alert the driver. The system will be primarily based on the processing of the images obtained from the driver¶s face Using Image Processing Technique. In this project, video is taken as an input and the system predicts the driver drowsiness from the appearance of the eyes in the frame (in video sequence). This report describes how Image Processing is used to find the Fatigue of the Driver and how to find the position of the eyes, and also determines the eyes closure If the eyes are closed for 7 consecutive frames, the system draws the conclusion that the driver is falling asleep and sounds a alarm as a warning signal. This Paper finds applications in industries. The required Eye detection algorithm can be developed in many languages like MATLAB using Image Processing Toolbox and other languages.

The ever-increasing number of traffic accidents in the world due to a diminished driver¶s vigilance level has become a problem of serious concern to society. Drivers with a diminished vigilance level suffer from a marked decline in their abilities of perception, recognition, and vehicle control and therefore pose serious danger to their own life and the lives of other people. Statistics show that a leading cause for fatal or injury-causing traffic accidents is due to drivers with a diminished vigilance level. In the trucking industry, 57% fatal truck accidents are due to driver fatigue. It is the number one cause for heavy truck crashes. 70% of Indian drivers report driving fatigued. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that there are 100,000 crashes, which are caused by drivers in fatigue and result in more than 1,500 fatalities and 71,000 injuries each year in India. With the ever-growing traffic conditions, this problem will further deteriorate. For this reason, developing systems actively monitoring a driver¶s level of vigilance and alerting the driver of any insecure driving conditions is essential to accident prevention. Fatigue Monitoring system method can form the basis of a system to potentially reduce accidents related to sleepy driving. This is a video based system which measures Percentage of Eye Closure Over Time (PERCLOS), a scientifically supported measure of fatigue associated with slow eye closure.

In image representation one is concerned with characterization of the quantity that each pictureelement (also called pixel or pels) represents. An image could represent luminance of objects in a scene (such as a pictures taken by ordinary camera), the absorption characteristics of the body tissue (Xray imaging), the radar cross section of a target (radar imaging), the temperature profile of a region (infrared

imaging), or the gravitational field in an area (in geophysical imaging). In general, any two-dimensional function that bears information can be considered as an image.

Digital images are processed for different application. The principle objective of image processing is to show the result image in a more suitable manner than the original image. The ultimate goal of these techniques is to improve an image in some predefined sense. The following are the various steps involved for processing of digital images.

yImage acquisition yImage enhancement yImage restoration yImage compression yImage segmentation yRepresentation & description yObject recognition

Driver vigilance monitoring system The monitoring starts with extracting visual parameters which characterize the person¶s level of vigilance. The system starts with finding of eyes in the image using the Hough transform and eye detection algorithm. Based on this information and the sleeping history of the person, the drowsiness of driver is found.

Basic Flow chart of Driver Vigilance Monitoring System

Driver Vigilance Monitoring System Eyes The eye is a sensory organ which is used to detect contrast in objects illuminated by light. The human eye has many components, but for the purpose of this report we will look at the functions of the iris, pupil, sclera, cornea, retina, lens and their interactions with each other. The iris makes up the coloured part of the eye. Its function

is to regulate the amount of light that enters the eye. This is achieved by regulation of the pupil, the dark centre spot in the iris which allows light to enter the eye.

Fig. 3.2 Elements of the Eye The pupillary sphincter muscle controls the size of the iris, automatically adjusting to control the amount of light entering the eye. Diameters of a healthy pupil in dim conditions can be enlarged to 8mm. This makes the pupil smaller, in the region of 1.5mm, which allows the eye to function more efficiently in this condition. In ambient light conditions a normal pupil will range from 3 to 4 mm diameter. The sclera is the outer protective layer of the eye. This layer is opaque and usually white in healthy eyes. The cornea is the transparent window of the eye. It sits over the pupil and iris, transmitting and focusing light into the eye. Visual fatigue also reduces the powers of accommodation and convergence of the eye, sensitivity to contrast and speed of perception. All types of visual work can contribute to visual fatigue. Driving calls for rapid and precise eye movements which make heavier demands on perception, concentration and motor control.

Processes used in this project include the use of the Hough transform, eye detection algorithms and pressure sensor analysis. This section discusses how they were implemented in the project and how they were used to best effect. Hough Transform The Hough transform is a technique of finding any shape in a digital image. It is usually used to find lines and curves or shapes that can be described by a set of

parameters. The Hough Transform is used to find the eye ball in the images of the driver. Eye Detection Algorithm This section describes the algorithm used to refine the data returned from the Hough transform, the basic principals which the algorithm are based on are also discussed. Data returned from the Hough transform function takes the form of two arrays, one a 2xN matrix containing the coordinate information and the other a column vector with the corresponding radii of the circles. The purpose of this screening of points is to improve the reliability the detection of the eye. It was devised to reduce the level of error in the returned data that the geometric properties of the face and eyes be used to differentiate points the Hough transform sees as circular objects. Output from Hough transform Initially the points are screened based on colour information, setting a threshold to ignore points that have a grayscale value towards the white end of the spectrum removes any shado ws on the face or light source reflections from the returned data. Pairing data points of the same radius allows for the identification of probable matchingpairs of eyes. Healthy pupils should be of the same size and react together to any changes in light so it is reasonable to assume they should be the same size. At this stage apoint may have multiple pairings with other points. The Results from the Hough Transform.Pairing Circles of similar radius

Excluding those pairs at large angles
The angle condition to be applied, this involves removing pairings from the selection that fail to have a relatively small angle with the horizontal. This reflects the normal orientation of the driver¶s eyes during normal driving conditions. A tolerance is given to allow for leaning

Removal of Pairs that fail Angle Condition

Excluding those outside distance range
Now the distance condition is applied to the pairings, this is used as the distance between the eyes is fixed and can be said to lie within a maximum and minimum distance range for the majority of people, i.e. most people¶s eyes are greater than 2cm apart but less than 20cm. This is a broad range but eliminates any outlying points.

Removal of Pairs that do not fit Distance Criteria From the final check we can identify which pair of circles are eyes. Fig 4.9 shows the resulting circles which show eyes in the image. The screening process is done form the radius, angle, distance which will almost give the exact coordinates of eyes in An imeage


Best Match Selection of Circles The result is successful eye detection, pupils are shown in the fig 4.9 and centre point is crossed with red mark Eye Tracking Since the system continuously check the eyes in every image from the video sequence, a tracking program has to be written. The tracking program checks the eye in every frame from the video and shows the position of the eyes in each frame surrounded with a redsquare and alerts the driver when he is found to be in sleepy. The alerting is an audio signal which awakens the driver. Since the normal eye-lid ofman is about 0.3 sec, if the person close his eyes continuously about 0.3sec the alert system will be activated. Here 7 frames is taken as reference for the sleepy condition since in 0.3sec nearly 7 frames will be played depending on the frame rate of the video file

Road users have long been known to fall asleep while driving. Driving long hours can induce fatigue causing lack of concentration and occasionally road accidents. This is even more critical on motorways where traffic travels at higher speeds and drivers can succumb to ³motorway hypnosis´ as the repetitive and somewhat passive experience of driving on long, wide, straight roads can cause the driver to relax and lose concentration from the road and traffic around them. This allows drivers who ³legally´ are fit to drive but physically are not, on the roads. Many of these drivers are unaware of their fatigue and danger they pose to themselves and other road users. A main application of this system is primarily to protect such people described by alerting them to their fatigue.

Eye detection is inevitable as world culture dictates higher safety standards in all aspects of life. In today¶s world there are more vehicles on the roads than ever before at all hours of the night and day. This increase in road usage is a factor in the rate of traffic accidents on roads. In addition, especially in India, hundreds of thousands commute over long distances to work, day in, and day out. This long daily commute very early in the morning and late in the evening can fatigue the driver thus inhibiting their ability to react to non-expectant events and even worse, it can cause the driver to fall asleep at the wheel. This is why such a system, outlined in this project would be of benefit to drivers and their community.

1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 53, NO. 4, JULY 2004Real- Time Nonintrusive Monitoring and Prediction of Driver Fatigue Qiang Ji, Zhiwei Zhu, and Peilin Lan

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