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The traditional method of brackishwater pond culture is widely practiced within the ASEAN countries. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the main species raised is milkfish, and shrimp, which enter the pond with tidal water, is usually considered by the pond farmers as a secondary crop. The exception is Penaeus monodon which is stocked by some farmers either as a main crop or in polyculture with milkfish. In Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, shrimp is the principal crop. In the traditional method of culture, wild shrimp fry are carried into ponds with the current on high tides or with pumped water. Production is dependent on the abundance of wild fry and on the season. Small predatory fish also enter the ponds and this results in high mortalities of the species being cultured. Since water is exchanged frequently to allow more fry to enter the pond, fertilizers are not generally used and production depends entirely on natural conditions. Consequently, yields are low, generally in the range of 100 to 300 kg/ha/year. Rapid progress has been made in shrimp culture, however, and recent developments have shown that with proper management, yields in traditional ponds can be increased to 600 to 1 000 kg/ha/year without supplemental feeding. In Taiwan, yields equivalent to 10 000 kg/ha/year have been obtained in intensive culture with artificial feed and aeration (Liao, 1977). To consolidate the recently developed technology on the culture of shrimp in ponds within the ASEAN member countries, an ASEAN Seminar/ Workshop on Shrimp Culture was held at Iloilo City, Philippines, from 15 to 23 November 1976. This manual was developed primarily from material presented at this Seminar/Workshop and is intended to serve as an aid to researchers and extension workers in their efforts to assist shrimp farmers in increasing their production. All the participants contributed to the discussions of each subject. Mr. Harry L. Cook of the South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme assembled the material and added additional information from the literature. Each participant, as well as other experts in this field, who did not attend the workshop, then had an opportunity to critically examine the draft of the manual and make comments or add additional material. The result is that this manual is truly a group effort. A list of the participants, observers, resource persons, workshop staff and technical advisers, is given in ANNEX A. In addition, as part of the workshop, field trips were made to local shrimp farms and information obtained on these visits is also incorporated in the manual. Due to the wide range of experience of the participants and variation in the type of pond culture practiced in their home countries, it is thought this manual contains most of the technology available within the region. In addition, an attempt has been made to make the manual as comprehensive as possible by incorporating pertinent information from the literature.
2. SUITABILITY OF VARIOUS SPECIES FOR CULTURE
Many factors must be considered when a farmer is deciding which species of shrimp he should culture. Due to its large size and high price, P. monodon is generally considered the most desirable. However, if fry are not available, or are too expensive, it might be worthwhile to grow another species. In an area subject to flooding from typhoons, it might be advantageous to
minimize risk by culturing a species with a short growing period. It may be desirable to consider growing different species during different seasons depending on the variations of the environment or availability of wild fry. Of the species of shrimp occurring within the region, the following are the ones most commonly cultured:
Penaeus monodon P. merguiensis P. indicus Metapenaeus ensis M. monoceros M. brevicornis
While not cultured in large numbers now, the following are thought to have commercial potential. That is, they grow to a suitable size and have a good market value.
P. semisulcatus P. latisulcatus P. japonicus P. orientalis P. penicillatus M. affinis M. elegans M. burkenroadii - M. mastersii M. tenuipes M. conjunctus M. intermedius M. joyneri
As an aid in choosing which species to culture, some advantages and disadvantages of the most common or well-known species are given below. The material presented is necessarily incomplete as there is little data available for most species.
2.1 Penaeus monodon
2.1.1 Advantages a. It attains a large size. Shrimp with a size of 10 to 12 pieces/kg are common, and sizes of 5 to 7 pieces/kg have been grown in ponds. b. It is the fastest growing of all shrimp tested for culture. In ponds, fry of 3 cm in length have been grown to a size of 75 to 100 g in only five to six months. Forster (1974) was able to grow them to 25 g in 16 weeks in a tank stocked at 15/m2; Liao (1977) was able to grow them to 35 g in three months in a tank stocked at 15/m2. c. Due to its large size, it brings a high price to the farmer. Over US$ 7 per kg of shrimp weighing 15/kg has been reported in Indonesia. d. It can tolerate a wide range of salinity, 0.2 to 70 ppt. Salinity within the range of 10 to 25 ppt has no appreciable effect on growth when food is sufficient. Growth is reported to be slower at very low salinities. e. It can tolerate temperatures up to at least 37.5°C. Mortalities occur at temperatures below 12°C. f. It grows rapidly when fed either with animal or vegetable protein. g. Food conversion ratios are favourable. Values as low as 1.8:1 have been reported from Taiwan (Liao, personal communication).
h. It is hardy and not greatly disturbed by handling. 2.1.2 Disadvantages a. There is a sparse supply of wild seed for stocking. b. Wild fry are usually expensive. c. Gravid females are difficult to obtain from the wild in sufficient numbers to support a large hatchery. d. Females are more difficult to mature in captivity than many other species. Excellent progress is being made in this area, however, and reliable techniques for maturation are being developed. e. It takes a long growing period to reach the large size which commands the best price. This increases risk of heavy losses from typhoons and other natural disasters. f. It is difficult to harvest because it does not have a pond with discharged water as readily as other species. g. It is not suited for polyculture with milkfish in the progress on method of culture because of the difficulty in transferring it from pond to pond and its long growing period. h. The head to tail ratio is not as good as that of some other species. This could have an adverse effect on sales to the export market where only tails are desired. i. The exoskeleton is rather thick and processors find it harder to remove than that of most other species.
2.2 Penaeus merguiensis and P. indicus
P. indicus and P. merguiensis supposedly can be differentiated by five separate characteristics, but based on actual field surveys there are many individuals which do not have any clear distinction on these five points. Consequently, they were put into one group as indicusmerguiensis complex by Fujinaga and Kurata (1967). As these shrimp are difficult to distinguish, they have been grouped together in this paper unless one of the species is specifically identified. In spite of the taxonomic confusion, there are indications of behavioural differences between the two species. In the Philippines, for instance, ³P. indicus´ is difficult to harvest by draining ponds, but in Thailand, ³P. merguiensis´ moves out of ponds readily when water is drained. In addition, P. indicus prefers sandy substrates and P. merguiensis is found most frequently on mud bottoms. 2.2.1 Advantages a. This shrimp grows to a fairly large size and brings a good price. b. It is fairly fast growing, especially when young. Cultured in tanks at a density of 15/m2, it reached a size of 14 g in 16 weeks (Forster, 1974). In polyculture with milkfish in earthen ponds, females grew to about 28 g and males to about 12 g in 160 days (Gundermann and Popper, 1975). c. Survival is high during the first three months of growth or up to a size of about 10 cm. d. Wild fry are usually abundant in estuaries near areas where the adults are present. e. Gravid females are relatively easy to obtain from the wild in numbers sufficient to operate a hatchery. f. Females can be matured in captivity with relative ease. g. This shrimp moves out of a pond with water discharge, making harvesting easy.
h. Good growth has been obtained in intensive culture with a feed having 40 percent protein, which is lower than that required for some other species. i. The exoskeleton is relatively thin, giving greater portion of edible meat to total weight. 2.2.2 Disadvantages a. Relatively high salinity (20±30 ppt) is required for best growth. It has a wide tolerance to short-term exposure to salinity extremes, but dies with long exposure at salinities below 5 ppt and above 40 ppt. b. Mortalities occur at temperatures above 34°C. c. There is a significant size difference between sexes. d. It can not stand rough handling as either a juvenile or an adult. Fry are weaker than those of P. monodon during transport. e. Wild fry are more difficult to identify than most other species of Penaeus or Metapenaeus. f. With present technology, great difficulty has been encountered in culturing this shrimp for longer than three months without heavy mortalities.
2.3 Penaeus semisulcatus
2.3.1 Advantages a. Artificial propagation of larvae is relatively easy. b. This shrimp reaches a large size and brings a good price. 2.3.2 Disadvantages This species has not been successfully cultured to marketable size despite numerous attempts. In ponds, growth is slow and mortality has been high. It requires high salinity water.
2.4 Penaeus japonicus
2.4.1 Advantages a. b. c. d. Spawners are readily obtained from the wild. Fry can be supplied in large quantities from artificial propagation. It can tolerate cold weather. It is hardy and can withstand handling. Survival rate for long distance transport of live adult shrimp is high. e. The price of live edible size shrimp is high in Japan.
2.4.2 Disadvantages a. b. c. d. It has less tolerance to low salinity than some other species, 15±30 ppt is optimum. It is not very tolerant to high temperature. High protein (about 60%) feed is required for best growth. In grow-out ponds a clean sand bottom is required for best growth.
2.5 Penaeus penicillatus
2.5.1 Advantages a. Growth is fairly fast during the first three months. b. Growth is relatively fast in cool weather and in Taiwan the shrimp can be cultured during the winter season. c. Gravid females are easy to obtain from the wild. Ovarian maturation of females in captivity is relatively easy. d. The head to tail ratio is favourable when compared to other species. e. The red colour of the body after cooking is preferred by consumers. 2.5.2 Disadvantages a. Relatively high salinity and dissolved oxygen are required. b. It is not tolerant to handling. c. It is difficult to grow this shrimp to a large size.
2.6 Metapenaeus ensis and M. monoceros
2.6.1 Advantages a. These shrimps are very tolerant of low salinity and high temperature. b. They require a relatively short growing period, only two to three months, to attain marketable size. c. Wild postlarvae are abundant in most areas. d. Survival in ponds is usually high. e. Harvesting can be accomplished easily by catching them as water is drained from a pond. f. Sexual size disparity is not as great as in some other species of Metapenaeus. g. M. monoceros has been known to spawn in ponds. h. They are easy to mature in captivity and larval culture is relatively easy. i. They are tolerant of handling. j. They are well-suited for polyculture. 2.6.2 Disadvantages These shrimps do not grow to a large size. In the wild, M. ensis reaches a maximum size of about 18 cm, but shrimp over 14 cm are not common. They bring a low price because of their small size.
2.7 Metapenaeus brevicornis
2.7.1 Advantages a. It is tolerant of low salinity and high temperature. b. Wild seed is abundant. c. Survival in ponds is high.
d. The growing period is short. e. This shrimp has been known to spawn in ponds. 2.7.2 Disadvantages a. It grows only to a small size. Full growth is about 12.5 cm for females and 7.5 cm for males. This great size disparity between sexes is not desirable in culture. b. Due to its size the price is low.
3. SITE SELECTION CRITERIA TO BE EVALUATED
Site evaluation is not only undertaken to determine if a site is suitable for shrimp farming. It is also valuable in determining what modifications are needed concerning layout, engineering, and management practices to make shrimp farming possible at a given site. No site will have all the desirable characteristics, so a number of judgements have to be made for every site. First, can shrimp be farmed profitably? Second, what is the most appropriate type of management? Third, how must the pond system be constructed for that type of management in that location? The material presented below is designed to help in the decision-making process.
3.1.1 Water quality This is an elusive term which is difficult to define, but it includes all the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the water. Certainly pH is an important aspect, and pH of water on, or adjacent to, the pond site should be within the range of 7.8 to 8.3. Water with a good growth of phytoplankton can usually be considered productive. The sedimentation characteristics of the water are important. If the water carries an excessive amount of sediments a sediment trap may have to be built into the water supply system. The amount of dissolved oxygen present near the bottom of the source of water to be used should be determined. 3.1.2 Salinity The normal salinity of water during high tide at different seasons of the year should be known. Especially important for rivers and canals is the subsurface intrusion of salt water under the fresh- water. The depth of the top of the wedge at different tidal stages during normal weather should be ascertained. Also important is whether or not the tidal wedge persists during floods. The frequency of floods should be known. Just as important is the duration of freshwater conditions during flooding. 3.1.3 Tidal characteristics The tidal characteristics in relation to land elevation at the proposed site should be determined. This is critical to determine if; tidal flow or pumping will be used to fill the ponds, the elevation of the pond bottom, dike height, etc. In general, places where the tidal fluctuation is moderate, between 2 and 3 m, are most suitable for fish farms using tidal flow to fill the ponds. Places where tidal fluctuations are large, over 4 m, are not suitable sites for tidal ponds because very large and expensive dikes would be required to prevent flooding during high tide. Also it would be more difficult to hold water in the ponds during low tides since due to the higher pressure,
water loss and erosion from seepage, crab holes, etc. would be greater. Areas with slight tidal fluctuation, 1 m or less, are also unsuitable for tidal ponds, because the ponds could not be filled or drained properly. So, if ponds are to be constructed in areas where the tide is less than 2 m or more than 3 m, the use of pumps should be considered (Jamandre and Rabanal, 1976). Actual measurements should be made at the pond site to determine high and low tide bench marks. One must keep in mind that tidal fluctuation is much less at certain times of the year than at others. Tide tables should be consulted to determine this. Highest tides during past floods and storms should be known. Sometimes the only way to acquire this information is from local residents. Wave action during normal tides, storms and monsoons should be known. 3.1.4 Currents prevailing in the immediate area A knowledge of currents is important for planning erosion control measures to protect the dikes and main gate as well as to determine the probability of sediment deposition in water control structures. Shifting mud or sand can block water supply canals or sluice gates, making effective water management impossible. As it is seldom practical to conduct surveys, one should ask local people if shifting sand or mud has ever been built up in areas near the pond site. Take into account changing wind and current patterns at different times of the year. 3.1.5 Rainfall Important factors in the immediate area are maximum daily rainfall and annual distribution. The area of watershed and runoff in relation to the pond site should be looked into. 3.1.6 Evaporation rates If evaporation is high, determine if there is an adequate supply of freshwater with which to dilute the pond water to maintain proper salinity. 3.1.7 Pollution If the site is near a river, determine if harmful substances are used or released upstream. These would include such things as pesticides for agriculture and malaria control, mining wastes, industrial and urban wastes. Are materials discharged continously or only once in a while? Try and anticipate future pollution problems. Do not locate near a city that is growing rapidly or an area that is designated as a future industrial estate. Consult with local government planning officials to investigate these aspects.
In new areas where ponds are to be constructed for the first time, soil samples should be taken at ten random locations per hectare. Soil core samples should be taken at least to a depth of 0.5 m below the proposed pond bottom. This is because good soil might overlay unsuitable soil and a surface sample would not be sufficient.
In existing ponds, it is recommended that 12 samples be collected from ponds of 1 ha or less, and 25 samples from ponds of 2 to 20 ha. In ponds samples need only be taken from the top 5 cm. A 100 ml portion of each soil sample should be placed in a plastic bucket to give one composite sample per pond. The composite sample should be mixed thoroughly. The soil samples are then taken to a soil-testing laboratory for analysis. 3.2.1 Type Many coastal soils are high in peat or sand content and will not hold water. The potential pond soils must have a high enough clay content to assure that the pond will hold water. A good field test to use in determining this is to shape a handful of moist soil into a ball, if the ball remains intact and does not crumble after considerable handling, there is enough clay in the soil to provide a water tight seal (Perry, 1972). Sandy clay or sandy loam is best for dike construction, because it is hard and does not crack when dry. Peaty soil is not a good dike material as it settles too much and may even burn when dried (Denila, 1976). 3.2.2 Acidity and potential acidity An excellent discussion of the effect acid soils have on brackishwater ponds is given by Potter (1976), a summary of which follows: The fact that many newly-constructed ponds are reported to give poor production is generally attributed to low fertility of the soil, but acid soils may be the cause in many cases. Due to the conditions under which some coastal soils are formed, iron pyrites often accumulate. As long as these pyrite-containing soils remain submerged, they are subject to little change. When the land is drained to make fishponds the pyrites become oxidized producing sulfuric acid which cause the soil pH to become extremely low. Low soil pH can result in lowered pH of the pond water either by leaching from the pond bottom or by runoff of rainwater from the dikes during heavy storms. The sulfuric acid formed when pyrite oxidizes not only affects pH of the pond water, it also affects soil minerals, releasing iron and aluminum which can bind up phosphates and other essential algal nutrients. This lowers the natural productivity of a pond and makes fertilization ineffective. The resulting lack of natural food causes slow growth. Dikes made from acid sulfate soil develop vegetative cover very slowly, thus they are subject to severe erosion. This requires added maintenance, both to repair the dikes and to remove sediments from the pond. In addition, as the dikes are subject to oxidation, sulfuric acid and active aluminum and iron may be washed into the pond with eroded soil creating water quality problems. When the pyrite containing soil becomes highly acidic after oxidation it is called an acid sulfate soil. A soil which will become acidic upon oxidation is called a potential acid sulfate soil. Acid sulfate soils can be identified easily by taking a soil pH. Their pH is 4.0 or less and mottles of the pale yellow mineral jarosite are usually abundant. In drained areas, an acid sulfate soil condition is characterized by a red colouration on the soil surface.
Potential acid sulfate soils are much more difficult to determine, because they do not become acidic until after oxidation. The soil can be acidified by exposure to air, but the extent and rate of the acidification process are regulated by chemotrophic bacteria. Bacterial activity is low in dry soil, so it is best if the soil is kept moist. To do this, a soil sample is made into 1 cm thick cake and sealed in a thin plastic bag. The bag preserves the soil moisture and, if thin, is permeable enough to allow oxidation of the pyrite to proceed rapidly. The pH of the soil should be reduced to below 4.0 within one month if it is potential acid sulfate. Considering the many problems associated with acid sulfate soils, a detailed soil survey is well advised before construction is started to develop brackishwater ponds. For determination of the amount of lime which will be required to improve an acid sulfate soil, see Section 12.6. See Section 6.5 for suggestions for methods of construction in acid soil areas and Section 8.2.2 for management procedures. 3.2.3 Percolation rate A knowledge of the rate of percolation of the soil will help in determining the extent of water loss through the pond bottom or dikes and can affect both design and management. If, for instance, a portion of the soil is good clay, it may be better to use this for the puddle trench and/or centre core of the dike. If percolation can occur through the dike, and the dike soil is acid or potentially acid, it would be best to plan on having a positive water head in the pond to prevent acid from being washed into the pond by seepage through the dike. 3.2.4 Depth of topsoil and characteristics of subsoil If the subsoil is unsuitable for the dikes, it may be better to construct the dikes of topsoil, or the poor subsoil can be used for the core of the dikes and the outer surface can be covered with topsoil. If the subsoil is highly acidic, it might be better to leave it undisturbed, reducing the amount of excavation, and filling the pond by pumping instead of tidal flow. 3.2.5 Load bearing capacity This is especially important if heavy equipment is to be used. It also will help determine the number of pilings required under the gates, and the need for special foundations under dikes.
3.3.1 Seed resources Determine if fry are available from hatcheries or dealers who obtain stock from the wild. If fry are not to be purchased, the local resource must be assessed to determine the species present and their seasonality of abundance. 3.3.2 Predators, competitors and burrowing organisms The predominant pests vary from area to area and the kind present in a given area may have an effect on management, construction or cost estimates (see Section 9).
3.3.3 Wood boring organisms Find out if these organisms are a problem in the area, if possible the extent of damage caused. The best way to determine what group causes the damage is to search out and examine old pieces of wood stuck in the ground, or the wooden boats of local people. This information can affect the decision as to what type of material to use for sluice gate construction (See Section 9). 3.3.4 Vegetation The type of vegetation growing in the area can be an indicator of elevation and soil type. Following is a listing of some types of mangrove and the tidal zone they are usually associated with (Zinke, 1975).
Medium high tide - Avicennia, Sonneratia - Excoecaria, Thespesia High daily (normal tide) Spring high tide Abnormal high tide - Rhizophora, Ceriops - Lumnitzera, Acrostichum - Melaleuca, Phoenix
Mangrove with growths of Avicennia have good soil and fishponds built on them are generally productive. Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Sonneratia acida and most other mangroves with the same type of extensive, above ground, root system usually occur on acid soils which are less suitable for fish-ponds (Padlan, personal communication, 1977). Nipa and other trees with a high tanin content have a long lasting effect on ponds, causing low pH (Jamandre and Rabanal, 1976). The number of trees and the size of their stumps and root systems is an important factor in the cost of land clearing and excavation.
3.4 Social and economic
3.4.1 Land cost Land cost should be determined so that economic viability of the project can be evaluated. 3.4.2 Accessibility Accessibility is important for the transport of both construction equipment and materials, and for daily operations. Costs can increase significantly if materials have to be carried far by hand. If access to the pond site is by water, make sure that travel is possible during the monsoon. 3.4.3 Availability of labour Local labour, meaning residents living adjacent to the pond site, is the cheapest labour which can be obtained. This is because there will be a large saving in housing, transportation, food and other expenses, because if workers are brought in from other areas they will have to be
paid for these expenses. It is important to know the customs and tradition of the local people, as this will greatly affect the funding for labour. Identify the months when agriculture activities are greatest. This will help in formulating programmes for repair of dikes and gates, stocking and harvesting. It may be difficult to get enough manpower during the time for rice planting, harvesting or the milling season for sugar (Denila, 1976). 3.4.4 Availability and cost of supplies and equipment It is important to determine whether or not the supplies and equipment you need are available in the local area or the country. Fine mesh screening material is generally not available. Frequently the variety of inorganic fertilizer is greatly restricted and costs may be higher for nonagricultural use than for agricultural use. Manures or other organic fertilizers might be difficult to obtain, or available only infrequently, requiring storage. If some materials will have to be imported one should determine if there are any restrictions or extra costs involved. 3.4.5 Availability of marketing outlets and prices This will have an impact on management. If local buyers pay acceptable prices, the best form of management may be to practice partial harvesting, or to harvest one pond at a time, so that a small market is not flooded. If the shrimp have to be shipped some distance to a market, it might be better to plan to harvest and market large quantities at one time. Sometimes buyers come to the farm and furnish ice. If not, is ice available? Determine if the buyer will accept only whole shrimp or if just tails would be acceptable. If he will take tails, the heads can be removed at the pond and used as supplemental feed. Ask if a higher price will be paid if heads are removed from the shrimp at the pond. 3.4.6 Possible legal and institutional constraints This could include such items as: licensing requirements, land ownership laws, navigation laws, delays in processing applications, regulations against importing certain required materials (i.e. machinery, equipment, etc.). 3.4.7 Availability of technical assistance This can be from government extension services, government or university research stations, or loan granting agencies. 3.4.8 Social or economic impact of the farm on the local area This might be a useful aid in obtaining financial and/or technical assistance. 3.4.9 Competing uses for land and nearby waters The uses of nearby land and water should be assessed to determine what impact, if any, they will have on the project. Activities to be included would be such things as navigation, fishing, industry, public utilities, recreation, nursery areas. Problems can arise particularly if the activities of local people are disrupted. Make sure the project does not block a traditional right of way or interfere with work or recreational activities. It is recommended that plans for industrial
development include provisions for rural districts as well as industrial districts so that the effects of industrial pollution on both agriculture and aquaculture will be minimized.
4. DESIGN CRITERIA REQUIRED BY SHRIMP
Most concepts of pond engineering and layout have been developed for culturing fish. The physiological requirements and behaviour of shrimp are, in some cases, quite different from fish. By examining these factors, it should be possible to gain an insight into how to construct ponds suitable for shrimp culture.
Both growth and survival are affected by temperature. Generally, the rate of growth increases with temperature, but at higher temperatures mortality increases. While each species has its own optimum temperature range, temperature between 26 to 30°C are generally considered best in terms of maximum yield. That is, growth is relatively fast and survival is high. Temperatures above 32°C should be cause for concern. In postlarval stages of P. aztecus, the rate of growth was observed to increase with temperature, up to 32.2°C. Survival for one month was greatly reduced at 32.5°C, and no shrimp survived at 35°C (Zein-Eldin and Aldrich, 1965). The following table gives results of an experiment to determine the effect of high temperature on survival of P. merguiensis 8.5 cm in length (Piyakarnchana et al, 1975).
Temperature °C Percent normal shrimp Percent shrimp immobile Percent dead shrimp 30 100 0 0 34 100 0 0 36 50 50 0 38 50 50 0 40 0 25 75 42 0 25 75 42.5 0 0 100
Liao (personal communication) supplied similar data for P. monodon
Temperature °C Percent survival 26.5 100 30 100 35 100 37.5 60 40 0
The best way to ensure that the temperature of pond water does not become too hot is to provide a greater depth of water. This can be done by deepening the total pond area, or by excavating deep channels within the pond for the shrimp to seek shelter in. No accurate information is available on the minimum depth of water required. It is, however, suggested that the minimum water depth be at least 0.5 m. If interior canals are used, a water depth of 1.5 m should be provided if the water is turbid. If the water is clear a depth of 2 m is required. The effect of wind action on water movement and mixing is not as great in deep ponds as it is in shallow ponds. Consequently, stratification of water layers as in the case of heavy rains can become dangerous to shrimp. So, while ponds should be designed so that relatively deep water levels can be maintained during the hot dry season, added precautions have to be taken to ensure adequate mixing of the water (see Sections 3.2 and 3.3). Shading portions of the pond with floating material such as coconut leaves has been found beneficial.
Young shrimp can tolerate wide fluctuations of salinity. In most species salinity has little effect on either survival or growth of postlarvae, except at extremes. The ability to withstand extremely low salinities varies from species to species. The period of acclimation is important in determining the lowest salinity at which a shrimp can survive. Changes in salinity should be as gradual as possible because abrupt exposure to very low salinity can cause death. Very little is known of the salinity tolerance of sub-adult and adult shrimp. Of the important species cultured in this area, it is generally considered that P. monodon and most Metapenaeus spp. can grow in almost freshwater. P. merguiensis and P. indicus require more saline water, probably above 10 ppt. Piyakarnchana, et al (1975) report that optimal growth of P. merguiensis was obtained at 27 ppt but that growth was good over the range from 20 to 30 ppt. P. semisulcatus seems to require very saline water. All species of Penaeus require almost marine seawater for sexual maturation and spawning. Even less is known about the tolerance of shrimp to the extremely high salinities which can occur in some shallow ponds when it is not possible to exchange water regularly. Prevention of low salinity is best achieved by locating ponds in areas where the normal range of salinity is within that tolerance of the species to be cultured. Accordingly, culture ponds for P. merguiensis and P. indicus should be located fairly near the coast while those for P. monodon and Metapenaeus spp. can be further away from the shore. To protect against abrupt changes in salinity, the following criteria should be met: a. There must be a capacity to change pond water rapidly, and whenever it is required. Since the latter requirement is often a problem with tidal ponds pumps might be useful. b. Sluice gates must be designed to permit rapid draining of surface water during and after heavy rains. c. Sluice gates should be designed to permit the inflowing water for replenishment from the bottom at times when the surface water is of low salinity in the adjacent natural waters. d. Pond water should be at least 50 cm deep for temperature control. This also aids in control of salinity as the greater water volume provides more protection against dilution. For example, if a pond 10 cm deep receives 10 cm of rainfall, salinity will drop by 50 percent. If the pond water is being maintained at a depth of 50 cm, however, the same 10 cm of rain will only reduce the salinity by only 17 percent. e. Diversion canals should be provided to divert rain water runoff from adjacent land away from the pond to prevent destruction of dikes and flooding of the pond. f. To prevent high salinity resulting from evaporation, windbreaks such as trees or high dikes may be useful. Trees with more or less evergreen leaves should be used because if a lot of leaves fall into a pond they may cause problems when they decompose.
Maintenance of adequate levels of dissolved oxygen in the pond water is very important for shrimp. Many workers have suggested that the minimul level of oxygen needed for good shrimp growth is 2 ppm, but there are inadequate data to support this conclusion. Two studies have been conducted to investigate the short-term effects of low oxygen levels. Egusa (1961) reported that for P. japonicus, stress is signalled at 1.4 ppm when burrowing occurs. MacKay
(1974) observed that in P. schmitti the majority of shrimp began swimming at the water surface when the level of dissolved oxygen was reduced to 1.2 ppm. Ten minutes later the shrimp began jumping out of the water. They then fell to the bottom and became immobile. When the immobile shrimp were placed in well-aerated tanks, about 50 percent recovered. Considering the above, perhaps a dissolved oxygen level of 1.2 ppm should be considered as a base at which shrimp start to die with even a short exposure. Even less is known of the long-term effects of sublethal dissolved oxygen levels. Rigdon and Baxter (1970) found that white areas of degenerated tissue in the tail muscles of P. aztecus were associated with low levels of dissolved oxygen and high temperature. Shrimp with this condition frequently died. When the affected shrimp were placed in well-aerated tanks, however, the white areas dissipated within 24 hours and the shrimp became active. This same condition has been observed with P. merguiensis in culture ponds. Fishery biologists feel that when dissolved oxygen levels reach 3 ppm or below in fishponds, remedial action is necessary. The same is probably true for shrimp. So in formulating guidelines based on the small amount of laboratory information available, we can perhaps state that growth should be best at dissolved oxygen levels above 3 ppm, and that mortalities will occur after short-term exposure at dissolved oxygen levels below 1.2 ppm. However, this may not always hold true in a pond where several factors interact as Shigueno (1975) recorded a die-off in a pond when the oxygen level reached a low of only 2.7 ppm during the night (see Section 4.6). Mortality can be reduced in shrimp suffering from a lack of dissolved oxygen if the oxygen level is raised quickly. A common method of expressing the concentration of dissolved oxygen in ponds is to give the percent solubility. Tables 1 through 4 give the percent solubility of oxygen at saturation and the critical levels for shrimp at different levels of temperature and salinity. It can be seen that water with a high temperature and salinity holds less dissolved oxygen than does water with low temperature and salinity. Consequently a deeper pond would be beneficial in maintaining reduced temperature and providing for increased oxygen solubility which with proper management could result in increased levels of dissolved oxygen. The shrimp being cultured are probably not the main consumers of oxygen in a pond with a low level of dissolved oxygen. Shigueno (1975) reported the estimated percentages of oxygen consumed in one night in a ³polluted´ shrimp pond as follows:
Oxygen consumer P. japonicus Other shrimp Fish Bottom sand Water Percentage (%) 8.6 0.5 6.7 14.8 69.4
The water which includes algae, bacteria and detritus was the main consumer of oxygen. The most effective way to correct low dissolved oxygen levels in such a pond is to reduce the amount of algae, bacteria and detritus in the water. This can be done by draining a portion of the pond water and refilling it with clean water.
Heavy rains can cause stratification of water layers, especially if the pond is deep and there is not much wind. The lighter freshwater floats on top of the more dense salt water. Such stratification can result in oxygen depletion in the lower salt water layer. Provision should be made to promote mixing of water after heavy rains. Increased water movement provides more aeration and can be used to help keep dissolved oxygen levels from falling to a critical point. It can also be used to raise critically low levels. This can be provided by: a. Water change, especially letting new water into a pond. Sometimes pumping is the only way to do this at the time it is needed. All the shrimp in a pond could die if one had to wait several hours for a high tide to let new water in. b. Installation of aeration equipment y Air blower or compressor with air stones in the pond y Electric water mill y Wind mill c. Orientation of the long axis of the pond with the prevailing wind during the construction stage. Caution must be exercised here, as in areas with strong winds, wave action might cause excessive dike erosion, especially in large, deep ponds, and it might be necessary to provide wind wave breaks near the dike. In such areas it may be more advantageous to orientate the short axis of the pond with the prevailing wind and rely on other means of providing aeration. d. Construction of large ponds which allow a greater sweep of wind across the pond. e. Lowering the water depth to accentuate the effect of wind action. (Care must be taken that sufficient depth is maintained to prevent high water temperature.) f. Not constructing dikes excessively high so that they block the wind. g. Not planting trees on dikes. All the above factors can have an effect on some other aspects of pond management and each factor must be evaluated to assess its effects on the overall scheme in each locality.
A low water pH can affect the shrimp directly. Wickins (1976) found that even though P. monodon grew without suffering mortalities in water with a pH of 6.4 in the presence of inorganic carbon, growth was reduced 60 percent. However, a drop in pH that is associated with a loss or rapid reduction of inorganic carbon, such as occurs with the addition of a strong acid, can be lethal. In water with a pH of 6.4, and less than 10 to 12 mg/l of inorganic carbon, P. merguiensis and P. aztecus exhibited greatly reduced growth and lower survival. When pH fell below 5.0, heavy mortalities occurred. A fall in pH may have indirect effects also, for instance, resistance of the shrimp to pathogens might be reduced. One of the most important causes of low water pH is acid soil (see Section 3.2.2). Acid and potential acid sulfate soils are commonly overlaid by good soil which lies above the mean high water level. If the land is excavated to make the pond bottom at a level where the pond can be filled and drained using tidal fluctuation, acid sulfate conditions develop when the subsoil is exposed. This will result in low pH of the pond water unless the soil is improved. Considering the cost and difficulty required to improve an acid sulfate subsoil, it is suggested that in areas where there is a non-acid topsoil, it may be more economically favourable to use bar ditch type construction and fill the ponds by pumping.
If ponds must be excavated, the surface layer of good soil can be set aside and replaced as a surface layer on the pond bottom and dikes. If the amount of good soil is limited, it should be used to surface dikes of small ponds such as nursery ponds. This will prevent rains from washing acid from the dikes into the pond water and killing the fry. This is much more critical in small ponds than in large ponds. Pond bottom can be leached or limed to reduce or eliminate the acid condition. In areas where there is not enough good topsoil to surface dikes, the dikes can be made with a berm, and a ditch can be cut in the berm to catch acid water runoff and prevent it from contaminating the pond water (Potter, 1976). High pH has an effect on ammonia toxicity because it increases the ratio of toxic unionized ammonia in solution to the total ammonia present. This is discussed in the following section.
4.5 Nitrogen compounds
The following discussion of three forms of nitrogen and the effects of sublethal levels on shrimp growth is based on data presented by Wickins (1976). Nitrate. Two tests with nitrate showed that the growth of P. monodon was not affected by a concentration of 200 mg NO3-N/l after three to five weeks exposure. Nitrite. In a test with P. indicus, growth was reduced by nearly 50 percent over a period of 34 days when nitrite concentration was 6.4 mg NO2-N/l. Ammonia. Chronic toxicity tests for ammonia were conducted with five species of penaeid shrimp: P. japonicus, P. occidentalis, P. schmitti, P. semisulcatus and P. setiferus. The tests showed that a mean concentration of 0.45 mg NH3-N/l reduced growth by 50 percent of that of controls. Wickins estimated that a ³maximum acceptable level´ at which growth would be reduced by only 1 to 2 percent is 0.10 mg NH3-N/l. As it is more convenient to measure ammonia in terms of total ammonia nitrogen (not free NH3 or unionized ammonia), Wickins compiled the following table to give values of total ammonia nitrogen which correspond to the value 0.10 mg unionized ammonia (NH3-N) per liter at selected temperatures, salinity and pH. The concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (in mg/l) that corresponds to a calculated level of 0.1 mg/l unionized ammonia nitrogen in water at a constant pressure of 1 atmosphere at different values of temperature, salinity and pH (from Wickins, 1976)
Salinity Temperature pH 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 40.4 25.5 16.2 10.2 6.5 4.1 22.3 14.1 8.9 5.7 3.6 2.3 0 20°C 28°C 24 20°C 47.4 29.9 18.9 12.0 7.6 4.8 28°C 26.1 16.5 10.5 6.6 4.2 2.7 27 20°C 48.4 30.6 19.3 12.2 7.8 4.9 28°C 26.7 16.9 10.7 6.8 4.3 2.8 30 20°C 49.4 31.2 19.7 12.5 7.9 5.0 28°C 27.2 17.2 10.9 6.9 4.4 2.8 33 20°C 50.4 31.8 20.1 12.7 8.1 5.1 28°C 27.8 17.6 11.1 7.1 4.5 2.9
(concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (mg/l)
8.0 8.2 8.4
2.6 1.7 1.1
1.5 1.0 0.7
3.1 2.0 1.3
1.7 1.1 0.8
3.2 2.0 1.3
1.8 1.2 0.8
3.2 2.1 1.3
1.8 1.2 0.8
3.3 2.1 1.4
1.9 1.2 0.8
From the table it can be seen that pH has a major effect, with the percentage of toxic unionized ammonia being much greater at high pH than at low pH. In water with a temperature of 28°C, salinity of 24 ppt and pH of 6.8, the critical level of 0.1 mg/l unionized ammonia occurs when the total ammonia level is 26.1 mg/l. In water with a temperature of 28°C, salinity of 24 ppt and pH of 8.4, a level of 0.1 mg/l unionized ammonia occurs when the total ammonia level is only 0.8 mg/l. The normal pH of brackishwater is 8.0 to 8.3 and in ponds with a good growth of phytoplankton, pH values of 9 and above are common in the late afternoon. As there is not much that can be done to modify this and still keep pond production high, efforts should be concentrated on keeping ammonia levels low. Most of the ammonia in a pond is formed as waste products of the organisms which are living in the pond. The higher the density of both the species being cultured and the organisms cultured for food, the greater the production of ammonia. Ammonia will eventually be converted to nitrate, but there is a danger that ammonia production will exceed the capacity of the pond to convert the ammonia rapidly enough to prevent it from exceeding toxic levels. Some species of planktonic algae such as Chlorella sp. can utilize ammonia and nitrate directly. If these are present the danger of ammonia build-up will be reduced. However, it is very difficult to control the species of algae growing in a pond. An additional factor is that when dissolved oxygen levels are low, nitrates are reduced to ammonia, thus increasing the level of ammonia in the water. A decrease in dissolved oxygen also increases the toxicity of unionized ammonia. Conversely, an increased level of dissolved oxygen reduces toxicity (Spotte, 1970). The simplest way to prevent the build-up of ammonia and other harmful substances is by changing water on a regular basis.
4.6 Hydrogen sulfide
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in a pond is produced by the chemical reduction of organic matter which accumulates on, or in, the pond bottom. The bottom soil turns black and sometimes a rotten smell is discharged. As shrimp live primarily on, or in, the bottom, a build-up of H2S in the bottom soil, or in water near the bottom, is important. It has been determined experimentally by Shigueno (1975) that shrimp (P. japonicus) lost equilibrium when exposed to a level of 0.1 to 2.0 ppm hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in water. The shrimp died instantly at a concentration of 4 ppm. Studies in one pond showed that the concentration of sulfide-sulfur (mostly H2S) in interstitial water 2 cm deep in the pond bottom reached as high as 10 ppm. In the pond water it exceeded 0.09 ppm, varying from 0.037 to 0.093 ppm. A die-off of shrimp occurred in this pond. Shrimp burried in the bottom draw in water from above the pond cottom, so it is not likely that the level of H2S in the water was lethal. Dissolved oxygen level in the water did not fall below 2.7 ppm, again above the lethal limit. To determine the longer term effects of H2S on shrimp, soil on the bottom of 3.3 m3 tanks were treated with an application of iron oxide (70% ferrous oxide [FeO]) at the rate of 1 kg per m2.
This prevents the formation of H2S and FeO is formed instead. The shrimp in the tank with the treated bottom grew significantly better than those in the untreated tank. After a 68-day growing period, shrimp in the treated tanks had an average weight gain of 204 percent while suffering only 4.4 percent mortality. Shrimp in the tank without FeO had an average weight gain of only 150 percent and a mortality rate of 20.8 percent. It might not be practical to treat bottoms of large ponds with FeO, but frequent changes of water would prevent the build-up of H2S in the pond water. If ponds are constructed with peripheral canals, treatment of only the canals with FeO might be practical, as most of the organic debris is deposited in these canals and H2S production should be greater in them.
4.7 Bottom contour
As the behaviour of shrimp permits harvesting by other than the collection methods traditionally used for fish, pond designs calling for either a sloping or flat pond bottom need not be followed. The bottom can be left uneven or contoured in any way that permits complete drainage of pond water. This can have several benefits. a. The bottom can be left flat. There is no need for a harvest basin. b. Portions can be excavated so that the deeper water provides shelter for the shrimp. These areas also serve as holding areas when water level is reduced for economy of chemical application. c. A pond can be built with the traditional ditch type construction using manual labour. Construction costs are much less than for total excavation. d. Some food organisms grow best in shallow water. Their growth can be encouraged by leaving a portion of the pond with a shallow depth. e. Internal dikes can be built to break up wind waves and prevent erosion.
4.8 Structures for attachment
P. Monodon like to cling to some surface at all life stages, but especially during the postlarval and early juvenile stages. Clusters of branches placed around the pond provide protection from predators, help prevent cannibalism during moulting, provide protection from poachers, and provide a place for food organism to grow. A floating board or piece of bamboo raft with branches attached to the bottom is suitable and it also provides shade.
It is usually not a good practice to extend the pond area to the waters edge along the sea or a major river or canal. A buffer zone should be left for protection against erosion. Mangrove should not be cleared from these areas, and if no vegetation is growing, some should be planted. Small streams, or other paths of runoff, should not be blocked unless a water diversion canal is constructed to carry off drainage water. Water which can not be drained from areas adjacent to
ponds can sometimes seep into a pond in sufficient volume so that the pond bottom cannot be dried. If it can be located elsewhere, the main water supply gate should not be located either at a bend in a river or facing the open sea. These areas are subject to strong currents and wave action which can cause damage to the gate which result in costly repairs. It is important to place the sluice gate so incoming water sets up a good circulation of water within a pond. This is best achieved by placing the gates near the corner on the short side of a pond. This is an important point, because letting in water is sometimes the only way to break up stratified pond water and prevent shrimp die-offs. Areas with a high level of silt or mud in the incoming water have special problems. Ponds with internal canals along the dikes are good, because under this condition, the sediments are eventually deposited in the canals where they can be most easily removed. In an area facing a mud flat, it may be necessary to construct a small setting pond in which the silt can be trapped before the water enters the growing pond.
5.2 Water distribution system
If possible, shrimp ponds should have separate water intake and discharge canals. Water should be taken in at one corner of a pond and discharged from the opposite corner. This is especially important for large pond complexes with extensive canal systems. A single canal for intake and discharge of water from a pond complex has the following disadvantages: a. All water drained from the ponds is usually not completely discharged from the canal and some of it will reenter the ponds the next time water is taken in. b. The spread of disease from one pond to another is encouraged because water from one pond can enter another. c. Water that is fouled with H2S, ammonia or other contaminants can move from one pond to another. d. There can be a conflict between farmers concerning usage. For instance, one farmer might want water in the supply canal high so he can harvest milkfish, while another farmer wants the water level low so he can harvest shrimp. e. If a single gate is used for both intake and discharge water, exchange within the pond will be poor. Water at the far end is just moved toward the front during draining and then pushed back when new water is taken in. Separate water intake and discharge canals in a pond complex have the following advantages: a. Ponds can be filled better and water will not be contaminated by the discharge from other ponds. b. The chance of spreading disease is reduced greatly. c. A constant head can be maintained in the intake canal. This can reduce water loss through leaks in the pond dikes. It also cuts down seepage of water through the dikes and consequently reduces leaching of acid into the ponds from dikes with acid sulfate soils.
d. No conflict of usage should occur between farmers. e. A better exchange of water is provided for individual ponds. f. Flow-through systems can be used. With pumping, a constant head for continuous flowthrough can be maintained.
5.3 Pond layouts
It was brought out during the discussion that shrimp in extensive ponds with no feeding, generally grow well for two months, but after that time, growth is reduced greatly. If the shrimp are placed in another pond with a good supply of natural food, fast growth is resumed. Thus, it appears that a progressive method of shrimp culture is advisable when no supplementary feeding is practiced. For growing to a medium size, a two-stage progression composed of a nursery pond (NP) and a rearing pond (RP) is adequate. For growth to a large size, a threestage progression composed of a nursery pond, a transition pond (TP), and a rearing pond would be preferable. It is difficult to transfer shrimp from one pond to another without killing or injuring a number of them. See Section 7.6, transferring fry from nursery to growing ponds. The following design criteria are suggested for progression type pond systems: a. The NP, TP, and RP ponds should be adjacent. b. The pond bottom elevation should decrease from NP to TP to RP to permit drainage of water and aid in the transfer of shrimp. c. The bottom should be contoured to permit adequate drainage so the shrimp will move to the sluice gate and on to the next pond as a pond is drained. d. The total area must be used all, or almost all, of the time. e. If possible, nursery ponds should not be adjacent to large perimeter dikes. This is because the large surface area for runoff increases the chances for undesirable substances such as silt, acid, etc. to be washed into the nursery. Also, if there are crab holes or other leaks in the periperal dikes, the fry could escape, or predators could enter. Small predators which could enter through a hold would not be much of a problem in a grow-out pond, but they could be dangerous in a nursery. f. In polyculture operations fish fry and shrimp fry should have separate nurseries. g. In monoculture operations, the yield from one nursery pond should go to one rearing pond. This is because it is difficult to estimate numbers if the harvest from one nursery is split between two or more rearing ponds. 5.3.1 Progression system with one nursery pond and three rearing ponds The nursery is operated continuously and drained into the rearing ponds on a monthly rotation scheme so that the total area of rearing ponds is in almost continuous use. The recommended size relation of the ponds to each other is : NP = 1, RP = 3. The growing period in the nursery pond is one month and in the rearing ponds is three months. A layout of this type is shown in Figure 1. 5.3.2 Progression system with one nursery, one transition and one rearing pond In this system, the shrimp are moved progressively from the NP to the TP to the RP on a set time schedule as they grow larger. A layout of this type is shown in Figure 2. The relative size of pond units and a suggested scheme of management for P. monodon culture is as follows:
Type of pond Nursery Transition Rearing
Relative size of Growing period pond (mos.) 1 3 8 2 2 2
Stocking rate (No./ha) 58 000 18 000 12 000
Size of shrimp (g) at at stocking harvest 1 8 22 8 22 33
6. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
6.1 Tidal fluctuation and elevation of pond structures
The relationship between tidal fluctuation and the elevation of the various components in a pond system is very important. To determine this the tidal elevation must be measured at the pond site, preferably at the location of the main gate. If possible the measurements should be made during the time when the lowest critical tides of the year occur. The time of year when the lowest critical tides occur can be obtained from the tide tables. If measurements cannot be taken during the lowest critical tide of the year, they should be taken during the lowest and highest tides of the month. When measuring tide, the following steps should be followed: a. From a tide table select the days with the lowest tides, taking note of the O datum or mean lower low water (MLLW). b. Drive a semi-permanent stake in front of the area where the main gate will be constructed to mark the lowest point of the tide. The point at which the water level was lowest is marked on the stake. This is then correlated to O datum by use of the tide table, and the O datum level is also marked on the stake. This serves as the base line for determination of all elevations in the pond system (Denila, 1976).
6.2.1 The following specifications are recommended for dikes: a. All low depressions should be filled in before dike construction is started. When the area is crossed by creeks or rivers, the portion of the dike running across these should be constructed first. b. A puddle trench is essential to prevent water seepage under the dike. The earth should be packed as it is replaced into the trench. The dimensions of the trench should be 0.5 to 1 m deep and 0.5 to 1 m wide depending on the size of the dike. c. The following slopes are recommended for dikes built with good clay soil. y 2:1 when dike height is above 4.26 m and exposed to wave action y 1:1 when dike height is less than 4.26 m and the tidal range is greater than 1 m y 1:2 when the tidal range is 1 m or less, and the dike height is less than 1 m d. The crown should be no less than 0.5 m. The actual width depends upon the activities which will be performed during culture operations. e. The main dike surrounding the farm should be 0.5 cm above the highest tide or flood level recorded in the locality.
During construction 15 to 20 percent excess height should be allowed for shrinkage due to settling. g. Construction should be in stages. First, build the dike to of its final height all the way around the pond. Then build the height to , and finally to its full height. This allows the base to consolidate so it can support the weight of the top portion. h. A berm built on the inside of the dikes should be slightly above the water line. This will minimize the effects of wave action on the dikes. A berm is also an advantage when it is necessary to dig out and replace soil to repair damage caused by crab holes. i. To calculate the cross-sectional area of a dike to determine the amount of soil needed, the following formula can be used:
The area of the cross section is then multiplied by the length of dike to get the amount of soil required. 6.2.2 Control of erosion and leakage a. Growth of cover on the completed dike should be encouraged to prevent erosion (see Section 8.2.2). b. Mangrove or other branch placed at the water's edge will retard erosion of the dikes. Mangrove can be planted at the water's edge. c. In large ponds small submerged dikes can be built 10±15 m from the dikes during construction. Wind waves will break up on these submerged dikes and the water control dikes will not be damaged (Figure 15). d. In areas where burrowing organisms are a known problem, damage caused by their burrowing can be prevented by incorporating a bamboo screen or plastic film in the puddle trench during construction. e. The same materials can be placed in a cut made in the berm to repair damage. To stop leaks, slaked lime can also be added to a cut made in the berm. Easily applied as a powder it sets up hard on contact with water.
Canals which are to be used for harvesting should be 30 cm below the level of the pond bottom. The width of the canals depends on the amount of water they must carry. The following factors must be taken into account: a. b. c. d. The volume of water which will be held in the ponds. The time requirements for filling or draining the ponds. The amount of rainfall which must be carried off in a given period of time. Elevation of the canal bottom in relation to tide. For instance, tidal ponds cannot be drained during high tide, but a pond built at a higher elevation and filled by pumping may be drained during any tidal phase. e. Other uses. This might include transportation, harvesting milkfish, holding broodstock, etc.
6.4 Water control gates
There are numerous types and sizes of water control gates, and construction can be of many kinds of materials. There are, however, certain requirements that all gates at a shrimp pond should meet. a. A gate should first of all be of adequate capacity for the amount of water required to be taken in or drained. b. It should be constructed so that water can be taken in and discharged at the bottom. c. It must have provision for draining surface water from the pond. d. The bottom of the gate must be at an elevation which permits all the water to be drained. e. It should be water-tight. f. It must have slots or grooves for the placement of screens on the outside to keep trash undesirable species out of the pond, and on the inside to prevent shrimp from leaving the pond. g. It should have a place to install a net for harvesting during draining. h. It should be durable. i. It should be easy to operate. If there are closure boards, all should be interchangeable. j. Gates should be made of locally available products. Anti-seep boards or collars will prevent lateral seepage and resultant washouts. A rubber liner of automobile inner tube attached to the closure boards helps to make a good water-tight seal. Winches can be used to remove boards. This allows the use of heavier, one or two-piece boards. In gates designed for use in ponds with shallow water such as for lab-lab culture, the side boards can be placed inside the support bracing. This allows the boards to be replaced easily when they decay. Gates to be used in ponds with deeper water, such as for plankton culture, should have the side boards placed outside the support bracing. This is necessary because the greater pressure pushes the side boards inward and if the boards were inside the bracing, they would become loosened and water leaks would occur. Construction of gates has to be supervised closely, especially with concrete gates. Otherwise, the sides might slope and different length boards would be needed for each level. Also in multilane gates, the widths might vary and the boards would not be interchangeable. Concrete gates, if not properly constructed, would be better made of wood. If workmanship is poor, the gates might not hold water. If construction is faulty or the design is inadequate, repairs will be costly and there may still be no guarantee for safety. The following four basic considerations should be taken into account when constructing gates. a. b. c. d. That the foundation is adequate. That there is adequate reinforcement against side pressure from the dike and water. That the concrete is properly mixed and cured. That measures are taken to prevent under-cutting by seepage of water along the sides and bottom of the gate.
To make a strong foundation, bamboo stakes are driven into the ground as far as they will go. The stakes should be 30 cm apart. The stakes are cut off, leaving a sufficient length to penetrate into the concrete slab. To prevent under-cutting, boards 5 × 15 cm and 1.8 m long should be driven across the place where the gate slab will lay. There should be a row of boards directly under the centre of the gate, below the wall and apron and under each end.
If poured concrete is used, the mixture of cement to sand to gravel should be 1:2.5:5 (Class B) for the wall and 1:2:4 (Class A) for the flooring. If concrete hollow blocks are used, the mixture should be one part cement to seven parts sand. The amount of water added should be 22.2 liters per 45 kg bag of cement. Spacing of steel reinforcing bars should be 40 cm, centre to centre. Bars of 1.2 cm (½ inch) diameter are used for vertical reinforcement and 1 cm (3/8 inch) bars for horizontal. Both hollow blocks and poured concrete walls should be at least 15 cm thick. The proportion of cement to sand should be 1:3 in mortar for finishing. Mortar must not be applied more than 0.6 cm (¼ inch) thick. The concrete should be cured (hydrated) for 21 days. This is done by covering the concrete with sacks and keeping the sacks moist for the whole 21day period (Denila, 1976).
6.5 Construction in areas with acid sulfate soils
In areas with acid sulfate subsoils, special procedures are sometimes advisable in order to ensure pond fertility and prevent mortalities due to low pH. The economics has to be calculated for every farm to determine if such procedures are advisable. Some of the things which can be done are: a. Excavate only enough soil from internal canals to construct the dikes and leave as much topsoil undisturbed as possible to serve as the pond bottom. In some cases, pumps might be required to fill this type of pond. b. Scrap off the topsoil and set it aside. Then after the pond has been excavated, replace the topsoil over the pond bottom to cover the poor subsoil. c. If the top layer of good topsoil is thick enough, alternate strips can be excavated twice as deep as necessary and then good soil from the unexcavated portion is placed in the deep portions to level the pond bottom. d. Excavate the pond by sections. Excavate alternate 10 or 20 m wide strips within the pond and leave the strips between undisturbed. The pond is used for culture for several years, and after the excavated portions have aged, the remaining strips are excavated. e. If the subsoil is not very acid, but has high potential acidity, a method of construction can be used in which the soil is kept moist so it will not be oxidized and become highly acid. f. If acid soil, or potentially acid soil, has to be used for dike construction, the dikes bordering small nursery ponds can be surfaced with good topsoil. This is advantageous because acid runoff during rains has a greater effect in small ponds since the ratio of pond area to dike area is more critical. g. If the dikes are to be constructed of acid soil, the nursery ponds should not be located next to large main dikes. This is recommended, because runoff is much greater from the large dikes than small ones, and as a result, more acid will be washed from them during rains. h. If dikes are constructed of acid soils, the pond system should be designed to ensure that there is a minimum amount of seepage through the dikes into the ponds. This can be accomplished by having the pond water inside the pond higher than water outside the pond. Drainage canals should be constructed around the pond to make sure water does not stand there. i. A berm can be constructed near the water's edge to catch acid runoff during rains and prevent it from washing into the ponds.
Every man should always have his own specific job or area in which to work. This is because when the job is done in a group, if one is lazy the others will also follow. If one goes to the toilet two times a day, the others will do the same. If work is done individually, others cannot complain that two or three of them are earning better. Even if work is done in a group, time records should be kept to find out the number of working hours for each person (Denila, 1976). The best way to get the maximum output from pond workers is to promote competition among them. Give rewards for the highest earner of the week, and for the job or year. It is important that accurate records of work accomplished are kept and that the awarding of prizes is based on the records. Great care should be taken in selecting the foreman for the success of the job will depend on him.
7. SEED STOCK
7.1 Supply of postlarvae from wild stock
It is not always necessary, or even desirable, to use hatchery stock for grow-out operations. In many areas, there are abundant supplies of naturally occurring postlarvae which can be utilized at a fraction of the cost of hatchery-produced postlarvae. These postlarvae are available, and there is no need to wait for hatchery technology to be developed. This point is especially important to small artisanal farmers who can utilize their own labour to collect wild post-larvae. 7.1.1 Postlarvae entering ponds with incoming water In Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, naturally occurring fry are taken into the ponds with incoming water and held for varying periods of time until they grow to a larger size. The main problems with this practice is that many undesirable organisms enter the ponds with the postlarval shrimp and stocking density of the shrimp is usually unknown. An improved method is to take unfiltered seawater containing fry into a nursery pond as frequently as tidal conditions permit. After 30 days, the pond water is treated with teaseed cake at a rate of 10 to 25 ppm. Teaseed cake, a residue from the processing of wild tea, Camelia sp., contains saponin, a chemical that at the recommended dosage, kills fish but not shrimp (see also Section 9.2.1). After the fish are killed, the shrimp are released to a larger pond where they are grown to marketable size. Postlarvae are attracted by lights, a characteristic which can be utilized to increase the number of shrimp entering a pond at night. A lantern is suspended in front of the closed sluice gate. After allowing sufficient time for the shrimp to accumulate, the water surface is slapped loudly to scare away the fish fry. The shrimp fry are not disturbed by the noise, but the fish fry are, and they swim away. The sluice gate is then opened, and the rapid flow of water carries the postlarval shrimp into the pond.
7.1.2 Collecting wild fry There is only limited use of collected wild postlarvae at present. Milkfish fry collectors in Indonesia and the Philippines separate and sell P. monodon fry to farmers, usually for polyculture with milkfish (Chanos chanos). They normally do not separate and sell other penaeid species such as P. merguiensis, M. ensis or M. monoceros even though they are available in substantial numbers. Many of these shrimp, such as P. merguiensis, are cultured in some areas, and if pond conditions were improved, they could be farmed successfully throughout the region. Methods of collection which have been developed for P. monodon usually occurs in only limited numbers. This shrimp's habit of clinging to objects has been put to good use in the first three methods. a. Small bunches of branches or twigs are fixed in the bottom in shallow areas. Collections of shrimp are made during low tide by placing a scoop net under the bunch twigs as it is lifted up. b. Lure lines made from bunches of saltwater grass (Paspalum vaginatum) or twigs suspended from ropes are used along beaches, in rivers and in estuaries. The line, about 20 m in length, is strung out with stick supports to keep it above the water surface. The bundles or lures are suspended from the line at short intervals and rest in the water. Several lines are worked at one time. Shrimp are collected by placing a scoop net under the lure and then lifting up the lure and net to the surface. c. In grassy areas, scoop nets are run through the grass. d. Push nets and scissor nets, with or without cod ends, are used along the beaches, and in rivers and estuaries. They can be either hand or boat-operated. e. Tray method. Trays are baited with mud which is high in organic content suspended off the bottom. To collect postlarvae the tray is lifted and placed in a tank on a boat. An improved method is to collect the postlarvae in fine mesh nets (Fig. 3) placed in tidal passes, water supply canals, or sluice gates. It is not necessary to attach wings to this type of collecting net if the water current is fast. In fact, sometimes wings can do more harm than good, by funnelling large organisms like jellyfish into the collecting net and causing it to become clogged. In mouths of small rivers or bays where tidal flaws are small, wings are needed. The nets are fished on incoming tides. It is important that the net be attended to constantly and the catch removed to a holding container at short intervals. The best time to collect fry is on the rising high tide during the period of the new moon when tidal fluctuation is greatest. Subrahmanyan and Rao (1970) report that the best catch for P. monodon, P. semisulcatus and P. indicus is during the third, fourth and fifth hours of the rising tide. They state that large numbers of P. indicus are sometimes caught during the second hour. P. indicus was by far the more abundant species captured by a ³shooting net´. During October, for instance, the average number of P. indicus caught per hour of sampling was 13 275. For P. monodon the highest average monthly catch rate per hour during two years of sampling was 190, while for P. semisulcatus, it was only 68.
7.2 Separating fry
In most methods of collecting, the fry are mixed with many unwanted pests. As it is time consuming to separate the fry manually, other methods may be tried. a. Chemical treatment. After the catch is completed, the water in the holding container is treated with compounds like saponin which kill fish but not shrimp (see Section 9.2). This procedure eliminates the tedious job of separating the shrimp from fish fry by sorting individually, and prevents the accidental stocking of fish. When the fish are dead, the shrimp can be stocked directly with no further separation if there are no crab larvae present. If crabs are present, they must be sorted manually. b. Screen and light. The fry are sorted by placing them in a box with walls of mosquito netting. The top should be covered so that light can not penetrate and the interior remains dark. The fry will swim out towards the light and the large predators and trash will be left in the box. The shrimp fry are then sorted from the other unwanted fry.
7.3 Identifying fry
Sometimes there can be confusion about the identity of the shrimp collected. The same characteristics which are used to distinguish adult penaeids can be used to identify postlarvae. In penaeid shrimp, the first three pairs of walking legs have chelae (pinchers) and the first abdominal segment overlaps the second. However, it is usually necessary to use a microscope to observe these characteristics in postlarvae. The various parts of the shrimp are illustrated in Figure 4. Probably, the animal most commonly mistaken for postlarval shrimp is Acetes spp. (Sergestidae). These frequently occur in great abundance, but can be easily distinguished by their long, bright orange antennae which have a prominent sharp bend in them. Postlarval shrimp have short, colourless antennae. In addition, postlarval shrimp do not have statocysts (in live animals these appear like small bright spots to the naked eye) on the tail (Mysidacea), and their eyes do not extend laterally at a 90° angle (Sergestidae). The uropods of Mysidacea are not spread fan-like as in shrimp, but are parallel, directed posteriorly. Initially, some time will be required to identify the various forms, but after a short while, a collector will be able to distinguish penaeids readily, as they are quite distinctive. Some guides to gross visual identification are presented in Figure 5. Separating species of penaeids from each other is a little more difficult. First, only Penaeus and Metapenaeus postlarvae should be found in inshore waters in this region. Penaeus postlarvae are long and thin, while Metapenaeus are relatively short and stout. Metapenaeus are generally coloured a mottled grey or brown. Postlarvae within the genus Penaeus are generally almost colourless, however, P. monodon and P. semisulcatus are coloured rust-brown. When the pigment chromatophores expand, a prominent bluish or reddish-brown streak appears on the ventral side of the body in P. monodon postlarvae. In P. semisulcatus, the chromatophores are prominent only on the sixth (last) segment. P. monodon is longer than P. semisulcatus and has a distinctive habit of swimming with its head lower than its tail, the body at about 45° angle. Other species of Penaeus may also be pigmented, however, as postlarvae of all the species indigenous to the region have not been described. Prawirodihardjo, et al (1975) found that postlarvae of P. monodon and P. semisulcatus can be separated by the following characteristics (Fig. 6).
P. monodon Brown pigment distributed evenly but - more intensively on posterior part of telson Endopod of uropod may be totally or partly pigmented -
P. semisulcatus Brown pigment distributed only on the anterior base and about one-third posterior tip of telson. Only posterior part of endopod of uropods pigmented.
Exopod of uropod is mostly unpigmented; Exopod of uropod mostly with small blotch on the - in some cases with a small blotch on the - inner lateroposterior margin as continuation of inner lateroposterior margin pigmentation of inner plate.
PROVISIONAL KEY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF POSTLARVAL PENAEUS MONODON, P. INDICUS AND P. SEMISULCATUS (Subrahmanyan and Rao, 1970)
Five to seven reddish-brown (or yellowish) chromatophores on the ventral side of the sixth (a) abdominal somite. One reddish-brown chromatophore at the anterior end of the sixth abdominal segment laterally More than eight chromatophores on the ventral side of the sixth abdominal somite. One reddish-brown chromatophore at the anterior end of the sixth abdominal segment present or absent Eight to eleven reddish-brown (sometimes bluish) chromatophores on the ventral side of the sixth abdominal somite. One reddish-brown chromatophore (b) at the anterior end of the sixth abdominal segment laterally. One or two reddish-brown chromatophores are also present on the dorsal side of each abdominal segment Fourteen to nineteen reddish-brown (sometimes bluish) chromatophores on the ventral side of the sixth abdominal segment. No lateral chromatophore on the sixth abdominal segment anteriorly. The ventral chromatophores on the sixth abdominal segment appears as a bluish or reddish-brown streak in expanded condition
Some areas have such a large number of indigenous species of Penaeus that identification might be difficult. In such places, one approach to identification is to rear the young postlarvae in aquaria until they reach identifiable size.
7.4 Fry transport
The most common method of transporting shrimp fry is in plastic bags filled with oxygen. The following points should be considered when using plastic bags for shipment. a. Thin polyethylene bags are permeable to oxygen. So when post-larvae are to be shipped for long periods of time, better results can be obtained by placing the bags in an impermeable container and sealing the container tightly. If this polyethylene bags are used, shrimp should not be held in the bag for more than six hours without a change of water and new oxygen. b. Postlarvae should be held without food for several hours before packing. Then they should be screened thoroughly and placed in clean water to eliminate as much trash as possible. Decomposition of the trash depletes oxygen and the trash itself serves as nutrients for harmful bacteria. Small amounts of activated charcoal can be added to the bags to absorb harmful waste materials produced by the shrimp. c. The bags can be punctured easily, so as a safety measure, double bags should be used. d. Containers holding fry should not be exposed to the sun, but kept in the shade. It is better to make shipments at night. The most commonly used polyethylene bag is 50 × 75 cm. Five to six liters of water are put in the bag. Then the shrimp are added, as follows:
Total length 10 mm Total length 17±18 mm Total length 20±24 mm = 15 000 = 5 000 = 3 000
Soft twigs can be placed inside the bag for the postlarvae to attach to so they do not group together on the bottom. The bag is then closed down so there is no air in it, only water. Next sufficient oxygen is added to fill the bag which is then sealed with elastic bands or string. The bag is then placed in a container which is impermeable to oxygen. Styrofoam is preferable if it is available. Two fist size pieces of ice in a plastic bag are placed in the container alongside the bag holding the postlarvae. The ice is to cool the water and reduce metabolism of the shrimp. The container is then sealed shut with tape. The shrimp can then be transported for one day with a survival rate of 90 to 100 percent.
7.5 Holding and growing small postlarvae to a larger size for stocking
It is better to hold and grow shrimp to a size of 2.5 to 3.0 cm than it is to stock small postlarvae directly into rearing ponds. This can be done in well-prepared nursery ponds or tanks. Hapa nets have been found to give poor survival. It is better to stock directly into a pond than use hapa nets. One of the problems with stocking directly into a rearing pond is that it is almost impossible to tell if the fry survive. A farmer usually stocks a pond then has to wait until the shrimp grow before he knows if they lived or died. A good practice is to keep a few postlarvae in a container with pond water and watch them for several days. If these fry die a farmer will know to check his pond carefully and arrange for restocking, if necessary. This practice is particularly
recommended for fry obtained from hatcheries, because the chance for disease is greater in hatchery-produced fry. 7.5.1 Nursery ponds When nursery ponds are used, the shrimp should be acclimatized gradually to pond conditions to prevent death or damage from the shock of rapid change in temperature or salinity. Some farmers keep the fry in plastic shipping bags and float the bag in the pond water for a short time to acclimatize them. In cases where temperatures are nearly the same and the shrimp are healthy, the floating technique will reduce losses. However, if they have been subjected to low oxygen levels and high levels of carbon dioxide and ammonia, such as would occur on a long trip, it would be more harmful to keep them in the bags exposed to unfavourable conditions (Spotte, 1970). It is best to use a tank with aeration for acclimatization. Water in the tank should be adjusted to near the temperature and salinity of the water in which the shrimp were transported. After the postlarvae are added to the tank, the water in the tank is gradually adjusted to pond salinity and temperature (see Section 12.3 for salinity measurement). The period of adjustment depends on how much the temperature and salinity must be changed, but usually a half-day is adequate. The fry should not be released into a nursery pond during the heat of the day. Evening is best. The fry can be stocked at fairly high densities in nursery ponds, up to 25 per square meter, or 250 000 per hectare. The young shrimp should be kept in a nursery pond for from two weeks to one month, or until they reach an average size of 2.5 cm. 7.5.2 Nursery tanks Several types of culture tanks have been found useful. a. Boxes made from marine plywood. Dimensions of the tank are 4 × 8 feet (1.2 × 2.4 m) and 4 feet deep. Aeration is provided by air stones. Feed is mussel meat, ground fish and pelleted fish food. A daily exchange of 25 to 50 percent of water in the tank is recommended. An initial stocking rate of 10 000 to 50 000 of postlarvae 5±6 mm long per box results in 70 to 90 percent survival to a size of 25 mm. This method should not be used without aeration. b. A round plastic tank with a bottom area of 25 m2 and depth of 60 cm has been used effectively without aeration. The bottom is covered with 10 cm of sandy garden soil. Rate of stocking is 2 000 to 4 000 P10 (P. merguiensis) per m2. Feed is Acetes meal (40%), rice bran (20%), coconut oil cake (20%) and cassava flour (20%). The fry are fed 100 percent of their estimated body weight daily. One-half of the water volume is changed daily. After one month the shrimp reach an average size of 30 mm and survival is from 60 to 95 percent. Survival was found to be lower at higher densities and in tanks without soil on the bottom. c. A more complex tank system developed in the United States (Mock et al, 1973) is being adapted for use in this region. Postlarvae are grown in shallow oval shaped tanks in which airlift pumps keep the water circulating and maintain food particles in suspension. Stocking density is 10 000 postlarvae per m2 and survival is usually over 90 percent. A small wooden unit suitable for individual use is shown in Figure 8. It is constructed from marine plywood. Dimensions are 4 × 8 feet (1.2 × 2.4 m) and 2 feet (0.6 m) deep.
7.6 Transfering fry from nursery to growing ponds
It is difficult to harvest shrimp or transfer from one pond to another without injuring or killing a large number of them. Transfer should be done by making them move with water flow. This is not always easy to accomplish, especially with P. monodon. The following methods are suggested for inducing shrimp to move with the flow of water during transfer from one pond to another: a. Transfer at the time of month when tidal amplitude is greatest. b. Transfer at night, and use a light to attract the shrimp to the sluice gate. c. Let a little water into the pond on the high tide preceding the transfer. This makes the shrimp become active. The pond is then drained on the next low tide. d. Change pond conditions to make the shrimp become active and ready to move out of the pond. One way of doing this would be to lower the water level so the temperature of the pond is increased. If the growing pond is not adjacent to the nursery pond, the shrimp must be caught and transported. They can be caught in the out-flowing water with a minimum of injury by using a net of the same design as that shown in Figure 3. The net is fastened to a wood frame which is placed in the sluice gate. As the water is drained from the nursery pond the young shrimp are caught in the floating catch box. They can be scooped out periodically and transferred to suitable containers for carrying to the growing pond.
8. POND MANAGEMENT
8.1 Water change
Changing water has a beneficial effect on water quality in a pond. In a pond with static water, accumulation of waste products or depletion of trace metals or organic compounds can have a harmful effect on shrimp. Such occurrences do not always result in mass mortality which would be easily recognized. They can exert small effects on growth which pass by unnoticed. The end result is the same, however, poor production (see Section 3). Frequent water exchange is also beneficial in introducing new food organisms to a pond. In a pond where water is not changed for a long period of time, all the desirable food organisms may be eaten. Or a species not well suited as a food organism may become dominant, suppressing growth of more desirable species. If heavy rains dilute the pond water, species dominant in the pond might not be well suited for growth at the lower salinity. These will die off or grow slowly. Following are recommendations for water change in different types of culture. 8.1.1 Traditional extensive type management Water should be changed as often as possible. Ordinarily, this would be on every high tide. This procedure ensures entry of the maximum number of young shrimp and brings in food organisms.
8.1.2 Extensive type management with fertilization Two schedules for changing water are presented below. Both have been used successfully. a. Water is changed every 12 to 14 days. When changing water, one-third of the water in the pond is drained and replenished each day for two or three days. Fertilizer is applied after the water change and then again after six to seven days. b. One-half to one-third of the pond water is exchanged once a week. Fertilizer is applied after every change of water. 8.1.3 Feeding type management This type of management requires frequent water change to dilute the waste products formed by the decomposition of unused food and also to ensure that adequate oxygen levels are maintained in the pond water. Decomposing food can easily use up all the dissolved oxygen in the water near the bottom. For this reason, water should be discharged from the bottom of the pond. Two types of water exchange which have been used successfully in ponds are described below. a. A one-third change of water daily by draining and refilling is used in Thailand. Refilling is by pumping. b. In Panama, it was reported that when the level of dissolved oxygen in a pond is 3 ppm or above, water is flowed through the pond at a rate sufficient to change 3 percent of the water daily. If the level of dissolved oxygen in a pond decreases below 3 ppm, the flow of water is increased.
8.2 Pond preparation
8.2.1 Drying the pond bottom Drying the pond bottom periodically is an accepted practice in brackishwater farming within the region. The main reason given for doing this is to mineralize the organic material which builds up in the soil. This makes more nutrients available for plant growth. It also reduces the production of H2S and other harmful substances that would be produced during anaerobic reduction of the organic material when the pond is full of water. If a pond is completely dried, all unwanted predators and competitors are killed and there is no need to treat with chemicals to get rid of them. Drying the soil is especially useful in ponds where lab-lab is grown for food. The firm soil provides a good surface for the algae to attach to. A word of caution is needed concerning drying pond bottom in areas which have soils of high potential acidity. During the drying process pyrites can be oxidized. When the pond is filled, acids are formed and pH of the water is lowered. This type of pond should be flushed thoroughly after drying. Some participants advised that for lab-lab production in ponds with hard bottoms, the soil should be tilled after drying. This turning over of the soil not only helps loosen it, but it also helps in the mineralization of organic matter. However, others commented that in their experience, the benefits from loosening the pond bottom never justified the expense. More research is needed in this area. There is recent evidence that oxidizing acid sulfate soils may actually be harmful.
This is particularly true where recent digging or tilling has exposed fresh soil to the air. So tilling is never recommended for acid sulfate soils. We would not recommend tilling of non-acid pond bottom soil on a regular basis. Tilling should be done only when the bottom is hard, and production during the previous culture period was low. There is no agreement on the drying procedure itself. There is no standard procedure, either for the length of time the soil must be dried, or for how often the drying should be done. Excessive drying seems to be harmful, and over-drying which results in crumbling and reduction of the thin surface crust to powder is to be avoided. Following are some procedures recommended by the participants. a. b. c. d. Dry for seven days. Dry to a point where a man will not sink 1 cm. Dry until the top 1 cm is dry. Dry until the soil cracks 1 to 2 cm deep
In ponds with internal canals, the accumulated mud and organic debris must be removed periodically. Cleaning and deepening the internal canals should not be done while shrimp are in the pond. The large amount of H2S released by digging could cause some shrimp to die. It should be done while the pond is being dried. The excavated sediment is usually thrown on the dike by hand. It is important that the dikes be covered with grass so that the material removed is not washed back into the pond with the first heavy rain. 8.2.2 Improving or controlling soil acidity In ponds where water is not changed frequently, soil pH should be at least 6.5 for proper management. Ponds with a soil pH lower than 6.5 can be managed only as long as frequent water changes can be made. A change of water is required at least every three days. Methods for sampling and determining soil pH are given in Sections 3.2 and 3.2.2. One way of improving ponds with acid sulfate soil is to repeatedly dry the pond and then flush it by repeatedly filling and draining. Acids formed by pyrite oxidation will gradually be removed by this process. After a pond is dug in an acid soil area, it should be flushed well until no, or only a little, red coloured scum from oxidized iron is observed. Lime should be added only after the pond is flushed. Lime can be used to control soil and water acidity. Application rates for brackishwater ponds can be determined by following the procedures given in Section 12.6. If it is not possible to perform the soil test to determine the correct amount of lime to be added, a soil pH can be taken and the following guidelines followed. Due to the high cost of treatment, applying agricultural lime may not be advantageous when soil pH is very low, less than 2.5. For soil with a pH of 5, treatment with 3 tons per ha of agricultural lime has been effective. When lime tailings are used (from hydrate of lime processing), only one-half of the recommended dose of agricultural lime is used. The lime should be worked into the soil. This can be done with a hand pulled harrow. Another method is especially recommended for old fishponds. The pond bottoms are treated by broadcasting 1.5 tons of agricultural lime per hectare. The bottom is then levelled and another 1.5 tons is worked into the soil. Lime of calcium carbonate (calcite) is not soluble at the pH of seawater and is not an effective buffer in seawater. Thus, while agricultural lime will raise the soil pH, it will not have much of an
effect on maintaining pH of the pond water. Natural carbonates which contain a small percentage, a minimum of 4 percent magnesium (e.g. dolomite, mollusc shells or coral), are more soluble at the pH of seawater and will aid in maintaining optimum alkalinity and pH levels of the pond water (King, 1973). So it would be useful to place some of these materials in a pond to protect against reduced water pH. If the dikes are constructed of acid sulfate soils, careful water management can reduce the problems associated with them. ³By maintaining water levels in adjacent ponds equal and keeping this level higher than water levels in the canal system, the transfer of acids and active aluminum and iron into ponds by seepage through dikes can be limited. Proper control of the water table in drained pond soils can be used to limit the proper depth of soil drying, thereby limiting pyrite oxidation and acid formation´ (Potter, 1976). Controlling erosion to prevent acid runoff into the pond is especially important when the dike soils are acid sulfate or when material from internal canals is thrown on the dikes during cleaning and deepening. Acid tolerant African Star Grass (Cynadon plectostachus) provides good vegetative cover. Other Cynadon species also are worth trying. The following procedure is recommended to establish grass on acid soil (Anonymous, 1977). Planting should begin at the start of the rainy season. First, the soil should be tilled to a depth of 5 cm. Then agricultural lime is added in the amount determined by soil acidity. Fertilizer is added next; 5 tons per ha of chicken manure and 35 kg per ha of 14-14-14. The prepared area is covered with a 5 cm thickness of rice straw. Cuttings are then planted at 30 cm intervals. 8.2.3 Poisoning predators and pests Before shrimp are stocked, eggs and larvae of competitors such as noxious fish, crabs, and fish should be killed by poisons.
8.3 Different types of food organisms grown in ponds and their suitability for shrimp culture
8.3.1 Lab-lab ³Lab-lab´ is characterized mostly by benthic blue-green algae and diatoms, but many other forms of plants and animals are associated with it and contribute to its nutritional value. For good growth, ³lab-lab´ requires low water levels from 5 to 40 cm. Best growth is reported to be at salinities of 25 ppt or higher. The requirement of ³lab-lab´ for high salinity is not compatible with optimum growing conditions for P. monodon which is reported to grow best at slightly lower salinities (10±25 ppt). It is well suited for P. indicus/ merguiensis. However, the shallow water requirement for ³lab-lab´ means the pond water will become too hot for almost all species of shrimp. This is especially true for large adults. Two suggestions were made for utilizing ³lab-lab´ in shrimp culture. a. ³Lab-lab´ can be used for shrimp culture during the first two months of culture or up to a point when the shrimp grow to a size of 10 cm. Experience has shown that after shrimp reach this size, survival is reduced greatly in ponds managed for ³lab-lab´. The survivors
grow to a large size. From this, it can be assumed that ³lab-lab´ might be a suitable food to grow in a nursery pond. b. Ponds can be constructed with a large number of interior canals at least 1.5 m deep to provide shrimp with shelter against high temperature during the day. As shrimp feed almost exclusively at night, the shallow portions with ³lab-lab´ would serve as feeding platforms on which the shrimp could graze during the cool of the night. 8.3.2 Lumut ³Lumut´ is composed primarily of filamentous grass-green algae. Many other forms of life are associated with these algae and contribute to the nutritive value of ³lumut´. ³Lumut´ grows best at low to medium ranges of salinity, 25 ppt and below. The most favourable water depth is from 40 to 60 cm. These growing conditions are considered to be satisfactory for P. monodon and other species of shrimp. ³Lumut´ should not be grown in a nursery pond because the postlarvae become tangled in it and die. Heavy growths of ³lumut´ can even be harmful to adult shrimp, and it is recommended that some fish be stocked in the pond to eat the ³lumut´ and keep its growth down. In fact, ³lumut´ is best used for polyculture and not monoculture. Milkfish, mullet, rabbit fish, and scad are all suitable. Tilapia can be used, but this is recommended only when the growing period is short since this fish propagates so fast. 8.3.3 Phytoplankton Phytoplankton is composed of small plants which float in the water. A pond in which phytoplankton is grown has a lot of small animals (zooplankton) as well as pieces of organic material which also serve as food. Shrimp do not feed directly on the phytoplankton. They feed on the small animals that eat the phytoplankton or on bacteria that grow on the dead phytoplankton cells which accumulate on the bottom. Phytoplankton production is better in ponds with a water level of 70 cm or more, but it has been grown in shallower ponds. One must keep in mind that phytoplankton is composed of living organisms which have environmental tolerances. Most types of phytoplankton are normally found in deeper water where temperature does not get as high as it does in shallow ponds. The high temperature might restrict their growth. Some people have had difficulty in maintaining plankton growth in low salinity water. Others report that plankton can be grown at low salinity. This difference is probably due to the management system and type of fertilizer used and it should be assumed that phytoplankton will grow in almost any salinity. Types of phytoplankton which give the water a yellow-green or yellow-brown colour are good. Heavy mortality of shrimp has occurred in ponds when the water had a bright green or reddish colour. The conditions suitable for growing phytoplankton are well suited for shrimp growth at all life stages. 8.3.4 Benthic animals It was mentioned that heavy application of organic fertilizers encourages the growth of chironomid larvae which provide for good growth of shrimp. Yang (personal communication)
reports that P. merguiensis likes to feed on chironomid larvae and a 0.06 g juvenile consumed 23 Chironomid larvae in 24 hours. Dense populations of chironomids are often associated with low levels of dissolved oxygen, however, and care should be taken in encouraging their growth in this manner. Heavy populations of chironomids graze down lab-lab.
8.4 Recommendations for managing natural food organisms in shrimp ponds
a. Start with phytoplankton or ³lab-lab´ for no more than the first two months after postlarvae are stocked. b. After this, the shrimp should be held in ponds managed for production of phytoplankton (all salinities) or ³lumut´ (low salinity). c. This can be accomplished by growing the shrimp in a nursery pond for the first two months and then transfering them to another pond. A second method is to keep the water level in a pond low for the initial two months and then raising the water level sufficiently to encourage the growth of other types of plants.
8.5 Methods of growing the different types of natural food
8.5.1 Lab-lab Soils with a high clay content support the best growth of ³lab-lab´. The relationship between soil texture and algal growth can be seen in the accompanying table from Villaluz (1953).
Sample 1 2 3 4 Percent sand 28 15 63 79 Percent silt 22 44 14 10 Percent clay 50 42 23 11 Soil texture Clay Sandy clay loam Sandy loam Growth of benthic algae Very abundant
Silty clay loam Abundant Few Very few
Preparation of the pond soil is very important in growing ³lab-lab´. To assure a uniform growth of algae, the pond bottom should be levelled so that there are no high points or depressions. The pond bottom must be firm enough to serve as a hold fast for the algae, but not hard. Firming the pond bottom is done by drying. The bottom should not be bone dry. It is best to dry it just until a man can walk on it without sinking in. It usually takes 7 to 10 days drying to reach this point. Growth of ³lab-lab´ is also directly related to the amount of organic matter present in the soil. Villaluz (1953) reported the following relationship of organic matter to the growth of algae.
Organic matter (percent) Above 16 9±15 7±8 6 Growth of algae Very abundant Abundant Few Very few
To increase the amount of organic matter in the soil, fertilizer, chicken or other manure is applied to the dry pond bottom at the rate of 350 kg/ha. The chicken manure should be dried and not treated with insecticide. If no manure is available, inorganic fertilizer can be used: one or two 50-kg bags of 18-46-0 (N-P-K) or two or three 50-kg bags of 16-20-0 per ha. Immediately after fertilization, 3 to 5 cm of water is let into the pond. After one week, the same amount of fertilizer is applied and the water level is raised to 10 to 15 cm. The fertilization is repeated after the second week and the water level is raised to 20 to 25 cm. Additional water is added as needed to make up for that lost by evaporation. Some farmers recommend refertilization every seven days during the culture period. 8.5.2 Lumut Soft mud bottoms with pH of 6.8 to 7.5 favour rapid growth of ³lumut´. Bottom with a pH lower than 6.5 should be ³washed´ or treated with lime. The degree of success of the liming will depend to a great extent on how well the lime is incorporated in the soil. If possible, it should be mixed in to the soil. The pond bottom must be dried for ³lumut´ culture also, but only for three days. After the bottom has been dried, sufficient water is let in to moisten the soil and the pond bottom is seeded. This is done by sticking a portion of the filaments of very young plants, or light green ends of older plants, into the mud. It usually takes two to four weeks from the time of planting until the pond is ready for stocking. After the seeding is completed, the pond is flooded to a depth of 20 cm. Three to seven days after planting, the pond is fertilized with 16-20-0 at a rate of 18 to 20 grams/cubic metre (m3) of water. The inorganic fertilizer can be applied by broadcasting or by dissolving from a platform placed 10 cm below the water level. After one week, the water level is raised to 40 cm. Starting with the second week, weekly application of fertilizer at the rate of 9 to 10 grams/m3 of water is continued until six weeks before the crop is to be harvested. In unfertilized or underfertilized ponds, starting growths of ³lumut´ are yellowish-green. As growth continues the colour turns to grass-green. When the plants have reached the surface and spread out, only the fringes and those directly over the bottom continue to have this healthy colour. Those on the top, especially at the centre of the floating mass, become yellowish. During dry season, this colour changes to dirty-brown. The portion of the algae near the bottom turns the same yellowish or brownish colour after the initial growth subsides. In contrast, algae in ponds correctly fertilized retain the healthy grass-green colour. A clear indication that the amount of fertilizer is too little is slow growth and yellowing of the algae. A slight overdose of fertilizer causes the algae to become dark-green. Growth is stopped and the algae may settle to the bottom and disintegrate. Sometimes a dense growth of phytoplankton occurs. In this case, the pond water should be changed immediately to prevent complete loss of the ³lumut´. The effects of adding fertilizer are not confined to the ³lumut´. Organisms such as bacteria, protozoans, diatoms, nematodes, small crustaceans, etc. which attach to the algae increase in number and serve as food for the shrimp. Examination of ³lumut´ from fertilized ponds showed layers of organisms twice as thick as the algal filaments (Padlan, undated). Rows of twigs and small branches should be placed in the pond to keep wind waves from dislodging the ³lumut´. Twigs placed closely in lines 6 to 15 m apart and perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing winds will minimize wave action and catch stray algae that have been broken loose. With adequate wind breaks the water can be maintained at a depth of 60 cm.
8.5.3 Phytoplankton In shrimp culture the benefits of fertilization are indirect. That is, fertilization causes a good growth of phytoplankton, various micro-organisms feed on the phytoplankton and the shrimp feed on the microorganisms. There is little information available concerning fertilization of brackishwater ponds to grow phytoplankton. It has been observed that growth of shrimp is better in ponds in which the most common types of algae are true diatoms. Poor growth has been observed in ponds in which the predominant algae were phytoflagellates. These two types of phytoplankton have different nutrient requirements. In laboratory and tank culture nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratios of 20 or 30 to 1 have been found most suitable for diatoms and ratios close to 1:1 most suitable for phytoflagellates. The same nutrient requirements should also hold true for algae growing in ponds. To aid in calculating how much of each element to add, the following table gives suggested amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to use at various levels.
ppm Nitrogen 1.4 1.3 1.1 0.95 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.3 ppm Phosphorus 0.15 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.05 0.03
One of the most important factors to consider in a programme of fertilization is that both nitrogen and phosphorus do not remain in solution for very long after they are added to the pond water. They become incorporated in living organisms or in the bottom soil. This is especially important for N as larger amounts are added. Mandal (1962) reports that following the application of ammonium-bearing fertilizers, most of the added nitrogen was absorbed by colloids in the bottom soil within a few days and remained strongly bound there. The amount of nitrogen absorbed in the bottom soils was quite small when a nitrate fertilizer was added, and a higher level of available nitrogen was maintained in the water. He points out that in selecting the form of nitrogenous fertilizer, ammonium or nitrate, to use in salt water pond, consideration should be given to the type of organisms to be cultured as food. If phytoplankton is to be grown, nitrate fertilizers would be better. If bottom growing organisms such as blue-green algae are to be cultured, ammonium-based fertilizers would be better. As a great portion of the nutrients added to a pond became bound up in the soil after a short time, frequent applications of small amounts of fertilizer give the best results. About every 7 to 10 days is recommended. The nutrient composition of seawater varies both from location to location as well as seasonally. Consequently, a programme of fertilization that works successfully in one location might not be good in another area. Also, it might be necessary to vary the rate of fertilizer used at different times of the year.
The best way to develop a suitable method for fertilizing pond water is to apply a moderate amount and observe what effect it has on phytoplankton growth. Then adjust the rate of application up or down as necessary. To judge the density of phytoplankton growing in the pond, a Secchi disc can be used (see Section 12.5). When the Secchi disc reading is about 30 cm, phytoplankton density is good. If the Secchi disc disappears from sight at less than 25 cm, the phytoplankton is too dense and the pond water should be changed. The next application of fertilizer should be reduced. If the Secchi disc disappears from sight at more than 35 cm, phytoplankton growth is not enough and more fertilizer should be added during the next application. Eventually a farmer will learn how much fertilizer is required to maintain a good growth of phytoplankton in his pond. A level of 0.95 ppm nitrogen and 0.11 ppm phosphorus should be suitable as a starting dose. The following method can be used to calculate the amount of nutrient required to achieve these levels. First, estimate the volume of water in the pond. For example, a one-hectare pond has a surface area of 10 000 m2. If it has an average water depth of 60 cm, the volume of water in the pond would be 10 000 m2 × 0.6 m = 6 000 m3. One ppm is equal to 1 gram per m3 of water. So to find the amount of nitrogen which should be added to the one-hectare pond to get a level of 0.95 ppm, the volume of water is multiplied by 0.95 g, thus: 6 000 × 0.95 g = 5 700 g or 5.7 kg N The quantity of phosphorus to be added is found in the same manner. 6 000 × 0.11 g = 660 g or 0.7 kg P Once the amount of nutrient required is determined, the amount of fertilizer which contains the desired amount of nutrient can be determined, as follows:
If the pond is to be fertilized with ammonium sulfate which contains 21 percent nitrogen, then the quantity of ammonium sulfate required is as follows:
Triple superphosphate contains 39 percent phosphorus. So following the same procedure, the amount of triple phosphate required would be:
The percent nitrogen (N) in some common fertilizers are:
Urea - CO (NH2)2 = 46.6%
Ammonium sulfate - (NH4)2 SO4 = 21% Ammonium chloride - NH4C1 Ammonium nitrate - NH4NO3 Calcium nitrate - Ca (NO3)2 = 25% = 37% = 17%
The percent phosphorus (P) in superphosphate is:
Double superphosphate - Ca (H2PO4) Triple superphosphate - P2O5 = 26% = 39%
Many fertilizers contain more than one primary nutrient. In these, the primary nutrients are designated by a numbering system indicating percentages in each nutrient. The numbering system is always listed in the following order: N (nitrogen), P (available phosphoric acid P2O5), and K (potash K2O). K is usually present in sufficient quantity in brackishwater and it is not necessary to add any. By referring to the numbers printed on a fertilizer bag, one can tell which nutrients and how much of each are contained in each bag of fertilizer. For example: 12-24-12 contains 12% N, 24% available P2O5 and 12 K. 16-20-0 contains 12% N, 20% available P2O5 and 12 K. 45-0-0 contains 45% N, no available P2O5 or K. 0-0-60 contains no nitrogen or available P2O5, but has 60% K. Since these numbers are percentages, a 50 kg of 12-24-12 would contain 6.0 kg N, 12.0 kg available P2O5 and 6.0 kg of K2O. As P2O5 contains only 44 percent P, the weight of P is 4.7 kg (Davide). It is not compulsory to use only inorganic fertilizers, organic fertilizers can be used as well. The percent of N and P in some types of organic fertilizers is listed in Table 6. Frequently, additional N or P is required to obtain maximum benefits from the organic fertilizer. This is well illustrated by the results of pond culture experiments with milkfish reported by Camacho, 1977. The following table gives total weight harvested (milkfish plus wild species) in kg per ha from forty six 500 m2 earthen ponds. The ponds were stocked at a rate of 3 000 milkfish per ha. The rearing period was six months. The ponds were under different fertilization and water management schemes, i.e. lab-lab and plankton.
Fertilizer Urea Chicken manure + urea* Chicken manure + ammonia phosphate** Chicken manure + phosphate*** Lab-lab Plankton 623.0 514.0 424.0 878.3 475.5 826.7 721.3 341.7
Ammonium phosphate Chicken manure No fertilizer Phosphate MEANS
* 46-0-0 ** 16-20-0 *** 0-20-0
339.5 468.0 346.5 382.5 497.0
451.7 312.3 190.8 172.5 437.3
It can be seen that highest production in those ponds managed for plankton was obtained when additional N was supplied. Conversely, highest production in the ponds managed for lab-lab was obtained when additional P was added. Forgetting the species being cultured, the important point is that plankton produced more when the level of N was high in relation to P. The platform method is an effective way to apply inorganic fertilizers to ponds for producing and maintaining good growths of phytoplankton. It is good because the nutrients from the fertilizer on the platform are released into solution slowly and distributed through the pond by water movement. A typical platform is shown in Figure 16. The platform should be positioned so that its top surface is about 15 to 20 cm below the water surface, and located near the end of the pond from which the prevailing wind comes. A single platform is sufficient for pond up to 7 ha when plankton is grown. Suggested platform top sizes for ponds of different sizes are:
Pond area (ha) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Platform top dimensions (m) 0.85 × 0.85 1.25 × 1.25 1.50 × 1.50 1.70 × 1.70 1.90 × 1.90 2.10 × 2.10 2.25 × 2.25
An application of fertilizer is simply piled onto the platform and left alone (Anonymous, 1976b).
8.6 Supplementary feeding
8.6.1 Traditional ponds Supplementary feeding of shrimp is still in the early stages of development in the region. Most feeding is done to supplement natural productivity, or as an emergency measure when growths of natural food in a pond become depleted. Numerous feeds have been used with varying degrees of success. Types of feeds used are: a. Rice bran with trash fish b. Rice bran with trash fish, crabs, molluscs and shrimps
c. Carabao skin and other slaughter and poultry house leftovers. Cut the carabao skin into 1 foot square pieces, these are attached to sticks and scattered through the pond d. Toads sliced in two e. African snails after the shells are crushed f. Prepared hog and poultry feeds g. Mussel and clam meat h. It would be good if snails from ponds could be developed i. Chicken feed (crumbles and pellets). 8.6.2 Intensive ponds Only a limited amount of information is available about intensive culture of shrimp. Much experimentation has been done especially for P. monodon. SEAFDEC is testing many types of pelletized food, some of which have been developed in other countries. Results of this research should be available soon. Very encouraging results have been obtained experimentally for P. monodon in Tahiti (Aquacop, 1977). There it was found that a diet containing 40 percent protein and 3.3 Kcal/g supported the best growth. An artificial dry pellet was developed and its ingredients are listed in the accompanying table. Diets used in growth experiments (After: Aquacop, 1977)
Ingredients Shrimp meal Blood meal Meat meal Gluten, wheat Rice Peanut oil-cake Soya oil-cake For production 8 11 21.5 10 6 17 6 4 3 5 0.5 For postlarvae 22 9 14 10 5 4 5.5 4 15 7.5 5
Cod liver oil Mineral mix Vitamin mix Methionin
Spirulina Brewer's yeast
S.F.P.C. 80 - Soluble Fish Protein Concentrate 80% F.P.C. - Fish Protein Concentrate
Three-gram shrimp were stocked in an earthen pond at a density of 10/m2. After seven months, they had grown to a mean weight of 25 g. Survival was 90 percent. The food conversion rate was 3:1. Overall growth was good in the series of three experiments. Survival varied from 80 to 96 percent and food conversion from 3.0:1 to 4.1:1. Two experiments were conducted growing postlarvae in nursery ponds. Shrimp weighing 0.003 g were stocked in earthen ponds at densities of 20 and 55/m2. After 60 days, survival in both ponds was 100 percent. The shrimp had grown to 0.9 g in the low density pond and to 0.8 g in the high density pond. The food conversion rate was 1:1. The Aquacop workers computed theoretical growth curves showing optimum and medium growth (Fig. 9c). They calculate that it appears possible to grow 25 g shrimp from 0.05 g juveniles in 140 days. They estimated that 20 tons/ha/year could be produced in intensive systems. Commercial production of P. monodon has been achieved in one farm in Thailand. The earthen pond with an effective culture area of 4 840 m2 was stocked with hatchery-produced fry. During the first growing period, 300 000 postlarvae were stocked. Seven-and-one-half months later, 2 544 kg of shrimp with an average weight of 38 g were harvested. This is equivalent to 5 100 kg/ha. Mortality was 79 percent. In a second growing period, 100 000 postlarvae were stocked. After growing for 5-½ months, 1 222 kg of shrimp with an average weight of 33 g were harvested for a production rate of 2 500 kg/ha. Mortality was 62 percent. Production per year would be 7 600 kg/ha. For feed, trash fish, mussel, rice bran and crab were ground in a grinder and fed twice daily, at early morning and evening. The trash fish was of mixed composition containing about 5 percent shrimp and even shellfish. The pond bottom was disturbed once a day by dragging a chain through the pond. This was followed by an immediate change of water. The feeding rate was regulated by observing whether or not food was left uneaten; if it was, the ration is reduced. Workers dived to observe the presence of leftover fish. Feeding was done by putting the food on an earthen platform extending along the edge of the long, canal-like pond. Interest in the intensive culture of shrimp is picking up and hopefully, suitable processed foods will soon be generally available. Already one company within the region (Universal Robina, Philippines), is making a shrimp feed. It is a processed pellet containing 26 percent protein, 7 percent fiber and 3 percent fat. The price is 86.001 (approximately US$11.50) per 50 kg bag. Liao (personal communication) reports that excellent results have been obtained with a food producedin Taiwan by the President Company. Food conversion rates as low as 1.8:1 were attained. The feed is made into columniform pellets with a diameter of about 23 mm. Analysis of the feed indicates it comprises 7.99 percent moisture, 36.58 percent crude protein, 3.8 percent crude fat, 0.38 percent crude fiber, 0.75 percent ash and 41.43 percent others.
8.7 Stocking rate
There is no optimum stocking rate. The stocking rate must be calculated for each pond depending on the farmer's management capability, type of management, cost of inputs and marketing strategy. A farmer has to decide what size of shrimp he wants to harvest and estimate how many kilograms per hectare he can produce per crop. The number of postlarvae he must stock can then be calculated from Table 12. Mortality must then be estimated and added to this figure.
(Philippine pesos) 7.478 = US$1
Example: A farmer thinks he can produce 350 kg of shrimp with a size of 40/kg. From Table 12, it can be seen this requires a stocking rate of 14 000 postlarvae per hectare. He then estimates mortality will be 30 percent. As 30 percent of 14 000 is 4200, this is added to 14 000 to obtain a stocking rate of 18 200 postlarvae per hectare. If his estimate of mortality was 50 percent, he would have to stock at a rate of 21 000 per hectare in order to harvest the desired final weight of 350 kg of shrimp.
9. PREDATORS, COMPETITORS AND PESTS
The following have been identified as causing problems in shrimp culture.
Predators Fish Crabs Birds Man Insects Snakes Otters Lizards Competitors Snails Fish Crabs Shrimps Pests Crabs Burrowing shrimp (Thalassina) Organisms which degrade wood Mud worm egg cases Shells
9.2 Methods of control
9.2.1 Fish (a) Prevention The most effective method of control is prevention. If the proper precautions are taken in maintenance and pond preparation, fish will not ordinarily be a problem during the culture period. i. Proper pond maintenance. Predators and competitors can enter ponds through crab holes and other leaks in the dikes. Also, postlarval shrimp can escape from the ponds through the holes. Regular maintenance should be performed to stop all leaks in the dikes. Crabs should be eliminated and their holes stopped up. Closure boards in the sluice gates should fit tightly. Prompt stoppage of leaks is especially important in tidal ponds where there often can be a reverse flow of water.
Drying the pond bottom. Thoroughly drying the pond bottom before stocking will eliminate the fish. The farmer must be sure that there are no puddles or moist places left in the pond. If the pond cannot be thoroughly dried, the portions with water should be treated with chemicals to kill the fish. ³Gusathion´ and ³Bux 300´ have been used successfully. ³Bux 300´ degrades in less than one week. Use at the dosage prescribed on the package. Poisoning before stocking. If a pond cannot be completely drained, fish poisons should be used before the pond is stocked. Rotenone or derris root is recommended, 4 to 5 kg dry root for a one-hectare pond with water depth of 5 cm (see also Section 9.2.1). As ³Bux 300´ degrades in one week, it may be suitable for use as a pretreatment at the dosage recommended on the package. Screening water as it enters the pond. After fish are eliminated from a pond, it is important that all water let into the pond is screened. The screen must be fine enough to prevent entry of fish eggs and larvae as well as adult fish. Ordinary plastic mosquito netting is not suitable, because the holes in it are too large. A fine mesh nylon or plastic screen with a hole size of 0.5 mm is recommended. Nets with such small holes are easily stopped up. For this reason, it is often necessary to have a series of screens with different mesh size and to increase the surface area of the finest screen by making it into a bag. If the end of the bag is connected to a floating screen box similar to that shown in Figure 3, trash and fry will collect there and can easily be removed with a dip net. The shrimp fry can then be separated and stocked in the pond. In ponds which are filled by pumping, the nets should be placed before the pump. The initial surge of water when a pump is turned on can sometimes break a net. The inlet canal can be widened and additional nets used. This reduces the water velocity through the netting and increases their efficiency. One example of how to do this is illustrated in Figure 10. Even if the methods of prevention are followed, accidents happen occasionally and fish enter the pond. It is then necessary to remove the fish without harming the shrimp. If the number of fish in a pond is not too great, the cost of chemical control is not justified. It costs too much. Fish can be caught by using hand lines, traps, gillnets or seine nets. When using traps or nets, care should be taken that the mesh size is large enough for the shrimp to escape. Some kinds of fish gather near the sluice gate when water is let in. A seine can be used to catch them while they are concentrated there.
(b) Selective poisoning When the number of fish in a pond is large, the most effective method to get rid of them is by the use of selective poisons. The use of natural products such as teaseed cake or derris root is recommended. These are safe because they are not harmful to man in small amounts and they break down and lose their toxicity shortly after application. Use of any of the chlorinated hydrocarbon group (DDT, Endrin, Chlordan, gamma BHC, etc.) in fishponds is not recommended because of their long-term residual effects. In fact their use is discouraged. Unlike the chlorinated hydrocarbons, organo-phosphate pesticides do not leave a toxic residue for more than about two weeks after application. Gusathion belongs to this group. If Gusathion, or other organo-phosphates, are used, they should be handled and applied with extreme caution. Fish which are killed with chlorinated hydrocarbon and organo-phosphate poisons should not be eaten by people or animals. Though some of the chemicals are not lethal, the sublethal effects are uncertain (Anonymous, 1976a).
In order to apply the correct dose of a chemical, the amount of water in a pond must be estimated. First, the total water surface area of the pond must be known. If the pond is square or rectangular, the length and width are measured to the nearest metre. The length is then multiplied by the width to get the number of square metres of pond surface. This is then multiplied by the average depth to obtain the number of cubic metres of water in the pond. To estimate the average depth of water, first a mark is put on the gate to record the water level in the pond. Then depth soundings are taken by wading in the pond over a preset grid pattern. The depth sounding stick should have a flat board attached to the base so it does not sink into the pond bottom. An average is taken of the soundings to get the average depth of water in the pond. This is then recorded on the sluice gate. With this mark as a reference, a permanent scale can be marked on the sluice gate for future reference when the water level is at a different depth, such as when lowered for treatment with chemicals. (i) Saponin. Saponin is the best known compound to selectively poison fish without damaging the shrimp or food organisms in the pond. It is 50 times more toxic to fish than to shrimp and so it is safe to use, while shrimp are in the pond. At the recommended dosage, it does not affect rotifers and copepods. It is bio-degradable and losses its toxicity after a short time, probably two or three days. The most commonly used source of saponin is teaseed cake, a residue from the processing of oil from the seeds of Camellia. The cake contains from 10 to 15 percent saponin. The effectiveness of saponin decreases with decreasing salinity. A treatment of 1.1 ppm killed Tilapia mossambica in one hour at a salinity of 35 ppt. At a salinity of 10 ppt, it took 14.5 to 16.5 hours to kill the fish at 1.1 ppm (Terazaki, et al, 1976; Tang, 1961). Consequently, the recommended level of application is: Salinity above 15 ppt = 12 g teaseed cake per m3 of water Salinity below 15 ppt = 20 g teaseed cake per m3 of water To apply teaseed cake, it must be ground up. Heating in an oven dries out the cake and makes it more brittle and easier to grind. The proper weight of ground cake should be soaked in water for 24 hours to extract the saponin. The water containing the saponin can be filtered and the filtered fluid applied to the pond water. It is not essential to filter the water, however, since the teaseed cake residue acts as a fertilizer. When using teaseed cake, or any other chemical control, the level of water in the pond should be lowered as much as possible without causing damage to the shrimp by increased temperature. It is best if the water level is lowered in late afternoon or evening, and the chemical applied then. Water level in the pond could then be raised the next morning before the sun heats up the shallow pond water. When saponin is applied, the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water decreases somewhat. This is usually not serious, but saponin should not be applied to a pond in which low levels of dissolved oxygen are occurring. Dead fish should be removed from the pond. (ii) Rotenone. Rotenone has been used to selectively kill fish, but not shrimp. However, the difference between the lethal limit for fish and shrimp is small and great care must be taken when using it. The volume of water in the pond must be estimated accurately as an overdose will kill the shrimp. Rotenone is most effective in freshwater and works better in low salinity water than in high salinity water.
Studies in freshwater show that rotenone has a harmful effect on benthic invertebrates and zooplankton (Neves, 1975). Recovery of benthic organisms is fairly rapid, but that of zooplankton is much slower. In one experiment in which rotenone was applied to a lake at a rate of 0.6 ppm, the plankton volume decreased 97 percent within 24 hours. It took about six days for the population to return to normal. From this, it can be seen that perhaps it would be useful to add supplemental feed for several days after rotenone is added to a pond with shrimp in it. Rotenone is available in several forms. Rotenone powder usually contains 5 percent rotenone, but sometimes, a 4 percent rotenone product is sold. The recommended level of treatment is 0.2 ppm rotenone. This requires 4 g of 5 percent derris powder per m3 of pond water. This does not kill eels. Treatment of 8 g of 5 percent derris powder per m3 of water is required to eliminate eels. Derris root. Fresh roots are more effective than dried roots which had been stored. Rotenone content appears to be higher in small roots than in large roots. Rotenone content of the roots also appears to vary with location (Yang, personal communication). The roots should be cut into small pieces and soaked overnight in water. After soaking, the roots are pounded to crush them. The crushed roots are replaced in the water in which they were soaked and squeezed so as much of the rotenone as possible goes into solution. The solution is then added to the pond. Four grams of dry root are required per m3 of pond water. (iii) PCP-Na (Sodium pentachlorophenate). This is an agricultural chemical used widely as a weed killer. It kills fish at treatment levels which do not kill shrimp. The recommended level of treatment is 0.5 ppm. Levels of 1.5 to 2.0 ppm are toxic to shrimp which have just molted, but shrimp held for eight days in a concentration of 1.3 ppm had no ill effects and molting was normal. PCP-Na decomposes when exposed to direct sunlight. Toxicity to fish is reduced by 90 percent after three hours. After six hours of sunlight, it is no longer toxic (Anonymous, 1976a). Before application, the pond water should be reduced to as low a level as practicable. The correct amount of PCP-Na is dissolved in freshwater and solute is then spread evenly around the pond. As soon as the fish are killed, freshwater should be let into the pond to dilute the concentration of PCP-Na. PCP-Na is toxic to man in large doses and care should be taken in its use. A stick should be used to mix the chemical with freshwater or rubber gloves should be worn. Fish killed with PCPNa should not be eaten. 9.2.2 Crabs Crabs are one of the worst pests in a shrimp pond. The swimming crabs (family Portunidae) especially are fierce predators of shrimps. These should be removed from the pond by trapping. Fish with firm meat such as catfish or shark are recommended as bait. Other suitable baits are trash fish, snake meat, toads, and uncooked bones. Shrimp will also be attracted to the bait and if they are caught in the trap, many will be killed by the crabs. This can be prevented by constructing the trap of material with large enough holes so that the shrimp can escape. One of the major causes of water leakage through pond dikes is holes made by burrowing crabs. In a pond with a large number of crab holes in the dikes, maintaining the proper level of water is a problem. Water flowing through crab holes can cause a dike to wash out and result in
costly repairs. Postlarval shrimp will leave a pond by swimming out through a crab hole. Similarly, predators and competitors can enter a pond through crab holes. Several of the methods used to kill burrowing crabs are given below. a. A widely used insecticide ³Sevin´, is effective in killing crabs. ³Sevin´ is also toxic to shrimp, so care must be taken in its use in a pond. ³Sevin´ is, however, relatively safe for humans and domestic animals. For use, the ³Sevin´ is mixed with ground up fish. Small balls of the mixture are placed in crab holes above the water line. It is also possible to put the fish balls in crab holes below the water line and then close up the hole so the shrimp can not eat the poison and it can not get into the pond water. b. Calcium carbide is put into crab holes and enough water is poured into the hole to wet the carbide. This produces acetylene gas which kills the crab. c. Tobacco dust, ³Brestan´ and ³Aquatin´ can kill on direct contact. d. Rice hulls are burned and the residue is used to fill up crab holes. The hulls stop up the gills of the crabs and they die. 9.2.3 Burrowing shrimp (Thalassina) In some areas, damage to dikes caused by burrowing Thalassina (Anomura) is common. Their burrows can usually be distinguished from those of crabs because they make a very high mound at the hole entrance which is above the water line. The same method used to kill crabs can be used to kill Thalassina. Especially designed trigger type traps made of bamboo can also be used. 9.2.4 Snails Snails (Cerithidea) compete for the natural food in a pond. Most pond operators feel that production is lower in ponds with a large number of snails. If their numbers are high, they disturb the bottom algae loosening the sediments. As a result, on windy days, the pond can become muddy and/or the ³lab-lab´ breaks loose from the bottom and floats to the surface. Wind action carries it to the pond bank where it settles and decomposes and produces large amounts of H2S. It has been reported that snails can be eliminated during pond preparation by using tobacco rejects or dust, but this is open to controversy. Treatment at 200 kg/ha was used to kill snails by one person and it took six months for them to become reestablished. Application was by broadcasting over a dry pond bottom. Water was let in to a depth of 10 cm initially and gradually raised to a depth of 1 m after one week. Tobacco dust at 400 kg/ha and tobacco stem at 150 kg/ha was not effective when used by others who broadcast the tobacco into shallow water, 5 cm. Nicotine is very toxic to shrimp so ponds where tobacco dust is used must be flushed well before stocking. The commercial preparations ³Brestan´, ³Aquatin´ and ³Bayluscide´ will kill snails when used at the dosage prescribed on the package. However, these chemicals have produced a residual effect when used in milkfish culture. Shrimp production was reported to be reduced for six months after the use of ³Aquatin´ or ³Brestan´. ³Aquatin´ kills Ruppia and retards the growth of ³lumut´. Milkfish cultured after the use of ³Bayluscide´ or ³Aquatin´ were stunted. ³Aquatin´ has a residual effect for five years in pond soil. Consequently, the use of these chemicals is not recommended.
9.2.5 Small Caridean shrimp sometimes become so abundant they cause problems. In Taiwan, China, a common species, Caridina denticulata causes problems as a competitor. They either attach molting shrimp or eat the feed provided for the shrimp. The most effective method of control is to dry the pond bottom and to apply poisons before stocking to kill the larvae and eggs. 9.2.6 Birds Predation by wading birds can be a problem in some regions. Most wading birds need a place to land. If water over the flat main portion of a pond is kept deep enough and coloured with a growth of phytoplankton, the birds can not see the bottom and will not land. Wading areas at the sides of the ponds can be reduced or eliminated by making the sides slope steeply to a deep peripheral canal. If there is a berm, it should be placed above the water line, or mangrove or other branches placed on it to prevent birds from walking along the shallow pond margin. Special precautions can be taken in nursery ponds because of their small area. Some farmers run lines of string between posts set in the pond and attach bright coloured pieces of cloth metal to the string to scare birds. Flashing mirrors can be used to scare some types of birds away from ponds. The device shown in Figure 11 is used at the Jitra Fisheries Station in Malaysia to scare eagles. It is simply a windmill with mirrors that revolve and flash brilliantly scaring the birds. 9.2.7 Man Losses caused by man are perhaps the hardest to prevent. The most vulnerable point is the sluice gate, because shrimp can be caught so easily with a net when water is let out at night. If a pond owner or caretaker is living at the pond site, his house should be located near the sluice gate. If this is not possible, a strong lock should be attached to the upper board of the sluice gate. As shrimp grow larger, they become more valuable. For this reason, it is not possible to have someone living at the pond site, a watchman should be hired during the last third of the growing period. If a farmer is using traps to selectively harvest, the traps should not be left in the ponds unattended. It is too easy for someone to come along and empty them. When making the daily inspection of his ponds, a farmer should look carefully for footprints near the water's edge. If strange footprints are observed, a watch should be maintained at night to see if someone is catching shrimp by hand or with small nets. Branches placed around the edge of the pond make it difficult for thieves to catch shrimp with cast or seine nets. 9.2.8 Organisms that degrade wood Destruction of wood by marine organisms is one of the major causes of destruction to water control structures. The problem can be reduced greatly by constructing sluice gates from concrete. For various reasons, concrete construction is not practical in many places. In cases where wood must be used, it may be desirable to use special kinds of wood or to coat the wood with preservatives.
Wood degrading organisms can be classified as follows:
Mollusca Crustacea Fungi Teredinidae (shipworms) Pholadidae (piddocks) Isopoda
The molluscs and crustaceans cause damage by boring. One can usually tell the difference between shipworms and piddocks. With shipworms, the calcareous lining of the hole is visible externally and the holes are only 1 to 2 mm in diameter. With piddocks, no calcareous lining can be observed and the hole of adults is two to three times larger. Fungi cause soft rot. Generally, wood is attacked more in tropical waters, and in tropical regions, destruction by borers is greatest in brackishwater. The predominant type of degrading organism varies from place to place and one should find out which one is predominant in his area and how serious the problem is. Many types of wood are more durable than others and it is advisable to utilize them if possible. The resistance of wood is not dependent on density or hardness. Silica content is very important. Some species have a high resistance due to a toxic action or repellent substance to one species but not to another. Wood from the following species of trees is recommended for use in saltwater by Fougerousse, 1971.
High silicon content Parinari sp. Licania sp. Eschweilera sp. Metrosideros sp. Dicorynia quainensis Mezilaurus itauba Repellent content Ocotea rodiaei Callitris glauca Eucalyptus marginata
Dialium sp. (except D. cochinchinensis) Eusideroxylon zwageri
A more complete list of species of trees and their resistance to the various organisms is given in Table 5. Preservatives can be applied to wood to increase its resistance. Creosote is one of the oldest and most effective treatments. It should be applied under pressure, if possible. If pressuretreated wood cannot be obtained, the wood should be soaked in the preservative. An external coating of tar or asphalt is more effective than creosote treatment for most pholadids. Excellent results have been reported by first applying asphalt or coal tar then applying cement on the still soft coating. Treatment of removable parts like sluice boards. These can be given more frequent applications of the preservative. They can also be soaked in chemicals to kill the pest. Borers can detect most chemicals and they withdraw their siphons and close their holes. They can not detect
sodium arsenate and a dip in 25 ppm (As203) for 18 hours is effective (McQuire, 1971). If two sets of boards are made, one can simply be left to air dry and the borers will be killed.
10. DISEASE AND PARASITES
Due to reclusive nature of shrimp and the difficulty of observing dead shrimp in ponds, little is known about the importance of disease and parasites in pond culture. However, heavy mortalities from disease occur frequently in more intensive types of shrimp culture, such as hatcheries, raceways and tanks. Since unexplained mortalities do occur in ponds, a close watch should be kept for signs of disease or parasites. Unfortunately, dead or diseased shrimp are not easily observed in a pond. Frequently, a farmer does not learn that his shrimp have died until he harvests a pond and finds there are only a few shrimp left. For this reason, it is important that the shrimp in a pond be sampled regularly, at least weekly, and examined for disease.
10.1 Types of disease and parasites known to cause problems in shrimp culture
Diseases of shrimp are just beginning to be studied seriously. Consequently, the few examples listed below are probably just the start of a long list. For instance, it is suspected that virus diseases are much more important than is now known. Similarly, the importance of fungus and bacterial disease has only been realized during the last few years, and many more pathogenic forms will probably be identified in the future. 10.1.1 Black gill disease Black gills in shrimp can be caused by several things. a. Accumulation of debris in gills. This is usually associated with poor pond bottom conditions. It is not known if this condition can cause death. If shrimp with dirty gills are placed in clean water the gills become clean. b. Fungus. Fusarium sp. This disease is epizootic and can cause mass mortalities. In infected shrimp, the gills have a very dark, deep black colour. Sindermann (1974) reports that Hatai (1974) found Nystatin and Azalomycin F were effective in treating this disease. c. Bacteria. In the initial stages of this disease, the gills turn orange-yellow or light brown. Eventually, the gills turn darker until they are black. Losses of shrimp from this disease are not as large as in some others. Treatment of infected shrimp by bathing in a 2 to 3 ppm concentration of furazolidone for two to four nights is an effective treatment (Shigueno, 1975). 10.1.2 Black or brown shell disease This disease is caused by bacteria. It is characterized by black eroded parts on the exoskeleton. Progressive destruction of the exoskeleton provides places for the entry of secondary infections
which may cause death. Epizootics have occurred under crowded conditions, with mortalities caused by destruction of the gills. A mixture of malachite green (0.5 to 1 ppm) and formalin (20 to 75 ppm) in water, reduced losses from this disease considerably (Sindermann, 1974). When incorporated in food, the following were found to be effective treatments: terramycin (0.5±1 ppm); sulfisozole, nifurstyreic acid, and chloramphenicol (Shigueno, 1975; Sindermann, 1974). 10.1.3 Muscle necrosis In shrimp suffering from muscle necrosis, there are white patches in the tail, or the whole tail is white. This condition is usually associated with stress behaviour such as swimming at the surface or jumping out of the water. It is caused by a combination of high temperature and low dissolved oxygen. The white colouration is caused by degenerative tissue. If the environmental conditions are improved, some of the shrimp will survive. Otherwise, massive mortalities take place (Rigdon and Baxter, 1970). 10.1.4 Cottom shrimp This disease is caused by microsporidian parasites in the muscle tissue or reproductive organs. It is characterized by a white colouration of the infected area. Sometimes, there is a blue-black colour on the back and sides of the shrimp. The disease usually starts at the telson or uropods and works its way forward. There may be some orange or reddish colour due to deterioration of tissues. Infected individuals can be weakened or killed, especially by stress. The percentage of shrimp infected is usually not great (Sindermann, 1974). 10.1.5 White shell disease This disease is caused by fungus. Portions of the exoskeleton turn white. 10.1.6 Vibrio disease #1 Infected shrimp initially show reduced activity. As the disease progresses, the base of the antennae, the base of the oviduct and seminal duct, the hepatic carina on the carapace, and the posterior and lateral edges of the tail shell become blackened or whitened. Frequently, black or white spots are present on the sides of the tail just above each swimming leg. This disease causes mass mortalities. Repeated oral doses of varied concentrations of sulfisozole, nifurstyreic acid, and chloramphenicol, were effective in treating infected shrimp (Shigueno, 1974). 10.1.7 Vibrio disease #2 This disease is characterized mainly by abnormal behaviour. The shrimp are uneasy, jumping out of the water, then laying on their sides; body muscles may become milky white in colour; there is often a pronounced flexure at the third abdominal segment. It can cause mass mortalities (Sindermann, 1974).
10.1.8 Vibrio disease #3 The shrimp become slow moving and disoriented; their is a flexure of the tail at the third segment; the tail has an opaque white colour; their is a red discolouration of the pleopods and pereiopods. This disease causes mass mortalities. In tanks outbreaks of the disease have usually followed handling of the shrimp. Treatment with terramycin, added to food at a minimum rate of 360 mg/kg of body weight per day, resulted in improved survival of infected shrimp (Sindermann, 1974). 10.1.9 Virus disease This disease has no visible signs. Stress, such as exposure to insecticides and crowding has been found to encourage development of this disease (Sindermann, 1974). 10.1.10 Body cramp This occurs during handling and harvesting on hot days. The body of cramped shrimp curves and becomes rigid. Mortality is high. The real cause of this condition is unknown, but mortality is reduced if shrimp are handled during cool weather (Liao, et al, 1977). 10.1.11 Overburdening organisms These are associated with poor water quality, such as high content of dissolved organic matter. These organisms occur on the outside of the shell and are removed with the shell when the shrimp molts. They are primarily a problem when growth is slow and the shrimp are not molting. The best remedy is to improve conditions of the pond. a. Ciliate disease. This is caused by the protozoan Zoothamnium sp. It typically occurs on the gills. It can cause mortalities when dissolved oxygen is low. Treatment with a 25 ppm formalin dip has been effective in controlling this protozoan. Some forms have environmental tolerances that can be used for control. In one case, raising salinity to 20 ppt eliminated a low salinity form (Sindermann, 1974). b. Filamentous bacteria. These bacteria occur on areas of the body surface which have many setules and on the gills. Treatment with potassium permanganate at 5 to 10 ppm for one hour is an effective treatment. However, reinfestation usually occurs within 5 to 10 days (Sindermann, 1974). c. Blue-green algae. This usually occurs when growth is very slow. Once it gets started, growths of blue-green algae may cause feeding and movement to be reduced even further. The shrimp then become even less tolerant of an adverse environment.
10.2 Chemical treatment
Some important factors concerning the occurrence of disease were pointed out by Sindermann (1974). When considering the occurrence of disease and parasites in a shrimp pond, it must be remembered that water quality, nutrition, and pathogens are closely related. An outbreak of infectious disease may have been brought on by poor water quality or inadequate diet. Simply adding chemicals to control the disease is not enough. The chemical imbalances in the pond or the food must be changed if long-term success is to be achieved. The importance of this is borne out by the observation by researchers in Tahiti that attacks of black spot disease were
noticed only on shrimp in tanks where the conditions were poor, or after too many handlings (Aquacop, 1977). Sindermann also points out that mortalities and signs of stress in organisms in aquaculture must be investigated from the viewpoint of possible toxicants as well as infectious disease. For example, it has been suggested that there is a relation between the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination and the occurrence of virus disease of shrimp. Generally, treatment with chemicals should be used only as a last resort in the control of disease. It is more useful to first locate the shrimp farm in areas not affected by pollution. Then follow good management practices to keep the pond environment good and the shrimp healthy and disease-resistant. Most of the compounds found effective in treating the various diseases of shrimp have not been cleared for use by health or food authorities. Little is known about most of them and their use in ponds can have harmful effects.
y y y y
Some of the chemicals may be carcinogenic (malachite green for example) or they may cause other damage to people who handle them Harmful residues may accumulate in the shrimp and cause illness to the people who eat them The treatment may upset the chemical balance in the pond by affecting useful organisms like nitrifying bacteria Food organisms in the pond may be killed (Sindermann, 1974).
Chemical treatment probably is most appropriate for controlling disease in broodstock or in intensive types of culture with feeding. In addition to the chemotherapeutic agents given as treatment with the individual diseases, several compounds which have proven useful in fish culture have been tested for their toxicity to shrimp by Hanks (1976). The following table lists the concentrations of therapeutic chemicals tested by Hanks which produced 0, 50 or 100 percent mortality in the 96-hour period following a one-hour exposure of Penaeus californiensis.
Hyamine (ppm) LC0 30 Formalin/malachite green (ppm) 160/8 400/20 1 000/50 Copper sulfate (ppm) 20 250 750 Potassium ³Cutrine´ perman- ganate (ppm) (ppm) 400 1 000 1 000 25 500 1 000 Methylene blue (ppm) 75 100 100
LC50 70 LC100 90
Furanace is a relatively new chemotherapeutic that has potential for use in shrimp culture. It is an effective agent for a number of bacterial and fungal pathogens of fish and crustacea. It was found to be non-toxic to Macrobrachium rosenbergii at effective levels of treatment by DelvesBroughton (1974). He observed that the drug is absorbed rapidly by the prawns and that after treatment it is excreted rapidly. Furanace appears to be an effective agent against Vibrio, Cytophaga and Aeromonas bacteria. Pseudomonas and Gaffkya homari are resistant. Most species of the fungus Saprolegnia also can be effectively controlled by this compound. The compound can be administered by means of baths at either high concentration with a short exposure time or low concentration with a long exposure time. With the short bath a dose of 20
mg/1 for 20 minutes is near the upper level of safe tolerance for Macrobrachium. With long-term baths, it was felt that a level of 2.0 mg/1 was an adequate treatment. Enomoto (personal communication) has found that Monofuran for fish (Dainihon Seiyaku Co.) is useful in the treatment of bacterial diseases of shrimp.
11. INDICATORS OF TROUBLE AND REMEDIAL ACTION
11.1 Indicators of problems in a pond
11.1.1 The presence of dead shrimp or fish. 11.1.2 A die-off of algal growth. This can sometimes cause milky coloured water. The products of decomposition can be harmful. 11.1.3 An overgrowth (bloom) of phytoplankton can cause oxygen depletion. This can be especially harmful on cloudy days that follow several days of bright sunlight. Caution should be exercised if one cannot see a white coloured object 25 cm deep in the pond. Check in the early morning to see if shrimp or fish are swimming erratically at the surface, frequently breaking the water surface. 11.1.4 Active swimming of shrimp at the water surface during day-light hours. This indicates the shrimp are in stress. The usual cause is low oxygen and/or high temperature. 11.1.5 Active swimming of shrimp around the edge of the pond during daylight hours, but not at the water surface. This can indicate a lack of food in the pond. 11.1.6 An abrupt change of water colour. If the water becomes clear, it means the phytoplankton died and a shortage of natural food will develop. If the water turns a reddish or bright-green colour, types of algae might be present which give off toxins which can kill shrimp. A milky colour can indicate a die-off of algae as noted above. 11.1.7 Bad smell. A smell of sulfide or rotten eggs is caused by hydrogen sulfide. This is produced by decomposition and it can indicate that an accumulation of organic matter has occurred on the pond bottom. The most frequent cause of this is lab-lab which floated to the surface and was carried to a corner by wind. During night hours it sinks to the bottom where it decomposes. If the smell comes up from the bottom mud while someone is wading in the pond, the bottom is bad. 11.1.8 Gobies swimming in stress and/or concentrated on the sides of the dikes can indicate low dissolved oxygen in the pond water. 11.1.9 Snails climbing out of the water can also be an indication of low oxygen in the water.
11.1.10 A heavy concentration of the rotifer Brachionus or other form of zooplankton in the pond water can indicate either a build up of organic matter in the ponds as a result of decomposition of other food organisms or a heavy growth of bacteria. 11.1.11 Shrimp with black gills. This condition can be caused by disease or by the shrimp burying in mud made black by decomposition. Place the shrimp in clean water in an aquarium. If the black colour goes away after one or two days, it is accumulated debris, if the colour remains, it is disease. 11.1.12 Shrimp with white discolouration on their tails. This can be caused by disease or by the stress of low dissolved oxygen and high temperature. In the last case, the shrimp are usually swimming actively and show signs of stress, some may even be jumping out of the water. Some of these shrimp will lose the white spot if placed in well-aerated water for a day. 11.1.13 Shrimp with papery shells and body that pushes in easily. This is usually caused by lack of food. 11.1.14 Abrupt lowering of salinity in a pond, especially when caused by heavy rain. The freshwater floats on top of the saltwater. This forms a barrier and the bottom water often can become deficient in oxygen. 11.1.15 Temperature above 32°C. A higher temperature of pond water is dangerous and can lead to increased mortality. 11.1.16 Low pH. In brackishwater, a pH of 8 to 8.2 is normal. A pH lower than 7 is a cause for concern in that it indicates some abnormal condition in a pond. A high pH is usually associated with a good growth of phytoplankton. It is not a cause for concern unless it rises above 9.5. 11.1.17 Low levels of dissolved oxygen in pond water by measurement usually during early morning hours before sunrise. 11.1.18 Bottom mud containing a large number of chironomid worms and nothing else. Chironomid worms are an indicator of pollution. They can live when dissolved oxygen levels are very low, and when everything else dies their numbers increase. They are very small red worms. 11.1.19 Numerous shrimp with black spots that look like an old injury. This is caused by a bacterial disease, and is usually associated with water that has a high organic content. 11.1.20 Shrimp with fuzzy growth on outside shell. This can be caused by bacteria, protozoans, or algae. The first two are associated with water which has a high organic content. In any case, they are an indication that growth is slow and the shrimp are not molting. 11.1.21 A foam is formed on pond surface by waves during high winds. This happens to water with a high amount of dissolved organic matter.
11.2 Remedial action
11.2.1 Water exchange. Changing water is a general preventative and/or remedy for most of the conditions listed above: it introduces new oxygen; dilutes waste products or phytoplankton that may have built up too high; introduces new food organisms, trace minerals and organics; dilutes disease causing organisms. It is important that water be exchanged as soon as possible in cases where low dissolved oxygen is the problem. Oxygen depletion usually occurs near the bottom and it is best to drain and replenish water from the bottom most of the time. If a pump is available water should be flowed through the pond. In the case of low salinity of the surface layer, caused by heavy rains, water should be drained from the top and replenished from the bottom. Sometimes it may be necessary to exchange water for several days in a row before pond conditions improve. 11.2.2 Mechanical mixing. Water can be mixed to supply oxygen or to break up a layer of freshwater. Mechanical agitators are sold for this. In an emergency an outboard engine can be used. Windmills have proved practical. 11.2.3 Addition of chemicals. Addition of chemicals like potassium permanganate could be a useful remedy for low dissolved oxygen levels. This would be most practical in small ponds where shrimp are grown at high density. Hydrated or quick lime applied at rates from 200 kg/ha has been used to relieve milkfish from stress caused by low dissolved oxygen (Padlan, personal communication). The same treatment might prove useful for shrimp. Quick lime is a special activated type of lime and should not be confused with agricultural lime, It is caustic to handle and bulky. Workers are cautioned against becoming burned if it should get in their eyes or get wet on their skin (Anonymous, 1976b). 11.2.4 Raise water level. In ponds with high water temperature, the water level should be raised. In some cases, it may be necessary to provide shade. Rafts of bamboo supporting banana leaves would be inexpensive. 11.2.5 Stop feeding or fertilization. Any time shrimp appear to be in stress, or pond conditions are poor, supplemental feeding or fertilization should be postponed until the situation is corrected. 11.2.6 Remove dead fish or algae. This should be standard procedure. Any time dead things are observed in a pond they should be removed. If ³lab-lab´ piles up in a corner, it can be removed with a rake or scoop. 11.2.7 Add feed. If the shrimp give signs of being undernourished or hungry, it might be useful to supply extra food until a new growth of natural food can be produced. 11.2.8 Transfer shrimp. In some cases where shrimp in a pond have stopped growing, growth resumed when they were transferred to another pond with a good crop of natural food. 11.2.9 Harvest shrimp. Total harvesting is advised only as a last resort when a large percentage of shrimp in a pond are diseased or they are dying from bad pond conditions and there is no way to remedy the situation. It is better to receive a low price for undersize shrimp than it is to wait too long and have most of the shrimp die. Partial harvesting can be utilized when there is evidence of slow growth caused by lack of food. Selective harvesting can be used to reduce the
number of shrimp in the pond by cropping large individuals and leaving the smaller ones to grow larger.
12. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS
12.1 Estimating the number of shrimp in a pond
For management pruposes, knowing the number of shrimp in a pond is very important. For example, if the number of shrimp is drastically reduced due to a catastrophic mortality caused by disease or low dissolved oxygen levels, it might be advisable to drain the pond and start over again with a new stock. In ponds where supplemental feed is given, accurate estimation of numbers is critical, as the amount of feed provided is usually based on the estimated weight of shrimp in the pond. If the estimated number of shrimp is high, too much food will be given and the excess will decay and pollute the pond. If the estimate is low, not enough food will be given and the shrimp will not grow well. Arriving at a reliable estimation of the number of shrimp in a pond is difficult. This is because the distribution of shrimp within a pond is not even, they tend to group together. The concentrations of shrimp do not remain in one area of a pond, instead they move around within the pond. Also it has been observed that shrimp are usually more abundant in the corners of a pond. A general idea of the number of shrimp in a pond can sometimes be obtained by walking around a pond at night with a bright light and observing the number of shrimp swimming near the edge. The swimming activity of shrimp is affected by many things such as moon phase, food supply and water movement. As a result the number of shrimp observed can vary widely on different days. A more reliable estimation can be obtained by sampling. The following methods have been tried with varying degrees of success. 12.1.1 Use of screened frame boxes. A wooden or iron frame covered with mosquito netting which has a known area (usually 1 m2) is placed on the pond bottom. In one method the sides of the frame are high enough to extend out of the water. The shrimp trapped in the frame are caught with a scoop net. Another type of frame has sides only 30 cm high, but a net covers the top. The shrimp trapped in this frame are counted by a diver. To obtain a reliable sample it is necessary to sample at least 10 locations in a 0.5 ha pond. One sample should be taken in each corner and six in the middle. An average number of shrimp per sample (m2) is arrived at and this is multiplied by the number of square metres in the pond to arrive at the number of shrimp in the pond. 12.1.2 Beam trawl. A beam trawl with a two-metre opening is dragged across the pond. The trawl is set on one side, then a worker carries a long rope around the pond to the opposite side. Then the trawl is pulled directly across the pond. The width of the pond is multiplied by the width of the beam trawl to obtain the number of square metres of pond bottom sampled. The number of square metres sampled is then divided by the number of shrimp caught in the beam trawl to get the average number of shrimp per square metre.
The method works best in ponds with a level bottom and with no structures placed in the pond for shelter or windbreaks, etc. It can not be used with ³lumut´ and disturbs the bottom in a ³lablab´ pond. It is difficult to sample corners. 12.1.3 Cast net. Sampling with a cast net should be done at night when the shrimp are active. Sampling during the day is not effective. It is difficult to estimate the area covered by the cast net as each throw is different. Also some shrimp frequently escape from the net. 12.1.4 Marking. Mark a specified number of shrimp by cutting off one uropod. Replace the shrimp in the pond. After one or two nights, sample the shrimp in the pond again. The total number of shrimp in the pond can be estimated by multiplying the number of shrimp marked by the number of shrimp in the second sample and then dividing by the number of marked shrimp recovered in the second sample.
12.2 Sampling for growth
Sampling should be done once a week. Measurements of 50 to 100 shrimp should be adequate. It is better to take several samples instead of one large sample. If too large a sample is taken, there is a danger that the shrimp might die before they could be returned to the pond. It is better to sample in the cool of the morning or evening. Measurements should be made as soon as possible after the shrimp are caught. Shrimp should not be stored for any length of time due to possible death by cannibalism or loss of weight due to starvation. The shrimp can be prevented from jumping out of the holding container by placing a few branches with leaves on them in the container. A variety of methods can be used to obtain a sample, but an important point to consider is that methods of sampling which disturb the pond bottom also destroy food. In such cases, the number of samples taken should be made as few as possible to obtain the information required. Samples of postlarvae can be obtained by placing twigs or branches around the pond and then lifting up the branches catching the postlarvae in a scoop net as the branch is lifted out of the water. There are several different ways of measuring the length of shrimp. Total length is measured from the tip of the rostrum to the tip of the telson. There is some criticism of this measure because the rostrum is frequently damaged or broken and the shrimp cannot be measured. However, since it is difficult to measure standard length or carapace length of postlarvae and juveniles, it is perhaps better to use total length, so that only one type of measurement can be used throughout the shrimps growing period. Standard length is a measurement from the postorbital notch to the tip of the telson. Carapace length is a measurement from the post-orbital notch to the posterior margin of the carapace. The shrimp can be weighed individually or all together. For production purposes, the length of shrimp is not needed and an average weight obtained by weighing the whole sample at one time is all that is required. This procedure saves a lot of time and a less delicate balance is required. The total sample is weighed at one time by placing the shrimp in a bucket containing water. The bucket containing water is weighed before the shrimp are added. The weight of the shrimp is the difference between the two weights. The average weight of an individual shrimp is calculated by dividing the total weight of the sample by the number of shrimp in the sample.
When taking individual weights, each shrimp should be dried before weighing. This is done by gently patting the shrimp with an absorbent towel or cloth.
There are many ways to measure salinity. Elaborate salinometers, electric instruments, refractometers and chemical methods are available. These are useful for scientific research, but are usually too expensive for fish farmers. A hydrometer is a less expensive instrument. It is a kind of calibrated-floating tube. It measures the weight, or specific gravity of liquids according to how high the tube floats in the liquid. As salt is added to water, the water becomes slightly heavier. As the water becomes heavier, objects floating in the water are pushed higher out of the water. The hydrometer uses this principle to indicate the amount of salt in the water. Commercially-made hydrometers calibrated at certain temperatures are available from scientific equipment dealers, with instructions for their use. They do not cost too much, but as they are made of glass, they break easily. It is possible for a shrimp farmer to make a simple hydrometer for measuring salinity. A strong, rigid, narrow mouth plastic bottle of about 100 cc capacity would be a good choice, but a glass bottle could also be used (Fig. 12). The mouth of the bottle is plugged with a stopper that is fitted with a light stem such as a piece of bamboo. Enough rocks should be put in the bottle so that the tip of the stem just sticks out of the water a short distance when the bottle is put in freshwater. The point where the stem comes out of the water is then marked on the stem. Next the bottle is floated in seawater which has been collected from a distance offshore so that it is not diluted by freshwater runoff from rivers. The stem will stick farther out of the water now because the salt in the seawater makes the bottle float higher. A mark should be made on the stem at the new point where the stem comes out of the seawater. Next a mixture is made of half seawater and half freshwater. The bottle is floated in this water and a third mark is made on the stem to indicate half strength seawater. Now the bottle can be used as a reference to judge the approximate salinity as compared to seawater and freshwater. Most accurate results are obtained when the temperature of the water being tested is the same as the water used when the stem was marked (Anonymous, 1974).
Hand-held thermometers are adequate for measuring water temperature. One should not hold the thermometer in the pond water and then lift it out to read it. This procedure can cause the thermometer reading to be several degrees off. The thermometer should be read while in the pond water. A record of the extreme temperatures in the pond over a period of time can be obtained by laying a maximum-minimum thermometer on the pond bottom.
Turbiditv is caused by particles suspended in the water. It can be caused by phytoplankton, mud or other substances. One way of measuring turbidity is with a Secchi disc (Fig. 17). A Secchi disc is about 30 cm in diameter, painted white and black or just white, and has weights or heavy objects hanging on it to make it sink straight down in the water. The disc is suspended on a rope
or a long piece of wire that is marked off in centimeters. The disc can be made from metal or wood as long as it will sink. A tin can pounded flat can be used (Druben, 1976). When the Secchi disc goes into the water it will sink and disappear from sight at some depth. The marks on the rope are read at the point where the disc just disappears from sight. In a pond being managed for phytoplankton the disc should disappear at a depth of about 25 to 35 cm.
12.6 Determining lime requirements for pond soils
A soil sample should be taken as described in Section 3.2. The composite soil sample is mixed thoroughly and spread in a thin layer to air dry. After drying, the sample is crushed gently into a powder and sieved through a screen with 0.85 mm openings. A p-nitrophenol buffer of pH 8.0 0.1 is prepared by diluting 20 g p-nitrophenol, 15 g boric acid, 74 g potassium chloride, and 10.5 g potassium hydroxide to 1 liter with distilled water. Place 20 g of dry soil in a 100 ml beaker, add 20 ml of distilled water and stir periodically for one hour. Then measure the pH of the muddistilled water mixture with a glass electrode pH meter. Add 20 ml of the p-nitrophenol buffer and stir periodically for 20 minutes. Set the pH meter at 8.0 by using a mixture of 1 part p-nitrophenol buffer and 1 part distilled water. Next read the pH of the sample (soil, distilled water, buffer mixture) while stirring vigorously. The pH value of the soil in water and the soil in buffered solution is used to obtain the lime requirement from the following table. If the pH of the soil in the buffered solution is below 7, repeat the analysis with 10 g of dry soil and double the amount of lime required given in the table (Boyd, 1976). Lime requirement in kg/ha of calcium carbonate (neutralizing value of 100) to increase total hardness and total alkalinity of pond water above 20 mg/l (from Boyd, 1976)
Mud pH in water 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 MUD pH IN BUFFERED SOLUTION 7.9 7.8 7.7 363 504 806 1 159 1 361 1 562 1 764 2 016 2 621 2 688 2 822 7.6 484 672 1 075 1 546 1 814 2 083 2 353 2 688 3 494 3 584 3 763 7.5 605 840 1 344 1 932 2 268 2 064 2 940 3 360 4 368 4 480 4 704 7.4 726 1 008 1 613 2 318 2 722 3 125 3 528 4 032 5 242 5 376 5 645 7.3 847 1 176 1 881 2 705 3 175 3 646 4 116 4 704 6 115 6 272 6 586 7.2 968 1 344 2 150 3 091 3 629 4 166 4 704 5 376 6 989 7 186 7 526 7.1 1 089 1 512 2 419 3 478 4 082 4 687 5 292 6 048 7 974 8 064 8 467 7.0 1 210 1 680 2 688 3 864 4 536 5 208 5 880 6 720 8 736 8 960 9 408 (kg/ha of calcium carbonate required) 121 242 168 336 269 538 386 773 454 907 521 1 042 588 1 176 672 1 344 874 1 747 896 1 792 941 1 882
There are several behavioural characteristics of shrimp which can be used to advantage during harvest. They move around the pond at night looking for food. They are attracted to light. They are stimulated by movement of water. When water is let into a pond, the shrimp become active, swimming around the pond and often gathering near the sluice gate. Larger shrimp have a natural tendency to migrate to deeper water offshore, so they swim out of a pond with the water when water is discharged. Most species of shrimp are more active during the new moon and full moon. The periods of greatest activity are normally shortly after sunset and again shortly before sunrise.
13.1 Partial harvesting
Partial harvesting is useful in some types of management systems where only large shrimp are to be caught and smaller shrimp left in the pond to grow larger, and in polyculture where a farmer wants to harvest shrimp but not fish. Shrimp typically have different growth rates with some individuals growing much faster than others. It is possible to selectively harvest these large individuals before the main crop is harvested. In a programme of selectively cropping the larger shrimp from a pond, the pond must be totally harvested occasionally, or the pond will end up with mostly small males. This is especially true for species of Metapenaeus with a large size difference between sexes. 13.1.1 Traps Barrier traps (Fig. 13) set around the edge of a pond are very effective. The traditional type trap made of bamboo screens is good, but it has two disadvantages. First, most of these traps has no bottom, so a worker must catch the shrimp with a net. Second, it is difficult to provide the correct size mouth opening. If the mouth is too large, crabs can enter the trap and they eat or damage many shrimp. If the opening is too small, the shrimp will not go into the trap. It is better if a rigid frame trap with a bottom is made. In Indonesia fyke type shrimp traps made of bamboo screens with built-in bottoms at their catching ends are used. It should be of a size that one or two men could lift it, empty the shrimp out, and set it back in the pond. The openings in the walls of the trap should be large enough so small shrimp can escape if a partial harvest is desired. The mouth opening should be 4 cm wide. Wire or string should be placed at 4 cm intervals across the mouth to prevent crabs from going into the trap. This type of trap should be fished at night. No bait is needed. A small kerosene lamp placed on top of the trap will attract more shrimp. If the number of shrimp in the pond is large, the trap should be emptied periodically during the night. If too many shrimp are caught in the trap, a portion of them will die and they will be spoiled and in poor condition by morning. Baited traps are not recommended, but if they are used, fish with a high oil content make the best bait. 13.1.2 Nets Cast nets, lift nets and seine nets can be used to harvest shrimp. Their use can be made more effective by setting out bait or food in the area to be fished. If fishing is done at night, lights can be used to attract the shrimp.
13.1.3 Electric shrimp catching In Taiwan, China, a hand-held electric gear is used to harvest shrimp. The gear is composed of an accumulator and two bamboo poles. One of the poles is equipped with a metal tip and the other has a steel ring with a net attached. The metal tip is connected by wires to the anode of the accumulator and the steel ring to the cathode. The accumulator is carried in a backpack or on a small raft and the operator holds one pole in each hand as he wades through the pond. When the gear is switched on, an electric field is formed between the two poles. On receiving an electric stimulation, the shrimp jump out of the water and are caught in the net. The gear has been used to totally harvest large ponds (Liao, personal communication).
13.2 Total harvest
13.2.1 Bagnet in sluice gate Most species of shrimp can be harvested effectively by using a bagnet placed in the sluice gate and catching the shrimp as they swim from the pond with the outflowing water. The best time to do this type of harvesting is at night during the new moon or full moon. However, many species of shrimp molt during the full moon period and the soft shell shrimp bring a lower price, so, if possible, harvest is during new moon. It is useful to let some water into the pond before harvesting is started to stimulate the shrimp and get them swimming around the pond. A light placed near the mouth of the sluice gate will attract the shrimp toward the gate and aid in their capture. The bagnet must be long enough so it extends far enough from the sluice gate to make emptying the bag easy. The same type of ³lazy line´ used on shrimp trawl nets can be used to pull the bag to shore for emptying (Fig. 14). During harvest, the water is drained from the surface. Initially, the top two closure boards are removed. Additional boards are removed as needed to keep water discharge at about the same amount. P. monodon is particularly hard to harvest with a bagnet as it does not swim out of the pond readily. Some farmers have reported that about 90 percent of P. monodon can be harvested from a pond if the draining procedure is repeated on three successive nights. The remaining shrimp have to harvested by hand after the pond is totally drained. 13.2.2 Partially draining water A method of harvest particularly useful for P. monodon is to drain water from the pond very slowly until water remains only in the peripheral canals or a harvest basin. With the slow lowering of the water level, the shrimp move to the deeper canals. Shrimp can be removed from the canals by dragging a seine net around the peripheral canal. A bamboo screen can be pushed around the peripheral canal to concentrate the shrimp in a restricted area. They are then caught with scoop nets. A modification of this type of harvest is to let water in slowly after the shrimp have been concentrated in the canals. This stimulates the shrimp into moving and they enter traps which are set around the pond.
13.2.3 Trap in the outlet canal Some farmers build large traps in the water outlet canal outside the sluice gate. Shrimp are caught in the traps as the pond is drained. Traps are more costly than bagnets and cannot be moved from pond to pond. Their use should be discouraged. In all cases, final harvest is by hand after all the water has been drained from the pond.
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Tang, Y.A., MS Handbook in coastal fish farming: A pattern for training in this type of aquaculture for the South China Sea Region Terazaki, M., 1976 P. Tharnbuppa and Y. Nakayama, Eradication of predatory fishes in shrimp farms. Contribution to Seminar/Workshop on Mangrove Ecology, National Research Council, Thailand, held at phuket Marine Biological Centre, Phuket, Thailand, 10±16 January 1976 Villaluz, D.K., 1953 Fish farming in the Philippines. Bookman, Manila: 336p. Villaluz, D.K. et al., 1970 Reproduction, larval development and cultivation of sugpo (Penaeus monodon Fabricius). Technical Report (July 1969 - June 30, 1970). MSU-NSDB-Assisted Research Project No. 2.156: 15p. Wickins, J.F., 1976 The tolerance of warm-water prawn to recirculated water. Aquaculture 9: 19±37 Zein-Eldin, Z.P. and D.V. Aldrich, 1965 Growth and survival of postlarval Penaeus aztecus under controlled conditions of temperature and salinity. Biol. Bull. Mar. Biol. Lab., Woods Hole, 129(1): 199±216 Zinke, P.J., 1976 Soil vegetation interrelationships in mangrove forests. Paper presented at the National Workshop on Mangrove Ecology, Phuket Marine Biological Centre, Phuket, Thailand, 10±16 January 1976: 7p. Anonymous, 1974 A simple salinometer. Fish Culture Leaflet No. 6, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Manila: 2p. (mimeo) Anonymous, 1976a Pest control in brackishwater fishponds. Extension Literature D2, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Manila: 4p. (mimeo) Anonymous, 1976b Platform and other methods of fishpond fertilization. Extension Literature D3a, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Manila: 3p. (mimeo) Anonymous, 1977 Establishment of ground cover vegetation to minimize dike erosion In Inland Fisheries Project Philippines, Technical Report No. 9: 150±162
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