C. B.

Singh Associate Director

Instructional Poultry Farm College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263145 U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand

Generally poultry production was considered a backyard profession till 1950 in India and people belonging to only lower strata of society used to accept it.  Although the homeland of domesticated chickens have been reported in India and its neighboring countries, but their improved verities have been developed elsewhere in foreign countries.  India imported these improved breeds of poultry for poultry development in the country. Since the decade of sixties poultry production was limited to ³desi´ birds only but now it has come to the level of a well organized profession and the use of new technology, good management, latest equipments have given it the shape of a modern Industry. India today ranks 3rd in the world in respect of table egg production and 5th in respect of broiler production.

Contd.. 

The integration of livestock & fish increase overall production intensity and economise on land, labour and water requirements for both poultry and fish. For example one hectare of static water fish ponds can process the wastes of up to 1500 poultry, producing fish in quantities of up to 10 MT./ha. without other feeds or fertilizers.  Linkages between poultry and fish production may bring benefits to both components and the wider farming system.  Poultry production wastes have inherent qualities that make them particularly valuable for fish production as compared to other livestock wastes. Poultry wastes are more nutrient dense than other livestock wastes.  Typically they contain less moisture, fiber and compounds such as tannins that discolour water when used as fish pond fertilizers.  In poultry±fish integrated farming system the fish crop is integrated using only poultry droppings or deep litter by rearing the poultry either directly over the pond or on the pond embankment. 

Many breeds and varieties of chicken have been developed with their physical feature varying in size, shape and colour etc., but few breeds/strains like RIR, Hitkari, Vanraja, WLH, Kuroiler etc. are suitable for integrated poultry-fish farming. About 8 weeks old chicks, after vaccination against viral diseases and providing other necessary prophylactic measures as a safeguard against epidemics are kept in poultry house near the ponds.

Important poultry breeds/strains developed through research under public sector
Poultry stock ILI-80 CARI- Galden 92 CARI-Priya CARI- Sonali H.H. 260 Kaling Brown Punjab white layer ILM -90 ILAR-90 CARI Bro-91 B-77 CARI-Shyma CARI-Hitkari CARI-Nirbhik CARI-Vanraja CARI-Devendra Kind Commercial layer Brown egg layer Commercial layer Brown egg layer Commercial layer Brown egg layer Commercial layer Commercial layer Commercial layer Commercial broiler Coloured broiler Dual purpose Dual purpose Dual purpose Dual purpose Dual purpose Institute where Developed CARI, Izatnagar -do-do-doC.P.B.F. Bangalore C.P.B.F. Bhubneshwar P.A.U. Ludhiana Kerla Agri. Univ. Trichur A.P. Agri. Univ. Hyderabad

CARI Izatnagar
CARI Izatnagar CARI Izatnagar CARI Izatnagar CARI Izatnagar CARI Izatnagar CARI Izatnagar

Layer Strain CARI Priya White Leghorn

Broiler Strain CARI-Bro CARI Dhanraja

RIR

Dual purpose breeds

Columbian

Australarp

Local hill fowl

Indigenous breeds

Kadaknath

Guinea fowl

Other poultry breeds

Guinea fowl kits

Turkey

Quail 

The primary objective of housing of poultry birds is to protect them from extreme weathers, parasites and predators.   In integrated poultry± fish farming two types of poultry houses are used viz. cage system and deep litter system.  In integrated poultry±fish farming deep litter system is preferred and advantageous over cage system due to higher manurial value of built-up deep litter and easy management of birds.

Cage system

Deep litter system

Housing Management Practices

Brooding Management Practices 

Feeding constitutes the fundamental and major management concern in poultry production since major expenditure (60-70 %) in poultry raising is feed cost. Efficiency in feeding therefore is one of the key factor for successful poultry production. During the 9-20 weeks grower mash containing 16 percent protein and 2600 kcl. energy should be provided @ 50-70 gm./bird /day, whereas above 20 weeks a layer mash containing 18 percent protein and 2700 kcl. energy should be provided @ 80-120 gm./bird /day. Feed is provided to the birds in feed hoppers to avoid wastage.

Feeding of birds 

Generally egg production commence at the age of 20 weeks.  Each pens of laying birds is provided with one nest for 5-6 birds.  The peak period of egg production is 20 to 40 weeks and after 40 weeks egg production is gradually decline.  After the age of 18 months the birds may be disposed. 

Poultry house and equipments must be disinfected at least 30 days prior to shifting the birds.  The birds should vaccinated against diseases like marek¶s, Ranikhet, I.B.D., Infectious bronchitis, fowl pox etc. at the appropriate age.  Some of bacterial and protozoal diseases like salmonellosis, coryza, fowl cholera, coccidiosis etc. can be kept under control by maintenance of proper hygienic conditions Vaccination schedule against important diseases for layer birds: Name of vaccine Marek¶s RDF strain IBD 1st Lasota IBD 2nd Fowl pox R2B Age day old 1-5days 14 days 21 days 28days 42 days 8-10 weeks Dose 0.2ml 2 drop 2 drop 2 drop 2 drop 1 drop 0.5ml Method Subcutaneous 1drop in eye &1 drop in nose -do-do-doWing web Subcutaneous

Vaccination against IBD/Ranikhet diseases

F2 Vaccination 

In about 10-12 months litter become fully built-up having very high manurial value.  The fully built up litter removed from poultry houses is stored in suitable places and supplied to the fish ponds @ 50 kg/ha./day every morning after sunrise.

Estimation of manure obtained from layer birds: Time Interval Availability of fresh manure (kg/bird) One day 07 day One month One year 0.113 0.791 3.4 41.2 Kg/1000 birds 113 791 3400 41200

Manurial value of Different livestock species: Species Water % Nitrogen Chicken Cow Pig Sheep Horse Rabbit 56.0 55.25 74.13 59.52 48.69 31.40 2.6 0.42 0.84 0.76 0.49 1.4 Nutrients % Phosphorus 0.5-2.0 0.29 0.39 0.39 0.26 1.8 Potassium 0.90 0.44 0.32 0.59 0.48 0.50

Factors affecting the characteristics of poultry waste & its use in aquaculture: 

Nature of bedding material:- Bulk density, particle size, moisture retention capacity, penetrability. Type of bird:- Size, growth rate, efficiency, sex Housing:- Open/ closed Litter management:- Regular/ irregular removal Nature of in gradients in poultry feed:- Digestibility, nutrient density & composition Type of storage:- Aerobic, anaerobic, exposure to temperature Quantity of bedding material per surface unit:- Nutrient dilution, micro organism activity.

Hatchery Management Practices

Other management practices

Debeaking

Egg Collection

Other Management Practices

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