³Rural Sociology, Extension Education & Communication´ (FEX-321

References:‡ G. L. Ray 2006-07, Extension, Communication and Management. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi ‡ O. P. Dhama and O. P. Bhatnagar, Education and Communication for Development. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi ‡ Handbook of Fisheries & Aquaculture. ICAR, New Delhi by Dr. S. Ayyappan ‡ S. K. Ray et al., Policy Planning for Agricultural Development. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. New Delhi

Introduction to Extension ‡ The word µExtension¶ is derived from the Latin roots µex¶ meaning µout¶ and
µtension¶ µstretching¶. Extension is that type of education which stretched out to people in the rural areas far and near, beyond the limits of the educational institutions which the formal type of education is usually confined. ‡ Extension is an education system, and its aim is to bring in desirable changes in human behaviour. ‡ Education should be conceived as life-long process of learning. ‡ Extension methods are used to educate rural people outside regularly organised schools & class rooms brining out social & cultural development. ‡ Extension means to extend & to spread useful information & ideas to rural people. ‡ The National Commission of Agriculture (1976) refers to extension as an informal out-of-school education and services for the members of the farm, family & others directly or indirectly engaged in farm production, management, conservation and marketing.

Extension Education ‡ It can be defined as educational process to provide knowledge to the rural
people about the improved practices in the convincing manner and to help them to take decision within their specific local condition.

History of Extension
‡ Shantiniketan project In 1908, Rabindranath Tagore started the youth organization in the village in Kaligram Pargana. In 1921, he established RRI (Rural Reconstruction Institute) at Shantiniketan for development of Agriculture, Coopreatives, Industries and Education. The objective was to create interest in people for the rural development and to study the rural problems. These objectives were achieved by developing village leadership and establishing training centers for handicraft.

Gurgaon Project
‡This was started by Mr. F. L. Brayne in Gurgaon in Haryana. The programme was to introduce improved seeds and improved cultivation method.

Etawah Pilot Project
‡ This was started by Albert Mayer in 1948. The main objective was to see what degree of production and social improvement could be obtained from an average area. The programme included introduction of improved agricultural techniques and animal husbandry practices and public health education.

Indian Village Services (IVS)
‡ Its founder was Mr. Arther T. Marsher of New York and Sri B.N. Gupta, who established it in 1945. The objective was to assist village people for developing individuals and local agencies. The technique adopted for the above objective were personal contacts, group discussions, use of visual aids, exhibition, tours, trips and drama. This was financially supported by contribution and donation.

Sarvodaya Programme
‡ This was started by Mahatma Gandhi and the objective was to raise the standard of living, scientific development of agriculture, promotion of cottage industries, spread of literacy, provide the medical and health facilities and development of village Panchayat. The main features were simplicity, nonviolence, sanctity of labour and reconstruction of human values.

Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP)
‡ This was popularly known as a package programme. This name is given because of the collective and simultaneous application of all improved practices. These practices were improved seeds, irrigation, fertilizers, plant protection, impliments, credit etc. ‡ The programme was started in July 1960 in 7 selected districts in various states. These were 1. Godavari (A.P.), 2. Shahabad (Bihar), 3. Tanjore (Madras), 4. Raipur (M.P.), 5. Ludhiana (Punjab), 6. Pali (Rajasthan), 7. Aligarh (U.P.)


Year 1964 1964-65 1966 1970-71 1974 1974 1974-75 1978-79 1979 1980 1983 1985-90 1989 1995 1996 2006

Full name of the Project Intensive Agriculture Area Programme Intensive Cattle Development Programme High Yield Variety Programme Small Farmers Development Agency Training and Visit Programme Krishi Vigyan Kendra Fish Farmers Development Agency Integrated Rural Development Programme Training for Rural Youth for Self Employment National Rural Employment Project National Agriculture Extension Programme Brackish water Fish Farmer Development Agency Jawahar Rojgar Yojna Prime Minister Rojgar Yojna Institute Village Linkage Programme Agricultural Technology Information Centres National Fisheries Development Board

Fisheries Extension ‡ Fisheries Development is closely related with the improvement in the ability of the fisherman¶s/fish farmer¶s understanding and adoption of the new technology. Farmers need to be provided with recent useful and practical information. Thus there is a need for any agency to interpret findings of research to fishermen/farmers and to inform problems of fishermen/farmers to research stations for solution. This gap is bridged by extension agencies. Fisheries extension bridges gap between fisheries research station and fishing/farming community by establishing suitable teaching organisations at various levels of administration. History of Fisheries Extension ‡ Royal Commission on agriculture (1928) noted that nothing was being done to develop country¶s fishing industry and recommended to Government that departments utility should not be judged from the amount of revenue it earned ‡ Grow more food campaign appointed in 1940 recommended an organized thrust for development of fisheries. Accordingly, Fisheries Experimental Station was set up at Barrackpore that is the present Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI).

‡ Training centres on fisheries were established in Barrackpore, Calcutta
& Mandapam in 1945. ‡ The first all India Fisheries Conference (1948) convened in New Delhi recognized the importance of fishing industry at the hands of the concerned officials of the Central and State Governments and did focus its attention on the need to develop Fisheries Industry. The idea of subsidizing some part of the capital expenditure, specially on mechanism, originated in this conference. ‡ All India Co-ordinated Research Project (AICRP) on the National demonstration 1964-65, launched with the aim that unless scientists could demonstrate what they have advocated, about any technology to the farmers otherwise the targeted results to increase production can not be expected. ‡ All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Composite Carp Culture was started in 1971 for demonstrating composite carp culture technology in different agroclimates. Production ranges between 3.5 and 6.3 tonnes/ha/year with a maximum of 10.5 tonnes/ha/year.

‡ The AICRP on air-Breathing Fish Culture was launched in 1971 in West
Bengal, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar an Assam to evolve appropriate technology for air-breathing fish culture in swapms, ponds, tanks and derelict water bodies. ‡ The Marine Product Export Development Authority (MPEDA) was established in 1972 to augment country¶s fisheries production and promote export of seafood. ‡The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) ± Rural Aquaculture Project was launched in 1975. The thrust was on demonstration of various aspects of aquaculture (carp production, carp seed production) by providing all necessary inputs and technical knowhow for improving rural economy. This was operated in 75 villages in West Bengal and Orissa covering 111 ponds. ‡ Operational Research Project (ORP) was launched in 1974-75 to disseminate proven technology in a cluster of villages and to identify constraints (technical, extension and administrative) thereof for rapid dissemination of technical know-how.

‡ Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK) (1974): KVK¶s are grass root level
institutions and designed to impart need-based and skill-oriented vocational training in agronomy, animal husbandry, horticulture, fisheries, home science etc. to farmers, farm-woman, unemployed youth and extension workers through work experience. ‡ World Bank aided Inland Fisheries Project (1979) provided credit assistance for construction of modern fish-seed hatcheries. In total, 63 hatcheries had come up with World Bank assistance in U.P., W.B., Bihar, M.P. and Orissa. ‡ Lab to Land Project (1979): The objective of this project was to transfer technology from research laboratories to farmer¶s field to improve economic conditions of small and marginal farmers. ‡ Fish Farmer¶s Development Agency (FFDA) (1974-75) was initiated by Govt. of India to popularize fish culture as an alternative means of employment generation and removal of property. Under this scheme, training was given to selected beneficiaries assisting in construction and renovation of water resources, arranging credit facilities from Nationalized banks, technical & input support and finally helping in marketing produce.

‡ Training and Visit System (1974): The project basically involved reorganisation of the already existing community development approach of extension by injecting an element of professionalism in extension service through a single-line of administration. ‡ National Agricultural Extension Project (NAEP) (1983): The basic objective of the NAEP was to abridge gap between well-developed research system and that of extension system, so that transfer of technology could take place at a faster rate. ‡ Brakishwater Fish-farmers¶ Development Agencies (BFDA) 1985-86: This was established with an objective to utilize countries vast brakishwater resources for fish/shrimp culture. BFDA provides technical, financial and extension support to shrimp farmers and it has made substantial contributions. ‡ Institute Village Linkge Programme (IVLP) (1996): This was initiated for assessment and refinement of technology in the light of bio-physical and socio-economic constraints.

‡ Agricultural Technology Information Centres (ATICs): This Project was started with the objective of µsingle window system¶ delivery of products, information and services to farmers and entrepreneurs. Located near the main entrance of the university/research institution, ATIC is rendering services much more effectively. All contents are made available in net having link with all other ATICs located elsewhere, thus making it possible to retrive information from any ATIC sitting in one place. ‡ Jai Vigyan Mission (2000) for ensuring household food and nutritional security through enhancing productivity of fisheries in tribal, backward and hilly areas is presently underway in Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Assam.

‡ The Objective of the extension is to raise standards of living of rural people by helping them using their land, water and live stock in the right way. Rural people are helped in planning and implementing their family and village plans for enhancing production. The specific objectives of fisheries extension are : ‡ To assist people to discover and analyse their problems & identify their felt needs. ‡ To develop leadership among people and help them in organising groups to solve their problems. ‡ To disseminate research information of economic and practical importance in a way people would be able to understand and use. ‡ To assist people in mobilising and utilising resources which they have and which they need from outside. ‡ To collect and transmit feedback information for solving management problems. Objectives give direction of movement. Before starting any extension programme, its objectives must be clearly stated, so that one knows where to go, and what is to be achieved.

Basic Principles
In the history of extension work, there are certain general principles of extension education, which have been applied and tested. Thus extension work is based upon these following 15 working principles, and the knowledge of principles is necessary for an extension worker. ‡ Grass-root approach principles: To be successful, extension work must start where people are ; after studying situation, needs interests and problems of the people. ‡ Co-operation and participation principle: Co-operation is the basis for existence of an extension service. People who have opportunity in participating in making decisions affecting their well-being are likely to act in accordance with their decision. ‡ Voluntary education: Extension is a system of voluntary education. ‡ Teaching methods: A suitable combination of extension methods leads to higher success in diffusion of innovations and technology. In addition to this, different methods must be used under different situations.

‡ Principle of local leaders: It may not be possible for an extension worker to visit all farmers individually. Much can be done through local leaders. A new agricultural practice will be adopted more easily if it is recommended by a recognized farmer. ‡Trained specialists: It is very difficult for an extension worker to know latest findings of research in all branches of science to deal with his day-to-day activity. There is a need to provide in every field to help extension workers. ‡ Satisfaction principle: One of the better sources of motivation is the satisfaction that human being derive from their own activity, especially the activity that is meaningful. When a person receives satisfaction as the result of his participation in an extension programme, he seeks further help from extension agency. ‡ Whole family approach principle: Extension is family directed. Woman and youth not only perform in much of the labour involved but also have a great influence in decision-making. Thus extension must be directed to family as a unit.

‡ Democratic approach: Extension operates through discussion and suggestion. Facts of a situation are shared with people. All possible alternative solutions are placed before the participants and ultimately people are left free to decide their own choice and line of action. ‡Cultural differences principle: Extension education should take in to consideration, culture, tradition, habits and customs of the local people. ‡ Learning by doing: Extension work is based on the principles of µlearning by doing¶ and µseeing is believing'. Farmers hesitate to believe and act on theories, or even facts until, until they see with their own eyes the proof of these in material form. That is why, demonstrations have a great significance in extension. ‡ Use of local resources: Extension worker should make full use of local resources, both human and material, viz. traditional media of communication in executing various programmes. ‡ Need-based programme principle: The problems and needs of the people should form the basis of extension work.

‡Aided self-help: Extension agencies should provide them the necessary aid to help in their efforts towards change. ‡ Evaluation principle: Continual evaluation is the map or chart to provide direction. It is, therefore necessary to undertake objective evaluation to find our strength and weakness of extension programme and thereby modify further action so as to increase speed of achievements in the desired direction.

Need of extension education:
New innovations are giving rise to new technologies to improve the production & development of the country is related with the ability of farmer¶s understanding and adoption of new technology by farmers. It is really difficult for all the farmers to visit research stations and to get and to get first hand information. So there is a need of some agency to interpret the finding of the research stations to the farmers and to carry problems of farmers to the research station that is µlab to land and land to lab¶ this gap is filled up by extension education.

Philosophy of Extension Education
Extension education is based on importance of individuals in the promotion of progress for the rural people and for the nation. The philosophy of extension can be expressed as follows: 1.It is an educational process to change attitude knowledge and skill of people. 2.Extension is working with the men and women young people, boys and girls to answer their needs and their wants. 3.Extension is teaching the people what to want and the way to satisfy their wants. 4.Extension is helping the people to help themselves. 5.This is learning by doing.

6.Extension is living relationship respect and trust for each other. 7.It is a two way channel. 8.Extension is a continuous education process.

Extension teaching methods
Extension teaching methods provide appropriate learning situation for extension workers to help people learn new ideas and practices. All methods have their own advantages and limitations. No single extension method is effective under all conditions, e.g. reading material is for those who can read, radio programme is for those who have radios, meeting for those who can attend, and demonstrations of recommended practices are for those who can come to demonstration sites. A suitable combination of extension methods leads to higher success in diffusion of innovations. Extension teaching methods are classified as follows: ‡ Individual contact methods: Farm & home visit; office call; Personnel letter; result demonstration. ‡ Group contact methods: Method demonstration; General meetings-lecture, symposium, panel; group discussion; Field trip/field days ‡ Mass contact methods: Publications ± bulletins, newsletter, leaflets, pamphlets; Circular letter; News article; Radio talk; Television programme, Campaign; Fairs

‡ Audio visual aids in extension teaching: Audio aids - these can be heard only, e.g. Radio, Audio cassettes/CD. Video aids ± these can be seen only; a)Non projected models (specimens, photographs, charts, posters, chalkboards) b)Projected ± Slides, film stripes. Audio-visual aids ± These can be heard as well as seen, e.g. film, television, drama, puppet show.

Extension teaching learning
Learning for adoption of any new practice is attained through the following principal steps: 1)Creating awareness of new idea. 2)Developing interest for consideration of ideas. 3)Creating desire for more learning. 4)Helping people to acquire conviction & accept new ideas and practices. 5)Ensuring action by learner. 6)Maintaining satisfaction.

Education produces changes in human behaviour, changes in what people know, in what they think, in what they can do and in what they can actually do (Fig):


Subject Matter


Physical Facilities

Teaching Material

Fig. Components of a learning situation

Principles of teaching and learning
Any change of behaviour which takes place as a result of experience may be called as learning. Principle of learning 1.Learning is facilitated when a new behavior contribute in satisfying felt needs on part of learner . 2.Learning should be meaningful. 3.Learning is facilitated when two or more senses are used at a time by a learner. Senses Learning % Taste 1 Touch 1.5 Smell 3.5 Hearing 11 Sight 83 4.Learners possess the ability to take 10% by reading, 20% by hearing, & 70% by talking and 90% by doing. 5.Learning is effected when learners participate actively.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Learning is effected when there is repetition by learner. Learning is effected when situation are real. Learning is effected when learners are ready to know. Learning is facilitated when learners are provided with knowledge of progress of learning. 10. Learning is facilitated when learners do self evaluation. 11. Learning ability is different for each Learner.

Effectiveness of methods of instruction: Method of instruction Telling when used alone Showing when used alone When both telling & showing Recall after 3 hours 70% 72% 85% Recall after 3 days 13% 20% 65%

Teaching is directing the learning process. It is the process of creating the situation that facilitate the learning process. Creating situation include providing activities, material and guidance needed by learner. The situation created should be such that they may help in bringing the desired changes in the behaviour of learner. Principles for consideration in selection of teaching methods: The more senses are involved in learning process, the greater is learning, maximum responsibility of learner then maximum will be learning. Types of teaching methods: 1.Trainees dominated method. a.Use of library b.Use of laboratory c.Use of questionnaires d.Survey e.Field trip f.Project method

1.Trainer¶s dominated method. a.Lecture method b.Case study c.Demonstration (Result demonstration and method demonstration) 3. Co-operative method a.Group discussion b.Seminar c.Symposium d.Panel e.Question and answer session 4. Fundamental method: It emphasize on development of skills through instruction rather than by lecture. It develop ability to do any work.

Principles of teaching
1.The teacher at first meeting should introduce what is to be covered. 2.The students should want to learn. 3.The teacher should keep friendly and informal environment so that learners can ask things they do not follow. 4.The physical conditions should be friendly & appropriate. 5.The teacher should involve learners so that they participate and accept some responsibilities for learning process.

6.The teacher should prepare well before the class and should keep his/her teaching aid handy and should be enthusiastic about teaching. 7.The method of instruction should be varied and appropriate.

Scope of Extension
The scope of extension education includes all the activities directed towards the development of rural people. The extension service must have dynamic programme keeping pace with the constantly changing conditions. 1.To increase efficiency in agriculture production. 2.To increase efficiency in marketing, distribution and utilization. 3.Conservation, development and use of natural resources. 4.Management on the family and in home. 5.Family living.

6.Youth development. 7.Leadership. 8.Cultural development and rural development (C D & R D). 9.Public affairs.

Concept of Extension
Extension education tries to develop the social behaviour of the people. It also tries to bring out cultural development. The behaviour of individual influenced and directed by culture. The extension education helps in bringing the gap created by the cultural lag by advising means of adjustment in the new environment. Extension education is a teaching (non formal) and learning process. It tries to bring out 3 types of changes in human behaviour. 1.Changes in knowledge and things known. 2.Changes in things skills and things done. 3.Changes in attitude or things felt.

Changes in knowledge Changes in skill Changes in attitude

Development of individual

Development of society or community

Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK)
KVK¶s are district level farm science centre established by ICAR as innovative institutions for imparting vocational training to the practicing farmers and field level extension functionaries. A no. of extension education programme such as National Demonstration Project, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Lab to Land Programme and Operational Research Project were started and play an important role in bringing research scientists face to face with farmers. The scientists help to transfer the technology developed by them directly to the farmers field and also obtain necessary feed back for further refinement of the technology. These programmes greatly contributed towards the increase of agricultural productivity in the country. First KVK was started at Pondichery. The main aim of KVK is to reduce the time length between generation of technology at Research Institution and its transfer to the farmers for increasing productivity and income from agriculture & allied sectors on a sustainable basis.

In order to achieve this goal following four mandates are in the design of KVK: ‡Conducting on farm testing for identifying the technology in terms of location specific sustainable land use system. ‡Organising training to update the extension personnel with emerging advances in agricultural research on regular basis. ‡Organise short and long term vocational training courses in agricultural and other fields for the farmers and rural youth with the emphasis on learning by doing for higher production on farm and generating self employment. ‡Organise front line demonstration on various crops to generate production data and feed back information.

Training programmes by KVK¶s: The courses engaged at KVK¶s are of short duration (1-2 or 3 months) and only field level extension staff like village level workers are trained at KVKs. The following types of training programmes can be provided such as: ‡Cultivation of local crops. ‡Application of package of practices. ‡Farm planning and plant protection. ‡Care and feeding of animals. ‡Poultry keeping. ‡Irrigation and water control. ‡Nutrition cooking and hygiene. ‡Food processing and cooking. ‡Marketing and agricultural projects. ‡Catching and marketing of fish. ‡Preparation of fishery byproducts etc.

‡ The success of these KVK¶s is ensured if progress are made. They should involve the local community in skills according to stages of development in agriculture and density of population. ‡ To improve socio-economic condition for better living standard of the members, woman play an important role in agricultural production particularly in the postharvest operation. Therefore, woman¶s training programme to increase their efficiency in agricultural operation and to improve the family living are also important. ‡ The training programmes should be need based courses of few week duration or for few months or may be for longer duration of 1-2 years. There may be part-time or full-time educational programme.

Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA): ‡ RRA is more commonly described as a systematic but semi-structured activity
out in the field by a multidisciplinary team and is designed to obtain new information and to formulate new hypotheses about rural life. A central characteristic of RRA is that its research teams are multidisciplinary. ‡ Beyond that, the distinction between RRA and other research methodologies dependents upon its multidisciplinary approach and the particular combination of tools that in employs. ‡ A core concept of RRA is that research should be carried out not by individuals, but by a team comprised of members drawn from a variety of appropriate disciplines. Such teams are intended to be comprised of some members with relevant technical backgrounds and others with social science skills, including marketing research skills. ‡ In this way, it is thought that the varying perspectives of RRA research team members will provide a more balanced picture. ‡ Rapid does not mean one would get the information in a day or two but it may take weeks together.

The techniques of RRA include: · interview and question design techniques for individual, household and key informant interviews · methods of cross-checking information from different sources · sampling techniques that can be adapted to a particular objective · methods of obtaining quantitative data in a short time frame · group interview techniques, including focus-group interviewing · methods of direct observation at site level, and · use of secondary data sources.

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA):
‡ Participatory rural appraisal evolved from rapid rural appraisal (RRA)-a set of informal techniques used by development practitioners in rural areas to collect and analyze data. Rapid rural appraisal developed in the 1970s and 1980s in response to the perceived problems of outsiders missing or miscommunicating with local people in the context of development work. ‡ In PRA, data collection and analysis are undertaken by local people, with outsiders facilitating rather than controlling. ‡ Chamber and Blackburn (1996) state that "PRA can be described as a family of approaches, methods and behaviours that enable people to express and analyse the realities of their lives and conditions, to plan themselves what action to take, and to monitor and evaluate the results´. ‡ Its methods have evolved from Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA). The difference is that PRA emphasises processes which empower local people, whereas RRA is mainly seen as a means for outsiders to gather information.

‡ PRA is generally a continuing participatory process, unlike RRA which is more a one-off process. ‡ PRA supports the direct participation of communities, with rural people themselves becoming the main investigators and analysts. ‡ Rural people set the priorities; determine needs; select and train community workers; collect, document, and analyse data; and plan and implement solutions based on their findings. ‡ Actions stemming from this research tend to serve the local community. Outsiders are there to facilitate the process but do not direct it. ‡ PRA uses group animation and exercises to facilitate information sharing, analysis, and action among stakeholders.

Derived from latin word ³Communis´ means Common ‡ In Communication, thoughts, ideas etc. are exchanged. ‡ According to Rogers, E.M. & Shoemaker, F.F. (1971) ³Communication is the process by which messages are transferred from a source to receiver´. ‡ According to Van den Ban & Hawkins (1988) ³Communication is the process of sending and receiving message through channels which establishes common meaning between a source and a receiver´. ‡ According to Leagans, J.P. (1961) ³Communication is the process by which two or more people exchange ideas, facts, feelings or impressions in which each gains a common understanding of the meanings and use of messages´. In essence, is the act of getting a sender and receiver tuned together for a message or a series of messages.

‡ According to Dhama and Bhatnagar (1997) ³Communication is the process of social interaction i.e. in a communication situation two or more individuals interacts´. ‡ According to Jons Merrit B. (1978) ³Communication is the process by which the thoughts and feelings of one person is conveyed by verbal and non-verbal symbols to one or more persons´.

Communication Process
‡ ³Communication means the movement of knowledge to people in such ways that they act on that knowledge to achieve some useful results´. ‡ This result may range all the way from a small improvement in doing some productive task, to the generation of a sense of national unity and strength in a country. ‡ Communication in this sense includes the whole learning process. Good communication therefore, is the essence of good extension teaching. One can not teach if he can not communicate.

Meaning & Importance
‡ The ability to influence others is closely linked with ability to communicate ideas. The essence of learning is understanding new ideas in relation to recognized problems. ‡ For two or more people to engage in a common, cooperative effort, they must be able to communicate with each other. To strive common goals, they must have a body of common knowledge and ideas. ‡ Diffusing knowledge is a relatively easy task but getting people to understand, accept and apply is the difficult one. ‡Good communication does not consist merely of giving orders, or to imparting knowledge, but of creating understanding and helping people make use of that knowledge. ‡Progress in the future will stem largely from better technology and greater skill in communicating it to others. ‡ Economic and social change will occur only when staff workers have effectively communicated useful ideas to large number of people.

Models of communication
Speech Audience / Receiver 1. According to Aristotle: Speaker 2. According to Shanan C. & Weaver W.C. (1949): S S D T R Source Transmitter Signal Receiver Destination 3. According to Berlo D.K. (1960): S M D E D Source Encoder Message Decoder Destination 4. According to Schram W. (1961): S S D E D Source Encoder Signal Decoder Destination 5. According to Leagan J.P. (1963): Comminicator Treatment Message Channel of message


Models of communication
6. According to Pogers E.M. & Shoemaker (1971): Source Message Encoder Channel 7. Extension model of communication system: Fundamental research Applied / Adaptive Communicator Message Feed back Audience response Channel Audience Receiver Effect

Treatment of message

Basic Functions of Communication
Communication has four basic functions 1. Information Function: The basic requirement of adapting and adjusting oneself to the environment is information. There must be some information about what is going on in the environment which concerns the people. The getting or giving of information underlies all communication functions, either directly or indirectly. 2. Command or instructive function: Those who are hierarchically superior, in the family, society or organization, often initiate communication either for the purpose of information their sub-ordinates or for the purpose of telling them, what to do, how to do, when to do etc. The command and instructive functions or communication are more observable in formal organizations than in informal organizations. 3. Influence or Persuasive Function: According to Berlo (1960), the sole purpose of communication is to influence people. Persuasive function of communication i.e. to induce people, is extremely important for extension in changing their behaviour in the desirable direction. 4. Integrative function: A major function of communication is integration or of continuously off setting any disintegration at the interpersonal or at the organizational level. This helps to maintain individual, societal or organizational stability and identity.

Communication elements
1. Communicator 2. Message 3. Channel 4. Treatment of message 5. Audience/Receiver 6. Audience response Elements mean those components which are involved in the process of communication under different set of communication. Communication elements depends upon the situation. 1. Communicator: Communicator may be one person or group of person or corporate body or an organization which may send information to its audience through different channels. Communicator can be effective or non-effective depending upon knowledge, communication skill, social system, cultural system and attitudes.

Communication elements
2. Message: The recommendation from the research or technology constitute the content or subject matter. The message information which are relevant to a particular set of audience constitute the message otherwise for them they are ³noise´. A good message should clearly state that what to do, when to do and what would be result. 3. Channel: Channel constitute the medium through which information flows from a sender to one or more person, face-to-face, word-ofmouth is the simplest and yet one of the most widely used and effective means of communication particularly for the developing countries. 4. Treatment of message: Treatment means the way a message is handled, dealt with, so that the information gets across to the audience. The purpose of treatment is to make the message clear, understandable and realistic to the audience. It depend to a great extent on choice of the channel (meeting, published in folder or broadcast) and the nature of audience (literacy, socio-economic status etc.)

5. Audience / receiver: It is the target of communication function. An audience may consist of single person or number of persons. It may comprises man woman and youth. The communicator must know the target, their needs, interests, resources, facilities, constraints and even their approximate number and location. The audience has also 5 attributes as followsa. Knowledge. b. Communication skill. c. Attitude. d. Understanding of social system. e. Cultural system. 6. Audience response: The response of audience is ultimate objective and is the goal of any communication function. It may be in the form of some kind of action mental or physical. The possible kind of response to the message are almost infinite. The response may be in the form of messagea. Understanding Vs knowledge b. Remembering Vs Forgetting c. Mental Vs Physical d. Right Vs Wrong e. Acceptance Vs Rejection

6. Audience response i. Understanding versus knowledge: People usually do not act on facts alone, but only when understanding of facts is gained. Understanding is attained only when one is able to attach meaning of facts, see the relationship of facts to each other and to the problem. Communication must promote understanding. ii. Acceptance versus rejection: Audience response may be either way. Communication should lead to understanding and acceptance of the idea. iii. Remembering versus forgetting: When opportunity for action is not immediately available or action is delayed, the message may be forgotten. Transmitting to the right message to the right people at right time is often a crucial factor in successful communication. iv. Mental versus physical action: Changes in the minds of people must always precede changes in the action by hands. People should not only understand and accept the message but shall also act on it: and v. Right versus wrong: The goal of communication is to promote desirable action by the audience as specified in the objective. If the response of the audience is in line with the objective, it is assumed to be right action. However, µnoise¶ may prevent in getting the desired response from the audience.

Feed back
Extension communication is never complete without feedback information. FEEDBACK means carrying some significant responses of the audience back to the communicator. Communication work is not an end in itself. The extension agent should know what has happened to the audience after the message has reached them. Feedback has the following characteristicsi. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Feedback is source oriented. Feedback varies in different communication situations. Feedback affects the source or communicator. Feedback exerts control over future messages. Feedback affects communication fidelity (approving) and Feedback maintains the stability and equilibrium of a communication system.

Feed back
Feedback should be a continuous process as the audience and communicators are neither always the same persons, nor they are interacting in the same situation. The extension agent shall take steps to analyze the responses of the audience, which may be positive, negative or no response. If there has been no response or negative response to a message, the extension agent shall find out reasons for the same. If it pertains to research, the problem should be referred as feedback information to research, to find out solution for the same. If the problem does not relate to research, the extension agent shall find out whether the message has been relevant to the audience, or whether the channel, treatment or audio-visual aids has been appropriately used. If not, corrective steps should be taken without any loss of time.

Feed back
If there has been a favourable response to the message by the audience, the extension agent shall find what next is to be done to reinforce the learning already made by the farmers. At this stage, supply of critical inputs and services including credit are important.

Adequate and corrective feed back are essential for purposeful communication. Feedback information provides the communicator an opportunity to take corrective steps in communication work, helps in identifying subsequent activities, and acts as a path finder for needbased research.

Adoption and diffusion of innovations
Adoption is a decision to make full use of an innovation as the best course of action available. Diffusion if the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. It is a special type of communication, in that messages are concerned with new ideas. It is this newness of the idea in the message content of communication that gives diffusion its special character. An innovation is an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. Perception is an activity through which an individual becomes aware of objects around oneself and of events taking place. The technologies, practices developed through research are innovations. These may be new varieties of crops and plants, new breeds of livestock, new chemicals and medicines, new technique of doing things etc. Farmers themselves may develop some new practices which are also innovations.

The Adoption Process
Ryan and Gross (1943), were probably the first to recognize that the adoption of a new idea consisted of stages. They distinguished between µawareness¶ of hybrid seed corn, µconviction¶ of its usefulness, trial µacceptance¶ and µcomplete adoption¶ of the innovation. Wilkening (1953), described the adoption of an innovation as a process composed of learning, deciding and acting over a period of time. He identified four adoption stages - awareness, obtaining information, conviction & trial, and adoption. Adoption is essentially a decision making process. According to Johnson and Haver (1955), decision making involves the following steps: Observing the problem, Making analysis of it, Deciding the available courses of action, Taking one course, and Accepting the consequences of the decision.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The North Central Rural Sociology Subcommittee for the study of Diffusion of Farm Practices (1955), identified five stages of the adoption process, which received world-wide attention. These arei.Awareness ii. Interest iii. evaluation iv. trial and v. adoption According to them adoption is not an instantaneous act. It is a process that occurs over a period of time and consists of a series of actions. 1.Awareness stage: The individual learns of the existence of the new idea but lacks information about it. 2.Interest stage: The individual develops interest in the innovation and seeks additional information about it. 3.Evaluation stage: The individual makes mental application of the new idea to the present and anticipated future situations and decides whether of not to try it. 4.Trail stage: The individual actually applies the new idea on a small scale in order to determine its utility in own situation. 5.Adoption stage: The individual uses the new idea continuously on a full scale. Trial may be considered as the practical evaluation of an innovation.

Adopters categories:
All individual in a social system don't adopt an innovation at the same time. Rather, they adopt in a ordered time sequence, and they may be classified into adopter categories on the basis of when they first begin using a new idea. In technology transfer programme, it is of great practical utility for the extension agents to identify the individuals who are likely to adopt innovations early and who may lag behind. The adoption of an innovation over time follows a normal, bell-shaped curve when plotted over time on a frequency basis. If the cumulative number of adopters is plotted, it results in an S-shaped curve.

The S-shaped curve rises slowly at first when there are few adopters in a time period, accelerates to a maximum when about half of the individuals in the system have adopters and then increase at a gradually slower rate as the few remaining individuals finally adopt. Each adoption in the social system is in a sense equivalent to a learning trial by an individual.

The distribution of adopters over time closely approaches normality, and may be explained by the statistical concept of normal curve (Fig.). The distribution of the adopters may be partitioned into five adopters categories by using the mean and standard deviation. The area lying to the left of the mean time of adoption minus two standard deviations includes 2.5 percent of the individuals who are first to adopt and innovation and are known as innovators.

Important characteristics of the adopters categories are:
1. Innovators: They are venturesome and first to adopt a new idea, much ahead of others members in the community. They are generally very few in number. They may deviate from the social norm and may be viewed as deviants by others. They are mentally alert, have good contact with cosmopolite sources of information and actively seek new ideas. The innovators are oriented to develop good contact with the research station and high level extension functionaries. 2. Early adopters: They are localite and are a more integrated part of the community. Because early adopters are too far ahead, the average members of the community can comprehend their activities relating to adoption of the innovation. They have opinion leadership and potential adopters look to them for advice and information about the innovation. They don't test untried ideas, but quickest to use tried ideas in their own situations. 3. Early majority: They adopt new ideas just before the average member of the community. They are neither very early not relatively late to adopt an innovation. They are deliberate and take longer time to make decision to adopt, in comparison to the innovators and early adopters. They have less contact with the cosmopolite sources of information.

4. Late majority: They are cautious and skeptical and adopt new ideas just after the average members of the community. They adopt mainly because people have already adopted the innovation and getting the benefit out of it. They have low level of education, low level of participation and depend mostly on localite sources of information. 5. Laggards: The are the traditional and the last to adopt an innovation. By the time the laggards finally adopt an innovation, it may already have been superseded by a more recent idea which the innovators are already using. They are most localite and primarily interact with those who have traditional values. They tend to be frankly suspicious of innovations, innovators and extension agents. A fast moving world is shocking to them and they find it difficult to adjust with it. They are generally resource-poor people with little surplus to invest in their production enterprise.
Adoption behaviour is many a times interpreted in terms of ability of the farmers to adopt a new technology. This interpretation may not be wholly correct as it does not take into account the lapses of research and extension. Technologies, for the development and dissemination of which there have been very little dialogue with the farmers, are less likely to be adopted, particularly by the resource-poor farmers.

Training and education: Training means to educate a person so as to be fitted, qualified and proficient in doing some job. For an extension worker training include education which aim at bringing a desirable change in behaviour of trainee. This change requires a change in his knowledge, skill, attitude, value, believe and understanding so that he fits in his job and become qualified and proficient in communicating the desirable knowledge to his client system such as for farmers or animal breeders etc. Training has a characteristics of: 1.Concern with skill. 2.Concern with whole learning. 3.Concern with practice. 4.Concern with experimentation.

Soft skills are personal attributes (a quality or characteristic that someone has) that enhance an individual's interactions, job performance and career prospects. Unlike hard skills, which tend to be specific to a certain type of task or activity, soft skills are broadly applicable. Soft skills are sometimes broken down into Personal attributes, such as: ‡ Optimism ‡ Responsibility ‡ A sense of humor ‡ Integrity ‡ Time-management ‡ Motivation and Interpersonal (relationships between people) abilities such as: ‡ Empathy (the ability to share someone else's feelings or experiences) ‡ Leadership ‡ Communication ‡ Good manners ‡ Sociability ‡ The ability to teach

Types of training for extension worker: The training of the extension worker can be classified as follows: 1. Pre-service training: This is a training which extension worker receives before joining the actual job. This includes his education at high school level or higher secondary school or general college or professional colleges from where the extension worker receive degree and specific training as in the case of village level workers at VLW training centres etc. 2. In-service training: This is for improving the ability of extension worker or keeping him updated for latest knowledge or giving him some special training in new job, he is required to do. This type of training may be of different type such as: a. Orienting the new job workers offer to join the job or orienting an old worker with new job which is required to do. b. Introduction training. c. Job training. d. Short-range courses. e. Periodical meetings, conferences, seminar, workshop etc.

Principles of extension training: Some of the basic principles of training are1. Motivation is basic for good training. A good trainer must start his work by creating a feeling of need in the trainees. Since the actual willingness and desire to learn come from within the person. 2. Good training requires specific and clearly defined objectives. The different aspects of the training objectives namely - The person to be trained, the behaviour changes to be developed in them must be spelled out in the training objective. 3. Good training must accomplish certain types of educational changes in relation to subject matter learn. These changes may be the change in knowledge, changes in skills or ability to do something including manual of physical skills, changes in attitude, changes in interest and changes in understanding. 4. Good training requires effective learning situations which include five major elements such as teacher, learner, subject matter, teaching aids and facilities. 5. Good training should provide effective learning experiences to the trainees.

6. Good training requires a combination of training techniques. Training should involve appropriate activities engaging maximum number of senses and a combination such as oral, visual, audio-visual or by doing the task. 7. Training should be challenging and satisfying. To be challenging subject matter must be presented in the form of problems for which trainees should be encouraged to find a solution. 8. Good training requires careful evaluation of results. Need for trainingTraining improves a persons skill, his power of intelligence and develops in him the desired attitude and values required for his work. Training helps a new entrant to acquire occupational work skills and the latest knowledge, make him familiar with the objectives of organization to which he belongs and helps to make his potential contribution in promoting goals of his organization. Training also make up for any deficiency in the new recruits and maintains the moral of staff. Training has special significance in the field of agriculture development and community development.

Since the objective of the programs is to train rural people to solve most of their problems individually or in groups. The success of extension worker can be judged by extent to which he has been able to make village people self dependent in getting them to do things by themselves without relying on outside help. Training and visit programme (T & V programme) T & V system was introduced in year 1974 in Rajasthan Cannal area in Rajasthan and Chambal command area in M.P. The main emphasis of T&V programme is on systematic time bound programme of training based on intensive field visit by the extension worker under close supervision. The working objective of system are as follows1. Co-ordinating research, training and extension activities effectively. 2. To make the research more effective according to local need and situation. 3. To evolve an intensive training programme on systematic bases for extension workers and farmers & ensure effective supervision and technical support. The above objectives can be achieved by re-organization of extension in a manner so that VEW (village extension worker) is able to meet the farmers with needed frequency and required data.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

The visit is to be used for identifying the problems and to solve them. In order to allow VEW to work intensively his area of operation is reduced considerably. The extension workers are expected to devote their time exclusively to the professional agricultural extension and Extension personnel don¶t have any direct responsibility for arranging the supply of inputs.

Basic assumption of T & V programme: T & V system is based on assumption that it is rather impossible to maintain regular contact with most of the farmers directly which is neither necessarily not desirable hence selected messages have to be focused mainly on selected compact farmers who will assist in spreading the new practices to most of the farmers in their area very quickly. It is assumed that contact farmers must be willing to try out the new practices recommended by extension worker and must be prepared to have other farmers visit their fields.

Training Centers in Fisheries Sector

Deptt. of Agricultural Research & Education (DARE)

Deptt. of Animal Husbandry & Dairying (DAHD)
Fisheries Division

Fisheries Colleges

Research Institutes
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ CMFRI CICFRI CIFT CIFE NBFGR CIFA CIBA DCFR ‡ IFP ‡ CIFNET (Fisheries Nautical & Engineering Training) ‡ CICEF (Coastal-Engineering for Fishery, Bangalore) ‡ FSI ‡ FISHERIES DEPTT. ‡ SPONSORED SCHEMES

Fisheries Research and Education under ICAR is supported by:  1 National Institute (Deemed University) 
5  1  1  13 Resources Specific Research Institutes National Research Centre National Bureau Fishery Colleges

Fisheries Research under five major programmes covering eight Plan Schemes: PROGRAMMES
1. 2. Capture Fisheries Culture Fisheries


3. 4. 5.

Harvest & Post Harvest Technology Fish Genetic Resources Fisheries Education

Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDA)
The main objectives of the scheme are: i) Optimization of fish production and productivity; ii) Generation of employment; iii) Improving socio-economic conditions of fishers; and iv) Increasing per capita availability and consumption of fish. 429 FFDA have already been established to provide a package of technical, financial and extension support to fish farmers. National average productivity from FFDA ponds is 2200 kg/ha/annum and the agencies are to be continued to cover more areas under scientific culture & to train fish farmers. The pattern of assistance on developmental activities will be shared on 75:25 basis by the Centre and the State in respect of all programmes. In respect of two new programmes viz. Aquatic Quarantine and Inspection Unit and Network of Diagnostic Laboratories for Aquatic Animal Health, 100% expenditure will be borne by the Centre.

Development of Freshwater Aquaculture (FFDAs) - Ongoing Component Description of Items 1. Construction of new ponds Rate Rs.2.00 lakh/ha in the plain areas. Subsidy @ 20% with a ceiling of Rs. 40,000/ha for all farmers except SCs/STs for whom it will be Rs.50,000/ha (25%) Rs.3.0 lakh/ha in the hill States/Districts and North-Eastern region. Subsidy @ 20% with a ceiling of Rs.60,000/ha for all farmers except SCs/STs for whom it will be Rs.75,000/ha (25%). Rs. 60,000/ha. Subsidy @ 20% with a ceiling of Rs.12,000/ha for all farmers except SCs/STs for whom it will be Rs.15,000/ha (25%). a) Finfish Culture - Rs.30,000/ha Subsidy @ 20% with a ceiling of Rs.6,000/ha for all farmers except SCs/STs for whom it will be Rs.7,500/ha (25%) b) Freshwater prawn culture Unit cost Rs. 1.20 lakh per ha. Subsidy @ 20% with a ceiling of Rs.24,000/- per ha

2. Reclamation/Renovation of ponds/tanks

3. Cost of inputs

Development of Freshwater Aquaculture (FFDAs) - Ongoing Component Description of Items Rate

Rs.20,000/unit of 100 sq. meters. The above cost is inclusive of Rs.4,000 towards inputs. Subsidy @ 20% with a ceiling of Rs.4,000/4. Running Water fish culture in hilly unit for all farmers except SCs/STs for whom it areas as well as in plain areas will be Rs.5,000/unit (25%). Ceiling of 3 units for each farmer in terms of admissibility of grant. 5. Integrated Fish Farming Rs.80,000/ha. Subsidy @ 20% with a ceiling of Rs.16,000/ha for all farmers except SCs/STs for whom it will be Rs.20,000/ha (25%). Rs.50,000/unit of two 1hp aerators/one 5hp diesel pump. Subsidy @ 25% with a ceiling of Rs.12,500/for each set of aerators/pump for all categories of farmers who have reached a level of production of 3000 kg/ha/year. Maximum of two 1hp aerators/one 5hp diesel pump for one hectare water area will be admissible.

6. Aerators/Pumps

Development of Freshwater Aquaculture (FFDAs) - Ongoing Component Description of Items Rate

7. Freshwater Fish Seed Hatchery

Rs.8 lakh for a fish seed hatchery with 10 million (fry) capacity for the plain areas and Rs.12 lakh for same capacity in the hill States/Districts and NE Region. Subsidy @ 10% with a ceiling of Rs.80,000/- and Rs.1.20 lakhs in the plain and hilly areas respectively to entrepreneurs only. Small Units - Unit cost is Rs.5 lakh with a capacity of 1.2 quintals /day. The subsidy would be @ 20% with a ceiling of Rs. 1 lakh per unit to entrepreneurs. Stipend @ Rs.100/- per day during training period of 10 days and a lump sum of Rs.100/- towards travel expenses/field visits.

8. Fish Feed Units

9. Training of fish farmers

Development of Freshwater Aquaculture (FFDAs) - Ongoing Component Description of Items Rate (i)Unit cost is Rs.30 lakhs for a large freshwater prawn hatchery with a minimum capacity of 25 million PL/year. This would be one time grant to the States for establishment of hatchery at State level. (ii)Unit cost is Rs.8 lakhs for a small hatchery of 5-10 million PL/Year capacity. Subsidy @ 20% with a ceiling of Rs.1.60 lakhs to entrepreneurs as one time grant. Unit cost is Rs.30 lakhs (Rs.25 lakh for the construction of building and Rs.5 lakh for equipment, glassware & chemicals, etc.). This would be one time grant to the States. Operational and other recurring cost would be met by the respective States.

10. Establishment of freshwater prawn seed hatchery

11. Establishment of laboratories at State level for water quality and fish health investigations

Unit cost of each soil and water testing kit is 12. Provision of soil and water Rs.30,000. The kits are sanctioned once to testing kits to each FFDA each FFDA as one time grant.

Development of Freshwater Aquaculture (FFDAs) - Ongoing Component Description of Items 13. Setting up of integrated units, including hatcheries for ornamental fishes Rate Unit cost is Rs.15 lakhs which includes hatchery of 5-10 million (fry) capacity. Subsidy @ 10% with a maximum ceiling of Rs.1.50 lakh to all categories of fish farmers.

This will be applicable only for the hill States/Districts and North-Eastern Region. 14. Transportation of fish/prawn seed Subsidy @ Rs.20 for 1000 fry transported to all FFDAs. Not applicable to individual fish farmer. 15. Purchase of Vehicles 50% cost of vehicle for each new FFDA and 50% cost for the replaced vehicle (second vehicle).

- Expenditure on all items above except purchase of vehicles (item 15) will be shared on 75:25 basis between Government of India and States. - The above assistance under FFDA programme is available only once to a beneficiary. - Subsidy for the construction of new ponds and tanks, reclamation/renovation of ponds/tanks and first year inputs to an individual beneficiary up to 5 ha is available with or without institutional finance in the plain areas and 1.0 ha in the hill States/Districts on pro-rata basis.

Programme Planning:
‡ According to Kelsey and Hearne (1967), an Extension Programme is a statement of situation, objectives, problems and solutions. It is relatively permanent but requires constant revision. It forms the basis for extension plans. ‡ Planning is a process which involves studying the past and present in order to forecast the future and in the light of that forecast determining the goals to be achieved and what must be done to reach them. Programme planning is a decision making process involving critical analysis of the existing situation and the problems, evaluation of the various alternatives to solve these problems and the selection of the relevant ones, giving necessary priorities based upon local needs and resources by the cooperative efforts of the people both official and non-official with a view to facilitate the individual and community growth and development. Ex- In village ponds, Integrated fish farming goals can be finalized after checking up cultural compatibility with the farmers; technical compatibility with the scientists and financial compatibility with the Banks & Govt. Departments.

Objectives and needs of having programme:
The general objective of having an extension programme is to influence people to make changes in their way of life and in making a living. The assumption is that there is need for change and if people are not aware, it is necessary to make them aware of this; and to develop their needs. Kelsey and Hearne (1967) gave the reasons for having a programme that may be specifically stated as follows.
1.To ensure careful consideration of what is to be done and why. 2.To furnish a guide against which to judge all new proposals. 3.To establish objectives toward which progress can be measured and evaluated. 4.To have a means of choosing the important (deep rooted) from incidental (minor, less important) problems and the permanent from the temporary changes. 5.To develop a common understanding about the means and ends between various functionaries and organizations. 6.To ensure continuity during changes in personnel. 7.To help develop leadership. 8.To avoid waste of time and money and promote efficiency. 9.To justify expenditure and to ensure flow of funds. 10.To have available in written form a statement for public use.

Principles of Extension Programme Planning:
Extension programmes have the definite purpose of improving rural life through individual, group and community action. Extension programme planning has certain principles which hold good irrespective of the nature of the clientele and the enterprises they may be pursuing. 1.Should be based on an analysis of the past experiences, present situation and future needs. 2.Should have clear and significant objectives which could satisfy important needs of the people. 3.Should fix up priority on the basis of available resources and time. 4.Should clearly indicate the availability and utilization of resources. 5.Should have a general agreement at various levels. 6.Should involve people at the local level. 7.Should involve relevant institutions and organizations. 8.Should have definite plan of work. 9.Should provide for evaluation of results and consideration of programme. 10.Should provide for equitable distribution of benefits amongst the members of the community.

Steps in Extension Programme Planning

Rural Sociology
is the science of human relationships. Rural sociology involves the study of human relationships in rural situations. Society is a group of people who have lived together long enough, sharing common values and general interests, to be considered as a social unit. Rural societies are found in the rural areas like villages and urban societies in the urban areas like towns, cities, industrial and commercial centres.
‡ Sociology

Rural and Urban Society:
‡ Rural societies differ from urban societies in a number of ways. The predominant characteristics of the rural and urban societies are as follows
S.No 1. Occupation Rural Society Agriculture Neighbors generally engaged in diverse occupation Open air, close to nature. Mostly related with soil, water plant & animal life Very important Require wide range of skills Family as work unit more common Joint and Extended family Small Urban Society Non-agriculture Neighbors generally engaged in diverse occupation Enclosed, away from nature. Most related with trade, commerce industry, office work & the like Not so important Require specialized skills Individuals generally form work units Small, nuclear family Medium to large


Work Environment

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Weather & Season Skills Work unit Type of family Size of community

S.No 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Density of population Homogeneity/ hetergeneity Social interaction Institution

Rural Society Low Relatively homogeneous Few and personal Small and simple

Urban Society High Relatively heterogeneous Numerous & mostly impersonal Large and complex High

Mobility-social, Low occupational and physical Infrastructure Modern home amenities Mass media participation Value system

Little to moderately Well developed developed Few Low Generally sacred Many High Generally secular

Rural welfare and its agency
The word welfare has two different uses one general and other specific. In the general sense it refers to condition of society in terms of its well being such as state of prosperity help, security on happiness in the specific sense it refers to those act procedure and organization in the society which are intended to assist individual or group out of trouble. It involve correction of social illness states of poverty, unemployment, family disorganization, crime etc. The objective of social welfare institution to provide effective means by which risk of life can be shared by community and individuals. Type of welfare institutions: Welfare agency may be classified as public or private and generalized or specialized. The private institution is the result of voluntary association of people having desire and means to contribute the solution of social problem such as institution is characterized by the state and incorporated as a non profit organization it has a membership composed of individual who synthesize with its objective and to whom its officers are responsible. The officers are board of directors who employ a staff of professional workers. Funds for its purpose are derived mainly from free will contribution of person or group in the community.

The public agency is an aspect of government and is similar in its design to the public school or public library. Typically at the local level of government there is a welfare board in addition there is state board of public welfare which decide policies governing the expenditure of state fund and act as general coordinator of country welfare board activities. The general welfare agency is designed to cover more than 1 for of social need i.e. it may not only treat the cases in need of old age assistance but also those of child or mother dependency, the blind or those temporary in the need of help. The specialized institutions are those which are devoted to the treatment of special cases.

Level of family living: The phrase level of living is more meaningful to use in reference to actual condition the status of family from standard point of view is related to degree of satisfaction, social adjustment and psychological well being of family members.

Factors influencing the level of living
1.Income: The level of living as measured in terms of such item as housing, food, clothing and so on is definitely related to the income of family. The difference in proportion of income spent for various items between two groups are significant. First to be noted is higher proportion of expenditure of the lower income group which went for food, housing clothing. The higher income groups spent more for furnishing transportation, medical care, gift and welfare. It is quite evident therefore that the variation in the amount of income is associated with modification in the pattern of family living. 2. Formal education: the level of living is not entirely a function of economic factor. The amount of formal education has been found to be definitely associated with income and with the level of living. Those with more education are spending more money and a large proportion of it for less immediate need and the families are living in more valuable and better furnished houses. Formal education appear to create wants for items which are associated with higher living level.

Factors influencing the level of living
3. Pattern of settlement: Another factor which has considerable influence in deterring level of living in the scattered pattern of farm settlement. Their wide dispersion over the country wide makes difficult the attainment by the farm family of the comforts of the electricity, gas, running water & sewage disposal 4. Life cycle of the family: The life of a particular family is determined by stages of its life cycle. Unlike most of the other social institution or associations the family has inevitable life cycle. Inevitable because it is associated with biological factor of ageing in the human being. The family is subjected to biological process which control the living organisms. Man & woman marry in their youth stages, have children, grow old and die. The children grow themselves marry, have children, grow old. Thus the process repeated over and over. Individual associations come and go only the form persist. The four stages of family can be given as: 1.Married couples starting independent existence. 2.Couple with one or more children. 3.Couple with one or more adult self supporting child. 4.Couple becoming old, some children marry, separate.

Constraints to Transfer of Aquaculture Technologies As perceived by farmers
Socio-economic constraints High cost of feed: feed constitutes around 50-60% of the total variable cost in fish farming. Low-cost technology using appropriate combination of locally available cheap feed ingredients needs to be evolved and promoted. Non-availability of quality seed: half of the surveyed farmers could not get pure, healthy seed instead what they got was a mixed one. Smaller size and high mortality are some other constraints indicated by farmers. Non-availability of exotic carp seed is also a limiting factor for culture operation. Aquaculture can not be carried out without a reliable supply of fish-seed. To ensure sustained supply of fingerlings in rural areas, it is essential to involve private entrepreneurs to produce and distribute seed.

Absence of organized marketing: Fish is a highly perishable commodity. Market for its speedy disposal is a pre-requisite for fish-farming. Transportation also poses a problem for farmers. In the absence of organized market, farmers sell their produce to middleman. At times they are being deprived of remunerative price. Due to lack of refrigeration/preservation facilities at the village-level, major portion of the fish catch is sold as fresh. The most common marketing channel through which fish is reaching at the consumer is as follows: Fish farmer Whole seller Retailer Consumer

As fish is marketed through middlemen, the fish-farmer is unable to get major share of the consumer price since all these intermediaries have profit margin. There is a wide gap between what consumer pays and what farmers (producer) receives. Poor technical skills of farmers: Future technologies are going to be knowledge and skill-intensive. Surveys have shown that majority of the fish-farmers follow old practices and as the consequence they get low yields (sometimes below 1 tonne/ha/year). Farmers lack expertise in dealing with disease and mortality. Technical competency to bring about adoption of new knowledge and skill is being emphasized. Informal education, group discussion, community video and method demonstration and help in reinforcing skill for improved technology.

Paucity of credit: The introduction of scientific fish farming necessitate higher dozes of certain inputs which call for substantial amount of credit. In India, most of the credit flows are from private non-institutional sector. Merchants provide finance for fishing operation in Inland capture. Apart from marketing agents, professional moneylenders advance credit against securities of gold and agricultural properties. Problems like multiplicity of ownership, non-recognition of aquaculture as land based activity, absence of long - term leasing policy and non-assurance of seed supplies at the appropriate time constrained the access to credit. Social issues: Multi-ownership is considered another constraint in the development of aquaculture in the country as sizable number of owners would not be willing for its use for fish culture or share initial investment for improving pond. As joint owners get all the benefits without any effort, it leads to conflict. The improved technology envisages complete removal of weeds, predatory fishes, insects and animals like frogs and snakes from pond environment. Though initially the unwanted animals are eradicated through application of biocides, there is a danger of willful introduction by rivals which causes biological hazards in the way of successful operation of composite fish culture. Poaching and poisoning are also indicated by farmers as social problems hindering aquaculture operation.

Constraints as perceived by fishery extension officers:
The constraints perceived by Fisheries Extension Officers of Tamil Nadu are reported as: problems caused by middleman; undesirable intervention by local leaders; lack of manpower; high target set for FEOs; lack of proper equipment; and lack of proper linkage with research system. The constraints perceived by Fisheries Extension Officers of Orissa have been reported as: guidance by superior is scanty; lack of opportunity for in-service training; FEOs are not provided with vehicle facility; absence of other facilities of modern life; no incentive for good work; and promotional avenues are limited.

Emerging issues of fisheries extension
Participatory fisheries management : Participatory fisheries management is an innovative approach to decentralize management authority and make fishermen resource managers. The idea of resource users as resource managers makes sense because it is in their interest to ensure that fisheries resources, long term productivity, stability, sustainability, equity and biodiversity are looked after. What is participation? Participation means µact of partaking¶ or µsharing in¶. It is also defined as a dynamic group process in which all members of a work group contribute, share or are influenced by interchange of ideas or activities towards problem solving or decision making. Benefits from participatory fisheries management Benefits of participatory fisheries management are: i. Rational exploitation of fishing resources; ii. Equitable distribution of benefits; iii. Conformity to agreed terms; iv. Amicable conflict resolution; v. generates additional income; vi. benefits small indigenous species.

Emerging issues of fisheries extension
How to enlist people¶s participation: A clearly defined fishery boundary in the form of definite location; type and number of stake holders (members of the community, Panchayat, Fisheries Department etc.); fishery resource to be managed; a local institutional set up; bottom up planning; employment; benefit sharing. Privatized fisheries extension Shrinking public investment, growing willingness of farmers to pay for services, shifting priorities of aquaculture production towards high value productsprawn, crab, ornamental fishes, have led to immergence of privatized extension services. Though it could be difficult to shift to privatized mode, a beginning should be made in well-endowed areas. Besides partial recovery of cost, privatization renders extension system more accountable to information seekers. Many private players are engaged in quality seed production, intensive and super-intensive culture, processing, value-addition, ornamental fish breeding and culture etc. Some private firms have their own well knit network of R & D, extension and marketing.

Gender issues in aquaculture Woman have been involved in fishery related activities from time immemorial. Until a few years ago, woman¶s role was thought to be confined to processing catch and marketing it to nearby places. However, little is quantified about the contribution of woman in fishing and other ancillary industries. Fishing has normally remained a man¶s domain. However, there are some fishing methods which are practiced by woman. Issues need to be addressed ‡ Marginalization by new tools and systems ‡ Marketing ‡ Inadequate recognition ‡ Gender bias ‡No specific government strategy to address gender roles in fishery development ‡ Poor extension linkage Use of modern technologies Modern tools including expert system, remote sensing, geographical information system, cyber extension are presently being used in fisheries. With these, there will be upsurge in application of information technology in extension in future. Some common tools using satellite communication are VSAT, GPS, Remote sensing, GIS, PFZ

New initiatives in fisheries extension
Single window delivery system ATICs established at State Agricultural Universities and ICAR institutes, forged a better interaction between researchers and technology users. This service as a single window system with an objective to help farmers and other stake holders to provide solution to their location-specific problems and make available all technological information along with technology inputs and products for testing and use by them. Three such ATICs are operative in specialized fisheries research institutes, viz. CIFA, CMFRI, & CIFT. Farm school on the AIR Latest technologies are taught to farmers by offering series of lessons broadcast over a period of time (3 months usually). Each broadcast ends with a few questions, and audience are encouraged to participate. Audience are asked to send in reply within a week time. From among the right entries draw is conducted and selected ones are awarded.

New initiatives in fisheries extension
Aqua-service centres Unemployed educated youth have started operating aqua-service centres in the line of agri-clinics. These centres offering services like soil and water testing, feed analysis, disease diagnosis, market intelligence etc. Besides, these centres are in the business of selling inputs like feed, fertilizers, pesticides, other therapeutics etc. In Andhra Pradesh several such service centres could be found in Kolleru lake area of West Godavari district. These are having various nomenclatures, viz. farmer facility centre and aqua-service centre. One-stop aqua shop One-stop aqua shop (OAS) provides better access to farmers regarding appropriate aquaculture technology as well as information on Government schemes and rural banking and micro-finance. The shop is a single outlet for all inputs that a fish-farmer may require in fish cultivation. The inputs include fish feed, fertilizer, chemical etc. Besides, OAS is helping farmers in providing information on fish farming through posters and information brochures supplied by state departments and research institutes. This is becoming quite popular.

New initiatives in fisheries extension
Initiatives in information and communication technology (ICT) applications Aqua choupal: Aqua choupal, the unique web-based initiative of ITC Ltd, offers farmers of Andhra Pradesh all the information, products and services they need to enhance productivity, improve farm gate price realization and cut transaction costs. Farmers can access latest local and global information on weather, scientific farming practices and market prices at village itself through web portal. Aqua choupal also facilitates supply of high quality farm inputs as well as purchase of shrimps at their doorstep. The fruits and benefits of an effective extension service have long been recognized, yet very often extension services in developing countries have failed to accomplish desired objectives and meet people¶s expectations. In Indian context, role of agricultural extension in brining benefits of the green revolution to farmers and making country self-reliant in food production has been appreciated.

‡ Leadership in extension requires skillful communication. Much misunderstanding results from faulty communication. Progress is slowed when too many people say the wrong things, at the wrong time in the wrong ways, to the wrong people. Saying the right things, at the right time, in the right way, to the right people is the formula for good communication.

Facts about communication:
‡ Communication is limited by one¶s concept of the communication process. ‡ Communication involves interaction between those who are aspiring to communicate. ‡ You must have ideas before you can communicate with others. ‡ The symbol used to represent ideas must be accurate and skillfully used. ‡ Cultural values and social organization are determinants of communication. ‡ The environment created by the communicator influences his effectiveness. ‡ To make sense, communication effort must be organized according to some specific form or pattern. ‡ Cooperation is essential to communication. ‡ Standards of communication influence its success. ‡ Evaluation is necessary to improve communication.

Key elements of communication
‡ In extension education programmes, it is assumed that people will continue their ways of thinking and doing until they have new learning experience that cause them to adopt new ways. ‡ It is also assumed that to accept new modes of thinking and acting specified by a programme, people need a greater incentive to change than to continue their present course. ‡ In this context, the task of communicator is to powerful incentives for change. ‡ Success at this task requires thorough understanding of the six key elements of communication: a skillful communicator sending a useful message through proper channels effectively treated to an appropriate audience that responds as desired.

The Communicator
‡ A key factor influencing the effectiveness of communication is the person who originates and sends the message. ‡ The credibility of the communicator as perceived by the audience is a powerful determinant in communication. Who is he? What are his motives? What does he know? What are his attitudes and skills? How does he look? How does he act, write, and speak? Is his purpose to impart information that really helps? Questions like these often enter the minds of people brought in contact with a communicator. When a communicator does not hold the confidence of his audience communication will not take place. Fortunately, there are some things a communicator can do to improve his credibility to an audience.

A good communicator is characterized by the following: He knows‡ His objectives ± has them specifically defined. ‡ His audience ± needs, interests, abilities, predispositions. ‡ His message ± Content, validity, usefulness, importance. Channels that will reach the audience. How to organize and treat his message. His professional abilities and limitations.

He is interested in ‡ His audience and its welfare. ‡ His message and how it can help people. ‡ Results of communication and their evaluation. ‡ Communication process. ‡ Communication channels ± their proper use and limitations. ‡ How to improve his communication skill.

He prepares ‡ A plan for communication ± Teaching plan. ‡ Communication materials and equipment. ‡ A plan for evaluation of results.

He has skills in ‡ Selecting message. ‡ Treating messages. ‡ Expressing messages ± verbal and written. ‡ Selection and use of channels. ‡ Understanding his audience. ‡ Collecting evidence of results. The foregoing are well tested ways a communicator engaged in extension education can help assure an acceptable degree of success. Good communicators have, or soon develop, ability to handle these critical points. In contrast, communicators allow certain behaviour to block their success.