Trigonometry Basics

Definition of Trigonometry: Trigonometry considers the properties of angles and certain ratios associated with angles, and applies the knowledge of these properties to the solution of triangles and various other algebraic and geometric problems. Incidentally trigonometry considers also certain time-saving aids in computation such as logarithms, which are generally employed in the solution of triangles. Briefly stated, Trigonometry is the science of angular magnitudes and the art of applying the principles of this science to the solution of problems. The word Trigonometry comes from two Greek words, trigonon = triangle, and metron = measure. The method was originated in the second century B.C. by Hipparchus and other early Greek astronomers in their attempts to solve certain spherical triangles. The term trigonometry was not used until the close of the sixteenth century. Before we get into the basic definitions of Trigonometric Functions, let us look at the basic definition of a function. Definition of Function: When two variables are so related that the value of the one depends upon the value of the other, the one is said to be a function of the other. EXAMPLES: The area of a square is a function of its side. The volume of a sphere is a function of its radius. The velocity of a falling body is a function of the time elapsed since it began to fall. The output of a factory is a function of the number of men employed. In the expression y depends upon x for its value, hence y is a function of x.

Definition of Reciprocal: If the product of two quantities equals unity, each is said to be the reciprocal of the other. For example, if xy = 1, x is the reciprocal of y, and y is the reciprocalof x. 1/2 is the reciprocal of 2, and 2 is the reciprocal of 1/2, for 1/2X2=1. In general, a/b and b/a are reciprocals since a/bxb/a=1 . From xy = 1 it follows that x = 1/y, and y = 1/x, that is, The reciprocal of any quantity is unity divided by that quantity.

Six Trigonometric Functions of an Acute Angle: Let A be any acute angle, B any point on either side of the angle, and ABC the right triangle formed by drawing a perpendicular from B to the other side of the angle. Denote AC, the side adjacent to the angle A, by b (for base), BC, the side opposite the angle A, by a (for altitude), and the hypotenuse AB by h. The three sides of the right triangle form six different ratios, namely, and their reciprocals

Since these ratios depend upon the angle for their values, they are the functions of the angle according to the general definition of a function that we discussed at the beginning of our lesson. Each of these functions has received a special name. The six functions just defined are variously known as the trigonometric, circular, or goniometric functions: trigonometric, because they form the basis of the science of trigonometry; circular, because of their relations to the arc of a circle; goniometric, because of their use in determining angles, from gonia, a Greek word meaning angle. The terms sine of angle A, cosine of angle A, etc., are abbreviated to sin A, cos A, tan A, cosec A , sec A , and cot A. The definitions of the first six trigonometric functions must be thoroughly memorized. The first three are especially important and should be memorized.The remaining three functions may be remembered most readily by the aid of the reciprocal relations, reciprocal relations, Sin A.Cosec A = 1 Cos A.Sec A = 1 Tan A.Cot A=1 It should be noticed that while a, b, and h are lines, the ratio of any two of them is an abstract number; that is, the trigonometric functions are abstract numbers. Also, the expressions sin A cos A, tan A etc., are single symbols which cannot be separated, sin has no meaning except as it is associated with some angle. EXAMPLE: The sides of a right triangle are 3, 4, 5. Find all the trigonometric functions of the angle A opposite the side 4.

Solution: The hypotenuse of the triangle equals 5. Hence, applying the definitions, we have

Basic Identities

Phythagorean Identities Symmetry Properties

Graphs of the Six Trigonometric Functions

Advanced Questions on Trignometry Part - 1
Ques: 1 Prove that First Solution: We will show that Indeed, by the addition and subtraction formulas, we obtain

Second Solution: Note that by the addition and subtraction formula, we have

Hence

and so

that is, Ques: 2 In triangle ABC, show that

, as desired.

Solution: By the extended law of sines, we have

Applying the double-angle formulas and sum-to-product formulas in the above relation gives

by noting that

because

Note: By symmetry, we have analogous formulas and

Ques: 3 Let numbers x. Solution: We need to show that

for

Prove that

for all real

for all real numbers x. Indeed, the left-hand side is equal to

Ques: 4 A circle of radius 1 is randomly placed in a 15Ã-36 rectangleABCD so that the circle lies completely within the rectangle. Compute the probability that the circle will not touch diagonal AC. Note : In order for the circle to lie completely within the rectangle, the center of the circle must lie in a rectangle that is (15-2)Ã-(36-2), or 13Ã-34. The requested probability is equal to the probability that the distance from the circle's center to the diagonalAC is greater than 1, which equals the probability that the distance from a randomly selected point in the 13 Ã- 34 rectangle to each side of triangles ABC and CDA is greater than 1. Let |AB| = 36 and |BC| = 15 (and so |AC| = 39). Drawthree segments that are 1 unit away from each side of triangle ABC and whose endpoints are on the sides. Let E,F, and Gbe the three points of intersection nearest to A,B, and C, respectively, of the three segments. Because the corresponding sides of triangle ABC and EFG are parallel, the two triangles are similar to each other. The desired probability is equal to

Because E is equidistant from sides AB and AC, E lies on the bisector of Similarly, F and G lie on the bisectors of and respectively. Hence lines AE, BF and CG meet I , the in center of triangle ABC.

First Solution: Let Then

and be the feet of the perpendiculars from E and F to segment AB, respectively. It is not difficult to see that Set and By either the double-angle formulas or

Then the half-angle formulas, or and we obtain Second Solution: Set It follows that Hence

or and and

Consequently, Because E lies on the angle bisector of Consequently,

has the same slope as that is, the slope of line AE is and the rest of the solution proceeds like that of the first solution.

Third Solution: Because the corresponding sides of triangles ABC and EFG are parallel, it follows that I is also the incenter of triangle EFG and that the triangles are homothetic (with I as the center). If r is the inradius of triangle ABC, then r âÖ' 1 is the inradius of triangle EFG; that is, the ratio of the similarity between triangles EFG and ABC is Note that Hence the desired probability is

Solving the last equation gives r = 6, and so Ques: 5 Prove that Solution: The equality is equivalent to for all where k is in Z.

or

That is,

which is evident. where k is in Z, such that

Note: More generally, if are real numbers different from then the relation

holds. Ques: 6 Let a, b, c, d be numbers in the interval such that

Prove that Solution: Rewrite the two given equalities as

By squaring the last two equalities and adding them, we obtain and the conclusion follows from the addition formulas. Ques: 7 Express Solution: By the sum-to-product formulas, we have as a monomial.

By the double-angle formulas, we have

Thus

by the sum-to-product formulas. Note: In exactly the sameway, we can showthat if a, b, and c are real numbers with a + b + c = 0, then

In this question, we have Ques: 8 Prove that Solution: We have Thus

and so for all

as desired. Ques: 9 Prove that for all real numbers with and Solution: Expanding both sides, the desired inequality becomes

By the arithmetic-geometric means inequality, we obtain

By the double-angle formulas, we have

and so

and

Combining the last three inequalities gives the the desired result. Ques: 10 In triangle ABC, Prove that

Solution: Without loss of generality, we assume that law of sines and the triangle inequality imply that It follows that gives that that is, as desired. Ques: 11 Let ABC be a triangle. Prove that

We need to prove that so and the inequality

The

Solution: By the addition and subtraction formulas, we have

Because Thus

and so

as desired.

Note: An equivalent form of this equation is:

Ques: 12 Let ABC be a triangle. Prove that

Solution: By the arithmetic-geometric means inequality, we have

from which follows the desired equation. Ques: 13 Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle. Prove that

Solution: Note that because of the condition

all the above expressions are well defined.

The proof of the identity in part (1) is similar to that of Question 11. By the arithmetic-geometric means inequality,

By (1), we have

from which follows equation (2) Note: Indeed, the identity in (1) holds for all angles where k and m are in Z. Ques: 14 Let ABC be a triangle. Prove that with and

Conversely, prove that if are real numbers with then there exists a triangle ABC such that and Solution: If ABC is a right triangle, then without loss of generality, assume that Then and and so implying the desired result. If by then is well defined. Multiplying both sides of the desired identity reduces the desired result to Question 13(1). to

The second claim is true because is a bijective function from the interval Ques: 15 Let ABC be a triangle. Prove that

Conversely, prove that if x, y, z are positive real numbers such that

then there is a triangle ABC such that and Solution: Solving the second given equation as a quadratic in x gives

We make the trigonometric substitution

and

where

Then

Set Because

and

Because implying that Then angles of a triangle. and or where A, B and C are the

If ABC is a triangle, all the above steps can be reversed to obtain the first given identity Ques: 16 Let ABC be a triangle. Prove that

Solution: By Question 2, we have

The arithmetic-geometric means inequality yields

Combining the last two equalities gives part (a). Part (b) then follows from (a) and Question 15. Part (c ) then follows from part (b) by noting that Finally, by (c ) and by the arithmetic- geometric means inequality, we have

implying (d). Again by Question 2, we have

and analogous formulas for means inequality.

and

. Then part (e) follows routinely from the arithmetic-geometric

Note: We present another approach to part (a). Note that It suffices to show that have

are all positive. Let By the arithmetic-geometric means inequality, we

By Question 15, we have

Thus,

Consequently,

establishing (a).

Ques: 17 In triangle ABC, show that

Conversely, if x, y, z are positive real numbers such that acute triangle ABC such that Solution: Parts (c.) and (d) follow immediately from (b) because Thus we show only (a) and (b). (a) Applying the sum-to-product formulas and the fact that

show that there is an

we find that

establishing (a).

(b) By the sum-to-product formulas, we have

because Note that It suffices to show that

or formula

which is evident by the sum-to-product

From the given equality, we have and thus we may set where Because is an increasing function of z, there is at most one nonnegative value c such that the given equality holds. We know that one solution to this equality is where Because we know that Because and we have Therefore, we must have implying that as desired. Thus,

Nevertheless, we present a cool proof of part (d). Consider the system of equations

Using the addition and subtraction formulas, one can easily see that nontrivial solution. Hence the determinant of the system is 0; that is,

is a

as desired. Ques: 18 In triangle ABC, show that

Solution: By the extended law of sines,

establishing (a). By the same token, we have

which is (b). Note that: By the extended law of sines, we obtain

from which (c ) follows. By the law of cosines,

Hence, by the half-angle formulas, we have

where 2s = a + b + c is the perimeter of triangle ABC. It follows that

and the analogous formulas for

and

Hence

by Heron's formula. It follows that

from which (d) follows. Now we prove (e). By the extended law of sines, we have a

Likewise,

and

By (a) and (b), we have

It suffices to show that

which is Question 17(a). Ques: 19 Let s be the semiperimeter of triangle ABC. Prove that

Solution: It is well known that

or

By Question 18 (b) and (d), part (a) follows from by the double-angle formulas. We conclude part (b) from (a) and Question 16 (d). Ques: 20 In triangle ABC, show that

Solution: By the sum-to-product and the double-angle formulas, we have

and

It suffices to show that

or,

which follows from the sum-to-product formulas, and hence (a) is established. Recalling Question 18 (c.), we have

Euler's formula states that triangle ABC. Because we have

where O and I are the circumcenter and incenter of or from which (b) follows.

Note: Relation (âÖ-) also has a geometric interpretation.

As shown in the Figure, let O be the circumcenter, and let be the feet of the perpendiculars from O to sides BC,CA,AB, respectively. (Thus are the midpoints of sides BC,CA,AB, respectively.) Because and triangle AOB is isosceles with we have Likewise, and

It suffices to show that

Note that and Hence Let s denote the semiperimeter of triangleABC.Applying Ptolemy's theorem to cyclic quadrilaterals yields

Adding the above gives

from which our desired result follows. Ques: 21 Let ABC be a triangle. Prove that

Solution: For part (a), if triangle ABC is non-acute, the left-hand side of the inequality is nonpositive, and so the inequality is clearly true. If ABC is acute, then are all positive. To establish (a) and (d), we need only note that the relation between (a) and (d) and Question 17 (d) is similar to that of Question 16 (a) and (b) and Question 15. (Please see the note after the solution of Question 16.) The two inequalities in parts (d) and (e) are equivalent because By (e) and by the arithmetic-geometric means inequality, we have

from which (b) follows. From that (c.) Part (f) follows from (e) and or by application of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, we can show By (e) and by setting Finally, (g) follows from (b) and the identity we obtain

proved in Question 18(e). Ques: 22 Prove that

for all where k is in Z. Solution: From the triple-angle formulas, we have

for all

where k is in Z.

Ques: 23 [AMC12P 2002] Given that

find n. First Solution: Note that

Hence

It follows that

implying that n = 23. Second Solution: Note that

Hence

implying that n = 23. Ques: 24 [AIME 2003] Let and be points in the coordinate plane. Let ABCDEF be a and and the y The area of the hexagon can be

convex equilateral hexagon such that coordinates of its vertices are distinct elements of the set

written in the form where m and n are positive integers and n is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find Note: Without loss of generality, we assume that b > 0. (Otherwise, we can reflect the hexagon across the y axis.) Let the x coordinates of C,D,E, and F be c, d, e, and f , respectively. Note that the y coordinate of C is not 4, since if it were, the fact |AB| = |BC| would imply that A,B, and C are collinear or that c = 0, implying that ABCDEF is concave. Therefore, F = (f, 4). Since conclude that b = d. Since need to compute and and so Because the y coordinates of B,C, and D are 2, 6, and 10, respectively, and |BC| = |CD|, we Let a denote the side length of the hexagon. Then f < 0. We

Solution:

First Solution: Note that Note that

Apply the law of cosines

in triangle ABF to obtain We have three independent equations in three variables. Hence we can solve this system of equations. The quickest way is to note that

implying that Squaring both sides gives

or

Hence

and so

and

Therefore, and the answer to the problem is 51. Second Solution: Let denote the measure (in degrees) of the standard angle formed by the line AB and and the x axis. Then the standard angle formed by the line AF and the x axis is By considering the y coordinates of B and F, we have and

by the addition and subtraction formulas. Hence Thus, by considering the x coordinates of B and F, we have and It follows that Note: The vertices of the hexagon are

and Ques: 25 Show that one can use a composition of trigonometry buttons such as, and to replace the broken reciprocal button on a calculator. Solution: Because and

for

we have for any x >0,

as desired. It is not difficult to check that Ques: 26 Prove that in a triangle ABC,

will also do the trick.

Solution: From the law of sines and the sum-to-product formulas, we have

as desired. Ques: 27 Let a, b, c be real numbers, all different from âÖ'1 and 1, such that a +b+c = abc. Prove that

Solution: Let where for all integers k. The condition a + b + c = abc translates to tan(x + y + z) = 0, as indicated in notes after Question 13(1). From the double-angle formulas, it follows that

Hence

using a similar argument to the one in Question 13(1). This implies that

and the conclusion follows. Ques: 28 Prove that a triangle ABC is isosceles if and only if

Solution: By the extended law of sines, a = 2R sin A, b = 2R sin B, and c = 2R sin C. The desired identity is equivalent to

or

Because

The last equality simplifies to

which in turn is equivalent to

by Question 7. The conclusion now follows.

Ques: 29 Prove that is an irrational number. Solution: Assume, for the sake of contradiction, that Using the identity

is rational. Then so is

we obtain by strong induction that is rational for all integers for example, is not rational, yielding a contradiction.

But this is clearly false, because,

Note: For the reader not familiar with the idea of induction. We can reason in the following way. Under the assumption that both and are rational, relation (âÖ-) implies that is rational, by setting n = 2 in the relation (âÖ-). Similarly, by the assumption that both and are rational, relation (âÖ-) implies that is rational, by setting n = 4 in the relation (âÖ-). And so on.We conclude that is rational, for all positive integers n, under the assumption that is rational. Ques: 30 Prove that for all Solution: Multiplying the two sides of the inequality by we obtain the equivalent form

But this follows from Cauchy-Schwarz inequality because according to this inequality, the left-hand side is greater than or equal to Ques: 31 If Solution: Note that what are the possible values of ?

Because that

it follows that we conclude that

Similarly, because Combining the above results shows

But we have not shown that indeed, we consider

can obtain all values in the interval

To do this,

Let equation

and

Then If and

and

Consider the range of the sum then x and y are the roots of the quadratic

Thus,

By checking the boundary condition we obtain By checking similar boundary conditions, we conclude that the equation (âÖ-) for all is Because both the sine and cosine is is , and so the

has a pair of solutions x and y with for . Thus, the range of

functions are surjective functions from R to the interval [-1,1], the range of . Thus the range of reange of is Ques: 32 Let a, b, c be real numbers. Prove that

Solution: Let a = tan x, b = tan y, c = tan z with Then Multiplying by and on both sides of the desired inequality gives

Note that

and

Consequently, we obtain

as desired. Ques: 33 Prove that

Solution: If cos x = 0, the desired inequality reduces to assume that Dividing both sides of the desired inequality by

which is clearly true. We gives

Set t = tan x. Then

The above inequality reduces to

or

The last inequality is equivalent to

which is evident. Ques: 34 Prove that

Solution: We proceed by induction on n. The base case holds, because

For the inductive step, in order to prove that

it suffices to show that

for all real numbers inequality becomes we have

Let

For k = 1,2,.....n+1. The last Indeed by the addition and subtraction formulas,

as desired Ques: 35 [Russia 2003, by Nazar Agakhanov] Find all angles α for which the three element set is equal to the set . Solution: The answers are for all intergers k

Because S = T, the sums of the elements in S and T are equal to each other that is,

Applying the sum-to-product formulas to the first and the third summands on each side of the last equation gives or

if to check that It follows that

then , and so for all intergers k. It is then not difficult and both of S and T are not three-elements sets. , implying that ;that is, . The possible It not difficult to

answers are for all intergers k. Because check that all such angles satisfy the conditions of the problem. Ques: 36 Let be the sequence of polynomials such that

for all positive integers i. The polynomial called the nth Chebyshev polynomial. (a) Prove that (b) Prove that (c) Prove that (d) Determine all the roots of (e) Determine all the roots of ; and are odd and even functions,respectively; for real numbers x with x > 1; for all nonegative intergers n;

is

Solution: Parts (a) and (b) are simple facts that will be useful in establishing (e).We present them together. (a). We apply strong induction on n. Note that and are even and odd, respectively. Assume that and are odd and even, respectively. Then is odd, and so is odd. Thus is even, and so is even. This completes our induction. (b). We apply strong induction on n.For for x > 1 and induction hypothesis yields for x > 1. Assume that where k is some nonnegative integer. For n = k + 1, the

completing our induction.

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