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A.S.Sidhu Punjab Agricultural University BR> Punjab Agricultural University Regional Research Station, Bathinda Punjab, India
Our country has achieved self sufficiency and a good degree of stability of food production. This created an urgent need for providing health security to our population by supplying nutrition through balanced diet. Vegetables form the most important component of a balanced diet. We can grow variety of vegetables all the year round. The country is the world's second largest producer of vegetables next only to China. However our per capita consumption is quite low. In the post partition period a good infrastructure for vegetable research has been created. At present vegetable research is being carried out at four central institutes, one National Research Centre and 26 State Agricultural Universities. The All India Coordinated Research Programme of the Project Directoreate of Vegetable Research provides facilities for multidisciplinary, area specific research on 23 vegetable crops and provides a national grid for multilocation testing of technologies developed by various institrutions. As a result research on various aspects of major vegetable crops is being undertaken in order to improve existing varieties and standardise production techniques. The investment in vegetable research is insignificant compared to cereals so is the manpower deployment. Through intensive research ewer deployment. Through intensive research efforts 119 improved varieties in 16 vegetable crops have been released. Of these, nine are F1 hybrids, two are synthetic cauliflower varieties and 24 varieties are resistant to different diseases and insect pests. Some of these varieties have already made significant impact/contribution in revolutionising the production of vegetables in the country. Besides developing new varieties several agro-techniques and plant protection measures against diseases and insect pests have been standardised and recommended. Systematic efforts are also on to achieve self sufficienty in seed production, though the goal is quite far. Several biotic constraints
pertaining to non availability and erosion of germplasm and its evaluation, diseases and insect pests, manpower, abiotic factors such as limited availability of funds, physical environmental and soil factors and seasonal problems, socio-economic factors and limitations of infrastructure are limiting vegetable research in India. The priorities of research in years to come have been identified as breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, heterosis breeding,breeding for improvement of nutritional quality and procesing, seed technology research, development of technology for growing vegetables in protected environment, use of biotechnology, insecticidal residues and off season vegetable production etc.
India has taken a bold step towards self sufficiency in food. However, self sufficiency in the true sense can be achieved only when each individual in the country is assured of balanced diet. Varied agro-climatic conditions in India make it possible to grow a wide variety of vegetable crops all the year round in one part of the country or another. India can claim to grow the largest number of vegetable crops compared to any other country of the world and as many as 61 annual and 4 perennial vegetable crops are commercially cultivated. Some of the important vegetable crops grown are:
Solanaceous crops Cole Crops Bulbous vegetable Okra Cucurbits RTD> Root vegetables Leguminous vegetables Leafy vegetables Salad Brinjal, tomato, chillies, sweet pepper (Capsicum). Cabbage, cauliflower, knol khol. Onion, garlic Okra Longmelon, muskmelon, snapmelon, watermelon, cucumber, pumpkin, summer squash, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pointed gourd (parwal), ridge gourd, round gourd, snake grourd, sponge gourd, wax gourd (ash gourd) Carrot, radish, turnip Broad bean, cluster bean, cowpea, dolichos bean, French bean, peas Amaranthus, beet leaf, fenugreek, spinach Lettuce
India shares about 12% of the world output of vegetables from about 2. Jammu and Kashmir. However. curry leaf. during 1949. It therefore calls fo a major research and development effort to achieve our target (83 million tonnes) for the supply of 200 gms of vegetables per capita per day to an estimated population of 1 billion by 2000 A. The Govt. Tamil Nadu. Systematic research on vegetables was organised with the creation of Division of Horticulture at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute. Research Infrastructure 2. New Delhi. it . through suitable reserch programmes. the ICAR starrted ad-hoc schemes in different states like Himachal Pradesh.D. The demand of vegetables has been increasing fast in the urban areas with an gradual rise in standard of living coupled with development of communication and transport facilities. systematic efforts have been made to upgrade vegetable production technology.vegetables Perennial vegetables Drumstick. In the independent India. Inspite of this vegetable production In India has steadily increased from about 28 m.1 Institutions/Programmes: Research on vegetable crops in India. of India also established a Vegetable Breeding Station at Katrain in Kulu Valley. However. Statewise area and production of vegetable crops and area and production of different vegetable crops in india is given in Table 1 & 2 respectively.09 million tonnes from an area of 4.3 tonnes per hectare. 2. agathi. Hoe to upgrade vegetable production technology. Punjab. such efforts were quite inadequate due to priority given to food grain production programmes so far. paii India is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world next only to China with an estimated production of about 50. Simultaneously. was initiated by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) during 1947-48 soon after independence with the sanctioning of a nucleus Plant Introduction Scheme at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI). Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. during 1956-57. The per capita consumption in India is only about 140 gm which is far below the minimum dietry requirement of 280 g/day/person.5 million hectares at an average yield of 11. Himachal Pradesh. This station which was subsequently transferred to the Indian Agricultural Ressequently transferred to the Indian Agricultural Research Institute during 1955.tonnes during 1969-71 to its present level. Maharashtra.0% of croppped area in the country. has been primarily carrying out intensive research on temperate vegetables and their seed production.
There is also one foreign aided project on Post-harvest technology of some Fruits and Vegetables. Maharashtra. Vivekanand Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Shala. in recent years there has been an effort to start R & D activities by some private companies with foreign collaboration.received a real boost with the establishment of the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research with a full fledged Division of Vegetable Crops at Bangalore in 1968. Nath Seeds. Almora. Ranchi and Godhara. An All India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Project was also started by the ICAR in 1970-71 (Fourth Plan) to provide a national grid for testing of technologies developed by various research institutes and agricultural universities through inter-disciplinary multi-location research approach. West Bengal. The project was started with 7 main and ten sub-centres. However. gave further fillip to Vegetable Research which is being carried by their Deptts. Bangalore. In 1982. Establishment of 26 Agricultural Universities in 17 States from 1960 onwards. Aurangabad. Suttons & Sons.P. Maharashtra. multilocation research at 23 regular centres besides 42 voluntary centres. the Central Institute of Horticulture for Northern Plains at Lucknow has also been given the mandate to work on Vegetaqble Crops of the region. Biogene. A separate Division of Vegetable Crops and Floriculture was also started at IARI. The deetails of Infrastructure available for vegetable research vis-a-vis other horticultural crops & field crops is given in Table 3Table 3. two in the sixth and two in the seventh plan. Jalna. Besides IARI. Calcutta. M/s Mahyco. This project was upgraded as a Project Directorate of Vegetable Research during the VII Plan in 1987 and is undertaking multidisciplinary. a number of short term time bound and result oriented ad-hoc schems on area specific problemks of selected vegetable crops are also being supported by the ICAR at various Central Institutes and State Agricultural Universities. New Delhi in 1970. The project at present headquartered in Varanasi (U. In addition to this. By and large vegetable research has been carried out in India by Public Institutions. Some private companies conducting research include M/s Indo-American Hybrid Seed Co. Port Blair and ICAR Research Complex for NEH Regtion Shillong are also carrying out some research work on Vegetable Crops to meet regional needs. Three centres were added to it during the fifth. Bangalore. of Horticulture and in 9 cases by separate Departments of Veand in 9 cases by separate Departments of Vegetable Crops. A project on Protected Cultivation and Green Houses has been decided to be implemented with USAID support. Bejo Sheetal Hybrid Seeds. At present there are 23 centres working under this project. . Maharashtra. Central gricultural Research Instirtute.). IIHR and their Regional Stations at Katrain. Jalna. the Floriculture work was separated from the Division of Vegetable Crops which was assigned research work exclusively on Vegetable Crops. Further.
Karnataka & Unicorn Group in Hyderabad. sweet pepper. administrative and supporting staff. peas. It will be given in Table 5. tomato and watermelon have been included in the national reslearch programme on vegetable crops. cauliflower. Luffa. pumpkin. disease and insect pest management and post-harvest studies with a view to reduce post-harvest losses. developing F1 hybrids. 3. cucumbefr. coepea. amaranthus. Against this 1076 persons with 306 scientis are employed for research on fruits. 2.3 Manpower The total manpower deployed for research on different hoticultural crops is given in Table 5. 2. The data in the table will show that by and large investment in vegetable research is insignificant compared to cereals and is the fourth highest amongst horticultural crops next to fruit. carrot. tubercrops and plantation crops and higher only to floriculture and spices. cabbaage. The salient research achievements in vegetable research are given below. It will be seen that a total of 505 persons are engaged in vegetable research of which 163 are scientists the remaining being technical. frenchbean. onion. Twenty three vegetable namely. Dolichos. garlic. 1295 with 347 scientists for potato and other tuber crops and 9139 with a component of 2213 scientists for cereal crops during the VII Plan. The amount represents allocations only to ICAR programmes and is by no way exhaustive as expenditure on vegetable research by other Institutres/Agricultural Universities has not been included. disease & pest resistant varieties. chillies. bottle gourd. muskmelon.2 Investment in Research An idea of Budget allocation to different groups of horticultural and other important food crops is given in Table 4. pointed gourd. brinjal. Andhra Pradesh. standardisation of agrotechniques for different agro-ecological situations. bitter kgourd. Research on vegetables The major objectives of research on vegetables in India is improving production per unit area by solving chronic problems of production through breeding high yielding. okra. .
8 of muskmelon 4 each of water melon. . Of these.1 Crop Improvement i) New Varieties Released: The evaluation of indigenous and exotic germplasm intP> The evaluation of indigenous and exotic germplasm introductions. Of the 21 F1 hybrids in 11 vegetable crops developed so far by public research institutions (Table 8). Moreover. multi-location testing of new research materials during the last two decades. cabbage. varieties 'Pusa Sawani' of okra. It is interesting to note that out of 119 varieties recommended by All India Coordinated vegetable Improvement Project. Besides. even though the first report of hybrid vigour in chillies came in 1933 from Indian Agricultural Research Institute.3. 'Pusa Purple Long' of bnrinjal and 'Booneville' of garden peas still continue to be the main vegetable varieties due to their high yield potential and consumer's preference. ii) F1 Hybrids Developed: In India. The first F1 hybrid of tomato (Karnataka Hybrid) and capsaicum (Bharat) were released for commercial cultivation in 1973 by a private seed company M/s Indo-American Hybrid Seeds followed by 28 other Hybrids in 9 vegetable crops. the first F1 hybrid of tomato and capsicum was available for commercial cultivation only in 1973. 'Pusa Ruby' and 'Pusa Early Dwarf' of tomaton. cowpea and capsicum. 74 varieties of different vegetables have been released by different states and their list is given in Table 7. 52 varieties/hybrids have been released through Central Variety Release Committee for commercial cultivation in different zones of India. the foundation and certified seeds of these varieties are being produced by the National Seeds Corporation Government of India. 13 each of onion and cauliflower. Since then. 12 of garden pea. there has been an increasing interest in growing hybrids in vegetable crops among the Indian farmers. 22 of brinjal. pumpkin & okra. 74 varieties of differnt of India. These include 20 varieties of tomato. 119 improved varieties in 16 major vegetable crops have been identified and recommended for cultivation in various agro-climatic regions of the country (Table 6). As a result the progress in developing and popularising hybrid varieties has been very slow. and their hybridization resulted in the selection of over 30 superior varieties of different vegetables during fiftees. 9 of chillies. Heterosis breeding in vegetable crops in India has received serious attention only in recent years. 3 frenchbean (bush type) 2 of garlic and 1 each of Dolichos bean. carrot. Besides. As a result of multi-disciplinary.
there is acute deartrh of good hybrid seeds in cauliflower. Various genetic mechanisms like male sterility. cabbnage.In addition to F1 hybrids. In general. At present there is an urgent need to simplif production. namely. either directly imported and relabelled or developed by crossing exotic parents and hybrid seeds produced indigenously. 3. 'Pusa Synthetic' in and 'Pusa Early Synthetic' have also been recommended for release. in capsicum "Bharat" from Bangalore. from Bangalore. Pioneer research work has been carried out in the Division of Vegetable Crops. 8" and "Hirirani" from Jalna". The F1 hybrids developed have not been fully exploited so far due to inadequate facilities for their seed production. IARI. Several private seedsmen have also been marketing hybrid vegetable varieties.chilli and onion. and "Naveen" from Bangalore.tomato. self-incompatibility and sgnoecious sex forms need special attention to exploit them as female presents of the hybrids. 'Pusa Sawani' variety of okra developed as resistant to yellow-veinmosaic virus is the first example of successful disease resistance breeding in vegetable crops in India. "No. iii) Disease and Pest Resistant Varieties Research on breeding for disease/pest resistance has resulted in the release of twenty four varieties. two synthetic cauliflower varieties.brinjal.2 Agrotechniques . tomato and onion and taking up heterosis breeding in these crops is an immediate need. New Delhi and some female parents like self -incompatible lines in cauliflower and cabbage anbd gynoecious sex forms in muskmelon and cucumber have been developed and are being utilized in heterosis breeding. "Hybrid S-15".Very good hybrid research work has been carried out at Punjab Agricultural University on muskmelon. in cucumber "Priya" from Bangalore. There are many more being offered by other seedsmen as well but their adoiption is comparatively slow. 'Early Bounty' and Sutquot.Work on hetrosis will be strengthened after the implement of NATP project. in cabbage "Ganesh Gole". Some of these F1 hybrids are in tomato "Rupali". "Hybrid S-16" and "Samirudhi" from Jalna and SG-12" and SG-9" from Calcutta. A list of resistant varieties of different crops released so far is given in Table 9. 'Early Bounty' and Suttons Gen Gant from Calcutta. in watermelon "Madhu and Milan" from Bangalore. "Vaishali". At present there is an urgent need to simplify the technique of hybrid seed production.
P. tomato.).). cauliflower. Accordingly. APAU Lam (A.P. okra. nutritional requirements. IARI Karnal (Haryana). Similarly several control measures for protecting these crops from the attack of various diseases and insect pests have been found out. production of Breederf's Seed of vegetables has been included in the National Seeds Project during the Seventhded in the National Seeds Project during the Seventh Plant which is operating at elevel centres. bottle gourd. About 100 tonnes of breeders seed is being produced annually against an average requirement of 36 tonnes which forms the basis of multiplication of superior quality foundation and certified seed. chillies. and watermelon have been made. Technology has been developed and prefected for the production of vegetable seeds in general and that for temperate vegetables in the hilly region of the country in particular. Techniques for post-harvest management are also being developed. YSPUHF Solan (H. IIHR Bangalore (Karnataka). Under the All India Coordinated Research Project alone 34 agronomical recommendations relating to spacing. is presently producing only about 650 tonnes of certified seed whereas private seed industry contributes about 2000 tonnes besides contribution of other cerftified state seed agencies amount to 500-1000 tonnes. peas.Katrain (H. idations relating to spacing.Besides the development of a number of high yielding varieties. namely.). muskmelon.). BCKVV Pedong (W. radish. nutritional requirements. efforts have been made to devbelop package of practices for getting maximum economic returns.C. Even this limited quantity of breeder seed is not being utilised properly. tomato. Thus 55 measures against major diseases and insectpests have been standardised. irrigation and weed control in 11 vegetable crops.N.S. muskmelon.P. Therefore.). cabbage. N. the efforts for research and production of Breeder's seed of these crops are being intensified. okra onion. MPKV Rahuri (M.S. cauliflower chillies. Thus present quality of breedr seed .).B.P.3.P. For chemical control of major diseases and insect-pests recommendations have been made in 11 vegetable crops namely.). onion. peas.). IARI.4-D respectively. The largest beneficiary of the breederf seed viz. Recommendations have also been made for increasing yield of tomato and brinjal by application of chemical growth regulators like mixatgalol and 2. PAU Ludhiana (Punjab). and TNAU Coimbatore (T. namely brinjal. turnip and watermelon. CSAUAT. JNKVV Jabalpur (M. Kanpur (U. A large number of agronomical practices have also been developed to grow almost all vegetable crops under varied agro-climatic conditions. brinjal. 3. Breeder Seed Production Since available of superior quality seeds is the most important single input for production of vegetable crops tremendous attention is required to be paid on strengthening of research on seed production technology of these crops.
we can now grow tomatoes all the year round.could have fulfilled. with appropriate choice of suitable varieties for specific seasons now we can grow radish round the years. of India has launched a scheme on intensification of vegetable production through which funds have been put at the disposal of central institutes and the state agricultural universities to intensify production of breeders. foundation and certified seed to overcome the wide gap in seed requirement. variety Pusa 'Sel-120' has made it possible to achieve high yields of quality produce in root-know nematode infested soils. iv) Okra: v) Tomato: vi) Radish: vii) Onion: . This may pave the way for utilizing these promising genes for developing new high yielding. disease and insect-pest resistant varieties and F1 hybrids possessing tolerance to abiotic factors. However. Recently the Govt. identification of variety N-53 and ADR and development of technology for kharif onion has enabled to get two crops of onion annually in Northern India where it used to be only a winter/spring crop. variety 'Pusa Sawani' bred for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus prone areas/seasons replaced all other local varieties from cultivation all over the country. variety 'Sugar Baby' has spread fast in entire Northern and Eastern India and has benefitted both the growers with better remuneration and the consumers witth better remuneration and the consumers with superior quality. Gujarat. of India affords enough opportunity of introducing new useful genes through the import of improved vegetable varieties and F1 hybrid seeds. variety 'Pusa Early Synthetic' has adapted to warm climatic conditions of Tamil Nadu and has made it possible to grow cauliflower commercially in this non-traditional area. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. of India affords enough licy of the Govt. With the released of cold tolerant variety 'Pusa Sheetal'. Until 1978. Kharif onion cultivation was only grown in Maharashtra. Impact of vegetable research and management Development of a large number of improved varieties and wider adaptability and standardisation of their production technologies for various agro-climatic conditions has made it possible to produce vegetables in wider areas and has improved the prospects of their supply tremendously as follows. The new seed policy of the Govt. 4. The result of these efforts are yet to be known. i) Garden pea: ii) Cauliflower: iii) Watermelon: variety 'Arkel' has revolutionised the production of early peas in all pea growing areas. Certified seed requirement to the extent of 30% it is doing so only to the extent of 13-15%. Another variety 'Arka Manik' has made a dent in the Southern and South-Western parts of the country.
phytopthora blight. Gaps and constraints Despite a large number of varieties and hybrids developed. 6.000 ha. 4. which puts these crops at a disadvantage for fitting them in crop rotations. Similarly the area under F1 hybrid of cabbage is estimated at about 8. fruit and shoot borer. cabbage. TMV bacterial wilt. pests. Insufficient germplasm in different vegetable crops and the need to augment indigenous and exotic-collections. is estimated to be covered under tomato hybrids in Karnataka. 5. Varieties with longer shelf life and suitable for processing are very few. environmental stresses etc. Briefly. Although a lot of work on heterosis breeding in vegetable crops has been done in the country.viii) F1 Hybrids: There has been an alroere has been an alround appreciation of growing of F1 hybrids in vegetable crops. 2. . diseases and insect-pests such as:Tomato Brinjal leaf curl virus. bacterial wilt. Future research priorities While significant progress has already been made there are still several kproblems to be tackled. 3. Excessive use of pesticides has created problems of pesticide residues and hence there is a need for integrated pest and disease control. Sizeable area of 20.000 ha. onion etc. carrying high degree of resistance to diseases. 6. the following research priorities have been identified. environmental stresses etc. Lack of competent scientific manpower to manage the research programmes. Multiple disease resistant varieties are yet to be developed. Lack of infrastructure and fund availability for research on vegetables. 5. Absence of basicts. these gaps are identified as follows: 1. Vegetable based cropping systems have not been developed so far. Lack of new high yielding vegetable varieties/hybrids. little leaf. cauliflower. Maharashtra & Southern Gujarat. the productivity of vegetable crops has not improved. fruit borer. 1) Breeding for resistance to abiotic factors viz. Absence of basic/fundamental research programmes to accelerate the work on applied aspects. yet there is acute dearth of real good hybrids in crops like tomato. For this.
tropical and subtropical vegetables and intensification of breeders seed production programme. fruit fly. cauliflower. peas and garlic (dehydration). 4) Breeding for nutritional and processing qualities in vegetables like tomato. salt tolerance and stress environment e. brinjal. brinjal. . onion. okra. tomato. Survey of Indian Agriculture. M.. 3) Heterosis breeding in onion. 147-149. 5) Use of biotechnology for incorporation of resistance to disease/pests/abiotic stresses. and capsicum.Hybrid Seeds Catching up.g. hot set and cold set tomatoes. 10) Research on off-season vegetable production and under exploited vegetables. chillies. cucumber. powdery. cauliflowr and cabbage. salinity. mosaic virus and bruchus 2) Breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses eg. tomato. peas. Sclerotinia. 7) Export oriented research on vegetables like onion. 11) Studies on insecticidal residues. downy mildew. 9) Research on growing vegetables in protected environments. The Hindu pp. 6) Intensification of research on seed production of temperate. CMV. alkalinity. REFERENCES Attavar. 8) Developing efficienht cropping systems. cucurbits. Powdery mildew Septoria. Vegetables . Alternaria and soft rot. 1988. stemphylium (moth and thrips).Okra Chillies Onion Cucurbits Cole crops Peas Beans Beans yellow vein mosaic and pod borer virus and pest complex purple blotch. cabbage. mosaic virus and b Septoria.
S. 1990 pp 106-ia In Proceedings of Workshop held at Islamabad.Chadha. B. Statewise area and production of vegetable crops (ex.L.L. 1990 pp 106-119. Table 1. 24-29.. 1978.. Pakistan. Chadha. 24-29. The Hindu Suvey of Indian Agriculture. pp. V. Sept. 1990. Indian Horticulture 44: 38-40. Vegetable Crops. Pakistan. and Ramphal. Potato and tuber crops) States Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra 25680 13600 121260 15250 854442 309300 249150 93000 1876358 143484 1372077 115700 Area (ha) 316030 26300 91497 368000 170 97000 55400 Production (tonnes) 1200211 69360 205151 444500 590 1277700 418700 . Hybrid Seeds hold the key. 209-214. 1989. Vegetable Research in India In Proceedings of Workshop held at Islamabad. K. Three decades of vegetable research. K. Sept. Seshaderi. Chowdhary.
Manipur Meghaglaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Chandigarh Dadar Nagar Haveli Delhi Lakhshadweep Pandicherry 1450 40130 2100 62700 566320 99800 Rajasthan 3800 51295 22500 757966 376000 2700 3325 325 141 60500 111360 6263 42820 4200390 2146000 41876 23000 551200 174000 9774900 2760914 16200 1970 13460 266522 368 1128 143381 Table 2.46 . Area and production of different vegetable crops in india Crops Ashgourd Beet root Bittergourd Bottle gourd Brinjal Area (ha) 2497 2164 26004 116939 299770 Production (tonnes) 15326 36260 162196 1428296 3124487 Productivity (t/ha) 6.13 16.75 6.21 10. Area and productionH1>Table 2.23 12.
35 11.28 11.85 15.71 8.80 5.02 5.48 15.26 14.20 14.85 12.00 5.80 6.00 9.32 Peas Pumpkin Radish Ridge gourd Tomato Watermelon 113450 4783 20124 238632 441050 23012 16288 600 4268 41842 111840 500 73273 13510 28484 369684 280915 168645 16007 109846 146991 43137 67345 10040 290279 16194 1631690 42230IGN="RIGHT" WIDTH=80>4783 2870007 3394897 919339 133587 105690 9000 24778 218985 731158 7500 685224 83600 625414 2326616 3181067 349490 195424 659239 2105686 532779 802529 128310 4603446 205884 14.91 12.32 2.22 l2.77 15.19 21.Cabbage Capsicum Carrot Cauliflower Chilli Cowpeas Cucumber Dolichos French bean Garlic Leaf vegetables Longmelon Luffa Methi Muskmelon Okra Onion Other beans Other cole crops Other gourds 14.53 Table 3: Existing facilities of research on vegetable crops Field Crops Institute & NRC Project AICRP SAU Directorate .52 12.95 6.83 6.35 6.38 42230 14.32 12.23 731158 15.
69 127.16 2108.30 196.81 499.OLSPAN=2 WIDTH=190> Directorate Cereal Crops Commercial crops Oilseeds Horticultural Crops Fruits Vegetables Potato & tuber Crops Floriculture & Medicinal Plants Plantation Crops and Cashew 6 4 2 3 3 1 1 ENTER>3 3 2 26 26 26 2 11 16 7 5 5 3 1 8 5 7 26 26 26 Table 4: Budget for research on vegetables vis-a-vis other crops (Rs.89 Allocation for VIII Plan 3311.80 .40 69.59 138.31 497.79 4864.20 269.03 201.74 78.77 549. in Millions) Crops Cereal Crops Commercial Crops Oilseeds Total Horticulture Crops Fruits Fruits Vegetables Potato & Tuber Crops Floriculture & Medicinal Plants Plantation Crops Spices Post-harvest Technology (Fruits & Vegetables) Expenditure in VII Plan 1457.27 39.06 594.25 43.68 1040.33 29.42 154.72 511.19 168.
Others .26 Table 5: Existing manpower for research on vegetable crops vis-a-vis other crops. Field Crop Food Crops Cerea Cereal Crops Commercial Crops Oilseeds Total 9139 2919 1122 13180 2213 688 419 3322 Total Scientific Horticulture Crops Fruits Vegetables Potato & Tuber Crops Floriculture & Medicinal Plants Plantation Crops Post-harvest Technology (Fruits & Vegetables) Total 1076 505 1295 173 1201 212 4462 306 163 347 88 232 212 1207 71 Table 6: List of varieties released at national level Crop Varieties released through Central Variety Release Committee.Total Horticulture 755.98 2249.
T-3. LaPusa Gaurav. S-12 Bonita. Sel-7. X-235 Kt-I Bhagyalakshmi.A. H-7. Pusa Shubara. LDC-206. 2. Punjab ate Pusa Gaurav. sel-I 3. French Bean VL-Boni. Pusa Kranti. K-2.H-8.SOLANACEOUS CROPS 1. ARU-2C. Cabbage Cauliflower a) Early b) Mid season c) Late Arka Vikas. Pusa Deepali. Pusa Hybrid-6. K-202-9. Azad Kranti. Punjab b) Indeteminate B. Peppers a) Capsicum b) Chillies Andhra Jyoti.Pusa purple long Arka Navneet. Cowpea 2. S-12 Bonita.COLE CROPS 1.LUGUMINOUS CROPS 1. Arka Kusumkar c) Small Round d) Green 2.NDB-25. Snowball-16 C. Brinjal: a) Long Pusa Anupma. Pusa purple cluster. Arka Komal Pant Anupma. 4. Pant Samart. Pusa Ruby. PH-4.BB-7 BWR-12. --Pusa Early Synthetic 235-S. Musalwadi. Pant T-2. J-218. Pea Pusa Komal Deepaliwal - . Improved Japanese. Pant Rituraj Aruna - ARU-IC. KS-2. Chhauhhara. Dolichos 3. Pant Bahar Pant T-3 Pusa Mukta Early Kunwari. Punjab Kesri. Shubhara Snowball-1. Snowball-2 Snowball-K-1.Punjab Barasti b) Round Jamuni Gole Baingan.Pusa Jwala. Tomato a) Determinate HS-101. Sel-120 Sioux. Arka Saurabh. Pusa Pant Pusa Pusa Pusa Synthetic. Pusa Earli Dwarf BT-1.CO3.
Pusa Ratnar. Pusa White Flat. 3. Muskmelon Pumpkin Watermelon Hara madhu. Arka Rajhans. Arka Niketan.CUCURBITACEOUS CROPS 1. Onion a) Red Jamuna Safed.CUCURBITACEOUS CROPS 1. Sel-10 (IIHR) E. -P-7. Pusa Madhuras. Durgapura Madhu. Lincoln. Punjab Naroya - b) White F. Pant Uphar.OTHER CROPS Orka Pusa Yamdagni -- Table 7.Hybrid M-3.JP-4 Bonneville. Sel-2. N-2-4-1. Pusa Red. Crops Solanaceous Crops Variety . PRS-4. PRS-4. P-88. Sugar Baby Arka Jeet. Pant Uphar. Arka Suryamukhi Arka Jyoti. Pusa Vishwas Arka Manik. Early December.PM-2. Arka Kalyan. List of vegetable varieties released by state variety release committee. Ambali. N-257-9-1 Punjab Selection. Agri-Found White Agrifound Dark Red. Parbhani Kranti. Pusa White Round PB-48. D. Garlic 2. Pusa Sharbati. Punjab Hybrid. VL-3. Mu P-88. ROOT Carrot G. 2.Punjab sunheri Arka Chandan. List of vegetable varieties released by state va7">Table 7.BULB CROPS 1. Durgapoura Meetha. Mattar Agata-6. D. Pusa Madhvi Punjab Red Round.ALR.a) Early b) Midseason Arkel Jawahar Matar-I VL-3 Jawahar Matar-4.
CO-1. Kalianpur No. Punjab Safed. JM-3. d) Cluster bean Durga bahar e) Garden peas Azad P-1. Co-1. Junagadh Oblong. DH-76-6. CO-10 (bush). Co-9 (bush). Punjab Neelam. CO-1. Kalianpur Type 3. c) Bottle gourd Co-1. PKM-1.a) Brinjal b) Tomato c) Chillies Annamalai. Punjab Chappan Kaddu-1. Punjab Tropic. JM-5 Madhu. MDU-1. CO-2. Gujarat Brinjal-6.BH-2 Azad T-2. K-1. CO3. Gujarat Chillies. Punjab-87. Kalianpur-1. Hara Bona. & Piriya. BG-14. CO-1. Kalianpura Hari Chikni S-48. Kalianpur T-2 (Pole). Co-1. Kalianpur Angoorlata. MDH-1.Punjab lal CO-4.Sada Bahar Bangan. Punjab white. CO-1.BH-1. VL-Piaze-67. Methi Leguminous Crops a) Cowpea Birsa Sweta b) French Bean Bisra Priya (Pole). Punjab Sadabahar. CH-1. Cucurbitaceous Crops a) Ashgourd CO-2 b) Bitter gourd Kalianpura Baramasi. PKM-1. PKM-1.Punjab Gushedar.Punjab Moti. Kalianpur Long Green d) Cucumber Kalianpur Green e) Muskmelon f) Ridge goud g) Summer Squash h) Snakegourd i) Sponge gourd j) Tinda Gujarat Muskmelon-1.1. Kalianpur Red Round. Punjab pasand. Sindhur. Azad B-1.Mithi fali. CO-1.PNR-7. Watex (Bush) c) Dolichos Bean Co-8 (bush).Punjab surkh.TH2312. NTDR-1.C96. Co-1. JM-2. Co-1 Bulb Crops Onion Root Crops Radish Leafy Vegetables. ables. . Gujarat Muskmelon-2. CO-2. TH802 Chanchal. Pant C-1. Rajni (Pole). MDU-1. MDH-1.
Sri ganesh gol Muskmelon Pb.2 MTH-6 ARTH-4 ARTH-3 Carrot Hyb-1 Cauliflower Pusa Syn. Realised Potential 30 58 30 1981 40 61 50 90 78 126 59 93 53 76 60 137 52 116 24 24 <=53>1990 51 78 55 65 48 70 49 66 51 82 21 24 19 24 IARI 1990 23 35 52 71 33 50 39 64 10 29 17 30 10 48 1971 16 45 19 25 54 Capsicum Tomato 50 FMH-2 Pusa Hyb.k) Watermelon Durgapura Kesar. Synthetics and F1 Hybrids identified/released after assessment under AICVIP/PDVR Crop Eggplant Hybrid Arka Navneet Pusa Hybrid-6 Pusa Hybrid-5 ARBH-201 NDBH-1 ABH-1 MHB-10 MHB-39 KT-1 Source IIHR IARI IARI ANKUR Faizabad Anand JALNA JALNA IARI IIHR IARI MAHYCO ANKUR ANKUR MAHYCO IARI IARI IARI Aurangabad IARI MAHYCO PAU IARI IIHR Year 1981 1990 1992 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1990 1993 1993 1992 1992 1992 1992 1981 1990 1992 1993 1992 1992 1985 1990 1981 Yield in MT. Table 8.Hybrid Pusa Rasraj Watermelon Arka jyoti Pusa Bottle-gourd meDTH=121>Bottlegourd Pusa Manjari Summer Pusa Alankar squash 10 12 Pusa meghdut IARI IARI IARI 1971 1972 26 . Pusa Early synthetic Pusa hybrid-2 Cabbage Nath-401 Pusa syn.
lal -doPusa komal Chilli Cowpea Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas vignicola). Vegetable varieties resistant to diseases and insect pests.solanacearum) -doBhubaneswar -doIARI-Katrain IARI-New Delhi IARI-Katrain Leaf Curl (CMV & PVY) PAU. Crop Brinjal Variety BWR-12 Pant Rituraj Disease/Insect Pest Source Bacterial Wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum) -doIIHR-Bangalore Pangnagar Pant Samrat Pusa Purple Cluster BB-7 Bacterial Wilt Pantnagar (P.Ludhiana IARI-New Delhi Pusa Bhairav Phomopsis Blight (P. Rasila -do- .solanaoearum) Phomopsis Blight (Phomopsi8s vexans) Shoot & Fruit Borer & Jassids.Ludhiana IARI-New Delhi IIHR-Bangalore PAU. Bacterial Wilt IARI. Muskmelon Arka Rajhans Powery Mildew (Sphaerothica fubginea) Pb.vexans)\ Cabbage SEL-8 Black Rot (Xanthomonas campestris) Cauliflower Pusa Shubra Black Rot Pusa Snowball Black Rot K-1 Pusa Pusa Jawala Jawala>Chilli Pb.Cucumber Pusa sanyog IARI 1973 45 50 Table 9.New Delhi (P.
M.V. Root Knot Nematode M. Verzoni firstname.lastname@example.org Created 15 May 1998 Maintained by E.agrsci.Virus Y.it/wc2/asv.V. Ventura.Virus Y.unibo.M. D. M.javanica Pantnagar SEL-120 IARI-New Delhi PNR-7 PNR-7 -do- PAU.M.arneria & M.Virus Powdery Mildew Powdery Mildew IIHR-Bangalore NBPGR-New Delhi PAU-Ludhiana MAU-Parbhani Pantnagar Pantnagar Pea Tomato BT-1 Pant Bahar Powdery Mildew Pantnagar & Rust (Uromycess pisi) Bacterial Wilt Bhubaneswar Varticilium Wilt (Verticicum sps) & Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum).M. Muzzi.it ONT> .V.Okra Sel-10 Sel-2 P-7.Virus Y.P-8 Parbhani Kranti PRS-4 PM-2 JP-4 Y.incognita M.Ludhiana WCHR Home WCHR 1 WCHR 2 WCHR 3 WCHR 4 WCHR 5 Search © WCHR wchr.V.
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