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Dr. Tiffany Jordan
Abstract As competition increases in the global marketplace and organizations seek ways to increase customer base, quality is a “core-value” in the system of planning, to improve productivity and reduce error or waste. For many years Total Quality Management (TQM) has been a hot topic in journals, magazine, and newspapers (Mescon et al, 2001; Schmidt, 2000; Ghosh, 1996; Knouse, 1995). Then came the Poka-Yoke style as a measure of quality control and continuous improvement (Nakajo, 1993). But has TQM given companies who implement it a return on their investment (ROI). But does TQM really work? How much in time and financial cost of implementing TQM and Poka Yoke? This study discusses the principles and applications of TQM and the Poka-Yoke quality style, and how they are (and were) used in companies in America and Japan. It also discusses theories for organizational leadership and management, before TQM or Poka Yoke can be successfully implemented. It takes a look at the TQM process from effectiveness and failure point of view and attempts to shed some light on this controversial but highly significant topic. Therefore, the intent is to allow managers to examine these two models and form their own opinion concerning the benefits or weaknesses. Keywords: Total Quality Management, TQM, Poka-Yoke, Operations Management, Production Management, Leadership and Management, Quality Standards, Quality Control, Japanese Management Style, American Management Style. Resume *Tiffany Jordan, Ph.D./DBA., International Business/Management Advanced Graduate Business Certification in Management Teacher Business & Gifted Education Certification, State of Florida Master of Business Administration Bachelor of Science Train the Trainer
Table of Content Total Quality Management Introduction What Exactly is TQM History of TQM Companies Using TQM TQM and Return on Investment Consider the Ugly acts from the 70s and 80s Ugly Facts from the 90s Why are so Many Companies Struggling Which Strategy is your Company Pursuing On Community College Renewal A Renewal Framework Leadership: The TQM Driver Key Leadership Responsibilities The Foundation to Quality Dupree’s Model Deming’s Model Deming System of Profound Knowledge: The New Economy Deming’s 14 Points Quality Standards Total Quality Management TQM in the Public Eye Customer Driven vs. Company Driven Long Term vs. Short Term Orientation Data Driven vs. Opinion Driven Elimination of Waste vs. Tolerance of Waste Continuous Improvement vs. Fire Fighting Prevention vs. Inspection Cross Function Teams vs. Fortress Departments High Employee Participation vs. Top Down Hierarchy Problem Solving vs. Blame Systems Thinking vs. Isolation Leadership vs. Management Quality TQM and its Benefits Model of TQM Process TQM Its Benefits and Failures Failures of TQM Continuous Improvement Continuous Improvement and Standardization: Daily Management Individual, Team Roles, and Responsibility Business Reengineering Gurus on Quality Control and Management The Human Side of the Enterprise Tools used in TQM Cause and Effect Diagram Run Chart
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Scatter Diagram Flow Chart Pareto Chart Histogram Control Chart Is there a Downside to Performance Management Success or Failure: The Truth About Business TQM and MBO Poka Yoke Japanese Quality Management Introduction Historical Background on Poka Yoke The First Poka Yoke Device General Steps in the Fail Safing Process Zero Quality Control: Source Inspection and the Poka Yoke System The Principles of Fool Proofing and their Application in Manufacturing Developing Poka Yoke Processes The Customer Process Metrics Focus, Urgency, Time Compression The Process (Table 1) Categories and Characteristics of Poka Yoke Devices Examples of Poka Yoke Prevention Devices Examples Detection Devices Characteristics of Poka Yoke Devices Conclusion Definitions References
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Total Quality Management Introduction While Total Quality Management (TQM) has proven to be an effective process for improving organizational functioning, its value can only be assured through a comprehensive and well thought out implementation process. Total Quality Management (TQM), a form of management that emphasizes continuous quality improvement processes in institutional operations, represents a major paradigm shift (Spanbauer, 1992) in management. Under a variety of names such as Continuous Quality Management, or Responsibility Center Management, TQM type principles have been successfully implemented, however, they are also critics (Seymour 1991, Cross, 1993). Many researchers on Total Quality Management (Mansor, 1993; Hamzah and Ho, 1994; Sohal and Ritter, 1995; McKenna, 1995; Hakim, 1996; Ghosh and Wee, 1996) examine Productivity Organization, in Japan, as instrumental in raising productivity. Many TQM activities in Asia were started in private companies as Total Quality Control (TQC). These were mainly Japanese companies with investments in manufacturing plants throughout Asia. The principles of TQC were expounded by Feigenbaum (1961), suggested that high-quality products are more likely to be produced by total quality control rather than by manufacturing working alone. These principles gave way to Total Quality Management when management of companies realized that responsibilities for quality are company-wide, and resided with the management hierarchy. Japanese writers such as Ishikawa (1985) and Imai (1986) referred to such involvement of management and the rest of the company as company-wide quality control (CWQC), or total quality control (TQC), which Western management practitioners call total quality management (TQM). In the 1980s, America followed suit realizing that Japan was becoming a model in manufacturing. Foreign competition from the 1970s has forced companies, particularly US companies, to realize the importance of quality products and customer satisfaction. During the last decade or so, management in public and private sectors has sought ways to improve the bottom line. This brought significant paradigms such as Total Quality Management (TQM) and the Japanese Poka Yoke style. The purpose of TQM and Poka Yoke is Customer satisfaction through valueadded products. Accordingly, management must focus on the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) of each worker to bring continuous improvement through teamwork. These require management commitment to change from the old traditional ways of doing things to adopting new concepts. To be effective and efficient, organizational departments must work cooperatively to accomplish goals and create a strong organizational culture. But moreso, to implement control feedback mechanisms, which will ensure the effective quality and productivity as required by these philosophies. What Exactly is Total Quality Management? Certainly TQM can be defined in a number of ways, and the details of different approaches can vary somewhat. The term Total Quality Management or TQM has many definitions. Total Quality Management (TQM), a form of management that emphasizes continuous quality improvement processes in institutional operations, represents a major shift in academic administrative circles from hierarchical to collegial management. Under a variety of names such as
Top management organizes all of its strategy and operations around customer needs and develops a culture with high employee participation. all of the components within the organizations must be collectively involved. According to the founders of TQM. skills and abilities (KSAs) of the laborers as well as the management in order to bring a continuous improvement in the quality and productivity of the organization by working in the form of teams (Drucker. 1994.Continuous Quality Management. This means that in traditional quality systems there is a certain tolerance built into quality measurements to allow for the fact there will always be some faulty components. human relations. 1997). TQM however assumes that every item is already defect-free and this tolerance is not allowed for. What distinguishes TQM from other forms of organizational quality standards such as Business Process Reengineering or the Japanese Poka Yoke standard is that it is not a radical management tool that can often completely "pull apart" an organization. is a process ideally suited to being applied in operating breweries where quality is more than just a word management pays lip service to. These can be summarized as industrial betterment. commonly known as TQM. drawn from Capezio & Morehouse (1995): "Total Quality management refers to a management process and set of disciplines that are coordinated to ensure that the organization consistently meets and exceeds customer requirements. He breaks TQM down into eleven specific areas. Instead. it requires long-term commitment to bring into play in every aspect of the development. Organizations are systems of interrelated units and for TQM to succeed. TQM type principles have been successfully implemented. It is defined as a mutual way of doing business that focuses on relying on the knowledge. Nevertheless. TQM seeks to permeate an organization through steady quality improvement throughout all of its current processes rather than create new ones. This places a large . scientific management. Quality Standards Total Quality Management (TQM) TQM can be seen as the summation of distinct patterns of management over the last century (Cole. a good starting definition. 1996). In the past each branch of management and quality mechanisms were aimed at certain spheres of the organizations hierarchy. TQM is a management process based on fundamental principles that focus an organization’s energy on always meeting customers’ expectations. he notes that this concept of quality has not emerged overnight. 1997). Scheer (1994) also notes that total quality management. TQM companies are focused on the systematic management of data of all processes and practices to eliminate waste and pursue continuous improvement. departments and levels of the organization (Bacal. p237). top management commitment to the TQM process is absolutely essential for its successful implementation. But because it is a process-not simply a program. 1993). " In his book. Bacal further states that perhaps a better way of understanding TQM is to compare a "TQM organization with what we might call a "traditional organizations to see the differences. etc. TQM engages all divisions. or Responsibility Center Management. 1996. Finally. The principle behind TQM is to take a vertical approach to quality. However. The author also notes that another distinction made with TQM is over the specification of quality (Cole. p238). one that affects every individual in the organization from the senior management to the most minor employee (Cole. systems approaches and organized culture (Grint.
Drucker further mentions that the giants of the American economy such as Ford motors and Xerox has suffered from huge losses in this period because of the unfavorable market conditions and increasing competition from the foreign competitors. and organizational processes such as paperwork. deregulations. Many American companies and organizations as well as several institutions worldwide have planned and implemented TQM principles and processes over the years. organizations. In the human services. procurement. which are a series of related steps. values. its norms. whereas others point to the doubts and apparent failures of the method. hiring a new employee or producing a product). which is familiar territory to those in the .. 1983). growing trade deficit. TQM at first glance is seen primarily as a change in an organization's technology from its way of doing work. TQM. This study takes a look at the TQM process from an effectiveness point of view and attempts to shed some light on this controversial but highly significant topic. the effectiveness of TQM has not been clearly determined yet and a review of the TQM literature reveals some mixed results. decline in business. This was the time when the true concept of TQM begins to emerge and companies started realizing the importance of quality. The basic assumptions of the Total Quality Control approach include: Work that can be broken down into tasks. Total quality management has its roots back to the era of 1970s and 80s when the US companies were struggling for their survival in an adverse atmosphere of recession. In such systems. and the Japanese Poka-Yoke. History of TQM Total Quality Management (TQM) has become a major social phenomenon in American society. Common systems in organizations are human resources processes such as compensation or financial ones like accounting. low productivity and a more aware and educated customer demanding more quality products or services. this means the way clients are processed. Joseph Juran (1969). compensation. 1964) the father of TQM describes organizations as composites of systems designed to meet customer needs. It is also a change in an organization's political system: decision making processes and power bases.e. the way service is delivered. Quality Circles. and belief systems about how organizations function. Style. Their basic assumptions of TQM focused on quality. people. Deming’s emphasis is not on results but on method. and the role of top management. However. But TQM is also a change in an organization's culture. Some studies show a positive relationship between TQM and high performance suggesting its effectiveness. benefits. and other procedures. Deming (1984. For significant change to occur. Many methods have been used over the years to reduce costs and improve quality and productivity: Concepts such as MBO. changes in these dimensions must be aligned: TQM as a technological change will not be successful unless cultural and political dimensions are attended to as well (Tichey. increasing competition. status changes for employees will require interdependent tasks on the part of employees in payroll.responsibility on suppliers and is why certified ISO 9000 companies will only accept suppliers who are certified to the same level. He mentions for example. processes and tasks are linked together and affect one another. People completing a series of related tasks have interdependent roles in the organization. training and the relevant supervisor. Edward Deming (1986). and Kaoru Ishikawa (1985) were the pioneers of the TQM movement. A process groups all related tasks done to accomplish an outcome (i.
A committee appointed by the President of a company will obviously report what the President wishes to hear (Johnson. professional societies. has in many circles almost become a "rite of passage. may pass an item that is just outside the borderline (Out of the Crisis. including management of people (Deming. In fact. and inside numerous companies (Schmidt et al. Take these examples for instance: A teacher. General Motors. TQM and Return on Investment For several years quality improvement has been a "hot topic" in many trade journals. including appreciation of a stable system.quality movement. and other service-oriented companies. 1995) have implemented TQM in their organizations and have achieved glowing results in terms of performance and productivity. In fact many of them were successful in winning the prestigious Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award for their high quality performances. Some understanding of variation. Also. 1992). 266). continues to point out some important facts about TQM and ROI as follows: Consider some ugly facts from the 70s and 80s: . and Westinghouse (Eskildson. Transformation leaders and managers need to learn the psychology of individuals. AT&T (AT&T. the question of why the ROI has not been as expected is one many organizations are pondering. "By what method?" Companies using TQM Why do some companies “breathe” TQM and believe so strongly in it whereas others criticize it as being dead and doomed to failure? Several companies like Corning (Shapoff. and wrong decisions. With all the excitement about TQM. are essential for management of a system. and some understanding of special causes and common causes of variation." which stands for Total Quality Management. IBM. not wishing to penalize anyone unjustly. 1984). Motorola. Kodak. the number of defective items that an inspector finds depends on the size of the workload presented to him (documented by Harold F. 1992). p. Dodge in the Bell Telephone Laboratories around 1926). Schmidt et al. the psychology of a group. 2000). banking. careful not to penalize anybody unjustly. fear invites wrong figures. 1996)." The TQM initiative started with electronic and automobile manufacturing in the late 70s and early 80s and has now spread to healthcare. For example. and the psychology of change. Obviously. because they have not realized the return on investment (ROI) that they originally expected. will pass a pupil that is barely below the requirement for a passing grade. frustration. Deming speaks of the concept of psychology and use of the theory of variation (statistical theory) being boundless. the acronym "TQM. An inspector. This huge expenditure has led some companies to loathe the use of the acronym TQM. millions of dollars have been spent on training and consulting. Statistical calculations and predictions based on warped figures may lead to confusion. the psychology of society. Deming was known to have demanded upon more than one occasion.
000 jobs worldwide this year.000 worldwide. For certain. Japan has seven. (5/18/92) Northwest Cuts: Northwest Airlines has announced the elimination of nearly 900 jobs in recent weeks.000 jobs this year. IBM had about 344. (2/20/92) Leaner IBM: Thousands of employees must find a job elsewhere in the company or leave with severance pay.000 workers since 1990. Compaq said it will cut 1. Of the top ten banks in the world (ranked by assets). and the United States has one. yet not enough companies have changed for the better.. Most televisions sold today are made in Pacific Rim countries.000 hourly workers by 1995 .000 the next few years to 88. industry. 17 firms produced televisions in the United States.After researching many periodicals. It has cut 10. For example.” Ugly facts from the 90s: • • Boeing Layoffs: Boeing says it expects to cut about 8. The 1989 healthcare bill for the U.800 workers by the end of 1994 at its Fort Worth division. France has two.300 jobs last quarter. (10/9/92) Digital Equipment Corp. both through layoffs and attrition. consider the results of a USA Today literature review over 1992. • • • • • • . journals and newspapers on the American corporations.S..000 jobs. says it will cut more this quarter. (7/30/92) General Dynamics will lay off 5. I found a shift from what was once labeled “made in America” to products produced elsewhere carrying American label presented some ugly facts on American corporations: • • • In 1970.000 jobs last year. plans to trim its workforce by 25. or 10% because of weak demand and low energy prices. (4/13/92) Exxon Layoffs: Exxon USA will cut its white-collar workforce by at least 1. DEC. which cut 5. was over $600 billion.000. more than 11% of the gross national product. • Schmidt also mentions “One would think that companies aware of these facts would immediately be motivated to prevent similar things from happening to them.000 workers. Fifteen years ago the United States dominated that list.S. many consultants (internal and external) have sprouted up because of the unhealthiness of U.700 jobs. our share of the USA's consumer electronics market fell from 100% to under 5%.000 employees worldwide at the end of December after cutting more than 29. (7/30/92) More Computer Jobs Cut: Hewlett-Packard says it will trim about 2. Between 1970 and 1988. This sum is so large that if the American healthcare industry were declared a nation it would have the sixth largest gross national product of all the nations on earth. plans announced in December to close 21 plants and cut 74. Today there is only one. The notices are part of IBM's announcement in December to cut up to 20. (10/15/92) GM Buyouts? GM goal of cutting 54.
Unfortunately. According to quality gurus such as Deming (1982). Global competition.• Bank Failures: The Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. The key to competitiveness and survival is tied to reducing the 20-40% waste. Merck. excessive inventories. . (11/9/92) Kodak Layoffs: Eastman Kodak plans to lay off up to 3. expects just over 100 banks to fail this year. offering voluntary severance to 5. maintain market share and boost corporate earnings has long forced layoffs in hard pressed industries. (1/8/93) • • • • This list does not include all of the companies that experienced problems in 1992 neither does it contain numerous additional headlines from 1993 through today. lack of customer focus. and (2) the waste or nonvalue added cost (referred to as the Cost of Poor Quality or COPQ). and many other non-value added activities. One-fourth to one-third of the group's 25. It has attacked and cut its COPQ significantly. More than 8.000 workers left Kodak the past 18 months after the company offered a lucrative early retirement plan." This article by Gary Strauss indicates that "pressure to keep prices low. is depicted as a company driven by quality and cost. such as automobiles and computers.800 more layoffs at the jet-engine maker than previously announced. and Sprint.200 of its 7. 4. 1993. With evidence like this. . training without ROI. This Cost of Poor Quality is due to high cycle times. poor productivity. contains an article. The company that will survive global competition in the 1990s and on into the twenty-first century.000 workers the next six months .S. and the ability to weather hard times. The total cost to produce can be broken into two categories: (1) the cost associated with doing only the right things right the first time (theoretical cost). (10/20/92) L. Lowering COPQ is a difficult strategy in the short term.000 employees by 1995. this response is typical of many U. AT&T. are also announcing layoffs. hoping to cut 500 jobs. or budget cuts have mandated a lower and more competitive price. USA Today. and that other companies. customer-driven fixed cost. such as Proctor and Gamble. Times Cuts: Economic woes are forcing the Los Angeles Times to close its 14-year-old San Diego edition and cut jobs. "Bargain prices have a cost: Job cuts. .000 North American employees will be affected. high defect rates (or low yields). the percentage of COPQ in most companies is 20-40%. competitiveness." The article goes on to state that IBM will cut 100. long development times.A. August 31. About 85 banks have already failed this year. The Costs of Poor Quality for Companies A product or service is driven by profits and total cost to produce. it is difficult to deny that a major problem exists. (10/19/92) United Technologies Cuts: Its Pratt & Whitney unit will lay off 7. (10/19/92) Pay Freeze at RJR Unit: RJR Nabisco Holdings says it is freezing salaries at its food group for a year to keep costs down. Johnson & Johnson.500 full-time workers.500 workers by the middle of next year. and Juran (1989). managed companies who seem to be more concerned about short-term profitability than they are about longterm stability. but it is the only way to long-term profitability. The FDIC expects 100 to 125 banks to fail next year.
quantum quality (QQ). A third aspect of the ROI problem is the fact that everyone seems to be talking quality improvement. they observations suggest that most companies do not have the slightest clue as to what their COPQ is. systems theory. "the new science of. a manager must learn where his/her people are spending their time. with President Nixon and TQM in the Reagan and Bush administrations (www. TQM comes down to having a plan for measuring ROI. This is probably due to either time constraints. First. transformational leadership." Much to the dismay of the leader who feels comforted by the number of choices. total quality management (TQM). technicians." liberation management and knowledge management. many of these perspectives seem to discount the others and at times mock the very tenants of rival theories.net) Strategies for dealing with uncertainty and change have taken many forms over the last ten-to-fifteen years. Many of these strategies are time consuming or organizationally traumatic (Hodges and Milliron." and those that tell us to "lead from the soul. . reengineering. is if they don't have time to implement what they have learned. or the fear of having to face reality. Some of these strategies include terms and acronyms common to most in community college administration: management by objectives (MBO). and then develop a way to increase the amount of time quality improvement and decrease waste management. but no one is keeping score. seven habits. Accordingly. improper accounting methods to investigate or estimate their waste. and operators. 1997). However. and rightsizing. continuous quality improvement (CQI). engineers. Another reason for not receiving ROI regardless of how much training (good or bad) given scientists. New and interesting alternative ideas are also advanced by advocates of chaos theory. downsizing. A Renewal Framework Demand for accountability in these management principles began with MBO in the USA government.reseval.Which strategy is your company pursuing? These authors challenge managers on how they plan to lower COPQ before or faster than your competition does. learning organizations.
all efforts rely on leadership. System — Creating motivating jobs that provide employees with ownership. elaborate staff procedures. 2. Processes. Herman Miller Company. 3. supervisors. A major leadership imperative is to create an organization that is value-based rather than rule-based. and accountability rather than relying on the rulebook. “The first job of a leader is to define reality. Dupree’s Model Consider Dupree’s (1989) model below of the fundamental differences between old-style.Leadership: The TQM Driver According to Max Dupree. 2. The Foundation to Quality 1. mission. Direction — Enlisting the organization in clarifying its vision. Leaders in a value-based organization are responsible for the following: 1.” He believes that leadership is people focused. Although. the leader is a servant. authority for thinking. the following responsibilities are particularly important to help focus your attention at various points of your journey. thank you. Enlisting support of additional managers. and union leaders — Senior leaders should put much of their personal energy into working with those that demonstrate early leadership for quality. build from common interests and a customer focus rather than "managing differences. systems. People's work in a value-based organization is guided by direction. Culture — Promoting desired organizational values and associated behaviors by example. conventional management thinking and TQM thinking: . Key Leadership Responsibilities Leadership is the engine of transformation required throughout your quality journey.Sponsoring early quality initiatives — The role of a sponsor is one of a supporting mentor. (1989) Chairman of the Board. In between. employee involvement. and goals. and structure should support the front-line employee. Acting as a sponsor is an opportunity to model the leadership behaviors you wish to develop in others. Although we need both to succeed." and develop TQM goals and an action plan that underscores desired values such as customer focus. 3. ensuring their early success and recognition. Building the senior labor-management team to lead the quality journey — Promote quality awareness. leadership at all levels is generally in a shorter supply. while management is task focused. and accountability for clearly defined results. and continuous improvement. the last is to say. and compliance behavior. values.
without quality. Customers are really an integral part of the organization. 1990) who was a believer in Deming’s theory. a map of theory by which to understand the organizations that we work in. to numbers. Deming's System of Profound Knowledge: The New Economics Deming (1993) points out the prevailing style of management must undergo transformation.Conventional 1.” and “reduce scrap and rework. Customers are whom you sell to. 2. Suppliers must be kept on their toes. The individual. 3. Work is a series of events.” Most of us have had experience with these old sayings mentions Dupree. quantity is irrelevant. sampling and statistical process control. will: • • Set an example Be a good listener. The individual. to events. his views and methods are much more widely promoted and known throughout the international movement by the writings of others (Neave. and regarded by the Japanese as the key influence in their postwar economic miracle. but will not compromise . 9. Typically. 5. Past goals have been expressed as “Do it right the first time. will perceive new meaning to his life. Quality engineering is typically handled by a specialized department for quality control (QC) or quality assurance in furniture manufacturing and brewing. Quantity is as important as quality 4. He will have a basis for judgment of his own decisions and for transformation of the organization that he belongs to.” “be quality minded. Hitting 95 percent is great. Work is an integrated process. Quality costs money and time. 6. he will apply its principles in every kind of relationship with other people. transformed. once transformed. But while they require effort. you need more and better people. they do not necessarily result in improved quality. Quality comes from better inspection. To achieve quality.” Deming’s Model Deming was the founder of the modern Quality movement. A system cannot understand itself. Suppliers must feel that they are our Partners. to interactions between people. Once the individual understands the system of profound knowledge. Examples of old-style tools are inspection. The author argues the first step is transformation of the individual. The transformation requires a view from outside which he calls a system of profound knowledge. 8. Quality means hitting preset goals. Quality can be achieved with the people we have-imply by leading and training them differently. Quality means continuous improvement. which comes from understanding of the system of profound knowledge. Its principle objective is: “Catch bad quality. TQM Quality saves money and time. Quality is built in from the start. the QC people are responsible for inspecting produced and procured products and measuring their quality. Only 100 percent will do. 7.
4. on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust. Instead. Move toward a single supplier for any one item. Western management must awaken to the challenge. during the1950s unbelievers in the USA alleged that Deming’s ideas conflicted directly and philosophically with the dominant American model of operation: management by objectives (MBO) and management by exception (MBE). Deming proposed 14 points (Deming. 1984. 3. 7. and to provide jobs. 5. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. with the aim to become competitive and to stay in business. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. minimize total cost. and thus constantly decrease costs. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service. Institute leadership. Institute training on the job. Yet. One need not be eminent in any part nor in all four parts in order to understand it and to apply it. The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management is in need of overhaul as well as supervision of production workers. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place. Adopt the new philosophy. he (1984) suggested the following principles for quality: Deming’s 14 Points 1. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service. . To implement TQM into any business. Deming. to improve quality and productivity. 6. and government follow naturally as application of this outside knowledge. In TQM. and take on leadership for change. 1986). an American. supplemented and redirected to produce quality throughout an organization. for transformation from the present style of Western management to one of optimization. all related to each other: • • • • Dr. must learn their responsibilities. Edward Deming certainly helped influence this method of operating known by many as the father of total quality. is credited with influencing Japan’s rise as an industrial power. We are in a new economic age. 2. education.• • Continually teach other people Help people to pull away from their current practice and beliefs and move into the new philosophy without a feeling of guilt about the past Appreciation for a system Knowledge about variation Theory of knowledge Psychology The layout of profound knowledge appears here in four parts. The 14 points for management in industry. Thus. old-style practices are modified.
14. A manager of people needs to understand that all people are different. Long-Term vs. The transformation is everybody's job. Additionally. and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Define top management's permanent commitment to ever-improving quality and productivity. He needs to understand that the performance of anyone is governed largely by the system that he works in and the responsibility of management. Drive out fear. A typical example might be that a TQM organization would look at downsizing as having effects over a decade or two. while a traditional organization would look only at the immediate budgetary issues. The various segments of the system of profound knowledge proposed here cannot be separated. Customer-Driven vs. this is not always easy. to foresee problems of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service. in many cases moving to a customer-driven organization can yield many positive results for government departments. being customer-based means gathering information from customers/clients and modifying services and processes to meet those needs as well as possible. design. TQM In the Public Eye 1. Substitute leadership. They interact with each other. 9. and their obligation to implement all these principles. knowledge of psychology is incomplete without knowledge of variation. Hence. Break down barriers between departments. including annual appraisals and Management by Objectives. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. Eliminate slogans. successful TQM organizations make a long-term commitment to the . 1998. Thus. 2. 11. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships. sales. 10. 12. exhortations. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to joy of workmanship. Institute a vigorous program to encourage education and self-improvement. rather than what is wanted and expected by their customers. 13. and the multiple customers/stakeholders involved in government situations. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. letting future chips fall where they may. while the TQM organizations tend to think in much larger time spans. This is not ranking people. as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the work force. and production must work as a team. so that everyone may work effectively for the company. Short-Term Orientation The traditional organizations tend to think and plan with respect to short-term outcomes. He notes that in government. People in research. However.8. due to the conflicting responsibilities of a department. Company-Driven (Bacal. 1997) suggests that a traditional organizations tend to make their decisions based on what is most convenient for them.
Continuous Improvement vs. Opinion-Driven Traditional organizations tend to be managed by gut feel. Employees are told what to do. Traditional organizations consider waste. TQM organizations are very active in identifying wasteful activities. except that often it is broken. and guess at the costs of waste. 5. don't fix it". and eliminating them. not with the solution. and have a different reporting structure (Bacal.. administrative staff may have little communication with other staff in a government branch. 3. employees are much more actively involved in both the decisionmaking and communication processes. Or. something with a beginning and end. there is more use of cross-functional teams. . on waste. Tolerance of Waste Most organizations operate with a high degree of waste and inefficiency. Rather than trying to prevent problems. as a normal part of their operation. 6. The watchword in traditional organizations is: "if it isn’t broke. 7. Fortressed Departments The old traditional organizations tend to have sub-units that work autonomously and with little communication or involvement with other units. The use of cross-functional teams means that input is gained from parts of the organization that need to be involved. Top-Down Hierarchy Traditional organizations tend to have very restricted communication and decision. etc. rather than being included in figuring out what to do. TQM organizations begin with the data. on customer needs. While judgment is always involved in any decision. rather than looking at TQM as a program. they catch them after the fact. whether it is in time. 4. but nobody is paying any attention. Information flows both top to bottom and bottom to top. Bacal believes this requires patience. on costs. 1998). and are constantly engaged in problem-solving to make things better. Data-Driven vs. Elimination of Waste vs. For example. They guess at what their customers want. High Employee Participation vs. Information tends to flow from top to bottom. Inspection In traditional organizations. personnel may have only limited interaction with other departments. with representation from a number of units or levels in the organization.making patterns. 8. For that matter. materials. In TQM organizations.principles of TQM. In TQM organizations. on a local level. problems are fixed after the fact. Fire Fighting Bacal states that traditional organizations tend to address problems with the way they do things only when there is a major problem or crisis. TQM organizations are always looking for improvement. etc. TQM organizations work to prevent problems and errors. and on the sources of problems. Cross-Function Teams vs. information also flows sideways. rather than simply fixing them. TQM organizations base their decisions on data they collect. which is very costly. Prevention vs. teams convened for a particular purpose or purposes. or by opinion.
2000. Problem-Solving vs. a swatch watch can have as high a quality as a Rolex watch but the cost will not be the same. Blame Traditional organizations tend to look to affix blame for things that go wrong.9. it would have better performance quality comparing to a Swatch watch in the sense that the battery would probably last longer. TQM organizations tend to see problems as a result of the entire system Bacal. There are probably a number of other comparisons to be made. etc. Most companies will not always provide the highest quality (exclusive item) performance. tracked. High quality means free from defects. Total Quality Management and its Benefits: Model of the TQM Process Inputs Customers Wants Needs Expectations Process Total Quality Management Outputs Satisfied customer . First of all. the company has to decide the level or quality that would support the product’s position in the target market. TQM organizations attack the problems in their organizations rather than the people. unrelated to other part of the organization. Leadership vs. disciplined. An example is the Rolex watch. and that sub. TQM organizations exhibit more confidence in staff and more trust. If a customer’s expectations were not reached because for instance they feel they spent too much money comparing to the satisfaction they obtained from the good or service it would mean they probably not purchase the product again. In this case. 10. High quality standards are there to ensure that customers will stay with your products and trust the company because after all without customers companies would no longer exist so companies have to do their utmost best to satisfy their customers. Management Traditional organizations tend to see people as objects to be managed and told what to do. 1998).units are interdependent. not less. Isolation Traditional organizations tend to see the parts and processes of their organization as single things. It can consistency deliver the quality that customers expected and would pay for (p 226). as they know a few customers would want or can purchase it (Armstrong. Quality Quality perhaps is the most significant element of a product and service therefore also of a company in order to keep customers pleased and so is a direct link to customer satisfaction. and expect MORE from them. Product quality has two dimensions. They fix things. What is meant here with product quality is the performance quality meaning how the product is able to perform its functions. et al. 11. That's a good starting point. Systems Thinking vs. TQM organizations tend to recognize that most often.. which are level and consistency. p226). but that gives us some common ground for discussion. less likely to break etc. problems arise as a result of multiple causes.
Someone will have to fix the defect. makes sure that when a company designs a product or service. Quality is constantly changing and it is the task of TQM to keep up with it. will suddenly be producing by other companies. a car that consumers considered reliable in the past is now of average quality. be creative. a renewed importance of quality has created a global quality movement. . companies have to stay creative and continually think of ways to improve the product in order to satisfy the growing modern customer (www. and can be trusted with pointing out the errors that may occur. TQM also emphasizes on detecting possible problems in a product before they actually occur because if it is not detected before the problem occurs. In order for all the other benefits to occur. Many companies treat the suppliers with coldness and even often with hostility. Another benefit or TQM is continuous improvement. If a customer finds the defect.com Over the past 10 years.deliveri. each using their expertise to explain how the problem occurred and how to resolve it.com).Organizedchange. This entails a more democratic way of managing for motivation. This will cause the managers to become more like leaders and move from an autocratic way of interacting with employees. A two-way communication path is established and any problems that may arise between the supplier and the firm can be solved together.com). TQM also requires the management to empower its employees and encourage them to work hard. this could mean the loss of a customer and the spread of bad news to many other customers through bad publicity. the empowerment and motivation of employees will firstly have to exist so that there will be an atmosphere of trust and innovation (www. This is to ensure the best standard or quality for the product or service being made.www. Hence. the marketing department. This benefit of TQM leads to the prevention of waste through returned good from the supplier (www. But companies that implement TQM have a different relationship with the suppliers.com). and that the employees are continuously inspecting while working (www. which was Total Quality Management or TQM. finding the major problem.com). and stay focus so that they will be innovative.organizedchange. TQM emphasizes on cooperating with suppliers of products and services and focusing on customer satisfaction (see diagram above). focusing on delivering a quality product to its customers. For example.americanquality.com). programs. They ask for input of customers. causing extra time and of course. TQM. Many companies implemented a major strategy for achieving high quality standards. so consumers are no longer fascinated by it. the company will have to hire extra people to inspect. it is not so much an outcome as a never-ending process of continually improving the quality of what the company produces. With this quality. “efforts to constantly improve product and process quality in every phase or their operations” (www. therefore. and those that assemble and produce the product.educesoft. They treat their suppliers like business partners and both sides. they provide maximum quality. An unusual feature that only your organization once produced. TQM has a variety of benefits that encourages many firms to implement the program.organizedchange.
Another reason why TQM is failing is because it is not aligned with the organizational culture. a country like the United Arab Emirates or an Arabian or Latin American country where the firms focus mainly on a top-down management (pyramid style of authoritative control).com). American business leaders raced to adopt these methods for improving customer satisfaction. operations efficiency and employee productivity. However. hoping to regain American supremacy of product and service quality on the world market. they drop the program and try something else (www. the communication flow needs to exist smoothly from top-down and down top and bottom up. values and expectations. Failures of Total Quality Management: “TQM is a risk venture. that Total Quality Management or TQM is a program designed to constantly improve the quality of products. collaboration and the creative ideas of employees. and the failure to implement it correctly can leave a company much worse off than it was before it even considered the process” (www. It is vital to continuously improve quality has a direct impact on product or service performance and therefore closely linked to customer satisfaction. which takes a lot of time. Since TQM requires teamwork. 2002) reprinted an article published by Mescon and Mescon.com).” (Total Quality…). individual employees opinions and ideas are not valued.americanquality. and is sometimes implemented in a culture where it is not accepted. Most companies wait for about six months and if they do not see enough positive results.com) . TQM arrived from Japan in the 1970´s and was greeted with a roar of welcome. It should be implemented for the primary reason of improving the quality of the product or service and to gain customers. or it will lead to a failure (www. TQM would not be implemented successfully. as management seem to think it is a simple process and implement it without putting any thought into it. what should not be forgotten is that it took the Japanese ten to fifteen years before they actually saw any improvements done by TQM. The American Society for Quality Control defines quality as the “Total benefits. services or marketing processes. 2000). Nonetheless. Therefore. and patience that companies do not have. features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy the customer needs” (Armstrong et al. TQM also tends to fail as companies seem to see the program as a quick-cureto-all the company’s problems.americanquality. this definition does create a summary efficiently enough. A study by Ernst and Young showed that TQM was “not consistently providing the results anticipated by American companies.Total Quality Management: Its Benefits and Failures The Atlanta Business Chronicle (June 4. “So contagious was this enthusiasm that Newsweek dubbed TQM the American business cult of the 1980´s” (Total Quality…). For instance. today the hopes and optimism has decreased as TQM has been reported to decline. This is perhaps the first weakness of TQM as a process. and many may have wasted million of dollars each year on quality improvement strategies that do not improve.decpoint. Though the term quality has no universally accepted definition.
(D’Silva. management which uses both technology and the theory of knowledge to gain insights into systems and psychology. therefore. widespread adoption of ISO 9000 started to take place among the manufacturing companies. costly and complex. but. it is management. The compliance with ISO 9000 standards was not easy for the service environment as the ISO 9000 was written from a manufacturing viewpoint. Companies in Asian countries that exported their products to Europe were among the first to adopt ISO 9000 quality management standards. Many Fortune 500 firms such as IBM. where there were many changes to the systems and documents in the company (Prajogo. 1999). However. Hewlett-Packard. team oriented. a huge demand for quality professionals in Asia and overseas. a wonderful. Additionally. Measurement Systems Analysis Statistical Process Control.Continuous Improvement Total Quality is the most important. Continuous Improvement and Standardization (Daily Management) Standardization was given a major boost in the early 1990's when ISO 9000 became widely accepted as a basic minimum that companies needed to . 1998) argues that the larger and more "universal" is QS9000. The understanding of variation is a given. to cope with the needs of both the private and public sectors. Later implementations of ISO 9000 was made easier as more companies. Their "QOS" (Quality Operating System) had many of the elements of QS9000 prior to the emergence of the standard. Southwest Airlines. GE. thought-provoking revolution in the world of modern management. Quality Systems Assessment. ISO 9000 is useful for companies intending to implement TQM for the first time or planning to go for the Malcolm Balrige quality system in the company. certifiers and consultants learned from their early mistakes. and Production Part Approval Process. The elements of the automotive quality system (read operating system for manufacturers of automotive parts) begin with advanced quality planning and end with continuous improvement by cross-functional teams. Motorola. GM. 2000). A sense of quality awareness now exists in many organizations. Initial implementers of ISO 9000 for both the service and manufacturing industries met with difficulties in maintaining the quality management system. The ISO 9000 implementation required much documentation and was laborious. which is a small price to pay to achieve standards. good management. system of profound knowledge extension of the basic checkpoint standards of ISO 9000. ISO 9000 standards became an external checklist for companies embarking on quality management as the standards gave companies a systematic way to implement TQM. which were the required standards for products to be admitted into Europe in the late 1980s (Heng. and Disney to name a few have committed themselves to Total Quality Management. Now. FedEx. Ford. For instance. Wal-Mart. Advanced Product Quality Planning Reference Manual. When companies realized that successful certification of their goods could be used as a marketing tool. this is not "TQM". Ford applies Deming more thoroughly than the other automotive companies. There is. He states that companies should invest in documents that deal with QS9000 Standard. owing to the international adoption of ISO 9000 as the Quality Standard for the purchase of goods and services.
6. Good team activity includes a clear definition of project. correct use of experts . power . The processes that produce good results are standardized and documented. 5. 2. This led AT&T to giving preference to suppliers that were ISO certified (ATT. then improvements tend to slip. evaluated work. and ideas for future improvements. AT&T initially undertook ISO compliance as a way to keep and grow business in Europe. focus . results. contributing to discussions. variation is increased rather than reduced. This process of continuous improvement makes it possible to reduce variations and lower defects to near zero. The work of the team is accomplished by creating work plans.do to sell products in the European Union. evaluating potential solutions.the boss is on the team and people don't speak openly. Individual and Teams Roles and responsibilities Teamwork is critical to effective continuous improvement and standardization. you need to agree on a purpose. Successful teams also must master potential problems: 1. having productive meetings. A team must know when its work is done: it has accomplished its purpose.who speak clearly and don't dominate.people stay on the subject. Without standardization'. participation . shared results with others. it began to encourage all its suppliers to become ISO certified. actively listening to others. In 1995. 4. In getting the team off to a good start. If the process is changed the documentation is changed. the area of conflict . An important part of improvement is the teamwork.some people fight over everything. 3. AT&T discovered that its ISO certified suppliers had half as many defects as non-ISO certified suppliers. When AT&T realized how ISO improved its own processes. it was a major boost to standardization. ground rules and logistics of when and where to meet. Then data is gathered to see how the new approach works (Check or study) and then the improvement is either implemented or a decision is made to try something else (Act).all participate in an equal fashion. took steps to maintain the gains (improvement and profits). making good decisions. Because it required a documentation of key processes and provided a regular audit to see that processes were followed as documented. Individuals can support the team by taking responsibility for the success of the team following through on commitments. 1991 1992). identify limits and expectations of team's work. If an organization lacks this standardization. follow-through . giving useful feedback. getting your message across clearly. agree on roles and responsibilities. implementing changes and documenting its work. completed documentation of actions. The improvement is tried (Do). The continuous improvement uses a process that follows the plan-do check-act cycle.everyone does his or her assignments. accepting feedback easily. The documented processes are followed. The situation is analyzed and the improvement is planned (Plan). identify people who will be effected by the work of the team (stake holders). using data. Business Reengineering . recognized everyone's contributions and celebrated achievements.
family income etc. Gurus on Quality Control and Management The Human Side of the Enterprise The way an organization runs (McGregor. Hammer and Champy (1993) are the main proponents of the concept that businesses can be reviewed afresh and changed drastically by linking it with the strategic vision and mission of the company. from: 1. • Organization theory. and privatization of public services was Drucker (1994) theory on management. self-confidence. 3. 1960) depends on the beliefs of its managers: Behind every managerial decision or action are assumptions about human nature and human behavior'. "Theory X" and "Theory Y" • • Motivation research and its practical implementation is key to successful management practice Pyramid of human needs (see also Abraham Maslow's similar hierarchy of needs in motivation). safety and security needs. For a while.The installations of information technology and computer systems are often associated with changes in organizations. In this company. dislike work and need mixture of financial inducements and threat of loss of their job to make them work (carrot and stick' mentality) This theory has a negative view of human behavior linked to management. including sense of economic security 4. They are viewed as lazy. Theory Y: the opposite of Theory X – believes that people want to fulfill themselves and seek self-respect. there were many examples where time and costs were saved when businesses were reviewed in totality. this relatively “new” concept was popularized by stories of successful implementation at Ford Motor Company. need direction and control. self-development and self-fulfillment at work as in life in general. at the highest level: 5. Hammer and Champy (1993) decided that the mental and physical paradigms could be shifted and reconfigured. old mental and physical constraints that management used to work with. workplace. This change is what they called re-engineering. `social needs': acceptance by one's peers. self-respect. The key difference in business reengineering was to view the business situation and formulate solutions by breaking away from established paradigms. basic physiological needs. and are incapable of taking responsibility. including arguing for radical decentralization within organizations. to 2. the giving and receiving of affection egoistic needs': self-fulfillment and self-development • Theory X assumes most people are basically immature. and finally. He believes that a corporation should: • Scientific management needed .
of which he has become increasingly critical over the years Three key roles for any manager within any organization or unit of it: 1. show these qualities only spasmodically and somewhat irregularly. Taylor (1964) principal object of management is to secure maximum prosperity for the employer. he has recently produced a substantial and devastating critique of the failure of the type of the strategic management currently being heavily promoted in the UK government and its agencies.• • • • • • • • • • • • Decentralization as the principle of effectiveness and the key to productivity and effectiveness Emphasis on high quality personnel management Education. He proposed four great underlying principles of scientific management: o There is a need to develop a `science of work to replace old rule-ofthumb methods: pay and other rewards linked to achievement of . coupled with maximum prosperity for the employee.even moral phenomena . and of strategic management and planning . training and development of the manager for future needs High quality information (especially managerial accounting) as the key to successful decision-making Emphasis on marketing (in both for-profit and non-profit sectors) Need for long-range planning Management based on objective-setting Management by results Even "for-profit" business organizations should be viewed as human and social structures . focus on the information.rather than economic ones "One cannot manage change. not costs. Interpersonal: 2. including those in the cultural sector. not the technology that collects it Knowledge workers must be seen as capital assets. while knowledge workers must manage themselves and their careers Mintzberg (1983. Informational: 3. and ingenuity but under even the best of the older type of management. 1975) studies of the nature of management work. He believes that management and workforce are interdependent and workers are inherently capable of hard work. Decisional: Always somewhat skeptical about heavy-handed strategic corporate planning. good will. One can only be ahead of it" In the "new information revolution".
o Workers to be scientifically selected and developed: training each to be first-class at some specific task The science of work to be brought together with scientifically selected and trained to achieve the best results Work and responsibility to be divided equally between workers and management cooperating together in close interdependence o o Hence. It is used at the end (check) part of the change process to see whether the change has resulted in a permanent improvement.optimum goals . Many experts and gurus on quality control recommend methods and techniques for TQM. Causes and Effect Diagram The cause and effect diagram is also called the fishbone chart because of its appearance and the Ishakowa chart after the man who popularized its use in Japan. It is helpful to indicate on the chart whether up is good or down is good. . this report has led me to research the many strategies and principles used in quality management. 2. King (1989) suggests seven quality control tools for continuous improvement and effective planning as illustrated below.measures of work performance and output. For example. This tool is used at the beginning of the change process to see what the problems are. The lines coming off the core horizontal line are the main causes and the lines coming off those are sub causes. Run Chart The run chart shows the history and pattern of variation. Its most frequent use is to list the cause of particular problems. Tools used in TQM 1. failure to achieve these would in contrast result in loss of earnings.
The box indicates action items and the diamond indicates decision points. For example. The circle symbol indicates the beginning or end of the process. do colds increase? The closer the points hug a diagonal line the more closely there is a one to one relationship. 4. Flow Chart The flowchart lists the order of activities. . Scatter Diagram The scatter diagram shows the pattern of relationship between two variables that are thought to be related.3. is there a relationship between outside temperature and cases of the common cold? As temperatures drop. A beneficial technique is to map the ideal process and the actual process and identify the differences as targets for improvements.
Histogram The histogram is a bar chart showing a distribution of variables. It is based on the work of Shewhart and Deming.5. An example would be to line up by height a group of people in a course. It shows where to put your initial effort to get the most gain. the Italian economist who determined that wealth is not evenly distributed. . 6. Normally one would be the tallest and one would be the shortest and there would be a cluster of people around an average height. By mathematically constructing control limits at 3 standard deviations above and below the average. This tool is a graphical picture of the most frequent causes of a particular problem. the phrase "normal distribution. Some of the people have most of the money. Hence. one can determine what variation is due to normal ongoing causes (common causes) and what variation is produced by unique events (special causes). Pareto Chart The Pareto shows the distribution of items and arranges them from the most frequent to the least frequent with the final bar being misc. Control Chart The control chart is a line chart with control limits. 7." This tool helps identify the cause of problems in a process by the shape of the distribution as well as the width of the distribution. The tool is named after Wilfredo Pareto. Eliminating the special causes first and then reducing common causes can improve quality.
“Just as management is a universal process. regardless of size. large or small. one of the prime advocates of MBO along with Peter . encourage competition rather than cooperation. entrepreneurship and organizational theory -. of the charges and thought it might be helpful to restate certain of our beliefs (Mescon and Mescon. “It should be clearly understood that we've never shortchanged concepts such as TQM or MBO. often unintentionally. private or public. structure and people. More specifically traditional performance management systems can foster a lack of collective responsibility for the achievement of organizational goals. “Recently. the use of real-life illustrations. we were soundly whacked by a reader for a potpourri of evils almost too numerous to mention. total quality management and management by objectives. Our quarrel is with those who fail to implement. resulting in a reduction of the credibility of the manager. fail to execute properly. i.(http://www. but not all. Critical elements in all organizations. we have a passion for oversimplification. rotten grammar and bad breathe. 1993. denigrating concepts such as TQM and MBO.agree that this is the case. we are disappointed and frustrated when we cannot "get to the bottom of things.. Just as important is that traditional performance management purports to empower employees. The performance management system conveys to people in an organization how work is to be performed. include goals. values and organizational culture." Not so incidentally. They are theoretically sound. They included comparing big business with smaller endeavors. We are soundly guilty of oversimplification.e. How well we recall George Odiorne. i. organizations are far more similar than dissimilar. We will plead guilty to some. allow self-control and self-evaluation. and subversion of the manager' s ability to lead.goalqpc.as well as their practitioners -. Frankly.e. The article continue to argue that. More often than not these results do NOT occur. and can impede the development of effective teamwork. 2002). and increase the meaningfulness of work. profit or not-for-profit. allow participation and involvement. and communicates. June 4. As a matter of fact. our students feel the same way.” (Atlanta Business Chronicle. all managers perform the same essential functions. Success or failure: The truth about business “ The Atlanta Business Chronicle wrote. 2002).. p14). More and more students of management.com) Is There A Downside to Performance Management? Is it possible that traditional performance management programs cause problems for an organization? The answer is a resounding yes (Bacal. oversimplification.
When misused. Poka-Yoke is a Japanese term that means. "Many practitioners were ruining a great organizational tool by attempting to talk quality into place. but in the process employees have been alienated and management creditability has been strained. which eventually cause defects such as: *Cultural factors: awareness. Accordingly. “mistake proofing” in Japanese. But Poka yoke is really all about .. Applicable Tool: Design for manufacturability (DFX). Poka-Yoke is usually a set of techniques and procedures that prevent mistakes from happening or warn when mistakes happen.. Applicable Tool: Poka Yoke! Hence. “Avoid errors”. tools such as MBO and TQM have made organizations more effective. Furthermore. Poka Yoke (pronounced poh. It is essentially a set of rules and techniques designed to mistake proof a process or a product. etc. incentives. 2. reward systems. and eradicating flaws is the ultimate goal. A product or process designed and carefully planned in a way that an error cannot be possibly made. A company will never do well if the customers are unsatisfied. There are varieties of factors.”. the application of Poka yoke principally relies on the initial process of identifying errors or defects. 2) Poka Yoke has resulted in substantial improvement to quality and cycle time in many manufacturing industries and other businesses. It is not possible to prevent all the possible ways of failure. and the level of dedication that individuals and organizations attach to their work. who lamented. This is why various quality control systems have been created. Applicable Tools: Formation of teams. Plan the operation in such a way that an error does not arise in the first place. this is why this technique is in use very commonly and new fail-proof devices are still invented (“A Tutorial on . this mistakeproofing objective is accomplished by following two vital principles: 1. Properly implemented.” Poka-Yoke Japanese Quality Management Introduction: Customers in general expect a certain quality when they are spending money.. not only has none of the aforementioned been accomplished. *Mistakes or human errors caused by incorrect intentions or unintended outcomes from execution of correct intentions. that any possible defect becomes obvious to the user and is immediately corrected. Moreover. A product designed so well planned. managing commitment and driving out fear *Complexity factors such as the number of separate parts and lack of commonality. One of them is the Poka-Yoke Japanese quality control management. efficient and profitable.kah yoh kay) fundamentally means. Introduce an incentive system to encourage worker to be more careful and observant. a manager has mainly two options: 1. and 2. it is now undoubtedly evident that errors cause certain defects possible during the course of production and these are by and large human errors. attitude.Drucker and Douglas McGregor.
Yet errors will not turn into defects if feedback and action take place at the error stage" (p.. mistake proofing is a low-cost option for any company who wants to ensure endquality products. Shingo’s Solution: He suggested that each worker should have a dish in front on him with two springs already in it so that there is no possibility of forgetting to insert the spring under the push button. because some products which remained untested. The First Poka Yoke Device: On a visit to the Yamada Electric plant in 1961. It follows that mistakes will not turn into defects if worker errors are discovered and eliminated beforehand"(Shingo 1986. the two have a cause-and-effect relationship. an industrial engineer at Toyota.50). was a leading advocate of the Japanese manufacturing industry’s statistical process control.preventing errors before they turn into defects. Poka-Yoke is about finding mistakes at a glance and avoids them. Shingo’s solution to the problem became the first poka yoke device (Process Improvement …. He even says that "Defects arise because errors are made. Shingo recognized three types of inspection: judgment inspection. 1). “The causes of defects lie in worker errors. Judgment inspection is referred to as “inspecting in quality. The invention of Poka-Yoke is accredited to the late industrial engineer for Toyota. the error used to remain undetected until it reached the customer. He writes. It worked! When using Poka-Yoke. will always reach the customer and would have a certain number of defects.” and identifying the defect out of the acceptable product. 2).. the desired results become inevitable. 82). The term poka yoke comes from the Japanese work “Poka” which mean unintentional mistake and “Yoke” which means to prevent. At times. In addition. in a Poka yoke system. this is a . and source inspection. Historical Background of Poka Yoke Shigeo Shingo invented poka-yoke in the 1960s. In addition. this was the problem: The Product: Part of the product that had the problem was a small switch with two push buttons supported by two springs. p. and defects are the results of neglecting those errors. Shingo was told of a problem that the factory had with one of its products. . the prime objective is to constantly thwart errors right from the beginning or core (“A Tutorial on …”. a worker in the assembly section used to make the mistake of forgetting to fit a spring under each of the two buttons. This type of inspection is done to identify defective products before they are released for distribution. Therefore. To give clarity. Shingo came up with the idea of poka yoke when he realized that statistical control procedures would never reduce product defects to zero. This problem was turning out to be expensive and awkward for the factory. Shingo. Shigeo Shingo. informative inspection. The Problem: Once in a while.
inspections are conducted. self-inspection. informative. Hence. For any service. and changes can be made on the spot. having the workers to check the quality of their own work ensures much better quality. quality is ensured at each step and the final product is defect free. In addition. a map or plan of the service is necessary so mistakes can be identified and corrected easily. Once a mistake is detected. source. and that it would be possible to eliminate defects entirely by pursuing the cause. judgment. Self-checks and successive checks should be used when source inspection cannot be done or when the process is not advanced enough to develop source inspection techniques. The chart should include information like the directions the customers receive. exchanged.traditional and expensive way of maintaining quality. Shingo remarks: “It had dawned on me that the occurrence of a defect was the result of some condition or action. Finally. He . Shingo believed that source inspection is the ideal method of quality control since quality feedback about conditions for quality production is obtained before the process step is performed.” It became clearly evident. the customer’s service request. Poka-Yoke is a process for which the desired outcome is inevitable. uses data gained from previous inspection to modify the production process and prevent the defect from reoccurring. Again. For example. source inspection called “before the event” determines whether the conditions for high quality product exist. Shingo places inspection techniques in three categories: 1. At each stage of the process. Source inspection is intended to keep defects from occurring. Devices are made that ensure that all the conditions are met before beginning production. the first step would be to review each stage of the service process and identify where and when failure occur. the entire concept of source inspection is based on determining whether the necessary conditions for quality production exist. Consequently. Zero Quality Control: Source Inspection and the Poka-Yoke System Shingo et al (1989) describes the process by which he developed mistake proofing or "zero quality control" (ZQC) as seminal. This way. and 3. 2. Two places are more likely to contain problems. informative inspection also called “after the event” inspection. the feedback is quicker. This may call for source inspection. the next step is to trace through the process to find its source. Moreover. General Steps in the Fail-Safing Process First of all. and understood. or both customer and server should inspect the production together. and the nature of customer feedback. Self-checks and successive checks provide feedback about the outcomes of the process. that the elimination of defects from the production process will be more effective if the operating and working conditions are checked before hand. the order could be repeated to ensure that the correct information was accessed. Shingo cautioned against “judgment inspection” and did not consider it a quality management approach. Fundamentally. Secondly. the final step would be to set up a fail-safe system that stops each mistake from reoccurring. One is during a one-on-one service and the other place is when the customer is handed off to another person or stage of the service. most poka yoke devices are designed to ensure proper conditions before the commencement of production (Process Improvement …1).
notification. They manipulate and probe the data in a series of lengthy detailed tables. They divide mistake proofing into prevention of occurrence and minimization of effects. Shingo identified three setting functions: contact. (1985) study 1014 mistake-proofing devices on assembly lines. The motion-step method checks the precedence relationship of the process to insure steps are conducted in the correct order. Example: Shingo’s ZQC Plotted costs of devices The Principles of Fool Proofing and their Application in Manufacturing Nakajo et al. A Regulatory function is any cue or attention-getting signal about the status of the product or process. The setting function is linked to a regulatory function. The contact method checks to insure the physical attributes of the product or process are correct and error-free. and mitigation. Regulatory functions that control the process and keep it from proceeding (control methods) are more powerful than those that simply provide a warning (warning methods) are. setting functions. For example: Elimination: remove the possibility of error Replacement: replacing an error-prone process with a mistake-proof process Facilitation: making correct actions easier through mechanisms like color-coding . and facilitation. or cue to the worker that a process parameter or a product attribute is incorrect. which is a warning. Prevention of occurrence includes elimination.categorizes his ZQC techniques along three dimensions: Inspection techniques. A setting function checks a process parameter or a product attribute. Minimization of effects includes detection. The fixed value method facilitates checking that matched sets of resources are available when needed or that the correct number of repetitions has occurred. Each is further subdivided. and motionstep. and regulatory functions. The inspection method determines when the inspection occurs and what is inspected. replacement. fixed-value. the product or the process.
How much of the system is going to be studied is an example of boundary. It is impossible to satisfy everyone. To change the product. bring out problems. that is. Focus. making issues such as bottlenecks important. services. communicate expectations. or changes in the customers’ taste. P35). or under what conditions should the problems be studied. An intermediate customer is one who uses the output of the process and does not totally consuming the product or service. metrics tell you about the performance of the process. Items outside the boundaries are left for other people to focus on. On the other hand. because he or she is going to decide whether the product or service meets their need. making them interdependent (P35). They are critical because they help measure progress. Time Compression Focus means that boundaries of the problem need to be established and that one should not go beyond these boundaries. a process is a collection of activities. expectation or desires. The Customer At the end. you should be able to calculate the measure and arrive at the same result.Detection: inspect product for agreement with standard. they determine what the firm can do and cannot do. Metrics must be verifiable. but they are often overlooked. the customer is all that matters. specific problems that they can . 1993. structure and capacity determine the resources that the process requires to accomplish its transformation. the consumer uses or consumes the product or service. Metrics Metrics play an essential role in processes. information. Processes are critical because they define the products and services the firm produces. External customers are positioned outside the firm. The internal customer uses the outputs of the process as inputs for the firm. competition. These changes can be due because of technological advancement. For example. Secondly. Process A process is a “collection of activities that transforms inputs into an output that offers value to the customer” (Hammer et al . Developing Poka-Yoke Processes Maintaining a good “alignment” is difficult because both the customers’ demands and the firms’ capabilities are continuously changing. Every firm and every process deals with numerous customers. Fourth. Focus is necessary to ensure that people have well-defined. internal and external. Moreover. but the critical customers should be identified and at least their needs should be met. knowledge. Each of these has their own demands and needs towards the firm. Urgency. third. Two sorts of customers are present. benchmarking is a way of evaluating the company’s performance. First. successive or self-check Mitigation: allowing the mistake to occur but minimize the consequences (Tsuda’s preventing the influence of mistakes). processes are linked to other processes both vertically and horizontally. the management has to change the responsible processes. They can be further classified as either intermediate customers or consumers. a process transforms inputs into outputs like goods. and define operational value for the customer.
5. Hospitals use Poka-Yoke very widely because they cannot afford any mistakes. Reengineering the Corporation). Determine how improve the process. Identify critical processes. let us look at some examples that we see in our daily lives. Convert those attributes into correct metrics. Implement changes. Finally. all requests for extension should be refused. Categories and Characteristics of Poka Yoke Devices Poka-Yoke Examples Now that you have discovered what Poka-Yoke quality management is about. Moreover. there is time compression. the deadline should not be too far in the future. the trays for surgical instruments have indentations for each . Identify the customers and determine the critical customers. Identify the critical aspects of the product. For example. and losers. Most projects require that specific deadlines be set if the project is to succeed. Generate an action list. (Hammer at al. Urgency demands that people should be assigned to a specific area with reoccurring problems during the “life” of the project. 10.address. Repeat the process. Evaluate the process using previous set of metrics. The table below. Document the process. 4. Pay attention to these customers and prioritize the different attributes into three categories: winners. This procedure is a cycle that begins with the customer at the start and keeps refining the process so it fulfills the needs of the customer. 9. and secondly. 8. qualifiers. 2. 7. 11. how the four building blocks are incorporated in this 11-step procedure. 3. The Process (Table 1) 1. 6.
Prevention Devices Examples: This type of device is designed in such a way that mistakes cannot possibly be made.Chrysler. treats are necessary in certain cases. A bank ensures that the teller has eye contact with the customers by asking the teller to note down the eye color of each customer. We encounter Poka-yokes in our daily lives because they are so common and do not require too much time to put in place. Sometimes fail-safing the customer is a better option. should it be when we refuel our cars. The fueling area of car has three mistakeproofing devices: 1. Gas cap is fitted with a ratchet that signals proper tightness and prevents overtightening. This way the surgeon knows that all the instruments are out before he closes the incision. Some of the employees are asked to note if the customer is smiling back and to use opening lines ranging from information to customer preferences. PokaYoke is widely used around the world because it needs a little bit of ingenuity. If the nurse has medication left after her round. Since the customer comes first. www. it is cost effective and simple to put in place. smiling makes the customer feel welcomed and more comfortable. she knows that she has missed a patient or the doctor has made a mistake. Using a Poka-Yoke method in a product or a service is the best way to ensure quality. each patient’s medication is prepackaged with the correct dosage before it is placed on the cart.com .instrument. go to the supermarket and even when we check-in a hotel. A yes or no questionnaire is a good example. On the medication cart. acknowledgment. Invitations include a dress code on them. the customer is led through simple questions. In restaurants and other places. 2. 3. leaded-fuel nozzle from being inserted. We encounter this fail-safe type of control in our daily lives. Gas cap tether does not allow the motorist to drive off without the cap. Airline and other lavatories have an “occupied” sign preventing the person to enter when someone else is in. Dental surgeons send reminders to their patients about their meetings. Filling pipe insert keeps larger. eye contact.
if you don't practice the change management that looks after the future. it's hard to look ahead..The tendency for successful companies to fail to innovate is just that: a tendency. the future will not look after you. along with the fact that the diskette is not square. Companies. (Using Poka Yoke …3). that it signals the user when a mistake occurs. like any living organism." To determine the improvements to . According to Bill Gates. • They are always a part of the process. re-usable and cost-effective. simple. The constant formation of new units within a corporation is one means of gearing up to change. This feature.. A microwave does not work if the door is open. An example would be: The small dish used in the Yamada Plant. so that the problem can be solved in time. must become learning organizations that change and adapt to suit their changing business environment. ". • They are placed close to where the mistake is done.A floppy disk will not enter the disk drive in any other direction than the correct way.. This is as far as a disk can be inserted upside-down. specific. A signal or warning signs in the car if a door is not properly closed. Detection Devices This type of device is designed in such a way. continuous change must be a norm if your business is to survive in today's rapidly changing environment. Conclusion In conclusion. Characteristic of Poka Yoke Devices Poka yoke devices have the following characteristics: • Cheap. you should either manage change or change management. prohibits incorrect orientation.. If you're too focused on your current business. The beveled corner of the diskette pushes a stop in the disk drive out of the way allowing the diskette to be inserted.
However. mistake proofing can itself be a mistake. It has not only helped in the manufacturing process. improve quality. Today big. and following the process from the beginning until the end without rushing. If the system gets more complicated. The workers can be offended thinking that the management is treating them like idiots. 1994). and study new technology opportunities. and therefore implemented for the right reasons. Mistake proofing does not need to be expensive. A great deal of knowledge work will require high manual skill and substantial work with one’s hands such as surgeons and automobile workers. with the result that today's advanced knowledge is tomorrow's ignorance". In comparison. to the Japanese Poka-Yoke. Poka-Yoke is a method that ensures that the desired results are inevitable. Poka-Yoke processes are very widely used but other types of quality control can become necessary to supplement it and to give the firm an edge over the others. It can be noted that if Total Quality Management is introduced and applied well. Designing Poka-Yoke is part art and part science. It is a method that is widely used today. Simple and inexpensive fixes are what managers should look for. if is not employed well. that is why the process should involve everyone concerned and the steps taken should be explained. The process will go as follows: the improvement of quality will satisfy the customers and satisfied customers lead to profit for the company. costs will increase.make in response to the change. Hence. Because it is easy to understand. it will lead to failure. but a continuous response to changing circumstances. needs a little bit of ingenuity and prevents mistakes from occurring. The twentieth century brought knowledge management and intellectual capital as fundamental and core value to management. should be not a one-off event. 1994). a company has to plan well before implementing TQM as a program and should decide whether they are ready or not for the challenge. opening up opportunities for further innovation. Sustainable innovation system doesn't just help to solve a problem but creates a new capacity. New processes and methods can be more powerful in helping you to win a lasting competitive advantage. Poka-yoke can also be misapplied. and will not last into the future. Sometimes. the Poka yoke has proved o be very effective and flexible. "only creates amusement". He believes that innovation should not be limited to a new product only – be creative and modify where necessary. reducing costs. new technologies appear at shorter and shorter intervals. hard to put in place or time consuming. which to the quick eye may seem simple. but also in sales. reduce time. Innovation thus. well-known and highly esteemed companies like Chrysler Corporation and United Electric Control Ins are also using poka yoke devices in their manufacturing process. you should continuously: listen to customer feedback. Finally. stressed Drucker (1993. Using Poka-Yoke processes leads to quality. . In today's knowledge-driven world. it will have great benefits towards a company. complicated. it is low in cost to put in place. Therefore. but in actual fact is not. it became very popular in manufacturing industries outside Japan. "Knowledge constantly makes itself obsolete. which is exactly what managers are looking for. Novelty. difficulty increases and problems that were not anticipated can be created. Do not confuse innovation with novelty. and improve flexibility are the main concerns today for a good production. says Drucker. In fact. the knowledge society is which we have come to call the Age of Capitalism (Drucker. It is a continuous improvement that Japanese call Kaizen.
These teams are particularly useful when work units are dependent upon one another for materials. cross-functional teams Teams similar to quality teams but whose members are from several work units that interface with one another. Examine internal and external sources. defect Any state of nonconformance to requirements. CWQC is the equivalent of "total quality management (TQM)" in the United States. such as demographics. The concepts of continuous improvement and customer satisfaction are also embedded in the approach. customer service. benchmarking The practice of setting operating targets for a particular function by selecting the top performance levels. feedback Information from a customer about how process output meets the needs of process customers. either within or outside a company's own industry. billing. look for new ways to do things. Undoubtedly. etc. poka yoke has provided manufacturing industries with a simple. and services. cycle time The amount of time it takes to complete a particular task. opportunity and threats). Develop your company into a learning organization that "is continuously expanding its capacity to create its future. where the term "management" has roughly the same meaning as the word "control" in Japan. Definitions acceptable quality level (AQL) A concept used with sampling procedures applied to arms-and-ammunition suppliers during World War II. The concept—that some errors or defects are normal—is the antithesis of "zero defects. In a broader sense. changes in perception." which holds that the only allowable standard for quality is error-free work. fishbone diagrams . Shortening the cycle times of critical functions within a company is usually a source of competitive advantage and a key quality-improvement objective. information. AQL is the poorest quality that a supplier can provide and still be considered "acceptable" or satisfactory. company wide quality control (CWQC) An expression used widely in Japan. The researcher also suggests that organization perform a SWOT analysis (strengths. Conduct a business audit from time to time to track specific objectives in your strategic plan. reliable way of detecting errors that were previously difficult to detect through traditional methods of quality control. CWQC means the application of quality principles to all processes in a company and the involvement of all employees at all levels in the quality-improvement process. and research and development (R&D). And most of all. anticipate changes in this constantly changing global environment. products. benchmarking involves searching around the world for new ideas and best practices for the improvement of processes. warehousing. continuous quality improvement (CQI).marketing. and new knowledge. weaknesses.
This approach considers behavioral consequences of measurement to foster acceptance of measurement effort. Kaizen means gradual. services. ISO 9000 International Organization for Standardization 9000 series standards. organizations. Employee performance is evaluated based on the extent to which objectives are met. suppliers. an objective always has an associated schedule. and the factors or root causes that contribute to them.A diagram that depicts the characteristics of a problem or process. customer-driven strategy of involving everyone — both managers and workers — in the continuous improvement of products and services will lead to improved quality and productivity. The approach includes application of total quality control to eliminate quality problems as inprocess inventory is being reduced. or information required completing the activities necessary to produce a specified output (work product). . setting — and achieving — ever-higher standards. Materials or information provided to others (internal or external customers). internal failure costs The costs generated by defects found within the enterprise prior to the product reaching the external customer. measurement The act or process of measuring to compare results to requirements. By definition. and people. management by objective (MBO) A business planning approach in which each employee works with his or her manager to set annual objectives. Internal customer A downstream internal operation that depends on outputs or results of a given process. . An objective is simply a statement of what is to done and should be stated in terms of [measurable] results. objective A statement of the desired result to be achieved within a specified time." output The specified end result. Masaki Imai describes how a process-oriented. input Materials. kaizen A Japanese expression referring to continuous improvement in all phases of business. and processes that best represent quality and customer satisfaction. external customer The purchaser of a product or service. Verifiable improvement targets for processes. Supplier of quality system standards representing a consensus within the international quality community. A quantitative estimate of performance. In this classic book. doing "little things" better. Required by the recipient. unending improvement. energy. indicators Measurable characteristics of products. normative performance measurement technique Incorporates structured group processes so that work groups can design measurement systems suited for their own needs. just-in-time (JIT) inventory management Approach to achieving and maintaining minimal in-process inventory. or an employee of the business who depends on these outputs or results.
process capability The ability of a process to meet operating goals or internal. that is. process The system of tasks. process control. relatively few factors account for the majority of effects. establishing in-process and supplier requirements. and so on. process control Activities undertaken to acquire and use information during process execution to ensure — with a reasonable degree of confidence — that the process will meet its requirements and that these requirements will continue to reflect the needs of process customers. policy A statement of principles and beliefs. Emphasizes the potential for long-term process results rather than the actual results achieved. with economic factors. process optimization The major aspect of process management that concerns itself with the efficiency and productivity of the process.perceived quality A firm's market reputation for continuing excellence of products and services and for customersatisfaction. process improvement The set of activities employed to detect and remove common causes of variation in order to improve process capability. Performance is the highly effective common measurement that links the quality of the work product to efficiency and productivity. and other interdependencies that produce some specific outputs or results. and initiating improvement. how outputs or results are achieved. or a settled course. adopted to guide the overall management of affairs in support of a stated aim or goal. characterizing the process. and how value is provided to the business or customer.or external-customer requirements. the firm's good will among customers. How work is done. identifying improvement opportunities. performance A term used both as an attribute of the work product itself and as a general process characteristic. workflows. Pareto analysis A system of analysis based on the principle that. in any phenomenon. Juran uses the phrase "vital few" to suggest that it is more efficient and less costly to concentrate on the most important sources or types of failures. "Capability" may differ from actual performance due to "special causes" — conditions or events resulting purely from chance and not the production system itself. and planning for control. process review An objective assessment of how well the methodology has been applied to your process. and schedule. Process improvement leads to quality improvement. customers. . cost (efficiency). information flows. The broad performance characteristics that are of interest to management are quality (effectiveness). It is mostly related to fundamental conduct and usually defines a general framework within which other business and management actions are carried out. process management Activities aimed at process planning. Planning involves setting process requirements.
rather than repeatedly. the management of quality for competitive advantage. reliability engineering A broad-based discipline for ensuring better product performance by predicting more accurately when and under what conditions a product can fail.. total quality management (TQM). project A process executed over time. every time. The Federal Quality Institute defines quality as meeting the customer requirements the first time. Based on the results of such an analysis. QA differed from statistical quality control. is not suitable or available for direct experimentation. and create backups in case of system failure. some productivity-related measures include cost of poor quality and unit output costs. product failures. result in a product that is fit for its intended use. simulation The technique of observing and manipulating an artificial mechanism (model) that represents a real-world process that. its predecessor. not just engineers and workers on the shop floor. quality circles A group of workers and their supervisors who voluntarily meet to identify and solve job-related problems. One of so-called "Seven Quality Tools. were involved in the quality effort. and a strong customer orientation. Customers can be internal as well as external to the organizational system (e. engineers can improve designs. which emphasizes senior-executive involvement. QA is more narrowly focused than its successor. The Department of Defense (DOD) defines quality as conformance to a set of customer requirements that. However. root cause (cause-and-effect) analysis A deductive approach to analyzing problems by working backward from the "effect" to the cause or causes. quality assurance (QA) A phase in the evolution of the quality discipline. for a specified period of time. if met. QOS an operating systems reliability The probability that a product entity will perform its specified function under specified conditions. without failure. quality approach Overall strategy for managing quality in an organization. quality The extent to which products and services produced meets or exceeds customer requirements." root-cause analysis is often facilitated using a "fishbone diagram" in which all the inputs to the process are arrayed in visual format like the bones of a fish. set operating limits for equipment. sample A finite number of items taken from a population.productivity Refers both to the efficiency of tasks or operations and to their effectiveness in meeting the needs of other internal operations. Structured processes are used by the group to accomplish the task. products or services may flow to the person at the next desk or work area rather than to people outside of the immediate organization). in particular. for technical or economical reasons. Reliability programs also incorporate feedback loops for analyzing product performance in the field and. six-sigma . in that all functional groups.g.
A statistical way of measuring quality. sampling techniques) to control production quality. total quality management (TQM) TQM. although the emphasis in TQM is on "building quality in. such as the design of experiments. and the analyses of variance. SQC techniques are used in total quality management. statistical methods The application of the theory of probability to problems of variation. standard deviation A parameter describing the spread of the process output. TQC involves the application of quality principles in all processes and at all levels of a company. where the word "control" has the same connotations as "management" in this country. Advanced statistical methods are more sophisticated specialized techniques of statistical analysis. Formal description of a work product and the intended manner of providing it (the provider's view of the work product). data summarization and analysis. represents the latest phase in the evolution of the quality discipline. Graphs are used by workers to plot output variables and visually determine when a process is "in" or "out of" control. . departments and levels of the organization. specification A document containing a detailed description or enumeration of particulars. "Total Quality management refers to a management process and set of disciplines that are coordinated to ensure that the organization consistently meets and exceeds customer requirements. has adopted goal of “sixsigma quality”. Basic statistical methods are relatively simple problemsolving tools and techniques. statistical process control (SPC) Based on the principle that no two units of output of a process are likely to have the exact same specifications. regression and correlation analysis. six-sigma is equivalent to 3." rather than error detection.. The process involves several exercises that help identify organizational scripts and games that people may be playing. The results help point the way toward change. a 1988 Baldrige Award winner. TQC involves the application of quality principles in all processes and at all levels of a company. company wide Motorola. The ambitious. SQC relies on statistical concepts and tools (e. There are two groups of statistical methods. and statistical inference. total quality control (TQC) An expression coined by Armand Feigenbaum. Distinctive features are a strong and pervasive customer orientation and a view toward managing quality for competitive advantage. SPC involves the mathematical determination of acceptable limits of variation.g. capability analysis. most notably. The positive square root of the variance. statistical quality control (SQC) A relatively early development in the evolution of the quality discipline.4 defects per million units of output — a virtually defect-free level of performance. TQM engages all divisions. denoted by the Greek letter sigma. Top management organizes all of its strategy and operations around customer needs and develops a culture with high employee participation transactional analysis A process that helps people change to be more effective on the job and can also help organizations to change. such as control charts. The term "TQM" is roughly equivalent to TQC and CWQC in Japan. total quality control (TQC) An expression coined by Armand Feigenbaum.
the diameter of a shaft).. it is the square of the standard deviation. http://www.variable A data item that takes on values within some range with a certain frequency or pattern. measured to any desired degree of accuracy (for example. McGraw Hill. Select Code 500-049 (1988). American Society for Quality Control. that is. and Philip Kotler. (1997). USA Bacal. R. Discrete variables relate to attribute data. R3R 0S2. Bacal & Associates.com Policy Deployment Handbook. Published By McGraw-Hill.htm Bacal. Simon & Shuster. Great Performances. (December.89-96 Armstrong.. R. Dr. vision The desired future state of business zero defects An approach to quality improvement. In the public eye: Performance management – why doesn’t it work.. Leading the Quality Initiative. Process Quality Management and Improvement Guidelines. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Select Code 500-441 (1990). in which the only acceptable quality standard is defectfree output or service execution. The Best in Customer Satisfaction and Customer Service.ca/~rbacal.escape.mts. . 1998). Continuous variables relate to variables data. pp. 252 Cathcart St. Deming. Canada. Variables may be discrete. 5 March 1959. Performance Management . MB. 1992. Gary. based primarily upon increasing worker motivation and attentiveness. www. Science in Management. AT&T. the Baldrige criteria. AT&T’s Total Quality Approach. variance In quality management terminology. AT&T. Washington. Marketing An Introduction.att. that is. In statistics. Analyzing Business Process Data: The Looking Glass. AT&T Quality Library. (1991). R.1. Select Code 500-445 (1990). Winnipeg. (1998). any nonconformance to specifications.net/~rbacal/tqm1. Select Code 500-453 (1992). TQM In The Public Eye: TQM-What Is It? Qqq. the number of bolts produced in a manufacturing process). Issue 1. limited in value to integer quantities (for example. Works Cited Aguayo. R. Bacal. Variables may also be continuous. 2000. Select Code 500-450 (1991).
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Colombia Email: doctor_Jordan@excite.A COMPARITIVE STUDY: TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND THE JAPANESE POKA-YOKE STYLE MANAGEMENT By: Dr. BA Universidad Autonoma de Bucaramanga School of Business Administration Bucaramanga.com August 2002 . Tiffany Jordan Professor and Researcher International Business and Management And Aura Pimiento.
Tiffany L. Jordan .A COMPARITIVE STUDY: TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND THE JAPANESE POKA-YOKE STYLE: © Copyright 2001 by Dr.
.Acknowledgement: I would like to acknowledge the faculty and staff of the College of Business Administrations for their support.
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