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Waldo Selden Pratt - The History Of Music

Waldo Selden Pratt - The History Of Music

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60 If;



Pratt* The history of music

ublio ' kansas city tffil P Rfl " city,




be issued only
card. of library

on presentation
Please report

lost cards



of residence promptly. for

are responsible Card holders

films, pictures books, records,

or other library


their cards. checked out on














present book

the outgrowth of a fragmentary syllabus
in 1897.
It is

for classes that

was issued



be distinctly

a book of reference for students rather than a literary or criti cal survey of a few salient aspects of the subject, or a specialist's report of original research. Aiming at a certain degree of it brings together facts and conclusions encyclopaedic fullness, from a great variety of sources. Much labor has been expended

grouping the material in such a way as to give a systematic In many cases some impression of the enormous field in view. what full lists and summaries of details are given, partly to

provide means for easy reference, partly to suggest how multi farious are the facts, and sometimes to indicate upon what sort
of data are based the general statements that are offered. At an effort is made to emphasize the leading tenden every point

movements of musical advance, referring to particular and composers as illustrations. styles It was originally intended to include fairly exhaustive bib liographies, and a great amount of material was collected but
cies or

the magnitude of this branch of the subject precluded its In connection with each period presentation in this volume.
in the history, however, a brief statement is made concerning the musical literature of the time, but without any attempt at

completeness. This is not in any sense a history of instruments, but some hints are given of the range and interest of the topic, both by


statements in the text and by illustrations of selected specimens. latter are drawn from the well-known collections of the

Museum in New York and of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, to the custodians of which the hearti est thanks are due for multiplied courtesies.


01 661 G



In arranging the material for presentation, specially helpful suggestions have been derived from Prosniz' "Compendium der

and Riemann's "Geschichte der Musik seit Musikgeschichte Beethoven/' For the statistical facts recourse has been had to a variety of authorities, chief of which is the colossal " QuellenLexikon der Musiker


of Eitner.

Every acknowledgment



of the liberality of the

publishers in making the book rich and attractive, and for the invaluable assistance of the several advisers whose criticisms

have been helpful in bringing the text into its final shape. In a work of this character the number of names and dates
necessarily great, and, in spite of


be avoided.


every effort, errors can hardly indication of such errors will be gratefully

For the help of students and classes, a small manual, Class Notes in Music History" (32 pp.), is issued by the publishers of this work, giving condensed summaries of important topics from about 1500, with, numerous references to standard general treatises and















77 93









. .

























Chinese Moon-Guitar or Yue-kin Chinese Ur-heen or Japanese Kokiu 30 34 34 10. Primitive Harps and Zithers Chinese Pipas or Japanese Biwas 9. at Haarlem Frontispiece PAGE Alaskan Stone Flute 28 28 28 2. Arab Kemangehs Arab Kissars or Lyres Arab Kanoon or Zither Persian Guitar 42 42 43 26. Burmese or Siamese Crocodile Harp 22. 17. Hindu Vina Hindu Sitars Hindu Sarindas Hindu Sarungi Burmese Soung 36 38 3$ 38 or Sarungis 39 39 4 40 40 41 42 Javanese Anklong Burmese or Javanese Gong-Piano 21.ILLUSTRATIONS The Organ FIGURE 1. 15. 28. 18. Persian Antelope Harps Egyptian Shoulder Harp or Buni 32. 3. 5. Chinese Temple Gong 12. 24. 8. Chinese Cheng and Japanese Sho 13. Japanese Kotos 14. . Chinese and Siamese Ranats 19. 23. 25. 20. 44 44 44 44 48 48 4^ ii . Arab Kebabs Persian Santir or Dulcimer Persian Guitar or Lute 31. Arab PanVPipe or Syrinx African Zanzes 4. 29. 1 34 34 35 35 6. Miscellaneous African Drums Marimba 28 28 6. 27. Egyptian Harp or Buni 30. Egyptian Harp and Harpist 33. 7. Japanese Samisen 11.


106. 17. both of instruments were drawn by Charles K. . Viennese Piano-Action 99. 86. The remaining illustrations are from photographs or engrav 106. the portraits by Otto . New York. 48. 19. 298 298 . English Piano-Action Glass Harmonica 100. Basset-horns 344 344 346 346 347 93. and New York. 104. Viola da gamba * French ' Horns . Clavichord and Harpsichord Actions 85. German Clavichord Italian Harpsichord 84. Ophicleide 476 47^ Sax-Horns Modern Harp Guitars 47^ 477 47$ 596 607 109. ings variously secured. . 105. Cors Anglais or English Horns' 87. no are taken are in the Crosby-Brown Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 81. 102. 83. 31. 88-96. Ann Arbor. 65-69. Trombone Bows for Viols Cristofori Piano. 36-37. < 339 342 * 89. 80. 103108-109 are taken are in the Stearns Collection at the University of Michigan. Stevens. 107. Cristofori Pianoforte 308 308 310 310 Cristofori Pianoforte 1 Baryton (large Viola d Amore) 88. 49-52. 103. 79-81. 40. 78. 58-64. Modern Piano. 91. 77. The Schneider. . 95. 92. 354 386 386 386 386 472 472 475 98.Actions Modern Piano-Frame Keyed Saxophones or Kent Bugle . Recorders 78. 1-16. Sarrusophones no. 97. 75-76. 33-34. 20-30. 108. 96. German Cabinet Organ The originals from which Figs. Oboes Bassoons Clarinets 342 342 90.ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 13 PAGE Recorders or Flutes Douces and Flutes a Bee 79. 18.Action . 97-Jor. 54-57. Flutes and Piccolo 298 Serpent 300 308 82. 70-72. 101. and those from which Figs. 94. 82-87.

TO FACE PAGE * 93 jfo III. Austria and South Germany .. II.. France.PORTRAITS MAPS PAGE 425 433 505 517 531 547 564 575 592 MAPS I.. Germany and Austria 403 . the Low Countries and England Italy.


2. 3.INTRODUCTION THE HISTORY OF MUSIC 1. Natural Divisions. Sources and Authorities. . IN GENERAL The Its Its Its Field of the History of Music. Value. 4.

with the theories by which it has been governed. origin (5) (6) and development of musical instruments and implements. societies. (2)* The organized and reasoned systems of the dominant races and (3) (4) The growth and rules countries of history. 17 c . and ranging from the childish attempts of the savage to the monumental achievements of the greatest civilized artists. including notations. The advance of vocal and instrumental performance as an artistic specialty. from the earliest times to the present. publish ing houses. etc. more particularly of the history of the fine arts as special embodiments and instruments of that culture. lives. The literary or scholarly treatment of musical subjects in books (7) The (8) (9) and periodicals. especially those that are typical or influential. The The evolution of those specific types or forms of composition that have most affected progress as a whole. The educational or commercial enterprises devoted to the mainte nance or expansion of the art. including all ascertainable facts regarding musical efforts wherever found. manufactories.THE HISTORY OF MUSIC INTRODUCTION THE HISTORY OF MUSIC 1. IN GENERAL is The Field of the History of Music. Its field is extensive. of a positive science of composition. The history of music one department of the general history of human culture. Its general object being to present these facts in their relations as features of a development that has been governed by large principles or tendencies. including schools. works and styles of composers and performers. its main topics may be roughly tabu lated as follows: (r) Radimentary experiments by savage or uncivilized peoples in vari ous parts of the world.

and partly because of the lack. Its Natural Divisions. and can be treated only in a summary. Its Value. partly because of a curious disdain of the fine arts as essential parts of culture. the field of It is less. is at once less and more. of adequate handbooks. The second presents a clear continuity and an organic development. descriptive way.18 INTRODUCTION While the 2-3 a particular written history ideal scope of the subject is thus wide. selecting certain groups of facts for emphasis. among . Music-history divides into two great sections. since music-history is fully established as a branch of critical investigation. The history of music has been much overlooked by general historical students. music-history appeals not only to the musi appreciation. such Its neglect by musicians or others utilities lie in is inexcusable. in. I. disclosing dominant lines of progress and effort. For these reasons. Now. 3. criticism cian. practical musicians because Historical study has often been neglected by its literary or scholastic character seems so different from the artistic efforts upon which they are engaged. know it have not reached the point of artistic Although music of this sort has always existed. because it is utterly impossible to compress into a single book It is more. how ever. in exhibiting the personality and genius providing rational grounds for and practical procedure. of which the first deals with a variety of peoples that lie outside the present circle of civilized nations and whose of creative artists and leaders. we only as it has been recently examined. The first section is much the less important. classifying them under logical heads. because the practical historian must be all the facts. UNCIVILIZED Music races that Primitive organization. and in showing how musical life has been interlocked with literature and the other fine arts and with the advance of social life in general. something of a critic as he works. The natural subdivisions are as follows : A. obvious a general broadening of thought about musical art. in musical activity has not affected the latter. while the second con cerns the greater historic peoples from classical times until the present. 2. but to all cultivated persons. and seeking at every point to keep what he conceives to be of special importance in the foreground. until recently.

and (<?) the recent expansion of ideas and forms in manifold further ways. including two distinct groups like the Chinese. trustworthy critics. . cyclopedias. So far as the facts of music can be directly observed. Hindus. the data of hand. CIVILIZED Music Roman including whatever was the direct basis of the Early Christian and Mediaeval development. This group shades off into the next. The end of this period may be variously fixed. of Europe is now affected except the most northern countries. III.4 THE HISTORY OF MUSIC n. Semi-civilized IN GENERAL : 19 etc. but without relation to our own (2) Ancient peoples. But since this original investigation is possible only to a limited extent. Its Sources and Authorities. to standard summaries in which the facts are set down and discussed. though the connection is not clear. The Sixteenth Century as the culminating period of mediaeval Most progress and the time of transition to modern styles. and to the opinions of biographies and technical monographs.D. Trite Composition. The Netherland Counterpoint of the I5th century. who seem to have been on a similar footing with the above. The countries affected all lie about the Mediterranean. being a convenient date. and () of the Sonata and Symphony and the modern Orchestra. . (b) of romantic enthusiasm. like the Egyptians. includ ing the first contrapuntists on the one side and the Trouba dours and Minnesinger on the other . Modern including stages that may well be marked by centuries The Seventeenth Century. as by watching the actual work of of representa composers or by hearing adequate performances its history can be studied at first tive compositions. including the rise of the Opera and of (1) Instrumental Music as specialties The Eighteenth Century. including ductive of all (3) (4) : . B. the efflorescence (a) the culmination of classical methods. V. whose music has a real system. with four subdivisions IV. when ritual music was gradually per Greek and : (2) fected and The Rise of diffused through Europe to the I2th century. Mediaeval (1) The Plain-Song Period. both sacred and secular. with (a) the culmination of previous (2) the appearance in the second progress in the first half. 4. 300 A. with new ideas also about the Opera and the Song by far the most complex and pro (3) The Nineteenth Century divisible into three main periods. (1) Peoples now existing. such as histories. however expressed. recourse must be had to rescripts of music in written or printed form. Assyrians and Hebrews. ..

. 1875 (sth ed.. 2 vols. Tonkunst. extensively revised. of Music. 2 vols.) B.. 1757-81 /. 1877 (3d ed. Jahrhunderts ( continuing Ambros). Naumann. Eng. 419 pp. Manual . 1853-75) C. 1834 (2d ed.Burney. E. u. 1878.Gen. Hist vonDommer. A. Gesch. histories For convenience of reference. 219 pp. . Musik.. Eng.2 parts. trans... Wilhelm 1905. R. Musikgesch. d. 184 pp..) W. 1852 (7th ed. 17. importance being by Martini. .. Brendel. n. 1885.Riemann. Music..of music-history and the vigorous development of its literature are of rather recent date. . Musik d. Paid Culturgesch.J. la d. Katechismus ^.B Mathews. 1848) . (7th ed. Kiescwetter.. Italien. A. of the Art of Pop. C. 1878.S.W. 819 pp. Rowbotha m. 1878 (2d ed. 636 pp. 1888.) Katechismus d. 1885-7 W.412 pp. 351 pp. J . 19.. 3 vols. 1874 Heinrich Kastlin. but not published till 1846) Of the older books about 30 were prior to 1850. trans. 5 vols. using materials gathered by Bourdelot (1715) Roger North (c. 215 pp. especially to its latter half. Gesch. BonUmpi (1695) in French.Clhnent. Matthew.).. 2 vols. d. 1887-93 also continuation by Langhans. ?* net. 1889. Gesch. 1879. 1888-9 (3^1 ed. Musikgesch.) 12 Vorlesungen. 2 vols. 1882-6.) Hist. while others are concise and Several examples of the latter are here included : - popular. Hist. n.AT.. W. d. 534 pp. d. .. 636 pp. Langhans. Gesch. 1880-5 (Eng. J. 215 pp. E. Some histories began to appear before 1800 and much detached work on special topics was undertaken. 1891. be low) A. .. 1869-70. F. Naumann. . Frankreich.. Illustrirte Eng. Of the many works since 1850 some are based upon original research and aim at scientific thoroughness. Musikgesch. Hist de la musique. F. 1776 (revised in 2 vols.. 1888. . .L. trans. 5 vols. Musik. Hawkins..20 INTRODUCTION 4 The scientific cultivation .) j musique. trans. Prints Histories. A. 1886. d. . . Forkel. G. but all the comprehensive belong to the igth century.) d. 535 pp.d. 4 vols. de Lafage.) Musikgesch. 3 vols. d. Musik im Umriss. .Ambros. Musikgesch.. those of the most (1690) . /.Kothe. /. 1844 (unfinished). Hist of Music. Musikgesch.d. 1906. at least 125 somewhat comprehensive Histories of Music may be named. Abriss d. Gesch. 3 vols. 1886. Rock(abridged.. F. S. Musik in Deutschland u.Langhans. Handbuch g&L de Die Tonkunst in d. Frank. Robert MMol* 1899.Fttis. 1862-82 (3d ed. 1863-5. Hist abr^e de la musique. 1881 ( 7 th ed. 1904. 2 vols. in German.. 1867 (2d ed. 1893. 625 pp. Gesch. H.) Laure Collin. 1788-1801. 5 vols. In fullness of research and 'in scholarly method of presenta tion many of these are fully abreast of works in other fields treatises of historical study. Fillmore.). 18. Without reckoning the innumerable monographs on par and topics.. 1846... . 1863 ( 3 d ed. 364 pp. 2 vols. the brothers Bon and in English. ticular periods in Italian. The pioneers were... E. a condensed summary of the general and cyclopaedias is here inserted. 1776-89. 5 .&issmannyAXLgem. . 1728. 1869-75.. F. Lessons in Music Hist.

Eng.. 1882. 1907. 1902. 1856-61 (NachMusikal. 1893 (2d ed.Eitner. Hist. 1893 (4th ed.) IV. Cyclopedia of Music and Musi Theodore Baker. 1905 . Hist. Tinctoris The pioneers here were (a) Terms only (1474). /. H. Gerber (1790-2). (c) Both terms and (ft) Biographies only .4 THE HISTORY OF MUSIC IN . Romantic Hermann Ritter. H. trans. 1905. of Musicians.. . Riemann. Compendium d. 1904. 1865) . . 2 vols.. recent. Janowka (1701). 368 pp.J. Maitland. J. 342 pp. of Music. trans. with Supplement by Pougin. d. Tonkunst. Walt her (1732) and/. 1905. 6th ed. Ducange (1678).. H. . 10 vols. 8 vols./. . Musik. 895 pp. Wooldridge.) Lexikon. 848 pp. cle la musique. 2 vols.. /.H. 1892-4. . 4 vols. (2d ed. of Music: H. 314 pp. The Oxford Hist. Storia della Henri musica. 564 pp. d. cians.Reissmann. L. 1902. Music. 1901-5. 413 pp. . 218 pp. F. Musikgesch. Illusof Musical Hist. 1870-83. 6 vols. . 1835-8 F. 1890. Parry. Conversationsvols. . Allgem. Musikgesch. Illustrirte Gesch. Hamilton. Age of Bach and Handel. Hist.) George Grove. 3 H. R.) W. Parry. Stainer and W. 1892 (2d ed. 349 pp. 409 pp.. d. Gesch. Outlines of Music the Death of Schubert.695 pp. .. Riemajtn. 1902. 464 pp. 2 vols. M. Universallexikon d. F. 1905.. Musikgesch. 1900. . Musik. Cen A. 1908. Period. illustrirte Encyclopadie d. Music Developed. Biographic universelle des musicians. d.. and Brossard (1703). Edward 1903. 2 vols. K. of Music to C..). Neues Universallexikon trag. D. Rousseau (1767). J.) C. 1905.) Alfredo U?itersterner. Gesch. Eng. 1879-81) E. . G. 1902. such as G.J. C. Biographical Diet. Paid. Viennese Period.. 1893. 1905. 1901. Apthorp. 1840-2) (2d ed. 1894 (2d ed. GENERAL 21 Adalbert Swoboda. Handlexikon d. 1860-5. A. Schilling. i/th 1902. biographies Of the many works of this class it is enough to name the larger or most Dictionaries.. H. Period. 436 pp.. 292 pp.2 vols.. . . Biographisch-bibliographisches 1900 (2d ed. Champlin and W. O. Musik.) Quellen-Lexikon. How Lavoix. 1876 (latest 1873 ed. 330 pp. 12 vols. 1900-4. 2 vols. Otto Keller. 1898. Hadow. 2 vols.. . 1900 (2ded.. E. 3 vols. Lexikon. Henderson. Musikand Index. Barrett... of Music and Musicians.Mendel and A.. 1899./. E. Edward Dannreitther. /. 1879-90 (2d ed. . Tonkunst.H. 1896. of Music.. . Handbuch d. The Polyphonic tury. 1904. 5 vols 1904. Diet.. 6 vols. . Hist. Fetis. 1904Karl Storck. (1508 pp. of Musical Terms.. (editor). 1893-6. W. Tonkunst. 1835-44 Bernsdorf. Baltzell Dickinson. Vogel. Study of the Hist. H.). Adolf Prosniz. The Art of trirte Musikgesch . G. Paine. Diet..



21. 20. The II. CHAP. India. I AND ANCIENT MUSIC PRIMITIVE OR SAVAGE Music. III. China. 8. 14. CHAP. n. . SEMI-CIVILIZED Music. 23. I. Babylonia and Assyria.PART UNCIVILIZED CHAP. 17. Actual Effects. 1 GREEK AND ROMAN Music. Notation. Technical Features. 10. Union of Music with Poetry. In General. Instruments. 6. Israel. 19. 16. 12. 5. 8. 9. 13. In General. As Its a Social Institution. Roman Music. Acoustical and Theoretical Research. In General. The Mohammedans. 15. Origin of Music. Egypt. 7. 22. Literature about Music.

a centre of always conspicuously social The craving for interest for perhaps a whole village or tribe. worship or war. in these ways often leads to stated gatherings popular activity of a festal character.CHAPTER I PRIMITIVE OR SAVAGE MUSIC 5. By noting how it arises. or with birth. agricul The ture. challenges at The painstaking care in fashioning instruments is tention. how it is used. impressive and instructive. as with hunting. The widespread combination of song with dancing. all races of song. therefore. and from the equatorial zone far toward This extensive diffusion points to a spontaneous use the poles. dance and instrument as means of expres by sion. of all a social diversion or play. stimulating emotional excitement. affording an outlet for surplus animal spirit. first Singing helping to maintain muscular and nervous energy. Some form of music is found in every part of the uncivilized world. music seems yet its amusement and even discipline. In primitive conditions music is As a Social Institution. the facts of savage music are valuable. and with what it is associated. as well as with religious exercises. The primary impulse to belong to mankind as a whole. and 6. sickness or death. we gain insight into the essence and relations of the musical impulse. The analogies between the mjusical efforts of primitive adults and those of civilized children have a bearing upon current ped agogy. the ceremonies usually being specifically associated with an occupation or event. The naYve experiments in scaleinterest for the student is Although most savage music considerable. making suggest the probable sources of modern theory. In General. The great difficulty of the topic lies in the variable accuracy and clearness of the first-hand reports of the facts that come from travelers. from the islands of the southern Pacific round to the Americas. For the critical student of either history or aesthetics. missionaries and other observers. mimicry and poetry. and dancing are 25 . is to crude and to us disagreeable.

26 PRIMITIVE MUSIC 6 motions in psychical reactions of rhythm and of tones are far civilized peoples. Conversely. like hand-clapping or the striking of sticks. whatever its character. In some cases the text has an evident charm or pathos. Again. plot and action. but in others it seems devoid of sense or sentiment. exciting or diverting. dent Its association some instrumental accessory. Finally. Instances occur of the use of mere nonsense-jingles and of even a song-jargon. they tend to react upon each other. seems instinctive. pass over readily into a rude chant or singsong. involving personification. perhaps aided by Among art. guild of tribal minstrels. martial. since by all races. savage peoples music seldom appears as an indepen with dancing is so close that the two are really twin activities. Often music is held musical exercises and maintains traditions. Where there is provide mythical. To conceive to singing. In form such odes are usually rhythmic. brings dancing and song together. but. the rhythm of sing Rhythm thus inevitably ing tends to induce bodily motions. the effect is to be likely heightened by musical or orchestral treatment Religious exer cises are frequently cast in the form of such song-pantomimes. Rhythmic motions with some re current noise. practice of music for obscure reasons. more is sometimes shared by men and women alike. The story may be serious or comic. fanciful a or humorous. Sometimes there is a musical class or guild that superin exclusively. . strenuous or ener vating. they are expected to odes or ballads of various sorts heroic. mimicry or pantomime is instinctively sought dancing and song readily assume a dramatic char acter. since speaking and singing are both vocal processes. quite distinct from ordinary thus testifying to an interest in the speech rhythmic or tonal effect apart from the thought. is reserved to one or the other sex but sometimes. and are sought both striking than among for their effect on the individual performer or percipient and for their mesmeric control of the crowd. tends The to be more or less of a superhuman mystery a notion duly utilized by the priest and the necromancer. All primitive speech that is in forms of poetry. and actually to chant highly emotional or meant to be specially impressive is cast such utterance with reference it. but true recitative or cantillation is not un common.

a given melody contains but few sometimes varied with indescribable slides though or howls. however. All savage music is conspicuously accentual Usually the accents fall into definite rhythms. Scales approximating our diatonic type are also reported. Generally a rudimentary notion of a scale (or system of tones) is suggested. are rare and do not show any real system. noises or vocal cries. yielding melodies that imply a pentatonic system. influential in others. In accompanied songs there are instances of duple patterns in the voice against triple ones in the accompaniment. though major intervals and groups of unusual. But. vocal decoration of rhythms leads directly to melodic though the latter doubtless also result from experiments with instruments. distinct tones. The metric patterns (schemes of long and short tones) and the larger phrase-schemes are often curiously intricate.7 PRIMITIVE SCALES 27 Indeed. and these are common enough to lead many to urge that the essentially primi tive scale is pentatonic. tones are not On the one hand. duple varieties being commoner than triple. utilizing even smaller intervals than the semitone. the whole intona tion being As vague and fluctuating. what we call chromatic scales are also found. A once established. has been thought that ideas of harmony or part-singing are But it appears that some impossible for the savage mind. tribes in Africa and Australia do sing in parts and even attempt Such com concerted effects between voices and instruments. The figures. . It is apt to be tenaciously preserved. One or two tone-figures are usually repeated again and again. Just what stimulates the invention of melodies and controls their de velopment is uncertain. The basal rhythm is made emphatic by bodily motions. binations. cases occur in which short intervals. a rule. implying a fair sense of tone-relationship. like the semi tone. though no one type of scale is universal. it seems as if primitive religion felt itself forced to adopt musico-dramatic modes of expression. true keynote is recognized is often doubtful. . on the other. In some cases the habit of improvisation seems form of melody. Scales and the melodies made from them are more often con Whether a ceived downward than upward (as is our habit). ingenuity with instruments. are avoided. 7. The total effect is generally minor. Its Technical Features. puzzling even the trained observer.

FIG. played by twanging. African Zanzes iron or bamboo tongues mounted on a resonanceMiscellaneous Drums box. or Syrinx. primitive.. Egyptian. etc. Turkish. 5. one (Thibetan) made of a skull cut in two. 3. . FIG.. 5.28 PRIMITIVE MUSIC 7 FIG. Alaskan Stone Flute Arab Pan's-Pipes design like a totem-pole. or Xylophone. 4. FIG. i. African Marimba Japanese. FlG. FIG. 2.

made of bunches of pebbles. though. all characterized by a stretched head of skin over a hollow bowl or box. compound. Occasionally a reservoir for the air is provided. bone They are blown across a mouth-hole or through a whistle-mouthpiece. curiously. and drums are often used in combination. stone. grasses. made of horn. the latter being usually a gourd. Great patience and dexterity are expended in working such materials as are available into the desired is condition and form. metal. ivory. size and quality. Much in are sounded either by the hand or by sticks. produced are usually powerful. Castanets of shell or metal are often found. Clappers of bone or wood are and various hollowed tubes and the like that can be beaten. so that rude melodies or harmonies are possible. such as a flexible bag or sack. a hollowed piece of wood (as the trunk of a tree) or a metallic They genuity is < 1 . bamboo. often harsh. sometimes sacred. Percussive or pulsatile instruments. iron these some sionally of a . Generally there is The tones little variation of pitch. The tones vary greatly in power and sweetness. and elaborate carving or tasteful coloring often added. sometimes shown in devising signals and intricate tattoos. Well-made instruments are held to be precious. shell. The varieties of drum and tambourine are endless. Horns and trumpets are also common. finger-holes for varying the pitch. frequent. all these are not always habitually used. or. wood. The different flutes and flageolets made from reeds. copper. with the pipe or pipes attached. times appear in sets. Everywhere rattles and jingles abound. Extraordinary cleverness and genuine artistic feeling are often displayed in fashioning musical implements by peoples other wise very rude. They are both single and double. of every shape. and either by the mouth or by the nose. fruit-stones or shells (occa human skull filled with loose objects). (even They are human bones). This branch of the topic made specially and interesting by the existence of many actual specimens in all large ethnological museums.8 PRIMITIVE INSTRUMENTS 8. like the modern vessel. though overtones are used somewhat. stone. 29 is Instruments. This consists of a graduated series of gourds nant pieces of wood that can be struck by sticks. since the details clear vary indefinitely. made of wood. found are innumerable. The following summary nite variety of forms is designed simply to give a hint of the indefi under three standard classes : Flatile or wind instruments. in the case of syrinxes or Often they are fitted with from two to several Pan's-pipes. brass. clay. All sorts of gongs or tam-tams occur. Yet a systematic summary of the facts in any brief form is impossible. wood. A specially interesting invention is the African marimba or gourdsurmounted by reso piano. though the tendency is toward shrill and piercing qualities.

to a resonance-box that they can be sounded by snapping. such as a flat piece of wood or a hollow box. though the weakness of the framework usually limits both num ber and tension. prefiguring the great family of viols. Many examples are found of instruments sounded by the friction of a bowstring. as in the African zanze. Occasionally pieces of wood or metal of different sizes are so fastened . These types pass over into rudimentary lutes. gut or bamboo-strips. Primitive Harps and Zithers. . Experiments are frequent with rude lyres or zithers having strings stretched over a resonance-body. quently among savages. having both a resonance-box and a neck to extend the strings. where. 8 Similar forms occur in Asia and else The bow being one of the first implements of Stringed instruments hunting and warfare. The number of strings varies from one or two upward. and with various devices for resonance. FIG. strung with plant-fibres.fibres.PRIMITIVE MUSIC xylophone or glass-harraonicon. it may have been among the earliest of musical in Certain it is that rude harps shaped like a bow occur fre struments. 6. other animal tissues. Much ingenuity is shown in making the strings out of plant. metal. hair.

some bone whistles occur. The precise way in which these results were secured probably varied with the materials at hand and the ingenuity at work. . and that what was at first only an attempt to work accessory to dancing was finally differentiated from it these speculations are not specially fruitful. the buzzing or calls of insects and the songs of birds but the influence of these on primitive song is apparently Herbert Spencer argued that song is primarily a form of speech. then to make melodies. but as testimonies to the strange potency and charm residing in musical tones. then to produce sustained tones. the cries of beasts. are employed. These myths are significant. and everywhere pipes abound. whistles. After noting facts like these we ask how music came into existence. pipes. twanged strings. Hence it has been urged that flatile instruments were the Another theory is that the order of invention was earliest. It is better to say that instruments were used to keep time. first drums.9 THE ORIGIN OF MUSIC 31 Apparently the impulse to instrument-making arises largely from the desire for a sound to accentuate a dance-rhythm In prehistoric remains clappers. off surplus energy through bodily motions. strings. of Music. vocal or me chanical. to coordinate and decorate which rhythmic sounds. The Origin whistling of the wind. It is true that naturally external nature supplies suggestions. arising from the reflex action of the vocal organs under stress of emotion (as a cry follows the sensation of pain). not as historic statements of fact. the rippling and roar of falling water. More likely is the hypothesis that music is derived from some . slight. But The traditions of many races recount the impartation of instruments or of musical ideas to men by the gods. as in the sighing and 9.

) as pio neers in organization. and the tonesystem and many instruments are notable. Yet the status of popular music. 2600 B. In General. as heard in the streets and the theatres. Tradition ascribes the origin of music to divine inspiration.C. without the power of further advance. terity with this line Why including often the use of a notation. 11. or perhaps in past times suggestions of progress were so partially assimilated as not to affect general use.) and his more studious the disciples seem to have favored a serious use of music and acute specula tion about it Jt is said that actually hundreds of treatises are extant 32 .) and Hoang-Ti (c. Confucius (d. those of Mesopotamia. with the other activities of developing society. and names Emperors Fo-Hi (c.CHAPTER II SEMI-CIVILIZED MUSIC 10. brief made to certain knowledge of them is imperfect and though they seem wholly unconnected with our systems of this grade. The advance appears in heightened dex song and instruments. It seems as if music. Possibly the present is a time of degeneracy from ancient standards.C. having reached a certain point. Music enters the semi-civilized stage along When a people emerges from the heedless and irregular habits of savagery. those of China.C. bev came fixed. 3000 B. its music usually attracts enough reasoning and skill to make it in some sense artistic. 478 B. India and the be emphasized. existing own systems. From Chinese literature it appears that music has had a long and honorable history in connection with Con fucianism and under the patronage of the imperial court Some of the temple music to-day is impressive. the Hebrews and Egypt the latter rather more than 'semi-civilized/ though de being probably Among Mohammedans will cisive data are lacking. even though our music. and others do not is an enigma. and in some attempt at literature about music. China. in more exactly defined styles of composition. reference must be some peoples cross However this may past or present be. and among ancient systems. is notori ously low.

In 1809 Weber took one of these as the theme for his overture to Schiller's Turandot. silk. It is possible that these tones.' < State. The tone-system is theoretically complicated. sets. gourd clay. provided eight sound-producing materials and classify their instruments wood. but are rarely used except for tuning. the sizes D . pro ducing a smooth. d. They bear fantastic Chinese names Emperor/ 'Prime Minister. bamboo. The lan guage consists almost wholly of monosyllables. Yet the popular use of music is limited. but in practice it tends to a pentatonic scale. with running up to large tuns mounted on a ped Stone appears in plates of jade or agate. One peculiarity of Chinese speech has musical significance. gongs and cymbals of many shapes and sizes (the gongs sometimes Clay arranged in graduated sets). of the octave into twelve semitones is The tones of the pentatonic series may be roughly represented by our tones /. It is interesting that in cases where European music has been intro duced by missionaries it has sometimes been adopted with astonishing ease and enthusiasm. slender trumpets. recalling old Scottish songs. Some rudiments of har mony are known. discarding semitones. Chinese instruments are numerous and important. like the Greek. stone. have been transcribed by foreign students. Its basis is probably tetrachordal. Many melodies < 1 Their pentatonic basis gives a peculiar quaintness. The rhythms of song are emphatic and almost always duple. dignified or poetic utter ance tends towards chanting or cantillation. and degrees in music are given on examination. written vertically. 33 the contents of which are but The slightly known to us. But the division is also known and in theory applied somewhat intricately. Native writers say that nature skin. being largely in the hands of travel details of ing beggars (often blind). metal. so that melodies can be recorded in a letter-like notation. Metal is wrought chiefly into bells.' For each there is a written character. a. have relation to song. is Thus dressed skin one or two heads. but also into long.Affairs. them but such adaptations are extremely rare.' which are four or five < ' e in number. hung by cords from a frame and sounded by a mallet or beater.' * Picture of the Uni verse. At all events. used in manifold tambourines and drums. accordingly. < Subject People.11 CHINESE MUSIC upon the art. music at state and religious functions are supervised by an imperial bureau. extending even to elaborate part-singing. But it is uncertain which of them are indigenous and which are bor rowed from other parts of Asia. single or in graduated estal. sonorous tone. c. g. each of which has differ ent meanings according to the tone or melodic inflection with which it is pronounced.

e Pa S Japanese Biwas rv FIG. 10.9. f TT ' Fra 8- -Chinese Moon-Guitar or Yue^ stnngs.Japanese Samisen.34 SEMI-CIVILIZED MUSIC 11 FIG. . 10.the bowstring passes between tlu plectrum tipped with ivory.-Chinese r r u Ur-heen or Japanese kin. FJG. . played with a wooden Kokiu.

. viols or fiddles (as the and the hu-kin. literary treatment of . into clappers or castanets. ix. 1 1 ' 1 and the san-heen. the *pipa. but.' with 2 strings. with 4). by striking. with wire. including the accordion and the reed-organ. and for syrinxes and the cheng (see below) furnishes the strings for zithers (as the 'che.' with 20 strings) 1 . Wood. each of is is < Bell-founding and the cheng 1 which contains a minute free reed of brass. with 25 strings. lutes (as the moon-guitar. the art is meagre.] ' the resonance-bowl of the cheng. ' Silk with 6-9 finger-holes. the prototype of several free-reed instruments in Europe invented since 1800. also with 4. having also some 13 or more little bam * ' A f 1 boo pipes. with 7). of is here an almost universal singing and of instruments on the other hand. FlG. but The Japanese musical system was derived from China. The popular use so long ago that it has now become distinct. often molded into fantastic ani mal shapes. into curious boxes that are sounded and into coarse oboes (usually with metal bells and other fit ' tings) Bamboo provides the tubes of both direct and tranverse flutes.11 CHINESE MUSIC 35 furnishes whistles of the ocarina type. * f 1 la-kin. elaborately Chinese Temple Gong. as the 'yang-kin or dul [Several other instruments are strung zw^makes cimer and the tseng or bow-zither. both with 20 strings. Chinese Cheng and Japanese Sho. supposed to have been acquired by Europe from China. 12. is made .' with 4 strings. besides forming the bodies of stringed instruments. damascened. the accomplishment of importance. FIG. with 3). and bow-zithers (as the l 1 ur-heen. and the '-kin.

and mythical and mystical notions are frequent in musical nomenclature and writ References to music abound ing. Evident ly from the time of the Aryan immigrations (c. music has run to incredible cacies. and has been for ages in close commercial relation with Wes tern countries. and musical treatises have been for FIG. < 1 etc. India.SEMI-CIVILIZED MUSIC 12 For a time. and through foreign system intercourse generally the national is being much modified.) much attention has been paid to the art. 2000 B. the sho to the cheng. Music exists chiefly in the accompaniment for dancing. to the Chinese ur-heen. the Japanese government sought to establish American methods of singing in the public schools. Native legends attribute the gift of music to the gods. since India has been repeatedly invaded and even subjugated by foreign peoples. from 1878. in the old literature. But. Notable types are the l koto. and the samisen. < 1 the *hyokin' to the ' 1 4 yang-kin. centuries. 13. the biwa * 7 ' i 1 4 1 to the 'pipa. but with many variations of detail and usually with greater external beauty. a lute with 3 The * kokiu corresponds strings. The details of Hindu music* are better known than those of Chinese. no one can say what of its music is original.' a large zither with 6-13 silk strings. Japanese instruments are in general replicates of the Chinese. accumulating Theorizing about intri Japanese Kotos.C. form of popular song or as an In religious ceremony it is less . 12.

12 HINDU MUSIC 37 frequent. the usage varying with locality Most of these scales are somewhat akin to ours. The metric schemes are apt to be varied and complicated. In practice not more than twenty of these appear. somewhat used by both Brahmins and Bud singing of poems is universal. Theory has been so re almost 1000 possible varieties of scale (not mention the 16. but serve to define with precision various seventone scales that differ in the location of the shorter steps (as in the mediaeval modes fined as to to name of Europe). horns and trumpets. and in many varieties. but more exactly into twenty. ing often runs off into weird and curious effects. those struck together in pairs. are indicated by a notation of Sanscrit characters for notes. But that the intonation is usually obscured by plentiful melodic decora and tribe. oboes. and professional dancing-girls are a feature at social functions. Triple rhythms are at least as common as duple. These latter are not all used in srutis any single scale. The as various Wind drums. Many songs are pleasing and expressive to Occidental the ancient ones having much dignity. instrument is known. though dhists. Of these the stringed group is by Percussives include far the most characteristic and admired. but popular sing taste. from the old Sanscrit odes to the ballads of modern origin. The tone-system 1 ' rests upon a primary division of the octave into seven steps. The training of the Bayaderes or Nautch girls is usually managed as a business by Buddhist priests. castanets. tambourines. so melodies in them often suggest our common modes. art of making instruments has been as minutely studied Almost every species of portable the theory of scales.two nearly equal or quarter-steps.000 of mythical story). bagpipes. . social or fantastic subject. etc. corresponding to those of poetry. to Mohammedan influence. probably due tions. Native writers those with strings. Both the pitch and duration of tones. those with mem indicate four classes branes sounded by striking. gongs. Music is often employed in pantomimes and plays having a mythical. instruments include many flutes (though not often of the transverse kind). Dancing to music is The very popular. and is often associated with immorality. cymbals. and those sounded by blowing. with various points about execution. and signs or words for other details. Variations in pace and accent are frequent.

FIG. 15. Hindu Sarindas in or Bar- ungis viols with sympathetic strings of wire.SEMI-CIVILIZED MUSIC 12 FIG. FIG. 16. Hindu Sitars. 15. Hindu Vina. FIG. as the European viola d'amore. . 14.

the 'soung. compar Hindu Sarungi.' re sembling the Chinese 'kin. is connected with Japan and China. . Hindu and Mohammedan elements are mingled.12 MUSIC IN SOUTHEASTERN ASIA 39 Certain forms are peculiar to special classes. the 'kamounko. of course. cylindrical body of wood made sometimes with a bow. like priests. . travel ing beggars or dancing-girls. . In Burma and Siam the connection is rather with India.' a good xylophone (to which there are analogues in China and Japan) in Java.' a 13-stringed harp with a boatshaped body and a gracefully curved neck in Siam. but 1 in various ways. In each case there is a national sys tem. and in Korea. the sarinda ' the or sarungi 1 Music in the several countries of southeastern Asia presents perplexing features in which Chinese. Among ' i numerous is typical. 17. which is usually with a or bamboo reenforced by 1-3 gourd res onators. parently dominant.' But in each country there are many ments classes< other of instru different FIG. and having 6-7 wire strings. but the details are FIG. often of great elaboration. This shades off into the < sitar. 18. which is a true lute. The 1 characteristic instrument is the 'vina. Burmese Soung. viols. or less atively unclear. cor 1 7 responding to the Japa nese 'koto. the 'galempong. and many other related forms. the l ranat. while in Java the Chinese pentatonic scale is ap Korea. More characteristic instruments in Burma. played normally as a zither or lute. are.

FIG. 19. sets of bamboo tubes sounded by striking. FIG. . ax.SEMI-CIVILIZED MUSIC 12 FIG* 20. Burmese or Javanese Gong-Piano Siamese Crocodile Harp or Zither. Javanese Anklong Burmese or the player sits in the centre.

The Mohammedans. There is a large literature about music written in Arabic and by Mohammedan scholars. culture and with The music associated with Arabic Mohammedanism is more widely spread than Yet it is any other of this a highly composite type for very reason. though ap parently stimulating it "as a popular art. its class. it is also notable pRvchical effects of music (see sec. but it all belongs to the mediaeval period and reflects ideas from sources not at all Arabian. music peculiar to Arabia itself. The historical insoluble. that is. and elsewhere. as well as into southern Asia and central Africa. 13. puzzle thus presented may be hazarded. music has often been prominent Hence types of music called Arabic appear among the Saracens and Moors of the Middle Ages. from ancient Greek kinds of local sources. and from These doubtless from all Persian sources. 36). for acute discussions of the . It is doubtful whether there is any real Ara bian music. is Yet some general remarks Mohammedanism as a religion makes little use of music. But in connection with the stupendous extension of Mohammedanism (from the 8th century) along the Mediterranean to the Atlantic.13 MOHAMMEDAN MUSIC FIG. Chinese and Siamese Ranats. This literature is particularly valuable for the light it gives upon the growth of musical theory. in modern Egypt and Turkey. include features usages. 22.

13> FIG. 23 .G. 25. afr- Kanoon or Zither. .SEMI-CIVILIZED MUSIC 13 C. FIG. 24.Arab Kemangehs.-Arab Kissars or Lyres. FIG. F..

The practical effects are not obviously akin to our modes. Ages. be came word popular. .' a lute with a broad. exactness of interval and fixity of mode are and the disturbed by incessant slides. in the dle In the Mohammedans Foremost in interest is the *'ud. Middle Ages were the intermediaries between Europe and the East. This was introduced into Europe by 800 A. so-called Arab instruments are probably 1 One of these is the 'santir. see Persian Guitar. 26. as they often emphasize tones that are irrational to us. Many Persian. differing in the location of the shorter steps. at least. the scale in characteristically 43 As commonly medan Moliam- lands involves a primary division of the octave into seven steps. The rhythms and metric patterns are derived from those of poetry. determining these latter is disputed. There are some eighteen seven-tone scales. t was imitated in manifold lutes (the being taken from eVud). and what they introduced was called Arab without distinction. Harmony is not cultivated. Several attempts have been made to imitate or embody Arab melodies the most famous being Felicien David's sym in modern composition phonic ode Le Desert (1844). with a smaller body. Of viols. and still sur Another vives in the mandolin. shakes. (Con FIG. even more than in Hindu song.D. derived from a theoretical division into seventeen.) similar type was the 'tarnbura. each The exact method of equal to about one-third of a whole step. cerning mediaeval Arabic literature about music. akin to the 'kanoon' now found in Egypt sec. and vary greatly. 36. pear-shaped body. like. a longer neck. Only a bare beginning of a notation in letters has been made. and four or more strings. a rather short neck bent back at the head. because probably influencing the evolution of the lute ' 1 6 ' ' viol and the violin. (See Fig. 54. and only a few strings. except in the rudest form. But.) and adjacent countries.13 MOHAMMEDAN MUSIC stated. a dulcimer or zither with many strings. grace-notes. turns. the rebab and the kemangeh are important. What are called Arab instruments have in terest in several instances because they the prototypes of European forms in the were Mid general.

Arab Rebabs. Dulcimer. 28. Guitar or Lute. 29. Persian FIG. Persian Santir or FIG. Persian Antelope Harps. FIG. 27. . 30.44 SEMI-CIVILIZED MUSIC 13 FIG.

companies of performers forming parts of great pro cessions.C. but their geographical position involved close con tacts with Mesopotamia on the one side and with Egypt on the other. to have been collected and edited as we life music was probably common. It should be noted that several of the instruments mentioned in Dan.C.) certainly included singing with instrumental accompaniment by trained performers. The harps have many strings stretched obliquely from an upright body or back to a horizontal The dulcimers seem to consist of a shal below.). so that outside. in Arabia. except that the monuments depict some instruments and imply the use of singing and dancing. lutes are allied to those of Hindustan and the Orient generally actual examples being found in the earlier strata at Nippur. The sians). but have no pillar.C. For these latter services the Book of Psalms appears.C. It is likely that all Hebrew instruments were based on Babylonian prototypes.) as a means of inducing ecstasy. gather that music was a stated element in religious and civic We We functions. whence it is inferred that the author wrote after about 330 B. know little about music in ancient Mesopotamia. Probably it was used in some way in the First Temple (built c.14-15 ANCIENT SYSTEMS ANCIENT SYSTEMS 45 14. In social part. In all rowers. and named instruments then in use. lutes. which consists of writings compiled not before about the 8th cen tury B. low box held horizontally. though hardly to the extent often supposed.C. trumpets and drums. Babylonia and Assyria. The older documents are singularly devoid of musical data. at least in some have it. dulcimers.. with some (like Chronicles) hardly earlier than the 3d century. . double pipes. but the references are meagre.C. iii. lyres of several shapes. The services of the Sec ond Temple (built c. 520 B. The earliest was by bands of recorded application of music in a serious way prophets (organized under Samuel before ' ' 1000 B. Among the instruments depicted are harps. 950 B.. and infer that it was under the care of the priesthood. Israel.) have Greek names. arm The origin of the Hebrews seems to have been 15. as used in Babylonia under Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 B. matters of culture they were imitators and bor we infer that their music was derived from All the important data about Hebrew music come from the Old Testa ment. over which metal strings are stretched so as to be sounded by little hammers (recalling the 'santir' of the modern Per The lyres resemble those later found among the Greeks.

like Mendelssohn and Meyerbeer. but in the striking influence that the fact of its existence in connec tion with religion has exerted upon Christian thought and customs. these traditions do not appear cantillation of Scripture passages to go back to really ancient times. and after the up wherever Jews settled. Among It is probable that the cultivation of music was one of the many singers. It and that many texts were is likely that recitative was common. .D. They include the < kinnor ' (' harp in 1 1 ' the English Bible. The historical importance of Hebrew music lies not in what it actually was. have been of Jewish extraction. and in religious ceremony. text. It is evident that from early times the ancient Egyptians were extremely fond of music. and several leading composers. two or three kinds ' ( i of trumpets.46 SEMI-CIVILIZED MUSIC 16 Song was prob actual styles can only be conjectured. tambourines (< timbrels '). Modern Jews have often displayed eminent musical ability. rendered antiphonally. But since the usages of dies of considerable antiquity exist. loud The rude intervals and perhaps ' many melodic embellishments.) they sprang continuing to the present day in all Synagogue services to-day include the fall and of prayers and often the For these exercises many traditional melo singing of psalms. especially as a social It was diversion. etc. like the Egyptian < nofre. Professional and dancers were common and carefully trained.' but probably a harp). united with poetry and with many sorts of dances. Egypt. the editorial notes to Particular melodies are apparently mentioned in a few of the Psalms. with ably in unison. It is supposed that various terms found with poetic texts were originally marks of musical are disputed. following the parallelism of the poetic Some forms of dance were combined with religious song. or the 'nebel' (< psaltery. named as prominent. as a courtly luxury. treatment. parts of the world. but what they were is unknown. a lute. < ' ' l In later Judaism the importance of synagogues steadily ad vanced. and harsh in tone. such as the keren and chatzotzeraV the \igab ( organ/ but probably a syrinx). but in default their form cannot be determined. but probably a lyre. but their date and meaning of pictorial delineations Many instruments are named.* either a flute or an oboe). the chalil ('pipe. cymbals. Occasionally themes from synagogue music have been used in general composition. of Jerusalem (70 A. sistra. of limited range. 16. players court-officials musicians are often functions of the priesthood. different countries do not agree. like the modern Egyptian kissar ').

and inter course with the north and west rapidly increased. Less imporpedestal. thus profusely set before us. in three varieties horizontally on the shoulder. and from the size of the larger harps and lyres. . But. Next in impor tance are the lyres.16 . The number of strings varies from three to twenty or more. having a resonance-box below. historic importance of this extensive musical activity is evident. in extant delineations on the monu many actual objects. They were regularly used in interesting combinations. a U-shaped frame with a cross-bar above. the genesis of the mediaeval system of Europe is to be traced to Egypt as well as to the Greeks. and the climate has preserved what they wrought as nowhere else in the world. played from a standing posture. as well as in papyri and in have only disputed evidence as to the recognized types of though from extant instruments it is inferred that melodies were mostly diatonic. though some of the harps were very rich. without excessive attention to outward ornamentation. Neither is there any trace of a musical notation. We mark the rhythm. with a massive body. and none of them intimates that Egyptian 'views differed radically from the Greek. often sumptuously decorated with color and carving. If this be so. loop-shaped. Accordingly. we have abundant data' for reconstructing the actual life of the The use of music is people. known in the Old Kingdom only from a hieroglyphic .C. The for in the 7th century B. Egypt was opened to the Greeks. until ultimately Egypt became one of the chief centres of Greek culture. and the large. Apparently they were developed for tonal results. also bow-shaped. All these lack the upright pillar beyond the strings.. Nearly all the impor tant Greek works on musical theory were written in Egypt. and must have been rather grave in pitch and unstable in tune. Most conspicuous are the small. im plying attention to concerted effects. Egyptian instruments were numerous and varied. unfortunately. the medium. Hence we conclude that the Greek ideas of music were largely supplied or suggested by Egyptian usage or speculation. we have not yet recovered any ancient Egyptian treatise on the subject. Singing and dancing were accompanied by hand-clapping to scale. so that it is better known than in any other ancient land. and were played with a plectrum Jant are the lutes. whence five to many strings were stretched downward these were held horizontally under the arm or set upright on a table or or the finger-tips. Stringed instruments were evidently favorites. ANCIENT SYSTEMS 47 The Egyptians were zealous in building and in adorning what they built with records. ments. shaped like a bow and carried the harps. That there was some practical use of harmony follows from the depiction of groups of performers act ing in concert. but held upright by a seated player.

33. 34. 31. 33. 35. FIG. 32.SEMI-CIVILIZED MUSIC 16 FIG. Egyptian Shoulder or Bum (model from actual specimen). 35. 32. . FIG. Egyptian Lute or Nofre (model from actual speci men). FIG. Egyptian Harp or Bimi (model from actual speci men). Harp FIG. Egyptian Harp and Harpist (from a wall-painting). FIG. 34. Egyptian Harp and Harpist (from a wall-painting). FIG. FIG. FIG.

tambourines. [The fact chiefly used for military purposes . often double. 49 which were stopped against a fretted neck and sounded with a plectrum. provided with finger-holes of straw. . trumpets of copper or bronze. triangular. and at jingles worn by dancers. and perhaps the syrinx. . rattling rods least bone or two sorts of drums. cymbals.] Percussives are numerous. there earlier. the former often double and sometimes blown by the nose. many-stringed harps Viols and dulcimers seem to be lacking. but later found with 1-5 strings. that the principle of the organ was first period) raises the query whether perhaps applied in Egypt (in the Greek it may not have been known ivory. with the trigons were perhaps of foreign origin. Some of these. and all often and sounded by reeds made having several finger-holes oboes.16 ANCIENT SYSTEMS sign. including clappers of sistra metal frames with loose. The wind instruments include both direct and transverse flutes. besides several trivial Apparently there were no true bells or gongs.

chiefly at Athens or near by. to the Christian versatile originality The Alexandrian after. in Era and which the older gave place to scientific criti cism or mere imitation. all the fine arts and philosophical as well as technical. In The Greek mind was both it constructive. and music were intimately blended. The following periods. often in degenerate forms. call all theorists. this expansion was unknown before. Period. of Music with In Greek thought what we Poetry. by the dominant peoples to the west. from the time of Augustus until the Roman Empire was dissolved. In General. Our knowledge of Greek music is.C. were exten sively adopted. when popular contests in music and poetry in Sparta. Though notably scientific the conclusions reached were limited by various causes. mediaeval music and thus indirectly of modern music. except that music was joined more intimately with poetry and with general culture than is now common. however. however. during which the was developed.. these periods we find mention of musical performers. they were yet acute for their time and have since been highly influ In Greek music we find the immediate source of early ential.C.. but continu practice of music-poetry the downfall of Greek independence in 338. from about 325 B. From and 18. culminating in the 5th century B. began The ing till Classical Period. during which all the arts of Greece. one-sided. 17. It is not easy to mark off the historic stages in musical devel opment. chiefly at Alexandria. The Roman Period. Of the practical working of the system we know little. being drawn almost wholly from works about music rather than from examples. teachers some of whom are named below.C. except in a very rough and general way. both being held poetry 50 Union . are to be borne in mind : The bard the time of the itinerant minstrel or Mythical or Heroic Age prior to about 675 B.CHAPTER III GREEK AND ROMAN MUSIC analytic and seized upon styles already in existence and speedily developed them with a scope and ideality In the case of music.

by Aristophanes and Antiphanes (from about 500). was probably not uncommon in cultivated circles gen The first style to become established was apparently the epic.C. Arion. both tragic and comic. with a word 'music'). The poets were themselves singers. Later several more condensed forms became popular. whether memorized or improvised. such as the Ionic iambics and elegiacs hymns and odes of a celebrative or commemora represented by Archilochos and Tertaios (early 7th cen the lyrics of Lesbos and other islands brief songs of special delicacy and point in varied verse-forms represented by Alkaios. with a complex union of solo and choral declamation. while music had little importance except to embody poetry.18 UNION OF MUSIC WITH POETRY 51 to be inspired by the Muses far wider meaning than our to require delivery in (whence the term povo-itcij. Side by side with these latter developed the Attic drama. Poetry was felt song for its complete expression. fixed melodies for his verses.). culti vated by wandering bards who intoned their verses. The social prominence of the drama is attested by the remains of splendid theatres in every part of the old Greco-Roman world. but that each composed species of had a recognized style of cantillation.Common education was expected to give such familiarity with these musical styles as to Some sort of musical improvi preserve and disseminate them. (c. The historic masters here were Homer and Hesiod (gth and 8th centuries B. lyric and half-epic. on the part of carefully trained performers represented. well enough known poetry to be used freely by many persons. to a slender accompaniment on the lyre or some similar instrument. Simonides and Pindar 650-450). in tragedy. and. Sophokhs and Euripides. in comedy. Sap tive character tury) . sation erally. and the Dorian choral songs pho and Anakreon (early 6th century) and the dithyrambs of the Dionysiac and other mystic rites stronger and broader festal hymns intended to be chanted by companies of people . and their works were meant to be chanted by readers and interpreters so as to be received into ap This does not mean that the poet preciation through the ear. in unison represented by Terpander.. Stesichoros. by Aischylas. The drama was peculiarly important. Another institution intimately connected with the growth of music-poetry was the series of festival-contests regularly held . since it was a culminat ing and comprehensive form that utilized the best features in preceding efforts and served to make them widely popular. So the history of Greek poetry and music is a single subject.

attracting contestants from distant lands. These equally strenuous rivalries in literary festivals were attended by great throngs. the Drama noted that the impress of the former again and again affected the unfold the opera. it is to be Regarding these two institutions. it was inevi tably conglomerated with local usages. at Delphi. but and musical art.52 GREEK AND ROMAN MUSIC 19 such as the Olympian in Elis. so that it fell to the status of a mere trade.C. are thrown back largely upon con Actual Effects. hands of slaves and. 19. We the chief being a few mutilated specimens discovered at Delphi in 1893. which Hymn Apollo was a paean composed by an Athenian to celebrate the repulse dies we have only the noble of the to Goths in 279 B. and mostly date from long literary Of surely authentic melo after the most productive periods. and of groups of instruments but details are . most melodies were decidedly minor. while the latter lapsed from a It passed largely into the dignified fine art to a careless amusement. 38. and the Games. at Argolis and the Isthmian which occurred not only competitions in physical prowess. Extant actual style of this antique song. while the ing of the mediaeval and modern drama. instruments were employed in accom Doubtless their primary purpose singing. lacking. the usual pitch be The rhythmic and ing high and the quality somewhat strident It is evident that lated metric patterns were certainly varied and often intricate. regu by the quantities and accents of the text rather than by independent time-schemes as in modern music. the Pythian at Corinth. most singing was by male voices in unison. Wherever Greek music went outside of Greece." Doubtless some of the refinements of early days were more abandoned. In the later periods the production of original poetry became steadily feeble and "less associated with music. vagrant minstrels. jecture as to the references are not vivid. especially latter was frequently paralleled in the age of the Troubadours and Min nesinger (see sees. with Doubtless a tonality unlike ours and some strange intervals. 40). and their stimulus at various places. Harmony may have been used somewhat in the union of voices. It is not clear just how paniment or independently. the Nemeanin was felt far and wide. of voices with instruments. either was to support the voice in by doubling the .

Pythagoras.and flute-playing. apparently without fingersyrinx or PanVpipe was a series of graduated tubes sounded peculiarly a pastoral instrument. Auloi were often made double. were little movable stopples whereby the pitch could be slightly modified. as we know from various and an ingenious device to supply compressed air by a pair of pumps whence the Latin name hydraulus or waterpartially filled with water ' ' ' organ. the famous philosopher and social leader born in Samos in 582 B.' a direct flute of cane or bored wood.. there were often 2-3 sets of pipes mounted on a wind-chest.. Sometimes auloi were attached to a distensible bag. including espe cially the aulos. with studies in the formal definition erature that of scales.' stringed instruments were conspicuous.20 INSTRUMENTS 53 melody or by adding some tones to it But evidently there was some independent development of lyre. U-shaped frame with a crosspiece. making a bagpipe. He laid the finally teaching in southern Italy foundation of musical acoustics as a science. by blowing across the open ends rudimentary form of organ invented at Alexandria by the mechani straight. and was the chief pioneer. educated by long residence in Egypt and extensive travel. many-stringed harps of special form. The shape and ornamentation of the lyres were ingeniously varied. as performers are often mentioned with honor and there was a special notation for instrumental music. Acoustical and Theoretical Research. trumpet of bronze. apparently the older form of the lyre. since This side of Greek most of the lit we have treats of it extensively. including the characteristic consisting of a resonance-box (sometimes a tortoise-shell). but in Roman sources. either to give greater power or a wider range. is music far better known than any other. The player often wore a capistrum or cheek-strap to keep the instrument in place and to support the cheeks. The details of the first construction are unknown. in later times at least. The <lyra.C. .C. All of these were played either by the finger-tips or with a plectrum. and started a school of inves- . tapering The i ' A cian Ktesibios about 175 B. The ' salpinx ' was a holes. The other principal class was the wind instruments. a * . 1 an Oriental harp of varying shape and with perhaps 20 strings and the ' . with a detachable trigon. but later distinguished from it by having the strings carried partly over the body instead of being attached to its upper edge the ' magadis. in which. the physical analysis of tones and their relations was undertaken. a simple keyboard or set of valve-levers.D. found at Carthage.C.' 20.' t i barbitos ' and ' mouth -piece and from two to several finger-holes. including a remarkable clay model of the 2d century A. From as early as the 7th century B. and 4-18 sinew strings the kithara' or 'kitharis (also called 'phorminx'). passed into vogue among the wealthy in different parts of the Roman Empire and was thus handed over to Chris tian use. times.

-Greek Hyclraulus Organ (clay figurine. or Water*d century. 37.- MUSIC GREEK AND ROMAN 20 54 FIGS 36 Egypt). . -Greek (models of actual specimens Kitharas Lyres or found m FIG 3 8. FIG. 37. found at Carthage).

were largely determined by the constant use of the From lyre. born about B. E E E D C C* C B B and only CCi^B The as it diatonic genus was felt to be the most important of the three. D DCB CB A CB AGFE A G F E G F E D C D Hypodorian species or mode. with upward (as in modern music). the first the comprehensive units recognized were the octave and the tetrachord (a series of four tones within the interval of a fourth). All tone-series were reckoned downward instead of ' Through these studies. formed in three ways. Hypolydian species or mode.C. These may be illustrated thus : Dorian. G AG FE FE D FED BAG FEDCB CB CB A D CB A G A G F . Phrygian. consisting of two whole steps or tones and a half-step or hemitone. Enharmonic. Phrygian species or mode. ac cording to the position of the added step species : Various < ' Dorian species or mode. Three genera. Hypophrygian species or mode. His followers tended to regulate all musical procedure by mathematics. E E D C C* DC* ED* B B B <?r or D CB A C B A G lar tetrachords or octave-scales were constructed by joining two simi together and. the Phrygian. and the opposition long continued between them and the disciples of Aristoxenos. Chromatic. experiments in singing and instrument-making. These arrangements may be : through modern letter-names thus Diatonic. with it above. were used (a) the diatonic. consisting of a double-step with two illustrated quarter-steps. it will be the one taken for further illustration here. is the form that has had historic influence since. Within a diatonic tetrachord all the three possible arrangements of half-steps were utilized the Dorian. (b) the chromatic. Lydian. E Lydian species or mode.20 TETRACHORDS AND MODES 55 tigators that lasted long after the Christian Era. Seven such species or modes were recognized. and (c) the enharmonic. an extensive theoretical tone-system was The shaping and nomenclature of this gradually developed.. consisting of an extra long step with two ' : < ' half-steps. with it in the middle. who advocated taste and 354 instinct as normative principles. with the half-step below. Mixolydian species or mode.' or ways of dividing the tetrachord. and the Lydian. adding one step to complete the octave.

2 rt +2 to bp -a ^ B'S ^ CD u 8 ~ S" -V S 8 0> S -| O j=P >^ j^ d B 5 3 ys g *3 J3 .2 .S 3 'd Extreme Disjunct Conjunct ^^ Upper 1 M-.GREEK AND ROMAN MUSIC d Tetrachords fcuo 20 . g rt D -a i !H 5 0)5^ s ^ d ~1 ^ & o . SB c -2* o oJ ^ J sg o is W b fe W Q u W Q U PP o d o (L) .

therein. was assumed as a fixed standard or formula. acuter tones were called Mast' or 6 lowest' and the graver ones 'high est' simply because lyres were held with the longer strings uppermost. its absolute pitch might be higher that is. it might be or lower as the performer might choose But in Greek thought every such transposition had transposed. Similar systems were elaborated for the chromatic and enharmonic genera. and they should properly begin with indicate the absolute pitch. The modern let ter-names for tones used in the foregoing sections were not used by the Greeks. the the Dorian was the most admired._ Fragment of Hymn showing notation above chromatic or the enhar- . so that it was possible to indicate with precision any given tone in either the diatonic. which was much discussed by thoughtful critics. to begin at different points. Furthermore. What was own.] Of the seven species. designating the tetrachord to wticfi it . called the 'Complete System* was a scheme of tones two octaves and composed of four Dorian tetracomprising chords (one of which varied slightly in form). The various species or modes were understood to be imbedded in this sys tem. same tone. even though the relation of tb* ^nes was unchanged. with its included species. While for theoretical purposes the system. a character of its To both each tone of the system a specific name was given.21 THE COMPLETE SYSTEM [It 57 is should be observed that this use of letter-names not intended to For convenience. as well as for the diatonic. 21. The several species were felt to differ widely in aesthetic and moral quality. Besides the long descriptive names from the lyre. Notation. each tone be The longing to a particular string. place belonged and its This cumbrous nomenclature was taken from the lyre. 39 . the FlG thetext to Apollo. each including a particular octave. however. they did employ letters and letter-like characters. but apparently melodies were composed in all. the modes are here made The essential difference between them lies in the position of the short steps.

In teaching singing. and of notation were improved. all Roman education. the latter being the older and simpler. As luxury increased. we have only some bare names. about one-third are known only by title. the importation of singers. Roman Music. to. It is therefore. but who seems himself to have left no writings. though these performers were nearly all slaves and socially despised. //). however.C.58 GREEK AND ROMAN MUSIC 22-23 For this purpose they not only used all the twentyfour letters of their alphabet. contributed little to musical progress. study many As the data on this subject are not easily accessible. Two different sets of such letter-signs were used other signs.. The is total number of classical works on music that are now known while perhaps seventy. : . art and letters came under the direction of Greek teachers and models. But the status of The Romans. besides a few monic genus. and all kinds of instru ments were used and somewhat modified. of tuning. that under their domination immense numbers of musi except cians were attracted to Rome. players and dan cers from all parts of the Orient became fashionable. author or topic. and there was a sign for a silence or rest. others exist only in brief citations or other fragmen But the bulk of writings more or less available for tary shape. and thus the knowledge of Greek styles was spread widely into the West. Some details of theory. when Greek art-works and artists were scattered far and wide. and still more under the Empire. Then. is far from small.C. all what it had been in Greece. te. syllable-names were sometimes given to the tones of a tetrachord (ta. 22. not unlikely that music among the from the earlier Etruscans or from Latins derived something the enterprising Greek colonies in southern Italy and Sicily about this nothing positive prior to the founding of Rome. musical art was not at 23. Literature about Music. of which the chief is Pythagoras. but supplemented them by the same characters inverted or turned on either side. a brief summary is here appended From the 6th and 5th centuries B. for vocal and instrumental music respectively. until after the conquest of Greece in the 2d century B. but Music in Italy seems to have had little importance is known. Some use was made of small marks to show the relative length of tones. the founder of a whole school of later writers on acoustics (the Canonici). of which.

now lost. and Martiaaus Capella. a Roman grammarian. who includes musical references in his great connoisseurs the first De rerum * . Greek writers include often mentions music. From the ist century we have Philodemos the Epicurean. 1 The 5th century supplies Macrobius. and to whom an account of the strife between the Canonici and the Harmonici is attributed.MUSICAL LITERATURE The 59 4th century is far more important. 1 Here belong Claudius In the 2d century the names are many and striking. and Aristides Quintilianus. with a com less discussion of 'the music of the spheres 1 . the author of the earliest extant historical book . whose diatribe on and the Alexandrian the uselessness of music was found at Herculaneum . an Aristoxenian. Dio. including Lucretius (95-51). along with thought to be by Kleonides. . the Alexandrian geometer. and especially Aristoxenos of Tarentum (b. . to whom two complete treatises have been ascribed. and Porphyry (233-305). t 1 the 3d century are assigned Aelian. and of whose * He stands at the head of a Rhythmic Elements' some fragments exist. who gives some biographical details .'63). Among extracts have survived. His famous pupil Aris music. besides many passages in extant works not counting the 'Problems once ascribed 1 Harmonics' some to him. perhaps improperly. andrian rhetor. pre served in part. Plutarch (50-120). Early in the century is Plato whose 'Timaios' is largely devoted to (429-347). 1 mentary on Plato's ' Timaios ? . The latter belongs ' 1 * 1 Eratosthenes and Hero. whose Introduction to Music is important. whose Harmonic Manual is extant and Besides Bacchios the elder. from whose i < ' Pythagoreans. school (the Harmonici) hostile to the extreme mathematical notions of the his followers were Adrastos. Theon of Smyrna. < The 4th century is marked by Alypios. whose ' Commentary includes a fruit Proclus (412-485). grammarian Didymos (b. a Roman and Athenaios (b. whose Harmonics is one of our chief sources. whose expansion of certain of Plato^ ideas is partially pre served Gaudentios. whose Musical Introduction. totle (384-322) is said to have written a musical treatise. to the ist century belongs the elder Pliny (22-79). In the 3d century the great name is Euclid. both evidently musical natura and Vitruvius. the incomparable idealist. whose so-called History' supplies some citations Diogenes Laertios. among whose 'Historia mundi 1 whose eighty orations are many musical remarks t . . both Alexandrians. To ' . while the Harmonic Introduction is now in the 2d century. the commentator upon Claudius Ptolemaeus. c. < Ptolemaeus of Alexandria. whose Harmonic Elements is our earliest complete treatise. 1 < 1 . work De architectural After the Christian Era. 160). who has left an important work On Music. the satirist Lucian (125-200). an Alex dilettant. not to speak of allusions in other dialogues. 354). is of the greatest value as the key to Greek musical notation. treating the origin of music 1 Cicero (106-44) an d Horace (65-8). these appear remarks of a more or less gossipy nature from Gellius. Here Latin writers appear for in his time. that on the Partition of the Canon probably with right. among whose many works several on music are quoted.

At intervals in later centuries other writers appear. In the 6th century came BoetMus (475-525). while other books contain quotations. Kithara and . Greek Lyre or Kitharist (from a bas-relief). The long roll ends with Manuel Bryennios Harmonics is really a compend of extracts from earlier (c.6o GREEK AND ROMAN MUSIC ' 23 the ninth book of whose < Satyricon is wholly on music. mostly Byzantines. whose <De musica 1 has been a mine for students ever since. albeit a somewhat treacherous one. FIG. whose ' 1 writers. 40. whose works furnish useful points. often of great value. 1320).


Its Technical Features. 29. Secular Melodies and the Mass. 28. 42. CHAP. 31. IV. V. 38. Organum. The Minnesinger. 50. 24. 40. The Instalments. VI. The Hexachord-Systerr. the In General. THE RISE OF CHRISTIAN Music. The Trouveres. 49. Folk-Music. 45. 51. CHAP. 37. 43. Time and its Notation. 30. 26.PART II MEDIEVAL MUSIC CHAP. 27. The Polyphonic Idea. Notation. Group of Masters. The Meistersinger. 47. The Letter-Names. 32. The Netherlands First New Art-Centre. The Gregorian Style. Literature about Music. Third Group of Masters. 62 . 52. 34. Minstrel Class. 41. 35. 39. 46. 33. Certain Pioneers. POLYPHONY AND SECULAR SONG. Instruments. The Troubadours. 44. Secular Song. General Survey. THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 25. Tablatures. 36. Discant and Measured Music. Second Group of Masters. The First Christian Songs. Its Technical System. 48.

it Adopting the Roman principle of unity in organization. we have a fair amount of information. Egypt and Northern Africa and in the reached Spain. a to arrange its officials in perfect gradation of authority under < conciliar enactments supreme pontiff or pope. It was then propagated into the distant North and West. which tinople). and to work out a uniform. It . Certain points are years or more nothing adequate to fill the colossal period with living interest is a clear. nities. under Moslem control. and in the 4th and 5th the repeated onsets of Goths. The Church became a mighty Asocial especially among Teutonic peoples. but in both cases culture was more Oriental than Occidental. monastic frater Only in clerical circles. What involved \ve know of Christian social 63 music before about 1200 is in the complex and political situation. The Roman Empire reached its greatest area and prosperity in the 2d century. to define orthodoxy' by and to 'heterodoxy. Cathedrals and religious houses were the only repositories of learning and fountains was the one so that in the so-called Dark Ages the Church of education. and interrupted the development of all the The chief exceptions were in the Byzantine Empire and in regions arts. erable musical life is certain from after events. In the midst of the seething political turmoil Christianity steadily advanced. 8th in the 7th swept over Syria. prescribed aimed 1 suppress All these efforts powerfully affected intellectual and artistic liturgy. Under Constantine (c. but how The total amount of music extant is small and the question. institution. activity for centuries.CHAPTER THE IV RISE OF CHRISTIAN MUSIC The historical transition from Greek 24. persistent and shining light. That there was consid discernible personalities pitifully few. but actual vestiges of it are scanty. In the 3d symptoms of decay began to appear. General Survey. Regarding both ends of the period. 325) it became the official religion of the Empire. These cataclysmic changes destroyed the continuity of fine civilized life and thought. Vandals and Huns from Roma to Byzantium (Constan finally drove the seat of government The later 6th century saw the rise of Mohammedanism. but of the intervening thousand can be said. music to that of the I2th to the Hth centuries is not easy to trace or describe. such as was continuous and peaceful mental work possible.

and from time to time considerable modifications in style appeared. 25 . its usages continued to accumulate. The New Testament makes some mention of The earliest complete hymn extant is by Clement and parts of canticles like the Gloria in Excelsis and the Te Deum may have been somewhat earlier. In addition to the Greek version). of Alexandria (d. The First Christian Songs. The first music was the West. fitted to a must variety of prose texts and even to metrical poetry. the new faith tended constantly to produce new of rhapsodies. fixity of creed and uniformity if liturgy led steadily to a demand for richness and stateliness. Singing in public and private was a matter of course for the early Christians.64 is EARLY MEDIAEVAL MUSIC 25-26 that not strange that the only kind of music was ritual music and all our information comes through ecclesiastical annalists. the established type of artistic song. because of their association with Hebrew Psalms (in the pagan sensuality. turies thereafter the abundance of original hymns is a sure sign of the cultivation of religious music. the singing of hymns. Jewish converts this was a continuance the techni but. 220). but in the end We . suppose that these ritual melodies grew out of manifold experi ments at different places. By about 400. Costly edifices became common. centre of activity was Constantinople. and the whole ritual of worship tended to become ornate. From the hymns. at first apparently in the form 2d to the 4th centuries the foundations of the vast structure of Christian hymnody were securely laid. which were only gradually wrought into a general and uniform Even after the system was system. ministrants were multiplied. codified. more Greek than Hebrew. since the Church grew mostly among non-Jews. This in volved a new attention to music. accent upon unity of organization. rhyme and stanza in a way quite novel. The Gregorian Style. From the 4th century the strong 26. For worship of synagogue customs. The use of cal forms employed were instruments was long resisted. especially in the epoch- making work of certain Latin writers. sacred poems have adopted For two or three cen accent. The evolution that followed traceable in detail. where Greek Thus the to Italy tra dition of the ancient unison melody was handed on it and is only imperfectly provided the mediaeval Church with a large and striking body of melodies.

741). it was a remarkable example of melodic invention and beauty. and that the name * Gregorian either came from them or was due to the mistaken zeal of those who sought to glorify the earlier Gregory. Two names have been specially empha sized. treated with much freedom. . but to correct many abuses in its habitual rendering Especially under the mately to recover and restore its typical forms. however. and Sixtus V. perhaps under Gregory II. whence it spread to parish churches generally. the Roman Church.26 THE GREGORIAN STYLE 65 Tradition attributes particular steps in the process to certain popes. In a gen several stages of production. especially in the matter of embellishments and ornate expansions. as it stood in the early Middle Ages. In each of the other branches of the early Church there were analogous developments. In the general evolution of music it has always remained a somewhat peculiar specialty. while the almost 3000 belonging to the Breviary are later. Since the Gregorian style originated for liturgical reasons.' But these traditions. 397) and Pope Gregory the Great (d. and especially Pius X. Bishop Ambrose of Milan (d. ' stated. Leo XIII. ordained the service-books since in use. the style was no Recent enactments of Pius IX. bishops and other ecclesiastics. so that in the i6th century. (d. except to a very limited extent that of the Greek or Russian Church. to the abstruse. 604). though some other styles have been allowed use in or tol It is supposed. the over 600 melodies belonging to the Mass and certain other principal rites have the greatest antiquity. the latter being constantly put forth as the founder and organizer of the whole style called Gregorian. its the metropolitan cathedral or the monastic chapel. has any significant connection with the story of modern music. which the The Gregorian style is the only form of music prescribed for Roman Church. and those fitted to hymns or se But during the Renaissance the whole series was quences later still. but none of these. more exactly. It should be remembered that the Gregorian style is the property of the Western or. To some extent there arose an antipathy between it and secular music. Being cultivated home was people it was remote and upon the general progress of music was therefore limited. which was heightened by the fact that church song was always in Latin. only by ecclesiastics. and all are not of equal validity. (1869). that its extensive treasures represent erated. (1903) have aimed not only to enforce the rules enjoining the use of Gregorian music almost to the exclusion of other and ulti styles. eral way. are at least doubtful. as commonly * Many able scholars believe that the practical completion of the system was not earlier than the 8th century. Its direct influence common representing the persistence for a particular purpose of a style is essentially antique. Yet it must Be confessed that in its ideal perfection. when Gregory XIII. (d. (1883) longer pure. 731) or Gregory III.

and in good ren an octave and is often much less. That the tone-system is of the Middle Ages came from that of the Greeks the stages of evolution are not entirely clear. the 'authentic* (straight or These modes fall into two classes and the plagal (oblique or derived). Being the desire to make tonal patterns for their own have no fixed rhythm or for prose texts. ' effort made to arrange its principles sys The basis chosen was a series of modes resem Prior to about 1000 the bling the species' of the Greeks. totally changes the effect. after the manner of recitative. secular and modern music generally (see sec. or ' lack of harmony or part-writing (in contrast with Figured Music or Counterpoint'). Only after Plain-Song had reached a considerable though But probably the evident. the unison should not be accompanied. often applied to Gregorian music. whatever their form. 227) fresh efforts are lead of the monks of Solesmes (see forth to establish authentic texts and correct rendenngs. being put 27 now according to the kind Gregorian melodies vary considerably are designed and to the period they ^repof text for which they resent Some are merely monotones with occasional inflections. Its 27. the former having primary) ' ' the 'final* (somewhat analogous to keynote) at the bottom and the dominant (chief reciting-tone) in the middle. But. they designed primarily standard length of tones.66 EARLY MEDIEVAL MUSIC sec. Some and in skips. as a rule. emphasizes < rhythm (in contrast with Measured Music '). formal system was at first more implicit than consciously for mulated. syllables a desire to find a real tonal embodiment for they plainly show Only comparatively late came in the words and the thought sake. large or small. The compass is The term its either its lack of fixed < 1 Plain-Song. while ' ' . which later came to be known accepted modes numbered eight. 27). development was an tematically. since harmony introduces a somewhat foreign element and. have but one tone abound in flowing figures to single by diatonic steps. Accents and quantities are derived from the words. The se rarely greater than tones conforms to scale-types differing from those of lection of Properly. unless very dexterous. Technical System. by Greek names (oddly transposed from their ancient meaning). ' dering expressive flexibility is conspicuous. to the syllable and move chiefly Some.

but rejected. rc> mi. making twelve statement of the complete series being by Glarean in 1547. if not be the whole series of tones found useful for song was reduced fore. they might be transposed to fit the The ambitus or compass of a melody properly does not exceed voice. B & was substituted for B wherever the latter occurred in relations suggesting the above progressions. In strictness. to a system like the Complete System of the Greeks (see sec. 20). C-D-E-F-G-A. To facilitate practice.28 THE CHURCH MODES 67 the latter have the final in the middle and the dominant two or three steps above it. the syllables ut. much more extensive alterations of the modes were practised (see sec. these earlier modes four more were added. Strictly speaking. modes were primarily intended to be sung at the pitch above indicated. and. but the direct progression from F to B or trice versa (the tritone) was ruled out as unsingable. not in tetrachords. under the name of musica ficta. more were proposed. however. But it was longer than the latter and laid out. The Hexachord-System. By the nth century. the dominant by an between the modes lies in the location of the and dominants. Ulti mately. but in hexachords series of tones standing in the relation of 28. no deviations from the above scales are permitted. as well as of the finals While melodies in the several i ' ' 1 . . final is marked by a black letter. the octave of its mode by more than one step above or below. the difference between authentic and plagal being in practical application. 73) essential difference The short steps. to avoid it. first To the Two THE CHURCH MODES In each case the asterisk. each pair of modes is really one.

4 and 7 are called ^r<f because they and 6 are called which was distinguished as B durum-. hexachords 3 and hexa contain B^ or B nolle (or B rotunduni) soft because they B/. Hexachords i. 3- 4- 5- 6 * 7- contain B.68 EARLY MEDIAEVAL MUSIC 28 THE HEXACHORD-SYSTEM i. chords 5 . 2. 2 and are called natural because they contain neither B nor .

The term ' lowest tone was called ' gamma . and the similarity of the hexachords easy to imitate melodic effects from to the other. gamut for the scale in general) and often.' and was somewhat beyond. made it one The consequences of this way of regarding tones and their rela long after the system as a whole was superseded by the modern system of octochords. These syllables were taken from a hymn to John the Baptist. But two extra tones were provided longer 7 B^ in addition to B. la (whence the liter E . ary expression E la for the extreme of anything) Originally the tones were not studied by means of the syllables. if the melody went they served and then to shift to those This shifting was called 'mutation. or. Solvt polJuti Labii reatum. hand so FIG.' C solfaut. for middle C. were applied to the successive tones of every hexachord the short step. " Ut queant laxis ^sonare ing to its first syllable. of seven interlocking hexachords. therefore. gamma ut (whence the Other tones were called by their i letter-names plus whatever syllables belong to them." Mm Famuli tuorum.28 THE HEXACHORD-SYSTEM 69 fa. the so-called Guiclonian Hand a method of assigning the various tones to the joints of the ' 1 as to be localized in thought. for the uppermost or extreme tone. Each tone was felt to derive its charac ter from its place in a hexachord.' of which many new vari ' eties and applications have appeared. . This consti tuted the first form of solmization. but later it became customary to use the syllables of one hexachord as far as ' ' of another. la. acutce and superacnta. all designed to represent similar tone relations by similar signs. fibris gestorum Sancte Johannes. though that he invented it is not likely. 41. This device took its name from Guido d^Arezzo (see sec. analogous to modulation. the traditional melody for which began in each line with the tone correspond The hymn reads. To facilitate learning and using the tions lasted was invented system. The system was made up The tones of the 'three octaves were designated respectively graves. Guidonian Hand. so as to facilitate a sort of modulation. a total range of nearly three octaves five tones covering than the Greek. as. sol. being always mi-fa. 31).

EARLY MEDIEVAL MUSIC 28 4* 1 *-.** * ! _ -tw "3 A * a Cn .

C and G. but the devising of a practical system that should be both precise and easy to use was a process extending over ' ' many centuries. they naturally varied with the writer to become more and more In general. Being a sort of cursive writing. serving chiefly to of what he had learned by It ' rote. in which neumes appear (not earlier than the 8th century). From this beginning gradually developed the use of a To make the of four or more such lines. and from the mediaeval characters for these were gradually developed the modern 'clefs. marks used in Byzantine service-books to indicate the usual form of canaccents ' . slanting strokes for upward steps. But the exact facts are uncertain. circulation of music a notation is as necessary as a method of writing is for literature. so as to constitute not only record. In the loth century a great advance was made by drawing one or two horizontal lines across the page to mark the place of certain tones or pitches and then adjusting the neumes to these lines. now extant. a s taff ' < one or more of them significance of these staff-lines evident. At a late black-letter form. but one of fairly universal intelligibility.. were marked at the beginning with the letters of the tones to system which they were assigned. and the usage of his time. indicating pictorially the rise and fall of the voice in pitch. In the early MSS. One val period was a partial solution of the of the achievements of the early mediae problem of exactly rep For the preservation and resenting melodies by graphic signs. crooks curves for pointing downward for downward steps. however. harmonizing remind the singer they were somewhat vague. tillation. complex marks took on various forms. 71 29. more plausibly.' . has been conjectured that these signs were akin to the Greek marks by which the Byzantine grammarians indicated that they were developed out of the speech-inflections or. etc. we find points and dashes used for monotone passages. The letters most used were F. compound In different places and periods these motions. they tended a genuine regular and precise. period they were developed into an ornate Yet at the best well with the finest Gothic script.29 EARLY NOTATION Notation. Altogether the most important of early methods was that of shorthand characters written above the words to be neumes sung.

fiovj ya. ice. B being angular (b) and called B durum or quadratum. incorporating them also into a set of solmization-syllables. which were distinguished by differently shaped forms. the lowest G was added. Si. 1/77. More satisfactory .was the use of but seven letters (A to G). From the former ultimately came the modern 'natural' and also the peculiar German name H for Bfe ({}) . Lydian and Mixolydian) for certain tones. and the second was for C. The precise tone with which such names began was not necessarily the tone now called A. 68. Parallel with the growth of the 30. neumes came the adoption of letter-names for tones. The Byzantines seem to have used the letters 8. but might be any tone that was assumed as a start In all cases the series was counted ing-point. system reached its final form. ?? to the successive tones of an octave-scale ira. 21). its significant use dates from the loth. while B!? was rounded fy) and called B molle or rotundum. of colored lines was not long continued. rf ): staff FIG. //. but the old Greek system was not directly imitated. The idea had already been applied by the Greeks (see sec. <o. The modern arrangement bass staffs braced together have come from an old 1 1 of treble and is supposed to or is eleven-line great staff. the need was felt for both B and B^. ft.) As the tone-system developed. upward from of Latin letters fifteen letters The use the gravest tone (the reverse of the Greek method). had many varieties. (See table on p. and they also applied the letters a. colored yellow or green. e. But these usages had no lasting result. Phrygian. The Letter-Names. Genesis of Clefs from Gothic Lettcis. from which the middle line omitted to facilitate seeing to what pitch the notes refer.EARLY MEDIAEVAL MUSIC 3 The first line to be thus used was for the tone F and was originally The use colored red. . 8. 47. At one time were employed (A to P) to designate the tones of two octaves. <. repeated in successive octaves. called As the and was T (gamma) for distinction. A. y. Although experiments with a kind of began in the 9th century. (initials of Dorian.

use are in the writings of Notker (d. 930?) a monk of St. became 1000 sequences are now extant.) the theory of music. with Ages. By the 9th (d. such schools had become common. without note-signs) use peculiar char pitch (the and acters for the finals of the modes (often called the Dacian notation'). with four or five exceptions. . 912). which are suggestive of in fostering England. (See also sec. Charlemagne ( d. (About discontinued in Later the term was extended to metrical hymns. 804) Abbot of Canterbury and later of Tours. but its con The first sure instances of its venience soon established it for both. ecclesiastics. Gall. 36. The modern sharp' (jf) and the German name simply a variation of the natural. 942). or to any other before the 5th century. . Certain Pioneers. At first these were prose hymns fitted to the rambling codas or < Alleluia sung between the Epistle that were added to the . ecclesiastical circles is clear. Hucbald (d.' It should be added that the letter-notation was first worked out for instruments (especially the organ) rather than for song. with strong monas but in France and especially in connection Many traditions teries or them. the writing common in the later Middle appropriate melodies. Abbot of Cluny from 927. Several works bearing his name are extant. a high-born and cultivated monk of St. 814) was especially interested In France the Emperor Flaccus Alcuin (d. here collected. Prior to the is nth was too narrow for the display of great originality or leader For convenience of reference. in parallel motion (prganum}. regarding individual musicians century information extremely scanty and un That music was made a subject of study in many certain. is of noted for his development of sequences as a part of the musical treatment the Mass. Notker Balbulus (d. The ascriptions of the Great or to Boethius are not well supported. are surely his. 335) is doubtful. however. also active in music from his youth. < . however.) singers at point to the early establishment of a school for churchbut whether this can be credited to Pope Sylvester Rome. show a clear conception of part-singing Oddo (d. was identified with all music all his life. 930 ?). a few items are ship. of which. Amand. not only in Italy. century. hints begin to appear of the composition of melodies by various the growing attention to the art. but their prescribed use was Notker also wrote upon 1568. though not . ' < 1 jubilations' and the Gospel. supplies our earliest reference to the eight church modes and he is echoed some decades later by Aurelian of Re'ome'. but the scope of thought about it 31.31 EARLY MUSICAL LEADERS while from the latter 73 came the modern ' 'flat' (fr) is B ' for Bt>. near Tournai. 912) and of Hucbald practical the invention of the letter-system to Gregory (d. under the care of energetic prelates. These supply the earliest instance of staff-lines to ^indicate words written in the spaces. From about 700.

48 . 51. with keyboard. FIG.. Ancient Rotte. 49. . Ancient Irish Harp. 50. of the lyre type. FIG. Modern Hur- dy-Gurdy.74 EARLY MEDIEVAL MUSIC 31 FIG.Welsh Crwthy showing the transition to the viol type. FfG.

and in 1026 was called to Rome by the Pope to explain his system. Gall. 1048) is also sometimes referred back to Oddo it contains notable remarks upon some chromatic tones (C#. as blowers in Winchester Cathedral). At the outset. though this and the invention of the Guidonian Hand have been ascribed to him. since it was common in Spain by plainly 450. 1050 ?) is the most famous personality in the whole early He is now thought to have been bom near Paris and educated there.32 EARLY INSTRUMENTS first 75 is also the writer to use the letter-names (A to G) as is now the custom. however. " " was clumsy and inefficient (as late as 950 we read of 70 men acting The pipes. but was not later than the 3d century. both lines and spaces being four-line staff and perhaps of solmization (see sec. Et>. made of lead. 1054). but trained at St. Scattered references and even sculptured representations begin as far back as the 4th century. The line of derivation was by way of Byzantium and the Venetians. But gradually these were replaced by new forms. Guido d'Arezzo (d. both Greek and Roman. used for placing neumes or letters Whether he knew the hexachord-system is doubtful. of course. For centuries. Of ranged one 4th century and to 400 in the loth. used a peculiar letter-notation designed to clarify the indi istic . cating the exact interval and the motion intended. His renown led later writers to assign various discoveries and inventions to him. long continued in use. in number from about 8 up to 15-26 in the brass. 28). 32. the ancient idea of compressing the air by water was early the wind-supply replaced by the use of bellows. He died as Prior at Avellano. especially in western Europe. and thence to Germany. period. various ancient forms. and from the 8th onward the data rapidly accumulate. of various origin. C yellow. tractate attributed to Berno of Reichenau (d. A neume-system by F red. the Low Countries and England. and name gamma for the tone below the lowest A. He applied strange names to the modes (including Dorian for the first) and to their character the i ' tones or compass. course. copper. F* besides Bt>). He was a noted migrating singer and expert teacher. Hermannus Contractus (d. The date of the first use of the organ in public worship is not known. The compass was at first only the scale octaves octave. A and E black. The one partial exception is the organ. implying a usage otherwise quite unknown. Of the of invention and improvement we are but slightly process informed. thence to northern Italy. which early became notable because used in churches. and before 1200 probably did not exceed 2j . Before iioo the history of instruments is very meagre. a monk of Reichenau. bronze or iron. Probably he was the originator of the Instruments.

notably in Savoy. known as bards or All the often of decided social importance. but early It was specially common among the British viol. survives in Europe. instrument or its descendants finally coalesced with the Oriental viols into the family of which the violin is the finest representative. harsh and stentorian. whose minstrelsy was The habit of song spread more or less among all classes.] curious derivative of the foregoing was the organistrum or a rota sounded by a small wheel beneath the strings. In later examples the large number being purely diatonic meant duplication of the tones for loudness or variety. which is trace able in very early times in Germany. It is likely that it was first a it appears as a rectangular rectangular lyre. The organ was There While the organ was becoming a piece of church furniture. In one variety openings were provided through the body near the Kelts. popular music had recourse northern peoples had poet-singers. nothing of methods of tuning or of the exact < Another striking form was the crwth or chrotta ( later known as the 1 i ' <rota ' or i rotte '). The earliest appearance of indigenous European instruments. giving a wide range. [The fact that such instruments as this had strings gave rise to the name fidula (from the Latin yfr&j. These old European harps were triangular. varying in size within the know limits of portability. prob the use of instruments. sounded with a bow. scalds. of pipes simply The pipes were made to sound by depressing keys or levers not unlike were so far apart and had those used to-day for chime-ringing. either of gut or metal. Scandinavia. and they a stroke from the hand so much Mip and resistance that they required the player being called an organ-beater. so that the hand could reach the strings from behind. The number of strings was usually small. varied from three to several. whence came such variants as videle. . ably always involving The most characteristic bardic instrument was the harp. top. sounded by plucking. the stopping of the strings was managed by dampers pressed down. was in the period before us. like the horn. We method of playing. to various portable instruments. 609). one tone was no independent organ music till the rsth century. the schalmey or 'shawm. whose origin is obscure. The earli This est literary reference to it is by Fortunatus of Poitiers (d. and had from 5 to 15 or more strings.75 EARLY MEDIAEVAL MUSIC 32 somehow with Bb added. but none of these had immediate importance. etc. used solely to support Gregorian melodies. France and Britain. and these in later times were often controlled by a sort of keyboard. but tha keys or dampers were often many. visile i and finally iriola. whose 1 < < 1 be soft and sweet or quality might at a time.' the bagpipe and the glockenspiel or 'bellstill 1 This form piano. fidel.' Variety of tone was or fist secured in the better specimens by the use of stops. The number of strings. gurdy 1 A hurdy- As this instrument was held horizontally upon the lap. string).

The Gregorian style. being a phase of the general intellectual awakening of of Europe that preceded the Renaissance. that with such accentual and durational values of the tones and mutually ad their motions could be accurately measured the discovery of ways in which melodies ^could and justed. 1 centuries. still satisfactory of counterpoint/ to a theory of time. (b) the Crusades in the i2th and integration of the feudal of thought and activity. among the lower classes and (c) the new life in the fine arts as shown by the rise of Gothic architecture about the 1 2th . or. which for convenience may be taken up separately. if dis be simultaneously combined so as to be concordant. the latter to a theory and the two were mutually interdependent at every point. The former effort ^led cordant. and effective. with their immense stimulus Among especially generally. with the gradual dis social system. From this point onward music becomes interestingly interwoven with progress in other fields. century and of Italian painting in the I3th. All music was a specialized outgrowth or derivative of poetic speech.CHAPTER V POLYPHONY AND SECULAR SONG 33. interweaving The transition to this new idea involved two lines of effort. new era came in when it was seen that music might have of its words. ing up 3th the historic conditions to be borne in mind are (a) the break of Charlemagne's empire in the gfh century. be beauty and meaning more or less independent A of tones by massing and ing built up into a fabric or edifice two or more voice-parts like strands or threads. These were (a) the reduction of melodies to regular rhythmic form. The positive achievements of the centuries following 1200 stand in striking contrast to the timid the art experiments of those before. In Greek music and its the one desire was for a single the successor. melodic outline to enforce and beautify a verbal text. The Polyphonic Idea. alteration in the distinctive feature of the period in music was a profound aim of composition. ' 1 (b} ' 77 .

the contrary is specified With these fundamental conceptions of time. for Gregorian melodies incidental and was could not avoid being affected by the rhythms and metres of poetry. . passed into the longa. a long note is assumed to be equal to three shorter ones unless all different from our present view. . Music. punctum. what was called rhythm we have to this subject (131*1 the existence of equal measures. had and the brevis. ^. the fusa. This exaltation of triple types it was often associated with the may have been due to various causes Tempus perfectum was the term for duple. The derivation of the modern forms is evident : . + (half-brevis). \ and after 1300 notes of less value the minima. was a matter of general rhythm. 5th century open or white heads appear. implying a century) assumes It presents the notion that triple sense of strict rhythm. since all prose has even objectionable. *! (double longa) to and the semibrevis. equal of notes was further increased by the maxima. and semifusa.. in minor prolation to two. attributes it to cer a time-system in music is that which were adopted as patterns for musical tain verse-schemes that phrases. and in the subdivision of the parts. in which accent and time-values were The most plausible theory of the appearance of systematized. often approaching regularity. by further ^ and finally . be the standard long note. ^. The former now came the standard short note. and in the i6th they begin to be rounded. the latter One longa in major prolation was The system to three breves. with solid or black heads. for triple rhythm and tempus impermajor indicated a triple division of long notes m& prolatio minor a duple division. some rhythm. Immediately arose the need for a notation corresponding The old neumes were still used and also the and the square characters derived from them. * . But strict rhythm course. POLYPHONY AND SECULAR SONG Time and its 34 That the early Plain-Song had a Notation. is better than The first clear reference that duple. Mensural or Measured Music rapidly developed into numerous metric patterns. however. while prolatio fectum ! theological doctrine of the Trinity to these ideas.8 34. The virga^ . semiminima. These notes were written In the 1 at first as above.

from pure unison. larly marked off. O or G. a dot was half-circle. For a time.' the need for which ceased in the i6th century. 35. The germ of counterpoint lay in experiments with combining two voices.. fectum was marked by a The the sign for imperfect time or duple rhythm survives in time-signatures for modern : quadruple and duple zz rhythm It should be added that the growth of notation was fluenced by the use of various forms of 'tablature' notations devised for certain instruments (see sec. circle. C placed within Not until about 1600 were the measures regu these. for the singing together of two voices in octaves and such melodic duplication was felt by them and by their successors to differ . small distinctions of value were indicated by using some red notes or by retaining black heads for some notes while the rest were white. in the transition from black to white notes. Corresponding with the various notes were equivalent pauses or rests. 52). "IT |fl| * T t or | ^ or t ^nrz/* semibreve minim ^ . called < ligatures. much in special The first traces of attention to time-problems occur in the loth and nth centuries. ^ crotchet quaver Besides these simple notes various compound characters. staff to show per- Tempus O. on which octaves could be played). the magadis. which essentially .' were used to denote conventional note-groups. long before we have a statement of the mensural system in full.35 TIME AND ITS NOTATION maxima longa 79 fusa brevis ttmibrevis minima semiminima Medina. Signs were early placed at the beginning of the the kind of rhythm and the prolation intended. . magadizing (from the in ' ' strument. Organum. and then often only by a sort of check-mark the rudiment of the modern bar. These niceties of nota < tion were comprehended under the general term color. tempus imperfectum by a if the prolation was minor. Discant and Measured Music. Even the Greeks had a special term. So in the Middle Ages another was taken by adding to a given melody what was called an step organum (from the instrument on which it was possible). Modern.

When not under the prevailing con sional dissonances were permitted among alterations of the modes to sonances. Among these tentative efforts certain special forms or methods of writ to a reiterated burden ing were favored. the .phrases and sections that were thought to be time-schemes if consonances. for . *>\-'W. or arbitrarily uniting two melodies not originally meant to The go together. These experiments were at first confined to but two one with a Plain-Song melody to which the similar or contrary motion other a ided consonances in either voices were added to these. mitted Gradually a number became fixed. so that gradually other available and by and also the value of some con were consonances recognized trary motion. which have remained in of rules of voice-leading Combined with these were certain recognized force ever since. It is likely that the zation in time and accent had much groping after principles of organi to do with determining those of voice-part writing. such as fitting a flowing melody or drone-bass. 7 The the 'rondel' or 'rota. duly supported by typical. sometimes to a threethe voices began together and proceeded by in one famous instance to a true four-part canon poem is repeated over and . a series of tones a fifth higher atrocious to modern taste resulting succession of parallels of the scales was s fightly interfered with by the limitations other considerations.' three-part forced union of incongruous melodies may have suggested These latter "terms sometimes referred to a brief fitted to a song 1 part 'round in which all exchanging phrases. thus but oec /tsionally one or two more voices. of the rondeau type. latter process may explain some of the seemingly lawless handling of added voices. but they were soon per sixths were classed as dissonances.8o POLYPHONY AND SECULAR SONG 35 was The or a fourth lower. and which rests on a brief two-part canonic burden that over while the chief canon proceeds. The use of a burden gave obvious unity and a degree of ( form. and even some chromatic For a time thirds and avoid the suggestion of the tritone. or devising a second part by mere extemporization. occa tones that they generate. for some apprehension of harmony proper. preparing the way or 'discant (or For th ? union of two voices the terms 'diaphony' It appears that experiments of this sort 'desca&t') were used. not unknown before ireelv made before 1200 and were ' were 1000. But Much progress with discant was possible only through some recognition of accent and stress and of the groupings of the accent.

which on internal evidence is thought to date from between 1225 and 1240. Lhude sing cuccu. Perhaps it is a union of ecclesiastical counterpoint with a theme and a sec. in the British follows : " Sumer is icumen in. topics most treated are naturally the practical handling of Plain-Song. works there are anonymous. beginning with the pioneers. are anonymous and not ' large certainly attributable as to either country or exact period. A glance at the places indicated will show what localities were musically most active. and its almost flawless part-writing. The theme though there are also Latin words or subject is a flowing and joyous melody. the geographical distribution of Before then the the writers that can be identified changes about noo. 36. especially of the Benedictine Order. the problems of notation and of Mensural Music. Murie sing cuccu. Ne swik thu naver nu. And springth the wode mi. and to have emanated from Reading Abbey (35 miles west of London). amount of literary discussion of music is significant. greater number again and finally Italy since most of the extant Spain is more important than the table indicates. The burden swings monotonously back and nant harmony. already been named. and crossing over be made upon the many names in this Only a few brief notes can here table. was an ecclesiastic. Bulluc sterteth. not find the While until about 1400 we do much actual composition above the level of experiment. Groweth sed and bloweth med. however. valleys are from northern France or England. Awe bleteth after lomh. The principal words celebrate the spring as MS. bucke verteth. its secular charm. As will be seen from the following table. After that time the to the ing." a hymn to the Virgin. sung in strict imitation (canon at the unison) by four equal voices entering at intervals of four measures. Wei singes thu cuccu. with Germany added in the I4th century. The Literature about Music. probable date and place are not easily reconciled with its strictly modern The scale and form. " Sumer is icumen in. forth between tonic and domi Its questions raised by this specimen are not readily answered. A number of works. all the chief writers up to the appearance of printed books are here included. with questions about consonance and the rudiments of counter Almost every one of the writers known to us by name point. From the I2th century For convenience. some of whom have into the 151*1 century. 39) style belonging to Trouvere music (see . of France roughly speak greater number belong to Germany or parts of the Rhine and the Rhone. . Lhouth after calve cu." found in a Museum.36 THE RISE OF POLYPHONY This last instance is the 8l noted piece.


36 MEDIEVAL WRITERS 5 .v cort ^ffi _< M HH w $ 369 Do tl III . i o s fl rt ^ o^ ?1. ON 1% >3 ^0 . ^ s N Q <3 ** vx t* ^sli !f c3 o O O.r P rt I a 3 3 I M W a ^ E 3 '2 '5 * * ^ -r % -8 d o N| s ^ O OPHfafLiDHW> 5 ^ 1 < .

The most significant theorists in the I4th century were Johannes de Muris (two writers) and Philippe de Vitry. reckons the thirds as consonances. The difficulty is roughly solved by enumerating two Gartwo Francos. For some reason English musicians and those in touch with them seem to have been more ready than others to give up the Pythagorean tuning of the thirds (major = \\ and minor = ff) in favor of the modern tuning (major = f. ' while the writer known as Aristotle is allied to the later mensuralists in his ' desire to classify intervals for contrapuntal use. organum and know about measured music. claiming them to be legitimate and necessary. or commentaries upon. argues strongly for this latter view. that of Aribo of Freising (d. and uses some chromatic tones to soften harsh progressions.' who from 1321 was teacher and later rector at the Sorbonne. the thirds as medium. His treatise is noteworthy for its painstaking de monastery of his day. probably of English birth. except that the English JElrede of Rivaulx (d. makes clear the opposition between the popular instinct for duple rhythms and the arbitrary ruling of the mensuralists in favor of triple while Marchetto di Padua. of France. trained at Oxford. and two Johannes de Muris.84 POLYPHONY AND SECULAR SONG 36 Among the many elucidations of. like his including even the principle of imitation Between the voices. ven . He. His great treatise on Measured Music is one of the most famous and useful in the whole period before the i5th century. [Three strik ing cases of identical names are associated with works that are diverse in landias.. successors. All works after 1200 indicate the advance of thought regarding both the classification of intervals and the time-relations of part-writing. tures to assert the superiority of duple forms. The other 12th-century writers are not specially important. The first Johannes de Muris. near Brussels. somewhat later. a Parisian monk. nSo) imply that rather free part-singing was being attempted. In the prolix work of Joannes Presbyter (late nth century) is a vocabu lary of terms the earliest known. Franco of Cologne (though sadly confused with Franco of Paris) is appar ently the first to give full expression to the theories of intervals and of time that were becoming generally accepted by his time. c. after JSS )? writing about 1300. is feeling his way towards a time-system. but does not discant. The 1 . Hieronymus de Moravia. minor = f ). and the tritone and the seconds as worst. matter or period. The latter also argues against the expression musica falsa for chromatic alterations of the modes. 1078) is specially valuable because of the nearness of date. especially as to scription of the harmonic ideas He refers to the hexachord-system. though in his list of disso nances he counts the sixths as best. He also is the first to mention the minim (f7 ). . Walter Odington (d. is now distinguished from the second. was 'a singing-teacher in a Johannes Cotton.] The first Garlandia shows a clear insight into systematic counterpoint. but without system. Guide. 1166) and John of Salisbury (d. with its utility in the forming of triads.and was prob ably the first to emphasize the major triad as a real three-part consonance. i 'the Norman.

. at first wholly of the upper or wealthy class. 1315) and others. though distinct. solmization. treating of intervals. and their impulse was more literary than musical. including the earliest-known recognition of both sions of aesthetics mention Among the discus major and minor thirds and sixths as consonances. Indeed. is much more radical. probably soon after This was presently paralleled in northern France by a 1100. may be made of a striking essay by al-Ghazzali (d. achieved some and at length contributed much to For convenience. As will be seen. though without far-reaching purpose. The first was that of the similar. all regarded with decided conservatism. and al-Khadir. with free use of chromatics and rhythmic variety. The earliest theoretical writer was Chalil (d. c. striking immediate results the enrichment of the art. writers under Persian influence. it is now queried whether the Ars nova' ascribed to Philippe de Vitry does not belong to this second Johannes de Muris. expounded by Mahmud Shirasi (d.37-38 MEDLEVAL WRITERS 85 former supplies the most extensive of mediaeval treatises. The doctrine of the 'messel' (proportion or measure). consonances and dissonances. of the Trouvres (both words meaning Troubadours. ancient music. came a host of authorities. especially in the I4th century. Arabic writing upon musical topics was voluminous during the medieval latter. and. movement. Secular Song. though the last of them runs over into the i6th century. the successive movements are treated summarily. The musical consequences of their work appeared later. The Troubadours. advocates counterpoint for several voices. like Philippe de Vitry. 38. ideas derived from sources. was a noteworthy effort to systemize the mathematics of intervals. came the first signal outcroppings of secular song as an equally important part of musical development These instinctive efforts of the popular spirit to find an outlet in music. The represented by several works. these were poet-singers. followed in the 9th and loth centuries by writers like al-Kindi (d. measured music and discant. The first definite movement occurred in Provence (now southeastern France). the latter of whom was a diligent student of Greek Much later. At just the period when the scholastic music of the Church was clumsily struggling with the problem of polyphony. How In their writings there seems to be a mingling of some Arabian tradition with a large amount from other these elements are to be disentangled is not clear. prominent among whom were Saffieddin period. 1113) on the relation of music to religious emotion. the church modes. 37. 862) and the illustrious al-Farabi (d. 'finders' or 'inventors'). the second. 776). 950).

labor or peril on her behalf. Count of Poitiers (d. and it unlocked the door of literary expression for intense feeling of every kind. valley of the Rhone the region of which Toulouse is the The first celebrated name among the Troubadours is that of William. the lyric impulse was so strong that in these efforts was the source of the entire modern art of The impetus thus given lasted long after the Troubadour lyric verse. explaining many a feature of poetry in Italy. The headquarters was in the basin of the Garonne and the lower centre. At the outset. 1374) is clearly based on Proven9al originals. of England (d. martial. . the style of Dante (d. It was the effort of an age not fully emerged from barbarism to glorify the attraction of sex and even to etherealize it. then. and Thibaut IV. not to speak of scores of others with every kind of lordly title. the look of nature in all its aspects to the eye that love had of quickened. with Queen Eleanor of France. the planh or complaint. In a peculiar sense the songs of the Troubadours embodied one side of the idea of chivalry or knightliness. and conspicuous later were princes like Alfonso II. studied effects in assonance and the like. Certain forms were favorites. 1204). like the alba or morning-song. The evening-song. yet it was by no means essentially or inevitably base. the serena or the etc. 1199). but often stilted and manneristic. In Italy. with many special varie ties. While doubtless this notion was fantastic and often ran to lawless extremes. Spain and England. the exploits of gallantry. and from the Mediterranean northward in France to Lyons and Poitiers.86 POLYPHONY AND SECULAR SONG 38 The geographical range of the Troubadours was from northern Spain eastward to Venice. the ttnso or dialogue. period ended. Richard I. the movement was confined to the leisurely and elegant class. of Navarre (d. the beauty and worth of the lady to the knight gave his homage. 1253). France. like the canson or stanza-song in general. later of England (d. for example. flights heroic or even religious ecstasy. of Aragon (d. style of poetry thus generated was not only sentimentally extravagant. and sometimes The themes most chosen were whom balada or dance-song. Great ingenuity was shown in the elaboration of curious verse-forms. though its influence speedily spread to other classes. 1127). and highly complicated stanzas. the sirvente or narrative. in spite of the tendency to mere technique. but the form of love chiefly magnified was one almost impossible for modern thought to accept as wholesome. since it was the praise and even adora tion of married women by others than their husbands. with reiterated rhymes. the many phantasies and yearnings of the lover. 1196). 1321) and of Petrarch (d. the joy of meeting or the pain of absence. It exalted womanhood as perhaps never before. They espe cially expressed the sentiment of love. Yet.

but most of them necessitated new melodies. They for diversion at a time when diversions were few. and based upon a regular accentual rhythm. Probably the jongleurs were often drawn from the itinerant mounte These banks that were numerous in southern and western Europe. dancing. Thus a style that was at first aristocratic became truly popular. artistic tramps' had varied accomplishments. it fixed a taste for styles quite diverse from that of the Church. Many airs. that something came from the experiences of the Crusaders. as their English names. possibly hints from Saracenic or Byzantine songs or from reports of the Moorish culture in Spain. chosen were essentially different from the traditional PlainSong. too. It is likely. The Troubadours made increasing use of 'joglars' or 'jon gleurs/ singers or players who might or might not have indepen dent poetic genius.' signify. often in the major mode. not recited or read. Probably some of them were written' for popular airs already in The forms use. have attractiveness to the modern ear. thrived on the popular craving served to differentiate a class Incidentally. and the Kelts have always been It is dour song. Keltic influences were strong in Provence. In viewing the musical situation prior to 1500 this factor cannot be neglected. They show a fairly clear sense of tonality as now understood.38 THE TROUBADOURS one. etc. . one close to the It thus feeling of the common people and apt for their use. corresponding to the lines of the words. usually with but one tone to a syllable. prepared the way for the transformation of scholastic music in the i6th century. gymnastic and sleight-of-hand tricks. not clear what was the source of the musical side of the Trouba It has been thought that in Provence and northern Italy traditions of the ancient popular song of the Romans may have lingered. These helpers were of various classes and served for pay. ending with a cadence. ' 'juggler' and 'gleeman. Their phrases are well defined. musical. like singing. Both poets and singers made use of portable instruments. the use of hired assistants who made music a business or occupation of which curious con sequences have continued ever since. Wherever this minstrelsy penetrated. Through them the scope of the movement was lower classes greatly extended. Their historic importance is obvious. so that it ultimately reached the generally. 87 With the verse-making impulse ran a musical The Troubadour songs were meant to be sung. therefore.

where were leaders in literature and art. of these was yet viol. them. and where poetry ecclesiastics and music had long been valued in religious worship. The Trouveres. or doubling the melody of the song merely to sustain the voice. to accumulate the myths of Charlemagne and other traditional heroes. class that sustained the Troubadours and ruined the entire the wealthy civilization of which they were a part. among the Trouvre many strong monasteries and abbeys. There was less organization of effort language of the north themselves poets. too. primarily that strange revolt against the abuses and the autocracy of the heresy Church which reached such proportions about 1200 that Innocent III. claimed a crusade against it. rally.88 POLYPHONY AND SECULAR SONG and 39 lute especially the harp. whether or not interested This practically destroyed resulted in the total spoliation of the country. itself. traces remained of literary life in Provence and Languedoc to be absorbed into the rising current of French literature 39. The was not so varied and musical as that of Provence. were dours stimulated poetic literature in general without much . But the differences were also treatment and general spirit. and the warmth of passion and vivacity of fancy were also slighter. or supply or here and there giving an additional melody. ing enrichment by preludes. technically advanced. By the middle of the 13^1 cen tury what had begun proper. itself in words that expressed may infer that the fresh genius was not wanting in the accompaniment. less competition among and less class-exclusiveness. and to exalt the romantic tales of the Crusades. the Trouv^re poetry and its melodies were not always sharply different from those From this it followed that while the Trouba of the Church. The Trouv&res. and which defense. pro into a furious war ensued. We paniments were played. Natu often turned to sacred themes. for example. Around for technical approbation. though none do not know precisely how accom whether giving detached tones or chords But we interludes and cadenzas. loved to compile and set notable. forth the rich treasures of legend in Brittany and Normandy. to The Trouv&res first seem have caught their northern France from the Trouba inspiration of dours and to have imitated them largely in choice of themes. and ^ song The came to an end in the I3th period of the Troubadours proper because of the political turmoils over the Albigensian century. From 1208 to 1220 which most of the nobles of southern France were drawn in self- in Albigensian views. then.

The best-known of the Trouveres proper was Adam. of Bohemia (d. in Soon after the rise of the Troubadours The Minnesinger. and several points in Thuringia. though whether the two were directly connected were simply parallel expressions of the spirit of Perhaps they the time. in polyphonic rondeaux and motets. Celebrated headquarters in the east. but later attracted His genius was shown to a roving life. as it had been the capital of the kings of France since about 1000. in lyric songs in . Robert de Sabilon and Petrus de Cruce were successively choirmasters at Notre Dame in Paris. Tours and Angers on the Loire Paris was a natural centre. at first employed in church music. which His works are most interesting as is often called the first comic opera. 1190) to Conrank. 1285). with Wencelaus I. The poets of this order were called Minnesinger 40. the complex styles of the period that presaged the era of the representing Netherlanders. belonged many of the theoretical writers already named In the 12-1 3th centuries Leoninus. 43). France a somewhat similar movement began in Germany. but it was also an expression of the spirit verses were full of the same fanciful gallantry. region of the Trouveres included all of northern France from to Arras in the north and also down the Since the interchange between valley of the Moselle to the Rhine.40 THE TROUVERES and 89 direct direct musical effect. and boasted a royal musical establishment the Royal Chapel. Breisgau on the west. (love-singers.Trouvere style. all and patrons of this school of poesy and song were of noble the Hohenstaufens from Barbarossa (d. 1268). 1287). Vienna The Minnesinger generally. living at Paris and finally at Naples. France and England was close. though their their objects were not so constantly married women. and all contributed to the advancing art of polyphonic writing for the Church. It is thought that their art was much more an expansion of the mediaeval adoration of the as the ideal of womanhood than in the case of the Trouba Virgin of chivalry. and in several song-plays. Perotinus. chief of which was Robin et Marion (Naples. born at Arras in 1240. the art spread readily across the Channel. is disputed. were Freiburg in the Thuringia or Franconia. love). notably and many radin (d. To this region (sec. flourished chiefly in the region of southern Germany . the Trouveres helped to shape the great school of composition in Flanders and England that became conspicuous The after 1400 (see sec. de la Hale (d. from minne. 1253) The leaders princes of eastern Germany from Strassburg or included in a triangle whose base extends eastward the apex being in Basle on the Upper Rhine to Vienna on the Danube. for dours. 36).

90 POLYPHONY AND SECULAR SONG 40 This region abuts on the west upon that affected by the Trouveres. pure fancy and even jocularity. though ultimately marked by the same modern the indescribable na?vet6 rhythm. and upon Their in passion. however. was evinced in a fortress of the Wartburg (Thuringia) in 1207 under the the stately Hermann an occasion celebrated in a halfpatronage of the Landgrave a curious narrative poem (whence came part of the plot mythic way by of Wagner's opera Tannhauser in 1845). so that. were not apparently effects. while those in Austria or Bohemia were rather dominated by indigenous popular song. The melodies were more austere and stately than those of Provence. Performance depended much on the warmth and depth of expression imparted by the singer rather than on the essential charm of the toneHence Minnesongs can seldom be reproduced with the same design. In general. for instance. The early strength of the movement. though many are ings. some of the Trouvere songs. they to Germanic folk-music. with At first. probably from a sense of the dignity of their art. phrase and tonality. the Minnesinger avoided the help of jongleurs. generally. the melody subordinate. finally shap ing melodies into forms related to the popular airs that in the ' ' 1 6th century led to the Protestant chorales. like the Greeks. not very dif The text was primary and ferent from a modulated recitative. and. upon religious feel abstract qualities of character. that belongs adhered more to the formless style of Plain-Song. Hence the western Minnesinger were often influenced by French models. with its connection with courtly notable song-contest said to have been held at pomp. They were their As own same interpreters and accompanists. though using the classes of instruments as in France. matic treatment. urgent about instrumental The true Minnesong. They are often verging more upon heroic or bardic poetry than the casual songs of the light-hearted Troubadours. the Minne singer have been called rhapsodists rather than song-singers. a rule. Yet the principle of the true song was not absent. there- . pleasurable effect as. the Minnesongs differ from those of Provence in more emphasis upon the beauty of nature. not wanting versification is far less conscious less lyric and artificial. Being akin to the sagas and runes of the North materials in them have often been sought for dra than epic or reflective in style.

It also recalls the fact that among the Minnesinger a poet of less than noble rank was called Meister (in distinction from Ritter^ knight) . or * These clubs were governed by elaborate rules. aristocratic class. some names in " Meistersinger. The members were divided into scholars 1 up its to the accepted * 1 masters. back of the Minnesong. Meistersinger. Unlike thefr forerunners. The name fix had won the technical Meistersinger came from the notion that only those who. of the typical Mastersongs. forming local more or of the Meistersinger was their custom of less secret and exclusive. Each guild had its hall. too. The though the Meistersinger were wont to look back to certain of and there is an evident kinship between the more formal Minnesongs and the mechanicalness their predecessors as authorities. its insignia of and traditional ceremony or procedure. particularly in Austria. like the many sort were begin guilds or trades-unions into which craftsmen of every to be organized in the strong commercial towns of Germany. did not pass readily into forms of popular song. acter Yet there is evidence that it contributed to the early development of the Meistersinger movement.41 THE MEISTERSINGER and associations kept 91 fore. Some include in it only poets of the later I2th century. Entrance was by a kind from the novices and were presided over classes. since by their rulings . the Meistersinger were wholly drawn from the rapidly rising burgher or tradesman class. ' masters ' or experts were competent to title of the standard of verse and song. Some of their gatherings were of the nature of drills or singing-schools. which belonged to the middle classes. by several kinds of officers. when the old regime of country life under feudal conditions was being replaced by manufactures and trades in organized towns. special rules membership. while others add the early I3th century. ending the list with Heinrich von Meissen [Frauenlob] (d. In the latter the function of the judges or < markers' was importauf. Following the Minnesinger came the The exact relation between the two is not clear. lay forms of popular song. 1318). Its direct influence upon music in general was less than in the case of the Troubadours. while others were formal contests or trials of skill. Their prominence from the I4th to the 1 6th centuries was an incident in the evolution of society. often from the humblest and rudest artisans. ning of initiation. 41. Its char it mainly in the hands of a limited. now lost The chronological limits of the Minnesinger period are somewhat disputed. A striking characteristic societies. Possibly.

Ulm and Munich. and probably they exercised some its form of art influence upon the beginnings of popular religious song at the Reformation. the Its only positive utilities were its indirect progress. Hans Sachs (d. Indeed. 1576). on the whole. artistic movement was devoid of freedom and spontaneity that make for genuine But. often in a way to discourage of invention. whose homely but sturdy genius has been widely recognized. Augsburg. movement was Germany and spread some In many quarters it was supposed Meistersinger In the later i5th century and melodies were adopted as subjects strange for treatment by composers. the noted centres in the I4th century being Frankfort. some of affected all to adjacent countries. that of Ulm. Among many Meistersinger known to us by name the only one of last ing renown was the cobbler of Nuremberg. .92 POLYPHONY AND SECULAR SONG a standard of effort was set up. emphasis upon music as a dignified and worthy pursuit and the dissemination among its adherents of a certain degree of techni cal knowledge. Although after 1600 the significance of the movement rapidly declined. and the last person who had been a member did not die till 1876. the The what historic influence of the it considerable. Starting from all 41 freshness Mayence on the Rhine soon after 1300. Zwickau and Prague. Nuremberg. Ratisbon. since to represent a real afterward. Colmar. In the i6th the centre of activity shifted more to the east and plied rapidly throughout central north. yet organizations continued in many places. it was not until 1839 tnat tne ^ ast of the guilds. To these were added in the I5th Strassburg. that ideality. the guilds multi Germany. disbanded.



where secular and had full opportunity to react upon each other. with part of Burgundy. all honor to its is possible without of any art conceding pioneers. The Netherlands the New Art-Centre. its many populous towns being already launched on that fascinating career of commercial prosperity that presently made their western Europe. of secular song from the I2th century was the conditions of society indicated that the chief widespread. All social was ecclesiastical observances. In General. Music. The reasons for the prominence of this little section were largely po liticalits comparative peace and the wisdom of its rulers. is The headquarters of progress now found in the region north of the Seine in the provinces of Flanders and France and west of the Meuse Brabant. the Church. was the only social institution dominated to a peculiar degree by religion. polyphony. 93 enterprise .CHAPTER VI THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY We now turn back to the unfolding art of 42. sacred song 43. Though few of even the best works of the I5th century remain in use now. which application of music as an art must be first in The age of general stability. like the other arts. No just view their real importance remains unquestionable. From this time the mere invention and sharpening of implements gave place to positive artistic production. from about 1400. which. The Netherlanders now people the merchant-princes of began nations. But they were also economic. remained emphatically the protege" and servitor of the Church. and the best life revolved about While the growth thought took its stimulus and guidance thence. modern to display a civic and national spirit like that of the best and their interest in music was simply a part of their general and independence. simply because the musical world has entered paths then quite unimagined. But in the new developments we find the centre of interest shifted to the extreme west of Europe. was at length thoroughly mastered and fully applied to religious uses.

John the Fearless (d. was coming forward as a home of free to her neighbor across the North Sea. While we can not adequately fill this gap of almost one hundred and fifty from the solo minstrel-song mass was made through the form known as the polyphonic 'chanson' (the same word as the canson of the Troubadours. 1404). espe cially in the prominence of large commercial towns. but simply to match together two or three melodies as such. England. * The composer's object was not to produce a true chord-sequence (which would have involved more harmonic knowledge than the age possessed). In the I4th century for some reason the number . like Dunstable in The Netherland some way from and Dufay (active by about 1420). though with more interruption. including fully half of France. a series of works could be found with a continuous advance in method. but there was much less unity of effort. likely that from the ablest Trouv&res. favorite seats of the court being Ghent or Bruges. sacred or secular. modern school of sacred composition took its rise the later developments of secular song in If all the facts could be gathered. This was a secular piece in which a central melody or air was enriched by one to three other voice-parts so years. too. selected from the stock of existing songs. since from 1363 for over a century it enterprise. The foun dation melody or cantusfirmus. neither of which is quite satisfactory. especially music and paint Their territory varied in extent. From the 1 3th century we have a considerable list of chansonniers. 1419). In the between France and England the dukes usually sided with the latter which throws light on the close connection in music between the Netherlanders and the English. some < < ' times both. It has also been here called that of the Netherlanders. with many works of varying complexity. all of whom were friends of culture. but a different thing).' because it held or carried the theme). was usually given to a middle voice (ultimately called the tenor. and the added voices were the 'bass' below and the 'alto' or 'soprano' ('treble') above. 1287). called Flemish or Belgian. to the it is clear that the transition as to make a rude part-song. Philip the Good (d. 1467) and Charles the Bold (d. It might also be called Burgundian. though not equal is The period owed much to the four great dukes. it is northern France. Northern Italy presents many analogies. It is evident that the art of composition is converging upon part-writing of a novel kind. giving four-part effects. to the earliest of the contrapuntists. 1477). Philip the Bold (d. like Adam de la Hale (d. struggles the north clear to the Mediterranean.94 THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 43 Other parts of Europe were also moving along similar lines. often reaching from Antwerp on ing.

The origin of these the earliest to pre I4th century we have fewer names. In the early isth century we still hear of important Parisian de'chanteursNetherthought worthy to rank with the leading Cesaris. many works was himself a Netherlander. rondeaux and All these worked in the neighborhood of Paris. like Jehannot Lescurel. Carmen are cited land pioneers. wrought out ance. to two or three centuries had been But it at work upon the rudiments of polyphony as a science. mere songs from whom at least 300 pieces exist was in northern France. not all. Appar styles. represented by many works in several varieties. all showing plain connections with previous but with an artistic quality that is new. ing transition. often hardly more than a fugitive with care improvisation. c. especially masses. of course. melodies as subjects for their masses and other church of 'subjects' being almost unknown. In the developed part-songs. transmutation ently. though not unparalleled in later Into this transition were gathered up all the discoveries of the effect From the original stage. into the extended mass. when these monkish speculations had been appears that only touched by the spirit and spontaneity of popular song could a ecclesiastical theorists who for genuine type of fine art emerge. from whom figure are extant. ful study and of fully written down so as to secure the intended the aim was the mere the final one. motets and chansons. The absolute invention which some favorite theme was selected as the thread about 44. school upon the traditions the dependence of the Netherland to of secular music were the tendency of leading composers and their constant use of secular write purely secular pieces works. but they are enough show that the style is being cultivated with growing assur At the opening of the iSth century we are suddenly confronted by an imposing array of composers. ' ' . the I4th century saw the gradual of the secular part-song. when amusement some circle. besides the able Henricus de Zeelandia. motets. then. and Guillaume de Machau (d. when the courtly enrichment of the cathedral service was attempted. with one mass.44 THE NETHERLANDERS 95 of to names and works extant is not so large. Tapissier. Among the signs of Secular Melodies and the Mass. the Netherland style. was a strik musical history. As a hint of the richness of the ^th-century chanson period it may be noted that in the dictionaries are the names of more than a score of writers or ballads. including two. whose writings His name shows that he as fully introducing the developed style of Dufay. 1372).and three-part chansons.

at the Commixture. especially immoral thoughts were suggested. and (/) the Agnus Dei. (d) the Sawtus. however. and of the both of these being vari Offertormm. or Eloy's Mass Dixerunt discipuli^ (from from the singing-school were simi Plain-Song). this free use of secular materials in the most solemn works was not irreverent. Qui tollis. of a mass. which is often divided into distinct sections. justing occasionally in imitation. supplying in the tenor a fixed nucleus more or less consisted in ad familiar. to * have been one of the early characteristics of the form known as the motet' (see sec.' as < i the Mass Dotmne armb or Se la face ay pale (popular songs used in unnumbered instances). the latter part of which.' or parts the counterpoint should crystallize. * In consequence. Neither does 'it properly include any variable parts of the these service. the text of which depends upon the day or the season being rather ' motets. the Dona nobis $acem. whence the whole is style of writing came. (b) the Gloria in excehis immedi ately succeeding. practice-phrases im? used.96 THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 44 This 'subject. 55). larly It should be added that this practice of mixing words and styles seems ' ' * 1 . 1 invariable choir exercises include (#) the Kyrie eleison or general cry for mercy that follows the Introit. acting as an auxiliary It does not include any of the many pas to the officiants at the altar. Later. but in well-known songs thus incorpo were actually sung by the were proceeding with the pre tenor while the other voices Not only were the tunes of many cases their words scribed Latin text when frivolous or out in the beginning. masses were known by the titles of their subjects. while the ingenuity of the composer to it manifold figures and phrases in the other voices. but simply a token of the source a practice so open to abuse. (e) the Benedicts quivenit. it includes only those specific exercises in the liturgy that are traditionally assigned to the choir. rated. was used over and over in the successive movements of it. and Et in Spiritum Sanctum. before the Elevation.fa. re. being To these are often added a setting of the Gradual^ between the Epistle and the Gospel. the hymn following the Credo able. as in Des Pres Mass <Z*z wl. with the Hosanna. Et resitrrcxit. a suitable place to state once for all that wherever a musical 'mass' is mentioned. after the Elevation. beginning respectively with the solus. Crutifixus. (c) The words Dominus Deus. as to call In the i6th century the formal rebuke of the Church. Here these being in sages recited or intoned by those officiants themselves Plain-Song. the hymn intervening . usually divided into sections at the words Incarnat^ls est. and Quoniam tu the Credo or Nicene Creed. There is an obvious difference of intention in the various numoften treated by itself.

then. First Group of Masters. if at all. and a known only through a few scattered references (d. They in secular chansons for all pushed forward along similar lines two or three voices. under the stimulus of secular theorists had song.young com 45.45 FIRST GROUP OF MASTERS 97 bers. posers stepped forth into activity who inaugurated an era in Of music-history. We infer that he was born at Dunstable but when is not known. in phonic melody. since they did not so much create a new art as achieve the special advance that had long been foreshadowed. since they accompany the ceremony of the Com munion itself. He is mentioned by a (35 m. and much depending upon the singers' purity of intonation and Real solo effects were unknown. in motets of somewhat similar construction. But they con seem ' they angular tained the germ of much that is precious. John Dunstable fair . Benedictus and Agnus Dei being naturally the most solemn and tender. 1453) is number of compositions. rather than the unfolding of chordof a conspicuous homosequences as such or the exposition view were strictly vocal. for various reasons has the greater period. was appreciated. But there was only a vague sense of the works into clear and somewhat commensurate utility of dividing Since. The value of 'imitation/ often strictly canonic. and in formal and stricter settings of the mass (though here Dunstable is not represented by works now extant). these early and crude to modern taste. to take the principles of polyphony that that already worked out and to produce definite compositions should contain enough compressed reflection and sentiment to be artistic. Dunstable is usually reckoned the pioneer. only to double the voice-parts. northwest of London). though Dufay these. About 1420 three . The only method of procedure known was contra the interweaving sense puntal. All the effects in struments being employed. The problem before them was. fame as distinctive of the Which happened to have been earlier is of no great moment. sympathy of rendering. the voices entered one by one for the sake of melody adopted though usually individuality. as dictated by the modern doctrine of form/ sections works lack several features now universal. not harmonic in the modern around some 'subject' or thread of of - independent voice-parts as a basis. Dunstable. the Sanctus. namely. Binchois and Dufay.

Later writers call him the first contrapunt copied as far away as He was buried in London.98 THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 45 who cites him as the French poet. whom Tinctor apparently cites and from whom some masses Philippe Caron. have written polyphonic songs for weddings in Italy in 1416 and 1419. represented by some remain. Mus. Martin le Franc (probably before 144). 1500) asserts that he Vincent Faugues. so that neither between England and northern France were extremely close. 1428 he entered the Papal Chapel in the cathedrals of besides spending seven years in Savoy. works of his had been and Binchois. libraries. Eng. from whom come about 1450. he held office at Cambrai. etc. this time.] To the middle of the I5th century also belong many other names. sacred and secular at Milan about 1475. [Through a serious error of Baini (1828) the decidedly improved notation. fragments of masses Guillaume Dufay (d. masses and many four-voice chansons . works. Davey conjectures to have been organized under Henry V. John Benet. In range are rather few outstrips his contemporaries. said that his name would and chansons. Mons in Hainaut. chansons. 1460) was born near about 1425 he is named as a singer in the Ducal Chapel of Bur a soldier. samples exist. including Petrus de Domart. unless. Tinctor (c. clear that a decided advance took place in skill . highly Cambrai. noted haps a pupil of Binchois. Late in the iSth century it is and in breadth While distinguishing between two groups of com of influence. motets.. By model of Dufay the Tyrol. and amount of production he far masses. the authorities 46. including many honored throughout Europe. perhaps a pupil of Dufay. ist. per in the Burgundian Chapel. 1474) was born somewhere in Hainaut and was trained He seems to as a choirboy at Cambrai. mostly in Continental as the inventor of counterpoint and for England as strenuously for Dunstable Yet from 1350 to 1450 the relations the birthplace of the new style in general. do not agree as to the assignment of posers. copied at Rome . Mons and Bruges. but He died at Lille. from 1467 a singer as one of the best of the early school. Adam von Fulda (c. and Hayne van Ghizeghem. Anthoine Busnois (d. Davey (Hist. where the church music was famous. and that he Chapel Royal. endure for ever. Second Group of Masters. With Dunstable are associated several other English names. where he died. whose career is entirely unknown. In After this. too.. but of whose able style some perhaps. residing finally His extant works are numerous. however." Extant works of his. works. he was a singer in the Burgundian Chapel in 1468. several masses. such as Lionel Power. 1475) gundy and about 1437 choirmaster. etc. with similar Richard Markham. remaining till 1437. dates of his life are often given as 1380-1432. His existing works are all motets or secular mathematics and astrology. supposed in France in in the musical services incident to Henry's victories took part 1418-9. and two epitaphs extol his skill in music. In youth he was Gilles Binchois (d. 1895) pleads songs. known by ' several chansons of merit. that Dunstable was in the English was independent. at Rome. from whom are preserved a number of Eloy. 1492).

being spun Too little care was taken to adjust the general effect to the spirit of the words. Obrecht follows close upon Okeghem in importance.. The number reversion. that sentiment and beauty were lost in merely curious feats of poly great The texts were often treated as if of slight account dexterity. often with some gain in expressiveness. phonic unintelligible.' and was Chapel-master in them. England renown Many other princely courts besides that of Burgundy acquired The maintenance of a musical establishment be musical centres. in spite of its extremes. through whom the Netherland traditions were disseminated far and wide. inversion and fugue. most famous. ing The new school' found its culmination in the command genius of Okeghem. would deserve respect for making later achievements possible. device of imitation between the voices was worked out Every ingenuity and patience. for example. intervals to canonic imitation various with infinite from the plain canon at by augmentation. avoiding the stiffness of earlier works and often aiming at effects some what grand and imposing.). Maitre de tJiapelle. The handling of details was more certain and varied. while Germany. the ability to the custom invent them increased. but earlier In time the Papal Chapel at Rome became the l 1 . exhibit independent musical life. Kapellmeister. Though sionally twelve. twenty-four or of borrowing 'subjects' still obtained. Several Austria and Italian cities begin to rival those of the west. In the Netherlands themselves a new centre appears at Antwerp. But it also left a notable array of works that are still remarkable as artistic monuments. diminu tion. Maestro di cappetla. (Chapelain. The salient characteristic of of this group was the pushing of the technique contrapuntal construction to an extreme. etc. who was both composer and conductor.46 SECOND GROUP OF MASTERS * 99 names. The expansion of the geographical range of composers attracts notice. Such the chief musician lishments were technically known as 'Chapels. sixteen. occa even more. thus preparing for the much later of voices was frequently five or six. The skill of the period tended to expend itself on the purely intellectual The heaping together of intricacies was often so side of composition. If it had done nothing more. rendered immense to the progress of composition through its conquest of service This second school. who became the pattern for a multitude of talented disciples. out over long passages until wholly single words. ^ as estab comes a more regular feature of royal or princely luxury. it certain materials and methods.

: Antwerp were Jacques Barbireau (d. many. also. like Guillaume first at Milan and later at Naples. in which post Royal Chapel at Paris in 1452 and continued till his death. and Jean Regis. dying of the plague at Ferrara. and Heinricli Finck (d. who worked the Papal Chapel in 5 1499-1509. including one of the earliest Passions known and a singer at Antwerp Cathedral. 1514). for more than forty years choirmaster at Antwerp and an authority elsewhere. long a singer at Milan. besides serving in Gaspar Weerbecke (d. then from 1500 choirmaster at Brussels.. * is 1 said to have taught many pupils. born in Hainaut. dependence Church and of courts remains conspicuous until the igth century. later at Bruges and at Antwerp in 1492-1504. 1491).'] at Termonde in East Flanders soon after Jean de Okeghem (d. His extant works many motets and chansons. aimed of music upon the official patronage of the This ability. 1505). 1499). . More or less associated with . Possibly Philippon de Bourges and others should here be added. taught at Cambrai in 1483-5. later at Mantua. cantor at Thorn (on the Polish border) about 1490. also. who made his reputation from 1472 as teacher and courtchoirmaster at Milan. and again in In Italy. studied at Leipsic. among the earliest being Traugott Eugenius. and was often styled His genius set Paris in the first rank as a musical capital. talented contrapuntists begin to appear. 1495). and of whose works much remains. and Alexander Agricola In Spain should be noted Francisco de Penalosa (d. returning to Milan in the interval. The following. at least. served long in Poland. since so many details are order. who wrote some fifty part-songs. who was courtmusician to Ferdinand V. but whose known works are few highly honored as at Utrecht about 1430. He was employed by three kings in succession. born about 1474-83 1440 at Oudenarde.. etc. but whose works have nearly all van ished. and whose numerous works show a genius that has much to attract a modern Antonius Wyngaerde taste. or to be sure which most unknown. though also serving for a time as cathe he apparently dral-treasurer at Tours. who was born at Bamberg. and whose extant works are (d. 1519 ?). from 1474 in southern Italy. should be named include about 20 masses. of unquestioned In technique and genius he rises above all his contemporaries. importance. who taught at Antwerp as early as 1463. was soon made choirmaster. later visited Italy. and then removed to Stuttgart rep resented by many notable German part-songs and much sacred music of a lower order. who was born choirmaster there in 1465. whom (d. born had his first training as a choirboy at Antwerp in I443~4> entered the 1430. 1506 ?). In Germany. 1535). an eccentric writer. Glarean names as a fine contrapuntist. . probably born about 1446.I0o THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 46 the Chapels Royal of England and France were prominent. It is impossible to arrange the names of the period in any satisfactory deserve mention. Netherland musicians begin to be in request. probably was Jacob Obrecht (d. Most large to maintain at their cathedrals musical forces of bishoprics. and finally in Spain. Prince of Music. and was in the Papal Chapel in 1481-9. [For in following pages be designated convenience. the head of a chapel will * as choirmaster. Guarneri. of Gastile. also born at Utrecht. where he was royal choirmaster in 1492-1506.

eral in all the usual forms. Immediately following the pre ceding group or interlocking with it was a third group which belongs partly to the i6th century. went to Italy. with less warmth than Josquin and with as great command of method as either. many of whom were his pupils. as well as Rome. He was a prolific less depth than La Rue. But. under the lead especially of Josquin des Pr&s. to name sev composers as actually pupils of Okeghem. The line between the two groups is not easy to draw. Loyset Compere (d. The art of music was beginning to take a place side by side with the arts of design. 1518) was also of Flemish birth. on the other. probably at Conde' in Hainaut. Okeghem's greatest pupil. He exercised a profound writers. was prebendary ?steem. Ferrara. where he held important 1445. so that in the works of these masters we catch the quality of enduring vitality and elevation by which the whole 1 6th century is characterized. but of the text and of tonal charged with a delicate appreciation of the sense influence upon succeeding beauty and richness. was employed by the Duke of Sora at Lyons and from 1505 by the Duke of Ferrara. exact posts at several courts and in the Papal Chapel till towards 1500 (the His Italian life dates are disputed). following a single and rather ambiguous reference. was in the Burgundian than any earlier still His style Chapel from 1492. seems to have associated him with Florence. where he died as canon. Third Group of Masters. perhaps Milan and MoHe is to-day represented by a larger number of works dena. 1521) was by far the greatest. While the final culmination of the Netherlander' art waited for certain later masters. as He excels is at shown by the unusual care lavished Courtrafand Namur. Pierre de La Rue (d. most of Antoine Brumel was born in French Flanders. the ex traordinary skill in the niceties of polyphonic technique con tinues and is still sometimes pedantically overemphasized. including manifold specimens arouses delight. of his works. but composer. He was born about Josquin des PrSs (d. perhaps his remaining works it appears that Quentin. since it is not only full of technical skill. From his genius had a peculiarly romantic and tender quality. when he went to Paris as choirmaster. from St. but as we move forward into the next generation after Okeghem. On the one hand. 1518) was born in Picardy. we begin to feel the peculiar stimulus that the new century certainly gave to all music. a new drift set in toward beauty and sentiment as the crown of musical learning. It is usual. These may well be grouped together as exhibiting a maturer style. . his contemporaries in profundity and seriousness.47 'THIRD GROUP OF MASTERS IOI 47. composer. the group now in view helped to make an important transition from the comparatively archaic styles of the i5th century to the more flowing and emotional ones of the i6th. and enjoyed high upon the MSS.

It gives outlet to exuberant vitality. 1516) are also belong here.c. details of whose Of the many other known contemporaries of Josquin. but their careers are not known.IO2 THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 48 Other names in the series are Jehan Cousin. interacts with all sorts of bodily mental effort. Connected with Antwerp were Jacotin Godebrye (d. but conditioned by new influences. choirmaster as early as 14/9. and Jean Verbonnet. Mathieu Pipelare and Marbriano de Orto (d. in Rome from 1490 and in the French Chapel probably organist at St. In immediate connection with the story 48. 1529). choirmaster in Basiron and the talented Jean GMselin Possibly the earlier Philippe 1513-8. and brings to light that love for the beautiful and and It passes over is latent in healthy natures. the rhythm and motion of the voice dancing It also fitting closely with expressive movements of the body. 1528). Guillaume Crespel. The same instinct for musical expression that is universal among uncivilized men persists in civilized conditions. of the perfecting of counterpoint by the Netherlanders should be set a sketch of the informal popular music that developed by its side. . and Noel Baulduin (d. only a few can here be specified. A i6th century is impossible just estimate of the changes of the without some sense of the popular tendencies at work. Jean Prioris. As far back as we may go in the story of European civiliza we find traces of the use of song in common life. some In the isth century times touching it with positive impetus. embodying the feelings belonging whatever occupies man's interest with intensity. Folk-Music. The further progress of the Netherland style was mainly under masters whose spheres of work were not only outside the Netherlands. and enlivens all social festivity. Song springs tion forth spontaneously as the voice of the ordinary sentiments of to domestic and communal life. both well represented by existing works. with results scattered through all the centuries since. Peter's at Ferrara the about 1507. probably from about 1491 lives and works are not abundant. in the Papal Chapel in 1484-94 and Burgundian except that the latter was choirmaster from 1505. sometimes serving merely as a background for it. turns easily to the use of whatever instruments the singer's wit the ideal that readily into suffices to fashion. It beguiles labor and loneliness. the expression of life in song and dance began to become influ ential.

more highly developed conditions It belongs to reflect vividly religious beliefs. The counterpoint. long delayed that extensive literatures of folk-music have accumulated and have been highly valued. virile. The value of this to the general art of music cannot be com of melody. the Teutons and some among others the interest in popular songs and dances was so wide spread that formal music was finally forced to reckon with it. Although particular specimens and acquire a precise . all of the several Scandinavian pushed That which distinguishes folk-music often is its essential na!vet. master healthy sturdiness of the ancient Teuton continued for centuries to ful. The time. Its production is unconscious. assertive. or of the vast regions where the their way into the circle of modern civilization. gave This determined the form of the music of the Reforma Even now. but that it has been a useful factor can of English hardly be doubted. or Slavs have gradually countries.' Here the interference of formal styles has been so slight or so Scotland. Again and again the standard types form have been modified by the impress of these humble styles. Somewhat similar remarks might be made about the folk-music of Ro ^ in spite of the prevalence everywhere of more artistic many parts of Germany and in Switzerland and and dances that are full of artless continue to cherish mance countries like Italy and Spain. reflective and religious and grace that express itself in every sort of music with an earnestness have become proverbial. various branches of the Keltic stock have always been singularly This influence has been strong in France from the Troubadour to it is and to be attributed brilliant gay. harmony and puted. suggesting incipient stages of the drama or of his It is apt tory. This mediaeval influence became important as the i6th century approached and continued potent long afterward. to a grade of culture where the many modes of expression are not yet differentiated. forms. Just what relation this has to the history music is not clear. superstitions and practices. the peasantry in the Tyrol songs charm. This was the soil in which the Minnesinger character to the first German experiments with This flourished. Ireland and century. unstudied. It is always related to rudimentary literature of every kind.43 FOLK-MUSIC Folk-music tends to associate itself 103 with several lines of effort that in are quite distinct from music. yet also tender. musical. tion. others and Folk-music has been more notable at certain times than at among certain peoples. unfettered by rules. Still more important is the gift for folk-music among the Germans. Thus it is often mimetic or epic. In the later Middle Ages such racial groups as the Kelts. piquant and some part of the French capacity for and dance that has been notable since the song 1 4th The Keltic genius is also evident in Wales.

all of which can be sung to a single musical strophe. sometimes strung together in sets. Folk-dances as such are properly made up of steps and motions in brief folio wing the idea. but as a rule drift toward the minor or major as now rec ognized. show a The predilection for minor scales. laid out in more or less symmetrical lines and strophes that correspond with the plan of a verse-text. The evident appreciation of the major mode is the more not able because found at a time when scientific music was still unwilling to desert the arbitrary tone-system that it inherited from antiquity. Each line is usually somewhat complete in i itself. and their preservation does not depend upon any pro cess of transcription. Usually the text is in parallel stanzas. not of formal analysis or patient working out on paper. The kind church modes. which is the product. they can seldom be traced to an individual author. No attempt can be made here to indicate the peculiarities of particular national styles. indicating musically what the dancer executes orchestically. for example. older French and German songs are not seldom based upon the mediaeval ferent countries. but Most characteristics certain general remarks may be offered. They seem to spring up by common to be perfected by common effort.' The lines specific figure or pattern that ends with a cadence or usually tend to form couplets or other simple groups that are so similar or contrasted that the mind as easily associates them together as it does rhyming verse-lines. Each particular sort of dance is series of equal duration characterized by some special step or similar device. though often with a clear perception of the value of dominant closes in the mid of tonality preferred varies considerably in dif Keltic and Scandinavian songs. 49. now the basis of musical < These figures form. and to persist by consent. either duple or triple. Its Technical Features. Even in the oldest specimens there is a tendency to adhere throughout to a single key or tonality. making a kind of dance-stanza. sometimes of the pentatonic variety.' that phrases should be two or four measures long. having a fall. and which depends for its success upon the ease with which it can be caught. In both songs and dances the fundamental rhythm regular. The songs or in strumental airs intended to accompany and guide these motions are fitted to them at every point. Folk-songs are normally melodies of moderate length. but of instinct and taste operating extempore.104 THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 49 permanent shape. The popular mind seems to have had an instinct for tone-relation as it we know to-day. remembered and repeated by the unstudious mind. is emphatic and and the phrase-structure kept in memory. follow from the necessary simplicity of all folk-music. is so built upon it that the ' form ' is plain and easily . mere tradition. are sometimes simply repeated over and over. dle cadences.

were mingled with those of other places. he was inci wherever he was also so as to it ' make Yet. athletic tricks and shows of trained ciation of it with cause of their lawlessness . asso the whole art of music even to modern times is due to the mediaeval coarse buffoonery. with its lack of 'form/ was keeping musicians from these more natural methods. Often there was a strong prejudice against all such itinerants be a prejudice that took shape in edicts. mediaeval itinerant minstrels constituted a significant type. The Minstrel Class. Like the bards of the older time. was the servant of a genius. minstrel. They were usually skill and indispensable. The were bound to keep in ' of his audiences. of traveling singers and Throughout the Middle Ages the popularity is constantly indicated. folk-music seemed to educated musicians rather vulgar. All of in the Troubadour and Minnesinger periods but their decided influence belongs rather to the (sees. The line between the clown and the minstrel proper was seldom sharply drawn. They socially attractive touch with strictly popular taste. Even until 1600 some features of 1 5th and i6th centuries. 37-40). but to render it with voice and finger players. what they found into a finer shape or own invention. since they are #aceable at periods when formal composition was timidly grop ing its way. Popular music in a settled com involves a somewhat organized class of persons who munity make their living by it. civil which sometimes attempted to suppress them altogether. something dentally a leader and teacher as well. and when the supposed value of the old modes and of contrapuntal structure. all the stronger because of 'But the popular craving for amusement and a the hard and narrow conditions of life gave them employment Part of the contempt that has pursued measure of wondering admiration. the 50. By them the songs and dances of one locality They added ful often wrought to it from their and often greatly improved musical instruments. To-day we can see that there was no more valuable element in the evolution of modern styles than this same despised music of the them were noted people's instinct. they may have been the suc Perhaps players cessors of the tricksters and mountebanks of the later Roman domination. and religious. as his name implies.50 FOLK-MUSIC 105 All these features are of historic importance. Their business was not to theorize about music or to play the r61e of formal composers. Such rude musicians were the medium through which folkmusic was disseminated and preserved.

since they were marking its rhythm and figures and for enriching its interest. for with the rise of scientific instrument-making in references. < title recurs. like the notion of companiments for singing was lacking in the current contrapuntal itself. as also with the cially modern learned and lands. Yet it minstrel class was artistically serviceable in many ways. Somewhat similar institutions appeared much earlier in England. established in London in 1472.th century and of real instrumental styles of composition It is likely that a few main types drove the rest from the field. though in such fantastic rules. . can be traced in considerable detail. and the Musicians* Confrlrie deSt. were once these mediaeval institutions with the later guilds of town-musicians.I0 6 animals. The multitude the invention and application of instruments. architectural carvings. and poetic and other literary In the search for novel effects the variety of in strumental forms in widespread use was probably greater than ever since. nor were they they were not governed by secret and exclusive. France and the Low Countries. But another stimulus was the desire for genuine ac useful for the solo song a desire which. For over four centuries the same common in France and neighboring countries. of records here is bewildering. especially in illuminations of manuscripts. Attention has been called to the guilds of the Meistersinger Germany (sec. THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 51 Vagrant minstrels were too often mere beggars or thieves or is only just to remember that the cornipters of public morals. 41). The name implies the existence of organized soci Several such brotherhoods are matters of record. from the almost casual group town or city union that assumed to dictate within its bounda permanent The connection of ries who could ply the musical trade or profession. These are but samples of a multitude of such organizations that honor. dancing stimulated this attention to instruments. often with civil privileges conferred by statute. Indeed. i some The is in eral mention of a personage called The King of the Jugglers' Sev William the Conqueror (before 1 100) England such Kings are named in the 13th century at different places. earliest at the time of 7 . the i. and which varied of mere itinerants to the widely in character. espe in Germany.Julien. Instruments. artistic musical societies and academies in various Folk-music and minstrelsy were prolific in 51. notably the eties. is it seems that between them and the modern Gipsies there real connection. first recognized in Paris in 1331. so They remind us of the bands ordinarily of Gipsies that still exist in many pa-rts of the world. the latter of which still exists in Company.

so that of each there might be a graded series from treble to bass. too. All these instruments. 51). group we find elementary forms of all the well-known types harps. but some recognition of true harmony as distinct from counterpoint . bells. also.played by r lecting tones in the massive from the se _ constituents clently or equally. to engage The more favorite instruments were often made in several sizes. but as It would appear.51 FOLK-MUSIC 107 system. and its or viol kind application to stringed instruments of the lyre was understood. There are some indications. or ' i 1 a viol sounded by a revolving wheel and fitted with a rude keyboard (see Fig. mediaeval eagerness for concerted instrumental effects is memorable. Similar experiments were Such efforts were essenof course made with voices. 101). therefore. castanets and clappers of all sorts. etc. oboe and trumpet families. exhaustive catalogue of mediaeval instruments can be The list is too long and complicated.' organistrum.' bauernleier. except the organ. No given. in countless ' modi ' or i the ' with peculiar special types. there are many representatives of the flute. viols. and evidently both were In the stringed liable to curious and capricious variations. that the ries of natural or total effect. since dies could be sethe several voice-parts were not developed indepen. though it had not been combined with the dulcimer as in the pianoforte. Various shapes and names are known to us ? but they cannot always be brought together with certainty. The key board as a means of controlling a complex instrument like and the organ was already well known (see sec. with bagpipes and PanVpipes. were mainly the products of popular in genuity. that independent in strumental music was attempted. making an instrumental choir. dulcimers. and nun's-fiddle essen hurdy-gurdy. . . with one tially diverse from those of true counterpoint. though at the end of the I5th century they began the serious attention of thoughtful musicians. besides the organ tially In the percussive group there are its petite varieties. It seems that before learned musicians had of true fixed upon the notion harmony as the basis of it and had composition popular music had recognized to apply it in solid chord-effects from instrubegun ments of differing pitch. like the violin. lyres. not simply because it hastened the maturity of because it involved leading solo instruments. lutes.. like the trumscheit a derivative of the monochord. though this was slight. . fications. drums. In the wind group. ^n ^^ harmonlcs - . js-^icu die.

all these signs being transitional forms from the old mensural notation). . by particular line. whose ultimate is due to its supremacy adaptability to every species of music. especially the lute. instrumental as well as vocal. all the notes to be played on a letters on its given string being marked be used. For other instruments. and consisted of the letter-names of the intended tones written in horizontal lines that were broken at regular intervals by vertical bars to mark the measures the whole resembling the modern Tonic Sol-Fa notation. except that the letters referred to the keys of the keyboard and not to solmization-syllables. THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY Tablatures.io8 52. not by their letter-names. 53. and over each vertical column stood a sign to indicate the desired duration (a point for a breve. Yet the experiments with tablatures evidently had much to do with the perfecting of the staff-notation. but the notes were named. essentially a kind of tablature. Indeed. 52 Incidental to the free use of instruments were systems of notation for them. a stroke for a semibreve. T I T u I * I i- r i l I 1 t Pi Of I i C $^ I i c fttr I r A I I I I O I J I f W FIG. They were alike in that they did not employ the staff. varying with tie instrument in view and also with the country of their origin. the same general scheme was used. which belonged to vocal music. Notes meant to be' sounded together were ranged one above the other. but by some letter or other character what and what were indicating string finger to In these latter forms what looked like a staff was often em ployed. a o XC3 i co do ") d 1 1 r I Pfz L r rni cmgtn 1 1 ^>f z c Lute Tablature (i6th century). etc. a stroke with a side-pennant or hook for a minim. with a duration-sign as before.' Several systems were in wide use. one with two hooks for a crotchet. the latter is What was called German or organ tablature was meant for keyboard instruments generally. Rests were shown by dashes in the part where they were needed. but its lines referred to the strings of the instrument. called 'tablatures.


63. 70. VII.PART III THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY CHAP. THE VENETIAN AND ROMAN SCHOOLS. THEORY. Music-Printing. 54. In Genera . SECULAR Music. The Papal Chapel. Other Roman Masters. 69. General Survey. Instruments and Instrumental Music. 62. 55. The Lutheran Reformation. CHAP. 67. The Madrigal and Part-Song. 72. 60. 68. VIII. Literature about" Music. Lassus and the South German Masteis France and Spain. no . CHURCH Music IN NORTHERN AND WESTERN EUROPE. The Prayer Book and Music. The Florentine Monodies. 58. INSTRUMENTS. Palestrina. 1 61. 53. The Rise of Italian Music. The Netherlands. 71. 57. 64. Summary of the Century. 56. 73. The Imperial Chapel. IX. 66. CHAP. England. 59. Willaert and the Venetian School Other North Italian Masters. 65.

Pacific (1513). In place of the stiff and abstract scholasticism of the Middle the New Learning now asserted itself. various lines of progress converged. (c) other inventions that tended to alter society. Michelangelo (1475-1564). As illustrations. The i6th century is perhaps the most fascinating of any before the igth. only to be recombined and redirected. changing the whole aspect of war and politics. that here belong typical Italian painters of the first rank. the etc. VII THE VENETIAN AND ROMAN SCHOOLS General Survey. awakening adventurous and provoking dreams of foreign domain and fabulous wealth. which originated further back. like Da Vinci (1452-1519). as of America (1492). and the mariner's compass. and that here was the brilliant blossoming of the Eliza and died bethan Era in England. born in 1465 note that Erasmus. making real the richness of ancient literature and art.CHAPTER 53. opening the door to explorations beyond the sea. but were now hastened to maturity by certain events that gave an unexampled expansion to intellectual and artistic interests. the Cape of Good Hope and the sea-route to India (1498). and (dQ startling discoveries of far-off geographical facts. zeal. was in 1536. like gunpowder. appearing just before in As . All Europe was stirred by the great mental move ments of the Renaissance and the Revival of Letters. since it was the meetingInto it as towards a focus point of mediaeval and modern life. () the invention of printing with movable types about 1450. with the German Durer (1471-1528). Other signs of the mental vigor of the age were the advances of arts like painting and poetry under masters of permanent Ages importance. the leader of the Humanists.. being really the first expression of the modern historical and scientific spirit. Raphael (1483-1520) and Titian (1477-1576). enlarging men's horizons. making it possible to multiply and distribute the tools of culture indefinitely. the century opens. Note especially (a) the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. which sent a wave of Byzantine learning into the West. we find ourselves on the verge of the tremendous upheaval of the Reformation.

genius. 54. also. and the variety of The manufacture of instru demands upon them increases. besides movement spread theological and re liter ligious effects. Their dignity and worth as members of society are better recognized. while France and the Low with leads in England compete Italy Countries are less important. of Queen England the Papacy and to Protestantism were often extremely important to the progress of all culture. sic in its social applications is just as the use of typography led immediately to book-publish . but Italy easily all but one. mediaeval counterpoint. England in 1509-47. As northern and western Europe. Just as it is becoming more cosmopolitan. The dependence of music upon the Church and upon the patronage of higher forms is rulers continues. like Charles V. not strange that the century was rich in musical signifi cance. stirring all society to the depths. and artistic results. the obliteration of the old line between sacred and secular It is music. King of of Spain in 1556-98. the shift of emphasis in theory from polyphony to monoand of 'form/ and the phony. social. Although the impetus everywhere is largely from Netherlander. ary The century was an age of great sovereigns.. it produced extraordinary political. Music-Printing. King The relations of these to the power of in 1558-1603. King of France in 1515-47. so it is also becoming more evidently democratic. Emperor in 1518-56. with its emotional possibilities. and. discovery In these developments several countries participated. but there are signs that the art in its coming closer to the people generally. Philip II. native genius comes steadily to the front. men who conceived the notion of movable types for letters ad vanced almost at once to that of movable types for notes. No single event in the evolution of mu more important than the inven The same tion of a practical method of printing its products. The great musical events were the application of print the culmination of the art of ing to the reproduction of music. Germany and for attention. especially since musical publication be comes a potent factor in progress.. the rise of Protestant church music.. now begins to afford room for the exercise of positive ments. with a new sense of harmony of the musical drama. Individual composers and theorists now exert a wider and more lasting influence. and Elizabeth. Francis I. Henry VIII.II2 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY this its 54 in 1520 in Germany and Switzerland..

so est. a whole page to a block. The earliest known printing of music from types was in 1476 by Ulrich Hahn of Rome. yet through them masterworks now began to circulate in authentic form and to be studied and used as never before. 1440). the roundconsisted headed notes invented in 1530 by Briard of Avignon). being the chief centre of publishing . places. and before 1512 by Schoffer of Mayence.54 MUSIC-PRINTING 1 1 3 ing and book-selling as standard branches of commerce. The first application to the more difficult problem of contrapuntal music process was in 1501 by Petrucci of Venice. the notes in black. Naturally there was no effort to cir The knowledge of the larger musical works was therefore culate them. When movable types were first tried for letters by Gutenberg at once arose whether the same device was not (c. which were often marvels of laborious patience and inter But the time and effort required upon them were excessive. in 1481 by Jorg Reyser of Wiirzburg and Ottavio Scotto of Venice. new agency was at once apparent. To relieve this difficulty. In all these cases only Plain-Song was at tempted. Venice. and the process involved two impressions. Throughout the Middle Ages the drafting of musical manuscripts and even the pursuit of musical calligraphy as an art were common occu pations in monasteries and similar institutions. Every cathedral and large church was obliged to supply its priests and choir with all needed service-books. The of music as a trade was now undertaken in various publishing in general. for example. and this continued till 1520 and occasionally after. For a time the musical portions of books like missals were printed from blocks while the text was printed from type. but the extreme difficulty of printing both staffs notes at one impression postponed the solution of the problem. that they were costly or priceless. Though the early editions were small and the copies relatively expensive. notes and staffs to first to work out a one-impression process. were used from Further progress 15 27 by Attaignant of Paris. in devising better types (as. whose types of gether. experiments were made in the I5th century with printing music from engraved wooden blocks. was the type-maker Pierre Haultin in 1525. the question and practicable for music. the staffs o*f this being in red. so it led The value of this also to music-publishing and music-selling. and during the next twenty years by several others. An immense in centive was thus supplied both to producers and to users. limited to a few places and persons. followed in 1507 by Oeglin The Augsburg.

The modern plan of using soft-metal plates and punching the notes and other characters by in engraved plates the Sheet-music is usually printed from letter-press. ) 1 inked and applied to the paper. 1539). 1610) and Francesco Rampazetto (d.II4 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY cities 54 was naturally prominent. work in in 1584-91 1586-1604. 1623). At Rome we note Valeric Dorico (d. motets. was soon in fierce competition with Scotto. printed from. in a setting these. took up the new The mechanical difficulties of music-printing are not generally appre The staff-lines should be continuous across the page. and Simone Verovio. but breaking the lines. and yet but types for all the latter. The first plates Verovio of dies did not appear till about 1700. at . at work (with his copper-plate process) . set up in any desired combination. Making two impressions 7 < variation in register (loca is mechanically delicate. issuing his first book in 1501. frottole and pieces for the lute (some in more than one volume or edition) by a great variety of composers Andrea Antigo (d. from 1539 one of the most prolific publishers of the time. since even a small the paper) between the two printings vitiates the result. which can be cast in large quantities. Petrucci's tion on success with this method is extraordinary in view of the fact that even on modern presses it is practically abandoned. easy to not easy to apply them without not only increases cost. As a clue to the spread of the tions thus put into circulation. and or l distributed so as to be used again in other combina then ' separated tions. and returned to his birthplace in till 1523. in 1466. who began at Rome in 1510. . where he prosecuted work over 30 collections of masses. wholly different process. < account in Grove's Diet. completing a monumental series of 1511. succeeded in 1571 by his almost equally enterprising son Angelo (d. secured a monopoly of music-printing there in 1498. born at Fossombrone who went to Venice in 1491. both notes and staffs (See an excellent The above remarks apply only to printing from types. when complicated the whole notes. which also began to be used in 1586). Alessandro Gardano (d. 1573). with two books in 1531-3 Antonio BarrS. and who was . 1567). but moved to Venice in 1520. . ciated. types making of the staff-lines attached to them (in all desired combinations) and then the remaining portions of the staffs. at work in 1555-8. son of Antonio above. began business in 1537. 1579). at work from about 1562. with other types for mosaic. as well as a composer of madrigals and canzone . Girolamo Scotto (d. The problem was solved by bars and other characters with small portions for the and other upon and between them must stand notes make uniform are produced in apparent continuity and perfection. new art and a help to tracing the many collec some of the pioneers may be enumerated : At Venice we have Ottaviano dei Petrucci (d. literary To-day this process ' is employed mainly 1 for books containing much matter or a Rome i6th century (by were made of copper and the engraving was laborious. but many other industry with success. 1539). so exact in adjustment and so closely compacted that is It is signs. under Music-Printing. Antonio Gardano.

the latter being a collection of folk-songs the first of many by other printers. and they were followed in 1588 by pupil Byrd (d. though the The transfer of activity divergences gradually became marked. followed by Nicholas du Chemin in 1549-68. The Prayer In 1575 Tallis (d. In England slight specimens of musical typography are traceable as early Petrucc^s two-impression process began to be imitated in 1530. and later at Paris by Guillaume Le Be*. to Italy and Germany was made by those who were either Netherlanders themselves or their pupils. But at once the line of progress was taken up by others and carried forward with In Italy we now note two large increasing independence. In the Netherlands a prominent name whose work began in 1543. 1564). 9th century. Thomas Este (d. 1575). 55. At Frankfort mention should be made of Christian Egenolff (d. c. like Johannes Petreius (d. Georg At Nuremberg were many Rhaw (d. be Etienne Briard ginning work at Paris in 1525. (d. Pierre Haultin (d. 1609 ?) and others. beginning about 1566. 1550). 1606). 1599).55 MUSIC-PRINTING 1 1 5 In Germany we have at Augsburg Erhart Deglin. Berg was diligently at work in 1567-99. groups. Between the strictly Netherand those of the i6th in other countries there was no absolute line of separation. 1548). and from 1552 was joined whose by Robert Ballard 1 that lasted a (d. Hans Ott (d. 1585) and his in 1550 and the metrical' Psalter in 1562. whose technique was no At Munich Adam toriously poor. 1550?) and Hieronymus Grapheus (d. who began business in 1525. but whose books are historically valuable. The Rise of Italian Music. printers. a firm first book was issued in 1531. land writers of the isth century . issuing one of the earliest Protestant hymn-books in 1525. at work from 1536. At Wittenberg was another important Protestant publisher. 1556). but turned to music-printing before 1512. as 1495. Louvain from 1545. whose first book in 1507 was printed from wooden type and another in 1512 from copper type. was followed at Avignon by and Jean de Channay. 1555)7 at work from 1532. another firm nearly as old. who began publishing in 1540. the first of family of publishers till the at Antwerp is that of Tylman Susato succeeded in 1572 by Jean Bellere (d. the latter having worked at 1595) and his partner Pierre Phalese (d. 1580). Robert Granjon. 1563) and Ulrich Neuber (d. and from 1534 at Strassburg. at work from about the same date. Book with music was printed apparently by Wynkyn de Worde. after which he worked first at Worms. At Mayence Peter Schoffer first appeared as the colleague of Gutenberg and Faust in general printing. At Paris Pierre Attaignant used Haultin's types in 1527-49. 1571). and Dietrich Gerlach (d. 1623) secured a monopoly. a lutist and composer. Johann vom Berg (d. and Adrien Le Roy (d. 1579). published bpoks at Lyons in 1559 and at Rome in 1582. These centre set apart geographically and artistically. In France music-printers were notable for zeal in the improved cutting of types as well as for their work as publishers.

Stricter pieces were occasionally given the name 'fiiga. as Venetian. while the Venetians were far more for innovation. ' i chanson. ' into the villanella or street-song. There was an increasing differentiation of the forms of composition. and its treatment followed the traditions of the I5th But the t motet was modifications. school adhered to the stricter -traditions. Both served to develop The Roman the Netherland art. usually learned treme or the sensational (but see sec. into which gradually crept qualities of sensuous piquancy and l The old French lightness that were out of place in sacred writing. avoiding the ex clearly contrapuntal. though varying greatly in elabora soon instrumental forms begin to tion. the older style to its natural con summation the latter laid foundations for new developments. Willaert and the Venetian School.' toccata or sonata' were more common. though the true fugue * * l 1 i 1 hardly began before the i/th century. These were all essentially polyphonic. As instrumental writing was taken up. especially in secular and sensational ef ready fects. Sometimes the term fantasia' was used much as now. and all at first vocal. and the handling and intricate. For various reasons Venice stands out in the i6th century as one of the most inter She had long been foremost in commerce. The former brought . since its variety of text encouraged originality of ' 1 treatment. often with a rough and even coarse text. With her wealth came an ag Notable among her national gressive and productive culture. but in different directions. 56. was a In secular writing the madrigal' was the analogue of the motet finished contrapuntal setting of secular words. 69). dominated by the demands of the Church. also. For the church service the 'mass was of course the most stately and constant form.H6 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 56 about Venice and Rome respectively. For both of these the words were Latin. all of them referring to pieces in which some thematic treatment was decorated with much aimless pas sage-work and the like. several names were used that were not at first clearly distinguished. her esting cities. 44). Neapolitan or Sicilian. accord ing to the style adopted). having much more freedom and outward charm than the madrigal. though with some technical now more appreciated. century. were beneficial in breaking up the heaviness and formlessness of stricter writing (see sec. was followed in Italy by the canzona or popular part-song (often called by local names. . l 7 ' a prominent melody and comparatively These latter forms. but ricercare. a variety of the canzona. though appear. often in Italian and usually amatory. little attempt at part-writing. trade reaching far into the Orient on the one side and over all western Europe on the other. Next came the frottola. though often despised. This shaded off usually following a fixed plan of stanza with a refrain.

first became notable in the I4th century. From 1490 there were two organs. Bernar dino (1419-45). . probably suggested by the fact that St. was due peculiar eminence of Venice in the early i6th century to the extraordinary genius of Willaert. famous as one of the richest and most splendid of cathedrals. and. Mark's for thirty-five years from 1527. while mere pre In all this cision or intricacy of imitation was less prominent. Zarlino (1565-90) and Donato (1590-1603). with richer combinations of chords and more freedom with chromatic tones. Zuan Maria (1504-7). Jachet de Buus (1541-51). tional effects we see the working of the typical and sentiment. exercising a dominant influence on its develop ment (see sec. De Rore (1559-65). Chief of these advances was the free use of double-choir effects.?). Giovanni Gabriel! (1585-1612). more clear cadences. conciser handling of the words.56 institutions THE VENETIAN SCHOOL 1 1/ was the Church of St. Though not the Italian love of color. from the nth. Mark's had two organs facing one another across the chancel Antiphony of this kind involved important changes in current method partition into sections. Bernardo di Stefanino Murer (1445-59). while he excelled in interesting extensions of their style. In all the technical mysteries of counterpoint he was fully as expert as his prede cessors. more massing of voices in pure harmony. From 1403 there was a special school for choristers. The successive organists after 1400 were Zuane (1406-19). Baldas- sare da Imola (1533-41). For all these reasons Willaert is counted Des Pres and as. Mark's (1459-90 and later). Bartolommeo Vielmis The excellence of the music at St. Annibale (1552-66). In general. Willaert (1527-62). the ablest master between Palestrina. emo were pushed forward. and the overlapping dates above signify terms of service beginning on the second organ and passing to the first. choirmaster at St. The list of choirmasters begins in 1491 and includes Pietro de Fossis. founded in the gth century. Mark's. who is commonly The called the founder of the Venetian school. Progress in all these was novel and a grateful addition to the older procedures. 69). first to warmth grasp the possibilities of the madrigal-form. Francesco <T Ana (1490. Vincenzo BeirHaver (1586-88) and Gioseffo Guami (1588-91). with some symmetry between them. Willaert was one of the first strong writers in it. Merulo (1557-84)? Andrea Gabrieli (1556-86). a Netherlander (1491-1525). Here the powerful patronage of century attained fame in all the state developed a musical establishment that in the i6th Europe. etc. on the whole.

motets and songs were left in MS. There he was sought as choirmaster by the Duke of Parma. He is notable as one of the earlier writers for the organ. studied under Willaert. besides -some instrumental ricercari. when he went to Rome. 1590) was born in 1517 at Chioggia.Il8 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 56 Adrian Willaert (d. but in 1563 became Willaert's successor The next year. where he died. Mark's as one of Willaert's earlier pupils. Mark's. His he also studied music with training was at Paris and for the law. werp Ciprian de Rore (d. for the church and very numerous secular Further part-songs and madrigals. After some years. and Jachet de Buns was certainly a Netherlander.. Mark's. Before 1553 he was made choirmaster at Ferrara. in place of the older delight in puzzle-working. There is no doubt that . an abundance of beautiful madrigals for 4-5 voices. of talented pupils. richness of impression. but Mouton and Des Pres to such effect that in 1516. and his style has a novel at Venice. the Doge of Venice. Low Countries. Gioseffo Zarlino (d. and some ricercari. and in 1565 succeeded De Rore as choirmaster. also a Netherlander. was brought up as a choirboy at St. After training as Franciscan. serving 25 years. in 1527. His long series of works (1542-73) includes several masses. rendering was taking hold of all more studied products more beautiful and He came early to Venice was chosen from many competitors for the second organ at St. was strong toward such uses of contra should be less diffuse and abstruse than formerly. in 1541 and motets. born at Mechlin or Ant in 1516. and became court-organist there. remaining in service till 1564. whence in 1551 he went to Vienna. in the face of some opposition. spending some time at Antwerp and Brussels. ricercari. masses. he moved to Parma. 1565). many motets. drift The The potent human. puntal art as with emphasis upon depth of feeling. 1562) was born at Bruges or Roulers before 1490. he came in 1541 to Venice. where he remained In 1542 and 1556 he paid visits to the in the greatest honor till his death. charm of detail. etc. influence of secular music its music. of Bohemia. In following down the long line of Willaert' s contemporaries and successors at Venice we note the recurrence in their works of the same tendencies of style. richness a and geniality. it is said that he found the Papal Choir using a motet of his under Des Pres name. He began to publish madrigals in 1542. being discontented with his post. He went much beyond his master and his school in the free and dexterous use of chromatic tones and harmonies. but are rich in motets. with many individual peculiari ties as well. installed him as choirmaster at St. but in 1558 returned to the Low Countries. He was in request as a teacher and trained a long list first 1 His published works (1536-71) include only 5 masses. Their popularity is shown by the numerous editions de manded. hymns. His works (1543-50) consist of some canzone. of which we have no record save that he was employed for a time by Louis II.

at Brescia. from 1562 as trainer. then leading singer traditions of the century. with a probably posthumous collection toccate and ricercari in 1604. the founder tonal effect. where he died. He began his career in 1556 as cathedralearly displayed conspicuous genius.56 THE VENETIAN SCHOOL 119 he was eminent as a composer. and finally. but his publications from 1565). Mark's -in motets. born in Venice (d. finely prefigured and pupil. plane with those of his uncle. 1548-70). with one book of motets (1597). North German school. from 1603. 1609) was first and finally. from (15 successor. 72). He had great repute as a player on ducal choirmaster at Gratz (Austria). while his concerti and masses and umes of became a singer at St. his numerous up amid the accumulated Schiitz. born in Venice about 1510 and trained by and second organist in 1566. his fame rests upon the stimulus he were at first all vocal (several vol gave to organ music. Besides interested (from 1566) in music-publishing and in organ-building. when he became organist at St. Annibale Padovano was born in 1527 at Padua. remaining almost 20 years. under Zarlino. Growing . but comparatively few of his works remain His chief fame is as a theorist (see sec. as Zarlino's in which much originality appears. the organ and other instruments. was pro organist moted to the first in 1566. He was fond of polychoric effects (3-4 Giovanni Gabrieli in 1557 and first (from 1587) choirs treated more or less his organ-writing ad independently). born in 1533 at Correggio and trained there. toccate and canzone. and remained till 1566. 1536 Willaert. he marks an epoch in the separa and as composer. choirmaster. (motets and madrigals. His relatively few works. composer and teacher. first as singer. and variety of much secular music. his Penitential Psalms for 6 voices (1583) being specially voices or more He also collaborated on a madrigal-play (1574). in all the usual of organforms. motets and excellent madrigals tion of organ from vocal music. he 1 being stands out as one of the chief organists of the period. Mark's. Mark's from 1585. 1612). entire Baldassare Donato (d.Among his notable. The long is unexplained. and in He seems not to have produced vanced toward the fugal form with success. excelling both as player With the two Gabrielis. but his best works are his organ-ricercari. His published works appeared first as player. in 1557 came to the second organ at St. the great Dresden master. Andrea Gabrieli (d. Like his younger predecessor Merulo. 1586). are many (from 1564). 1603) was a Venetian who seems to have spent his life at St. succeeded De Buus as Mark's in 1552. one of the precursors of the opera. but he had a profound sense of richness of the His most famous pupils were Sweelinck. the South The new forms of organ-writing later conspicuous in Germany are pioneer. In 1579 he cooperated in the drafting of a madrigal-play. German eminent pupils were his nephew Giovanni and Hassler. Most of his known works are madrigals 1 590. gap between these publications Claudio Merulo (d. Andrea's nephew stands on the same high organist at St. His masses. madrigals He wrote much for 5-6 organ-pieces appeared posthumously (1587-1605). 1604). Marks Giovanni Croce of Chioggia (d. in his works. and in 1586 began another 20 years service as court-organist at Parma. appeared in 1556-73. Mark's. 50-68). and a choirboy at St.

1609). In the 1 6th century the Venetian Republic stretched along the north bank of the Po almost 150 miles. as the metropolis. was in the closest commercial and social relations. Mantua. such as Giovanni Ferretti of Ancona Vincenzo BelTHaver (d. Mark's (works. Brescia. from 1588 cathedral-choirmaster. where he died. were much used. At Vicenza we note Giovanni Matteo Asola (d. Throughout this whole region the drift of composition by the best masters was strongly toward forms like the madrigal. Modena. Cremona and Bergamo. with many able sacred works (from 1570). 1585-1602). The Venetian With the whole school reaches far outside of Venice of north ern Italy Venice. apparently because its treatment was not so conventional and its topics were more diversified. Parma and Milan. from 1565 and 1595. He was a Minorite who was constantly in request as choirmaster. (canzone. while on its borders Verona. and at Loreto from 1578. and Leone Leoni. Vicenza. in which fresh. and choirmaster at Padua in 1585-91 (works from 1570). In sacred music the motet was much more cultivated than the mass. His longest terms of service were at Osimo from 1552. Mark's and at Verona. 57. at Ravenna from 1567. 1604).I2 o THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 57 works of every description (from 1585) have much breadth and variety. and Giovanni Bassano. sacred and secular (1588-1622). were Ferrara. Among his pupils was Lodovico Balbi (d. 1567-91). but he was twice at Padua. 1613?). 1588 ?). At Mantua was Jachet de Mantua [Jacques Colebaud] (d. Bologna. whose many works. including Padua from 1607 (works from 1584). a singer at St. who was born at Cremona about 1530 and studied with Willaert. the canzona and the like. varied and piquant senti ment might find expression. modes Connected with Padua is the name of Costanzo Porta (d. itself. choirmaster from 1581. who was choirmaster from 1582 at many different places. long a choir-trainer at St. also a Minorite. Several other names might be added. His works (from 1555) range from sacred to secular in a style of dignity and beauty. In the search for splendor and charm of effect there was a tendency to increase the number of voices and to introduce more and more license in their handling all looking toward the later emancipation of harmony from the tyranny of the and of strict contrapuntal rules. Other North Italian Masters. a Frenchman who appeared about 1527 as a singer and later became both ca- . so that the whole valley of the Po consti tuted a region musically united. 1601). A later writer of some power was Giulio Belli (d. before 1559). Notable are his humorous part-songs or mascherate (1590). including cities like Padua.

besides issuing Alfonso della Viola. from 1555 ducal organist (works. born about 1535. besides madrigals (1561-98). At Modena the outstanding name is Orazio Vecchi (d. and their court was the 1 later headquarters 3th century an artistic eminence that lasted till the a centre for painting as well i8th century. bora in 1536. Many of the later Netherlander worked here. south of the Po. In the Ages under the patronage of the powerful dukes of of the Italian troubadours. grave and gay. besides Johannes Gallus [Jean le Cocq]. 1622) was in the ducal service from 1 582. lished posthumously by his son) include several intermezzi in madrigal style (1565-85). lamentations. a famous violist. varying moods. Other choir masters were Francesco Viola. who edited some of Willaert's works . also a for eigner. of madrigals. Girolamo Belli (12 vols. 1596). born in 1557. 1584). except for a short term at Novellara from 1568. 1583-1617). born at Verona about 1545. 70). Palestrina. of madrigals. and Alessandro Striggio (d. At Ferrara. was a choirboy at Mantua and from 1566 choirmaster for 30 years. and fine were his sacred works. producing a large number of works. and Paolo Isnardi. equally . 1558-95). depicting 1580 in 1594 a notable madrigal-comedy. At Bergamo mention should be made of the Sicilian Pietro Vinci (d. 1579-1612). which were connected with the Florentine innovations (see sec. also in 1584-1619 cathedral-organist. cathedral-choirmaster from 1571 (10 vols. at Modena from 1530 and at Ferrara from about 1558. producing only sacred works (1539-67) in a conservative style. [He is seriously confused with Jachet de Berchem. like Des Pres and Isaac before 1500 and Brumel from 1505. including some balletti (5-6-part dances) that became widely known. besides other works.] Jacob van Wert (d. Though he seems to have had strenuous difficulties with his co-workers. chiefly secular. sacred and secular (from 1581). Giovanni Giacomo Gastoldi (d. after From choirmaster in 1596. and Jachet de Berchem. (1559). music began to flourish early in the Middle the Este family. with many noble works (1573-87). Mantuan musicians were Benedetto Pallavicino. with masses and madrigals (1571-92) and a book on the organ (1608). psalms. a pupil of Ruffo at Verona. notable for his inci madrigals of his own (from 1550) dental music for several plays (from 1541). he became he put forth a long series of beautiful madrigals and canzonetti. like his father. 1546-61). 1587). 1592). who died before 1543 as ducal choirmaster. of which only the words remain. Van Wert's successor Other in 1596 (n vols. was a celebrated organ-builder. as well as both of them with De Buus. At Cremona the chief name is Marc' Antonio Ingegneri (d. etc. with pieces of his own. ascribed to appears from the fact that his Responsoria (1588) were long Monteverdi was his pupil. with many masses. from 1560 at His works (from 1560 and finally pub Florence and from 1574 at Mantua. and from 1576 choirmaster The excellence of his style at Cremona. he was highly He was a prolific madrigalist (n vols. from 1563). who. 1605). At Brescia we note Costanzo Antegnati. where.. Almost Amfiparnasso. holding church offices at Correggio. many motets. but left also honored.57 thedral THE VENETIAN SCHOOL 121 and ducal choirmaster.

especially with enthusi asm and brilliance. Maria della Scala. Peter's. with many The rule was that none but priests or those curious perquisites. Weerbeckg was a teacher from Simon de Quercu in the cathedral choir before 1508 and Matthias Among the madrigal-writers were VinHermann choirmaster in 1538-55. Julius called The 1 5th century closed with a decided decline in the prestige of the Papacy. 12-16 a little later. the drift of Roman and toward sensuous display and less manners was and impressionable than in cosmopolitan and luxurious vivacious at the time less Venice. is an institution with a long and peculiar back to the singers' schools of the early popes. who might be ally priests were eligible. from 1554 and at Milan cenzo Ruffo. history. important progress was taking place at Rome. the latter of whom was II. In Rome ad with a different spirit and emphasis. among the later Netherlander. and one John While secular writing was not neglected. the papal court or two others of Lateran. Sta. then 18-32 for a time. born at Verona and choirmaster there from 1563. While northern Italy was thus culti in secular directions. (1534-50). Paul III. (1572-85) the i6th century it is notable that none of the popes was chosen upon During from Venice or its dependencies. More impor esteemed. except six years at Pistoia. reaching During the Middle Ages its traditions developed until it became The Papal Chapel Election to it was a great a fixed feature of the papal court. (1592-1605). ecclesiastical music and upon such a conservative cent fell upon it handling of as befitted the churches that stood as models for taste the Catholic world. 1472. tant was Orfeo Vecchi (<L prolific as a church writer (from 1590). St. (1513-22). and the organist Giuseppe before 1604). The number of singers varied 9 about 1450. 20 about 1510. vating composition. but usually vance was practically confined to establishments identified with the Papal or Sistine Chapel. Maria Maggiore. 36 about 1520/24 through most of the century. being for life and including a moderate salary. choirmaster at Sta. 1564-85). whose works (1542-88) were highly Caimo (works. 58. longer pontificates were those of Clement and Clement VIII. The Papal Chapel.122 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 58 At Milan. St. owing to the evil lives and violent intrigues of certain with a reassertion of dignity and power by pontiffs. Furthermore. honor. (1523-34). VII. Gregory XIII. the ac the basilicas. (1503-13) After these the to meet the beginnings of Protestantism. much . As the need grew for competent sopranos and altos. Elderly members were usu removed by promotion to more lucrative church positions. but the i6th opened and Leo X.

at Avignon in types cut by antique and austere. From about 1515. He . " He issued one book of the new epoch. musician (see which rank among the best. After 1600 even castrates or leadership of the Chapel was ordinarily intrusted to the oldest choirmasters were sometimes designated. born at Seville and Malaga. His sacred works came c. went to Paris probably about 1555. 72). Certainly the initial impetus for the Roman from the Netherlands. a born.58 THE PAPAL CHAPEL skill 123 male voice (a was used in the culture of the higher tones of the in Spain). two were members of the Papal Chapel and Des Pres in 1486-94?. Naturally here sacred polyphony was developed to its highest It is customary to single out the great Palestrina as perfection.. Peter's usually it appears in had oversight of the choir the Sistine Chapel as well. was a writer he sang in the Papal Chapel. Costanzo Festa (d. the . on the other hand. then re Ghiselin Danckerts. . in 1535-40. the chief agent in this. still foreshadows Palestrina. Probably others were active Dufay school came direct there also. and that the quick recognition of his power implies a considerable works of current be desired by the papal authorities. and that able styles should composers should be eager to compete for approval. was probably choirmaster at Toledo Chapel m . was in the Chapel in 1538-65. whence its sweet and earnest fidelity to the text. he a pension. Jacob Arcadelt (d. lamentations and hymns. after serving Cristobal Morales (d. was in the 1560). including with used at the election of a pope and other great occasions. At first singer. him the " Roman From Ambros calls morning-star of madrigals (1537). tiring on between Vicentino and Lusitano in took the conservative side in the debate about 1514. were printed by Channay Briard (from 1532). a Zeelander. 1532?) was born near Avignon. 1553). It was inevitable that the best masters already named. 1551 (see sec. 65). but special seem curious that during the i6th century so few of the sight it would The choirmasters known by that the choirmaster of name were eminent composers. composers of Italian birth began to Among in 1428-37 be prominent. His style. but St. in 1512. but it should be remembered that he was one of a series of masters. some of whom preceded him. in a style Avignon as a papal agent. Besides composing skillfully (few works extant). madrigals (1539-44). joined the and in 1521 returned to Papal Choir in 1508. preparation. . 1545). and Chapel He is best known by his five books of exquisite sec. born in the Netherlands died there as royal in 1540-9. Eleazar Genet [Carpentras] (d. specialty remarkably developed evirati were admitted to some extent. 1517 the Te Deum sacred works (printed posthumously) were written. His masses. for which his of original power. ultimately becoming choirmaster. later.

at own lifetime his genius and original. . Venetian styles were facing forward toward the more passionate forms of the i/th and later centuries. Yet. His style was serious. modern taste somewhat cold and impersonal. nor for its success in finding ways of expression both to the solemn texts treated and to the perfectly germane conditions of the Roman liturgy. with an exaltation that re once summed up representative mained unmatched for more than a century. and an indescribable ideality and a secular spirit. with its emphasis upon monastic reveries and contemplation. He is Peter's in 1555-71? filling the interval between the terms of Palestrina. not for its mere technical dexterity as polyphony. the Palestrina style be longed rather to the mediaeval world. whose half-cen Even in his almost wholly spent at Rome. was choirmaster at the Lateran in 1550-2. so that it can be fully ap preciated only through sympathy with that unmodern realm of belief and sentiment. 1563). Paolo besides madrigals (from 1547) and masses (from 1567).I2 4 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 59 stands out. born at Florence. and his works are still somewhat in use. tury of activity was was seen to be of the highest order. its instinctive avoidance of secular elements skill. but eminently tasteful and magnificats from 1542). but it came at a time was turning with avidity to other fields. not only as the ablest of the Spaniards who now begin to appear at Rome. but as one of the greatest of Palestrina's immediate predecessors. Giovanni Animuccia 59. when prop erly rendered stand among and properly considered. 76). 1570?). because chiefly put forth in a form of church music which in from other music and which was not an theory holds itself aloof Both the greatness and the limitation of Paleultimate type. not be surpassed. and free from secularities (masses (d. notable as the first to write laudi spirituali (1563-70) for Neri (see sec. when musical progress Palestrina style commands admiration. wonderful as it was. Palestrina. its representative works While the the noblest triumphs of religious art. was choirmaster at St. His brother. strina's work are evidenced by the fact that it had comparatively In its own field it was a consummation that could little sequel. Yet. though it is emi of intellectual cleverness nently sublime. its This ideality makes it to the or etherealness of conception. in the The finest tendencies of the time were achievements of Palestrina. its permanent impress upon musical art has been limited. though it is full of extreme The stupendous or startling effects. but for its rejection for its own sake. Animuccia (d.

they They even were bound sooner or later to be challenged. back to St. Gaudio Mell village in 1544 returned (not Goudimel).59 PALESTRINA 125 Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (d. even those with vulgar or jocose words. and over 100 madrigals (from 1555). His Improperia have been sung in the Sistine Chapel on Good Fridays since 1560. 1594) acquired his name from the where he was born (in 1526) and had his early training. marrying In 1551 he was called there in 1547. His renown was both attested and enhanced by his connection with the debate before the Council of Trent (see below) and by his position as composer to the Papal Choir a dignity conferred only upon twenty years lost his wife. and Palestrina as organist. and other church pieces. Peter's. the Netherlander evolved their praxis out of secular music. where. promising died young. When these customs were transplanted to Rome. having later. that of his four sons. and many other works are still in use. such as hymns. over 500 motets (7 books. him and upon his successor Anerio. lamentations. not hesitating to take 'subjects for masses and motets from popular song. including over 90 masses (12 books. however. litanies. ' tolerated the singing of these phrases to their origi nal words. When. (1862-1903). 44). with others. In the middle of the century there arose a sharp debate about the whole method of ecclesiastical music. .. His works were probably more numerous than of any other Italian writer of the period. to to St. besides being employed by the Pope from 1565 to supply various works In 1571 he was called for his Chapel. the three more in ease and honor. 1563-84). Peter's as choirmaster. studied with a Netherlander. He then be taken into came choirmaster successively at the Lateran and in 1561 at Sta. etc. laudi and madrigali spiritual*. Maria Maggiore. by a change of popes and an enforcement of the rule against married singers. he remained till his death. in spite of attractions elsewhere (as to Mantua in 1583). As has been noted (sec. his later years were spent It is said. Though probably of humble origin and perhaps early struggling with hardship and the jealousy of rivals. At 14 he probably went to Rome for four years. being thrown out. They are now republished complete in a standard edition of 33 vols. offertoria. he was married again to a wealthy widow. 1554-1601). therefore. while the counterpoint proceeded with the Latin text. in 1555 for whence about six months he was the Papal Chapel. over In 1581.

This is the one now known as the Mass of the Pope as a model. in 1555. Many works conforming to these principles were a recent work of Palestrina's was already in use. new by But. and this period is justly considered Within certain natural limits as the best of the Roman school the forms in which Palestrina and his immediate successors worked and the methods they used were thought to be the acme This special type continued into the I7th and of musical art. the Council simply voted against was "lascivious or impure. progress in absolutely directions became so absorbing that the Palestrina style was presently overtopped in popular interest and historic importance styles belonging to a totally different sphere. 1592). The drastic action originally "since it often arouses the feeling of piety. Palestrina as "the saviour of church music. among them the Emperor Ferdinand I. 60. the works regularly used in the Papal Chapel. In 1576 Gregory XII.j himself a music-lover." In 1564 Pius IV." and the matter was left to the pro vincial synods with a general warning. before 1564 and to which many composers style there was a distinct The composers who wrought at were necessarily influenced by the new ideals that had been set up.126 at the THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 60 end of the memorable Council of Trent the general sub all came up. ject of music in public worship was made against " impure remained an open ques proposed was powerfully combatted by the influence of various members. who sent a formal notice that in his judgment figured music should not be excluded. as will be seen. and a small committee was of all words except those of the prescribed Latin agreed to the exclusion of the latter.. In Palestrina's own advance from about 1560. but most of the actual work was done by his pupil Giovanni Guidetti (d. Other Roman Masters. the use of whatever abuses. . to make the matter sure. with all careless alterations by a special effort to Pope Marcellus (from the Pope who. The definition of what was " lascivious or tion. a strong presentation music and in favor of Plain-Song figured After hearing from a committee chosen to indicate only. but. with many perversions of the From this time there was a marked improvement in the character of story. and is still supported by the official approval of the Catholic Church. but it was one that really began 11 expansion of musical phrases upon single syllables and the confusion of conflicting voice-parts as to leave the words and sense of the text obvious to the hearer. named restricting the contributed. and to the importance of so texts. Rome after about 1570 1 8th centuries. intrusted the revision of the Gradual and Antiphonary to Palestrina. brought the subject before the named to consider it They speedily cardinals. had made Hence came in later times an exaggerated estimate of purify church music).

belonging to the conservative school like His Palestrina. Peter's under Pale In 1609 he was royal choirmaster in Poland and in 1610 at Verona. born at Rome. though he had a warmth His extant works are all sacred and are numerous and powerful (from 1576). and from 1603 at St. cappella for four voices (1619). He is ranked as a composer of high order. Tomas Luis de Victoria [called Vittoria in Italy] (d. many (1585-1606). came to Rome. and also in imperial service in Austria (many works places in Italy afterward. held several posts as choirmaster at S. show a versatile and powerful genius he also rearranged the Marcellus Mass.60 THE ROMAN SCHOOL 127 In the long list of Palestrina's contemporaries and followers these are most worthy of special mention Giovanni Maria Nanino (d. though not equaling him in originality or productiveness. and in 1575-9 was a choirboy at St. Palestrina's reputed teacher. c. genius (works from 1588). He ing-school was in the Papal Chapel in 1577-9. was so that their works have been confounded. in 1594 he succeeded him as composer to the His known works are the only other appointee to this post. He often wrote for many voices. then in the Papal Chapel (works from 1563) and a pupil of Palestrina. studied under Morales. Luigi dei Francesi in 1575 and at Sta. born at Tivoli about 1545. became a singer at Sta. masses. not Francesco Soriano (d. soon after at Mantua. strina. but more : enterprising. passions and madrigals (from 1581) Peters. after study probably with Gaudio Mell.Felice Anerio (d.589 served in the Royal Chapel at Madrid. was born about 1567. and its choirmaster from 1604. Maria Mag in 1599 at the Lateran. 1595). the He arranged Palestrina^ Marcellus Mass and two others a styles. Tiburtio Massaini is an example of representatives of the Roman school . closely affiliated with Palestrina After holding lesser positions. psalms. and their styles were similar. . from 1569). from 1587 at Sta. c. but include some masses. Luigi dei Francesi. and from 1. M. Maria Maggiore from 1579. Giovanni Francesco Anerio (d. He founded an important sing in which Palestrina was a teacher. in 1566 became singer and later choirmaster at the German College and later at S. with a noble line of pupils. also one of Palestrina's pupils. relatively few remaining works (from about 1571) are largely secular. . perhaps the brother oi Felice. from 1581 G. master at the Lateran in 1576-94 (works from 1575). motets and lamentations. Papal Choir close friend of Palestrina peculiarly his own. born at Rome in 1549 and a pupil of Zoilo. 1613) was born at Avila (Spain) about 1540. He was a Apollinare. 1623). choirmaster at the Lateran Annibale Stabile (d. a less striking. Giovanni Bernardino Nanino (d. a pupil of G. With him was associated his nephew. c. Maria Maggiore in 1571 and choirmaster at S. giore and again from 1600. choirmaster in Rome from 1575 (works from 1572) choir Giovanni Andrea Dragoni (d. 1 561-70 and Lesser names are Annibale Zoilo. Nanino and Palestrina. 1598). M. 1614). but returned to Rome in 1611. Nanino. at various activity was mainly elsewhere. 1620). whose He was in Rome in 1571. 1607). His motets. m . 1620). His fertility was great and his works (from later ones being quite out of the recognized 1599) were extremely varied.

consequence. in Wittenberg. 128 . all of which were affected by the Reformation. and its advance checked. The progress of the movement during its first century. to consider them somewha-t apart. well versed in music. winning support from all classes. VIII IN NORTHERN AND WESTERN EUROPE story of music in northern In General. a highly gan Saxony educated Augustinian monk. and who by 1520 had become so outspoken as to be excommuni cated. the headquarters of the Protestant Refor The first two were intimately affiliated with Italy and all Italian tendencies. mation. This will lead on. publicly protested against the sale of indul gences and other abuses in the papal system as then administered. owing to the extreme partition of Germany into many petty states. the seat of the Hapsburg line of emperors. His action was a symptom of a widespread feeling that was waiting for organization. its well-wishers split into hostile In factions. more or less associated with it. shared in new The Lutheran Reformation. the Low Countries and England. in 1517. was involved in compli cated political entanglements. Austria. but was not held to be irrec oncilable till about 1550. all overshadowed by the Empire. while the last tended to strike It is convenient and valid paths in sacred music. The issue between the Protestant and the Catholic parties was fully defined by 1520 (the Diet of Augsburg). The Europe at this time gathers about three centres. but topically it is more useful to turn at once to the rise of Reformation music in Saxony. its features escape succinct statement. Bavaria. and under their leadership a complex revolution of thought swept over northern Germany.CHAPTER CHURCH MUSIC 61. Luther at once attracted able coadjutors. finally. Chronologically it would be better to begin with Austria. Lutheran Protestantism be and took its name from Martin Luther. to a survey of musical progress in France. out into and Saxony. by which its character was often distorted. who at 62.

It is a curious fact that presently the Catholic world lost the power of further advance in the style of which Palestrina was master. while in Protestant Germany contrapuntal theory and practice were cultivated to such purpose that in the i8th century a second culmination was possible. What the treasures of Plain-Song had been to Catholic music. He seized upon common song as indispensable. Thus much of the rich polyphonic ac cumulation. the right of private Although ing closely to the outlines of the Roman service. Luther deduced radical conclusions regarding public worship. . there was no distinction between Catholic and Protestant standards. generally. This innovation. the new treasures of the chorale style became to Protestant music. and the universal priesthood of believers.62 THE LUTHERAN CHORALES his doctrines of salvation 129 From by judgment. thus linking the new versally popular. It is idle to speculate whether this transfer of artistic vitality was due to religious or racial causes. is and of historic importance because its to choir music. into Protestant usage. with slight exceptions. passed over at once With it came not a little Plain-Song. and because from its extensive literature German organ music later derived an inexhaustible fund of suggestion. so far as accessible in northern Germany. with the melody in the tenor. then. the melody in the treble and the lines sharply defined by cadences and controlled by a coherent tonality. with a solid progression of chords. These melodies were style with forms already uni ' later called chorales/ Though at first the musical treatment of chorales was more or less contrapuntal. he undertook to reduce some features that he held objectionable and to make the people's part conspicuous. similar style. The chorale became the nucleus it of Protestant church music wide ac ceptance hastened and popularized the new tendency to base composition on harmony rather than counterpoint. and he advocated the free use of whatever was excellent. contained the germ of great subsequent developments. be lieving that. including special emphasis on congregational participation in the service in the vernacular language (instead of hold Latin). issued orders of service with this element empha The hymns provided were as a rule specially written in sized. For them melodies were either borrowed from favorite folk-songs or part-songs or were newly written in metrical form. with the aid of Walther and others. before 1600 the style ad vanced to a definitely harmonic form. faith. and in 1523 and 1526. Luther's strong interest in congregational music involved no hostility He himself knew and loved a wide range of mass and motet music.

He was fond of music. To save his life. retiring in 1554 on a pension. was educated at Magde and Erfurt. where he completed the first part of his epochal translation of the Bible. writers To meet the demand for German church music. a good flutist and lutist. In 1529-30 occurred his controversy with the Swiss Reformers. and these were not companied it were unfavorable Yet. The musical editor of the first hymn-book (1524 and later edi He also tions to 1551). 1546). The east. various Saxon states. hymns grew wrote motets and sacred part-songs (from 1538). of the Roman It is interesting to settings of the story of the Passion of great importance. and for a few of these he perhaps the north. the in society. became professor burg. the friendly Elec his views were rejected by the Emperor. till late in the i. In 1525. The control His original of the movement then gradually passed into the hands of others. having renounced the priesthood. 62 On energy whence Reformation tended to awaken a new the art of music on all its sides received benefit. . In 1524 appeared his first hymn-book. a multitude of now began to appear throughout northern Germany. and Leipsic on the and Magdeburg on at this time. tor of Saxony seized him and kept him hidden for a year at the Wartburg. But the political confusions and distresses that ac to all art. be traced in large measure to the mental and spiri may surely tual stimulus accompanying the rise of Protestantism. entered the priesthood in 1507. he married. but ences to music are enthusiastic and discriminating. 1570). where gences were put forth. His literary refer appreciative of good polyphony. and Wittenberg distinct : may be regarded as a region musically may be noted the following individuals Martin Luther (d. Here wrote melodies. of so combining contrapuntal learn ing with popular types that their choir music had a certain kin The texts used were ship with the new congregational music. Eisenach of theology at Wittenberg in 1508. from 4 in 15 24 to 35 in 1545.th century. including cities like Dresden Erfurt and Miihlhausen on the west. was electoral Johann Walther (d.130 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY the whole. born at Eisleben in 1483. and the important Diet of Augsburg. some whom displayed skill in often the in a same as those German version. later augmented. where in 1517 his 95 theses against indul In 1521 he appeared before the Diet of Worms. and highly was not a composer. he was the composer or arranger of many chorales. even from the first. choirmaster at Torgau from 1525 and at Dresden from 1548. wealth and depth of modern music Much of the heartfelt. though generally observe occasional the germ of a form later liturgy. overpast the liberation of thought and feeling made popular expression varied and in song and with instruments more spontaneous. Luther's chief musical adviser.

The first Hans Bach known members of the great Bach family also belong here of Wechmar (near Gotha) and his son Veit Bach (d. a Netherlander. psalms. c. festival anthems and (1609). and from 1608 in the Electoral Chapel at Berlin. court-musician at Heidelberg. nearly all sacred. 1610) also made a name as a prolific com His works. a busy organist at Gerbstedt. a Communion Service. Outside of the Saxon circle were Franz Elers (d. 1590). . . etc. psalms. (from 1562). [Not to be confused. with important data about tuning. whose talent lay rather in developing the resources of secular music. was court-choirmaster at His works (from 1563) include masses. 1548). governor ofLiebenstein from 1549 Nikolaus Rosth. 1577). motets and Dresden in 1554-67. His many part-songs (from 1574). left a cluster of sacred part-songs. as by Fdtis and Kade.. who spent his 1529 cantor and life at Hamburg as teacher. that mark him as one of the able Protestant contrapuntists. Altenburg and Wei mar (works from 1583. fingering. was a composer for organ and clavichord. He was a notable writer of sacred and secular part-songs (from 1551).] Antonio Scandello (d. Bach. 1613). being organist at Miihlhausen from 1566. mostly sacred. including a Passion. spent his early life in Switzer land. especially dances (works from 1588). born at Brescia about came to Dresden 1517. Elias Nikolaus Ammerbach (d. included three Passions (from 1568). Leonhardt Schroter (d. motets and several Passions (from 1550). show him to have been one of the more original writers of the time. -cantor and pastor at Langensalza (works from 1588) Haussmann. 1598) Henning Dedekind (d. from about 1572 cantor at Magdeburg. from His large and im finally choirmaster at the cathedral. born at Miihlhausen in 1553. a great number of sacred part-songs. 1600). To this general region also belong Jobstvom Brant. Johann Eccard (d.62 EARLY LUTHERAN COMPOSERS : 131 following names may be taken as illustrations Sixt Dietrich (d. 1580). As early as 1566 he arranged chorales with the melody in the treble. several masses. S. and Valentin 1628).. portant Gesangbuch (1588) contains much Protestant ritual music. succeeding him in 1568. from 1579 choirmaster at Konigsberg (Prussia). hymns. many OdcB sacra or part-songs. Joachim a Burck [Holier] (d. many part-songs. . a friend of a Burck. organist of the Thomaskirche in Leipsic from 1560. Bartholomaus Gesius (d. when The he came to Wittenberg (motets. 1597). before 1553 as court-trumpeter and assisted Le Maistre from 1566. 1619) being direct ancestors of J. a popular handbook motets. (from 1569) include a Passion (1588). 1611). not developing his decided musical talent till about 50 years old. . from 1535). etc. Matthaeus Le Maistre (d. with Hermann Matthias of Milan. poser. etc. born about 1555. was first in the service of Baron Fugger of Augsburg. His important works but from 1595 was cantor at Frankfurt-an-der-Oder. born at Augsburg. also of masses. besides others whose relationship is not clear. and author of a handbook (1571) on organ tablature. first studied theology.

(1564-76). The close naturally came to their musi relations of the Empire with the Papacy brought cal activities of the court the most of Yet with these were others who illustrated the native genius once shown by the Minnesinger and again to become famous While most of these composers devoted in the i8th century. From about first at Innsbruck. but who is usually supposed Jakob Clemens (d. Among : won in 1477-89. the musicians in the imperial service were the following but Eeinricli Isaac (d. His masterly as organist at the Jacobikirche. type that their works During the i6th century the leading imperial musicians were Netherlanders. especially as organist to Maximilian I. studied there Hieronymus Pratorius (d. (1556-64. torius (d. musician of his time. 1517). passing style The earlier Christoph Pra from 1599). of the Hapsburg line. perhaps by way of his compositions little remains. 1609) The musical importance of Aus Chapel. many of them were so successful in simpler part-writing of the German were often adopted into Protestant use. at Vienna. unrivaled. early his first fame in at Florence From As a player he was of Augsburg. also sole ruler of from 1522). c. of as many as 20 voices (works was cantor at LUneburg in 1562-82 (works from 1560).I3 2 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 63 at Hamburg in 1560. He returned to being held as the foremost German and choirmaster Italy. but of his career nothing . Salzburg after 1520. who was born in Flanders before 1450. the former Protestant music. combined with the mediaeval the Emperors were all and the imperial capital was usually From 1438 required Prague or Vienna. The list of emperors for the period includes Maximilian I. which have international significance. at Inns 1497 he was court-musician him we have many important masses. -the latter akin to the (from 1506). and then returned to Ham and at Cologne. Maximilian II. idea of Catholic unity. from its relation to the Holy Roman tria at this time arose which was the inheritor of the prestige and romantic in 63. born was cantor at Erfurt in 1580-2. About 1515 he was made a noble and received other honors. (i493. The Imperial Empire. and Rudolf II. burg to succeed his father to the use resembles that of the best Venetian contrapuntists. bruck. 1558?) was a Netherlander to have been imperial choirmaster under Charles V.. motets and part-songs in the older Netherland style. Among his pupils was Senfl. From Paul Hof heimer (d. (1576-1612). (1519-56). The dignity maintenance of a musical establishment or Chapel. 1537) was born near Salzburg in 1459. 1629). into the same class. themselves to the current Catholic types of composition.I S I 9)j Austria Charles V. from 1496 1480 he was imperial organist and composer. Ferdinand I. terest of the ancient imperial idea.

then court-singer and assistant choirmaster at Prague. became imperial choirmaster in 1563. artistic. was in the Royal Chapel from 1562 and choirmaster from 1564. 1591). from 1589). in 1540. mostly sacred. born at ducal choirmaster. spent his life in Innsbruck as choirboy. and from 1593 singer 1599). about 1589 choirmaster at Prague (works. about 1582 under the Archduke Ferdinand at Inns His varied works (from 1574) bruck. rich 'in melody and harmony. the more remarkable because he was one of the finest Pres. from 1562). 1590). His masses. versatile and highly productive. 1545). His known works (from 1543. 3 volumes of madrigali spirituali. 1581). many chansons on French or Flemish popular songs. (<* . and Francois Sale Innsbruck and Vienna . of Netherland origin. His publications (from 1554) included over 35 volumes of madrigals and chan sons for 3-7 voices. especially his canzone and German part-songs. etc. rector of a school Valentin at Passau and a good motettist (cycle for the year. (southwest Austria). [He was called Clemens non Papa to distinguish him from Clement VIL (pope. with many more in MS. brothers. returning in 1595 to Prague again. Alard du Gaucquier. born still another Netherlander. 1567).63 THE IMPERIAL CHAPEL This is 133 is certain. posthumous) Bacfart [Graew] (d. a Hungarian lutist. a fine Te Deum for 8 voices. from 1566 alternately at the courts of Vienna and Poland. (sacred at Hall (Tyrol). was were much esteemed. Alexander Utendal (d. He is supposed to have served as an early promoter of the strict style (many motets. another Netherlander. A few lesser names are Leonhardt Paminger (d. who was himself a good musician. rather Venetian school. masses. at first assist ing Vaet. i of masses. 10 volumes of motets for 4-12 voices. Jakob Vaet (d. He stands out as one of the best Ger man to the contrapuntists during the Palestrina epoch.] Arnold von Bruck (d. became choirmaster whence in 1585 he went to Prague. was His reputation (d. author of two works in tablature. c. born at Bruges. His long term of service and his extant works (from 1554) indi cate something of his eminence as one of the ablest Netherlanders. belonging. after some travel. was choirmaster to Ferdi nand I. most apparently post humous) are numerous. over 150 motets. works from 1582). one of five choirboy. rests on in the Chapel in 1564-76 and later several masses and magnificats (from 1574). singer and assistant choirmaster under the Arch duke Ferdinand. after serving in the Chapel Royal of England. German and French contrapuntists after Des part-songs (from 1570). 1597). 1576). 1603). however. 1523-34). born about 1550 in Carniola at Olmutz. some masses and magnificats. motets and moralia or 4-part songs (from 1580) were long in high repute in Germany. with a Tyrolese singer at man-y pieces (1564-8) \ Blasius Ammon (d. Jakob Handl [usually called Gallus] (d. including a series of noble masses. from 1534 to-day known through some 60 scattered motets and partsongs with Latin or German words (from 1538). motets. He wrote psalms. in 1578. Lille. born at Mechlin in 1521. Philippe de Monte (d. Jakob Regnart 1600).

Augsburg and Ulm. He was more upon progress truly a feeling . Perhaps most valuable among these is a remarkable sincerity and direct ness of sentiment. it was important that so gifted an artist as Orlandus Lassus was brought to spend the productive part of his career in Germany. like Nuremberg. its independence and its practical Hence. ritual was elsewhere accomplished. though less active. Historically. not only as Meistersinger centres. In illustration. Furthermore. command of the resources of polyphonic construction. asserting itself in both vocal and instrumental writing. heartfelt and wholesome. and strove to fuse together in their works the of intellectuality the Netherland school with their tasy. the later German be leadership in it can already descried. In the early development of South German music are seen certain musical traits that are more or less distinctive of all German music. though as essentially ideal in His purely ritual music. here as elsewhere. Wiirttemberg and other states to the west. In the i6th century Bavaria was almost as potent a factor in the Empire as Austria. when music was acquiring its first self-con sciousness as an art. hibited the greater breadth and fertility. combined with imaginative and creative energy. the broader application of music to religious utterance was first conceived in the atmosphere of German life. Religiously it was strongly Catholic in sympathy communication with Italy.134 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 64 64. native were not without worthy musicians. and both aspired to compositions of the grandest magnitude and quality. Munich rose to eminence under the culture-loving Dukes Albrecht and Wilhelm. Lassus and the South German Masters. But the differences between them are Lassus ex noteworthy. From the outset German composers realized the un equaled capacity of music for the real embodiment of human life on all its sides. were musically known through out Europe. it is richness of experience and phan enough to adduce the German fondness for the own song-type. Even in the i6th century. is ex ceptional in its heartiness of conviction. The religious bent of the German mind. the and in close power of German genius was beginning to compete on Even Protestant equal terms with that of the Netherlands. he was not warmth of human and readiness of sympathy made his impress wider and more genial. Some of its cities. while the mere working out of forms suited to the mediseval ity. but as head About 1550 quarters of music-printing and instrument-making. from the homely folk-song with its artless earnestness up to the studied part-song. His genius towered above that of all his Both were in full contemporaries except Palestrina. also.

German The line of distinguished Bavarian masters includes Senfl Ludwig (d. Ludwig Daser (d.. in a style that united the old strictness with something of Venetian richness. He had many pupils. 1556). 1594) was born at Mons His boy's voice gave him a dangerous notoriety. remaining till his death. Although a Catholic. a from 1569 (motets and good German part-songs from 1569). German part-songs. may be made of Ivo de Vento (d. 1 of every description were also welcomed. Spaniard. Lassus had of travel and of constant contact with culture amid unbroken great advantage Though his office was laborious and difficult. organist Not far west of Munich is the much older Augsburg. Here a prominent in the i6th century as came from the wealthy Barons Fugger. His most celebrated work was the Penitential Psalms (1584). mention . including not only stately madrigals.. In 1519 he was in the Imperial Chapel at Vienna and from 1520 in Augsburg. so that about 1544 he was abducted and taken to Palermo and Milan in the service of Ferdinand Gonzaga. the capital of Swabia. and from 1526 courtHis works (from 1526) were choirmaster at Munich. He is said to have visited England. c. mostly masses. he was a friend of Luther. was from 1552 courtchoirmaster there till displaced by Lassus in 1560. drinking-songs almost 2500 separate works. even musical jokes. About 1550 he passed into another nobles service at Naples and Rome. a centre for music-publishing. Jacob van Kerle (d. remain in MS. masses. and continued in office and in great honor till about 1590. born at Munich in 1520. of whom Eccard and Reiner were perhaps the foremost. were of the mass or motet class. 1589). then from 1571 court-choir master at Stuttgart. 1583). Called thence in 1556 to Munich. 1575). when he broke down were almost exactly mentally through overwork. free and shifting society. [Orlando di Lasso] (d. his works. a pupil of Isaac at Innsbruck and his successor there for a short time. Secular works Orlandus de Xassus (Hainaut) in 1532. he became court-choirmaster in 1560. hymns. etc. The list but also sprightly canzonets. Among earlier notable patronage who edited valuable col composers were Sigismund Salbinger. but it is not known that they ever met. but freedom of treatment was encouraged. except a Passion (1578). requiring great appreciation. and the latter greatly admired his music. motets. his patron spared nothing to keep the Chapel one of the best The duke being a stanch Catholic. most of Lassus sacred works in Europe. Other geniuses appeared to give at this point an impetus that did not cease for centuries. gave him great influencestrength of South Germany was not dependent upon him alone. born about 1492 at Zurich. an ex-monk. of his compositions (from 1552) is enormous now published in a standard edition. a NetherOf Lassus 1 co-laborers. lections of part-songs (1540-9). executive ability. His life and Palestrina's the contemporaneous. Though a worthy composer. and the fact that he lived at a princely court. but settled at Antwerp. in the heart of the music-loving But the musical highlands.64 LASSUS AND HIS CONTEMPORARIES 135 man with its of the time.

62). 1592). Georg Forster (d. and and in 1608 to the Royal Chapel organist at Nuremberg (sacred collections from 1598). court-choirmaster. and Hans Neusidler (d. lander. and Kaspar Hassler (d. and another leader in the direction of harmonic treatment. whose were famous before 1470. 1577). Besides of the churches. afterwards at Frankfort and Celle. 1600-11). psalms and partthat show him to have been a careful student of both old songs (from 1591) and new styles. known for good and violins from 1523 and for important works in tablature (1532-52). already mentioned (sec. his son. 1563). later also at the cathedral. 1635). Hans Leo Hassler (d. c. 1625). organ-virtuoso at Hechingen and Prague. famous as one of ing a genius ahead of his time the founders of the German organ style (with Sweelinck and Scheidt). also the compiler of lute-books (1536-44). sometimes His two brothers. 1611). At Ansbach we note Kaspar Othmayr (d. 1553). born in 1559. 1628) was long organist to Baron Fugger (from 1584) later vicar-choral at the cathedral. in 1601. Gregor Aichinger (d. secular (from 1590). earliest Germans to seek brieli at Venice. and Jakob Meiland (d. was also organist to Baron Fug He was a motettist of ger and succeeded Hassler at the cathedral in 1602. 1618). was then a general teacher. not only show Venetian influence. but indicate the German genius for harmony. Thomas and from 1564 at the cathedral (organ-book. 1570). ranked with that of Palelarly enterprising and influential genius. the blind court-organist at Heidelberg. cantor of the Egidienkirche. was one of the earliest and best collectors of folk-songs (5 parts. are also to be named. in both of which posts he was succeeded by his son Passing the . motets and madrigals. then from 1562 under the Cardinal of and the able Eccard (d. first at St. he produced a quantity of motets. a worthy composer of part-songs (1546-9).I3 6 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 64 in Italy. importance (works. was musically trained in an and from 1581 cantor at one Augsburg monastery. sacred at Dresden. now westward into Wurttemberg. 1577). canon in the church of St. a famous strina and Lassus. 1539-56) and of motets and Friedrich Lindner (d. being also employed by the Duke of Wurttemberg. Gumbertfrom 1547. 1597). 1611). whose books on organs and organ music (1511-2) are curious and valuable. Hans Gerle (d. we add names of Arnold Schlick. Jakob Hassler (d. Gahe became organist to Baron Fugger at Augsburg and whence. organist at Strassburg. Adam Gumpeltzhaimer (d. a theoretical work (1591). Among the many instrument-makers lutes here were Konrad Gerle (d. born in 1564 instruction in Italy. was another useful editor of masses. adding examples of his own (1585-91). indicat Bernhard Schmid (d. Christian Erbach (d. a physician here from about 1544. was one of the 1612). 1568). North of the Danube lutes in Franconia is the interesting city of Nuremberg. and His motets and part-songs (from 1590) are praised for their elegance and simplicity. Augsburg (sacred works from 1558). first in service at Cambrai. . 1521). with important His was a singu efforts to utilize artistically the folk-music of various peoples. In 1585 at Nuremberg. born in 1573. he was called to Nuremberg His diversified works. . a strong contrapuntist (works from 1564). as in the use of double choirs. where he studied with A. Hohenzollern and Baden.

. 1604).(1574-89). (1560-74) and Henry HI. . teacher at Nuremberg from 1570.. court-lutist at 1556) Heidelberg and author of a valuable lute-book (1558) Leonhard Lechner (d.. studied with Des Pres. long in the court chapel at Sigmaringen. but an expressiveness singularly like his master's. 1574). successor. 1562) is still more famous as They include some masses. and later by the bitter contests between Catholics and 65. Claude de Sennisy (d. Quentin. himself early noted as a Protestant leader in Wurttemberg and finally abbot at Adelsberg. with a varied list of works (from 1579) Jakob Paix (d. Antoine de Riche [Divitis]. Charles IX. and from 1584 court-choirmaster at Hechingen and from a versatile and 1587 at Stuttgart Melchior Schramm. Henry IV. devoted special attention. 137 Bernhard Schmid (organ-book. 1607) Wolf Heckel. 1111583)- The i6th century was a stormy period in French history.. with an important Choralbuch (1586) having the melodies in the treble (as by Le Maistre in 1566 and by David Wolkenstein . 1604). are impor tant. made so at first by the craving of successive kings to widen their boundaries in the face of strong rivals. c. The styles there most cultivated were those of the Netherland masters. . continuing under Francis I. born near Metz.65 THE FRENCH ROYAL CHAPEL . (1547The latter's 59). and Lucas Osiander (d. (1515-47). He was 1505). (1589-1610). Henry II. but the following should be named : Jean Mouton (d. with gradually more and more chansons and lute music. then in the Burgundian Chapel. where he died. 1522). was of Huguenot sympathies. What notable musical life there was appeared in the Royal Chapel at Paris. who was the rival of Charles V. (1498-1515). a Strassburg lutist (book. Francis I. music-master all his life (though not a priest) in the monastery of Weingarten. is favorably known by a few works (from 1514). The chief kings (House of Valois) were Louis XII. afterwards organist at Offenburg (works from 1576) Jakob Reiner (d. the son of the distinguished Nuremberg theologian. The information about most of the musicians in the Royal Chapel is scanty. 1606). Sebastian Ochsenkuhn (d. 1590). and thus a link with the Venetian school. early entered the service of Louis XII. Originality in composition was almost wholly confined to writers born in the Netherlands. Huguenots. Willaerfs teacher. to the advancement of which the ambitious Francis I. France and Spain. with some original masses and a history of sacred music (1589). . the first of the Bourbons. whose collections of organ-pieces and motets (from 1583). one of the best pupils of Lassus. His many works^ exhibit not only the utmost polyphonic facility. before 1515 in the Royal Chapel at Paris. another gifted composer (works from 1575) good con trapuntist. and became canon of St. first a choirboy under Lassus at Munich. many motets and chansons (from . . a singer first at Bruges. organist at Lauingen.

of the day (works from 1540). Adrien Le Roy (d. with several books (1562-80). '62. is entirely unknown except from his many striking chansons. perhaps as choirmaster through His extant works (from 1569) are few and not equal to his reputation. His works (from 1564) are mostly chansons opinions. introducing a new element Le cerf. 1600) was court-composer toward the end of the on account of his Huguenot century. was Francois in the Chapel from about 1568 for 40 years. Lesser names are Jean Courtois. and a strong Pierre Colin. choirmaster at Cambrai in 1539 (works from 1529).' La chasse au des femmes. singer in the Chapel about 1547 (chansons Among the renowned lutists of the century who published music for their Alberto instrument were Orance FinS (d. celebrated than the foregoing. leaving kings of France. 1555). .' L'alouette. It has been thought that he resigned but this is uncertain. 1560). also a pupil of Des Pres. had the name of being one of the best writers (d. the publisher. Jacob Arcadelt (d. 1589). 1550). 1572). (d. over 200 in number (1529-59). court-lutist from 1537 or earlier. except his settings of metrical Psalms. The Swiss Reformation. in cluding in 1572 the notorious Massacre of St. with several books of his own. c. which are important in early Calvinistic music. The musical influence of the Huguenot . 58). was the only one used for the they include a Requiem which for a century Paris as royal musician. with pieces from 1536 Guillaume Morlaye. Pierre Certon later choirmaster at Autun (masses and motets from 1541)a pupil of Des Pres. and closing in 1598 with the granting of toleration by the Edict of Nantes. beginning before 1520 at Zurich under Zwingli. was writer (works from 1529). an instruction-book and very many valuable collections (from 1551). ' < 1 i < caquet of depiction into composition. and Jean Antoine de Baif (d. many of which bear descriptive or pictorial titles like La bataille. Bartholomew. singer in the Chapel in 1532-6. 1568). won the adherence of the Frenchman Calvin before 1530 and about 1535 came under the latter's leader ship at Geneva. each 6 parts) . out. with three books and two books (1553. c. (1552-8) .' etc. They increased in power so rapidly that from 1562 for thirty-five years civil war between them and the dominant Catholic party went on.. with two books (1529-30) da Rippa (d. Calvinists or Huguenots became numerous in France. Claudin Lejeune (d. and Guillaume Belin from 1539). Before 1550.138 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 65 from 1508 singer. which was thenceforth the fountainhead of Protestantism in western Europe. Pierre Cadeac of Auch (works from 1556). then about 1532-60 choirmaster in the Chapel. 1599). c. a much-traveled Venetian who about 1566 gave popular concerts at Paris. and madrigals. much more who has already been noted at Rome (sec. 1609). spent the last years of his life at some motets and masses (i545~57)Eustache du Caurroy (d. Clement Janequin. born near Beauvais in 1549.

otherwise simplified the hexachord-system. their total number was less. however. which were forthwith taken up as a novelty by the gay court circle and sung to popular airs. and in general their influence quent was much more restricted. though analogous to that of the Lutheran chorales. and therefore the father of the Roman school but it is now thought that he was never in Rome. but others experimented with the new and popular style. sec. himself composing Besides thus being the first writer of Calvinistic of the melodies. Yet in themselves they were often their inspiration eminently excellent. became a Huguenot and was a singer Geneva in 1545-57. 66. He was in troduced to Huguenot ideas as a boy and suffered imprisonment for them about 1525.. The evolution of the Calvinistic hymns and tunes. CUment Marot (d. They were not made the source of as much subse treatment by organ-writers.) [It has been Claude Goudimel (d. many about 1540. He issued chorales (1547. going thence to Lyons and probably later to Paris. said that he was a Netherlander. presents peculiar The treasury of popular song from which they drew features. in 1555). 1544) was the first Calvinistic psalmist. harmonized for 4 voices. for a time a partner with Gaudio < commonly ' . Mell] . G. a pupil of Des Pres. 1605). the founder. Nanino and other composers were taught.65 THE CALVINISTIC CHORALES to the 139 movement was confined finely harmonized. Calvin's influence was cast on the other Hence side. when court-poet to Francis I. often and Zwingli was a musical amateur and not averse to music in church worship. and they were disseminated through several countries of varying traditions. especially in favor of congregational singing of the Psalms. but his party went far beyond him in antipathy to all existing usages. 1554. M. where he added in 1541. These were adopted into Scottish English use to some extent after 1558. 1572) was born at Besanqon about 1505. Later. who became a Huguenot in 1548. It is supposed that Marot arranged some of the melodies used. 35 in 1542. Waelrant. he issued a theoretical work (1550) that improved solmization and music. His version was gradually completed at Calvin's desire by Thiodore de Beza (d. G. The most famous of those who fitted music to these versions were Bourgeois and Goudimel. with 19 more Psalms (the first 30 were published 40 by Beza. born at Paris. was much smaller. and Marot fled to Geneva. But they were condemned by the Sorbonne. encouragement of chorales. 1561). arose a demand for metrical versions of the latter and for practicable tunes. Animuccia.- at Loys Bourgeois. (Cf. In their onslaughts upon churches they ruthlessly destroyed organs and choir collections. 49. and was confused From at least 1551 he was in Paris. he prepared some 30 psalm-versions in ballad style. of a school at Rome where Palestrina.

While in the i6th century the leader ship in contrapuntal music passed from the Low Countries to Italy and Germany. (15 15-56) and a strong interest in church mu Philip II. The Netherlands. numbering about 250. 66. in 1557 lived at Metz. late in the century. there. but hardly any works remain. showing itself in a special taste for gay songs and dances and the use of a great variety of instruments. with its intense devotion to the me dieval Church and under princes like Charles V. yet the land of its origin not only provided teachers for all the rest of Europe. (1556-98). original with him. sacred and secular. music. unless. born From 1530 he taught at Brussels and in of feeling. usually in the tenor. He is said also to have written a theoretical treatise. remaining 45 years. were not voices of the publisher Chemin. Among the early lute-books (from 1546) were those of Enriquez de Valderravano (1547). but on the whole the Netherlands . as as in part early 1549). His works (1539-57). In both Spain and Portugal. He also was killed at Lyons with Goudimel. now lost. also. one book of Spanish part-songs is his. at Bruges. 66 4-5 and was killed in the St. (1551-66). should show It is natural that Spain. Francisco Guerrero (d. first as trainer. bora at Seville in 1527. Italian models In some cases. who lived at various places in Europe as royal envoy and was finally employed at home in historical writing.140 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY at Lyons. 1537 entered the Royal Chapel at Madrid. though too elaborate for congregational Pfcilibert Jambe de Fer (d. sic. trained at Padua. the But the notable musicians of the Royal Chapel were Nethmost famous being Gombert. in producing motet settings of metrical Psalms for style. possibly. These latter were important additions to early Calvinistic possibly use. Not much of this is preserved in detail. 1599). was perhaps a pupil of Des Pres. though apparently with absences at Tournai. He had high repute as a composer. born in 1500. the study of is evident. in a style specially clear. solid and full Gombert. Bar whether actually a Protestant is not tholomew massacre though His masses. and he was diligent the melodies of which. but we know that the social interest in poetry Nicolas and song was considerable. but preserved her own in terest as well. range over all the usual forms. 1560). the influence of the Trou badours lingered long. The only Portuguese composer to be named is DamiSo de Goes (d. Miguel de Fuenllana (1554) and Antonio de Cabezon OS78). motets and chansons (from 1549) are written in a masterly clear. erlanders. was early a singer and in 1555 competed successfully for Morales' post as cathedral-choir His works (from 1555) are all sacred. master. 1572) also published a complete Psalter (1561. then as choirmaster.

to. the organ destroyed.probably at Brussels. choirboy and then choirmaster. and the choirTurnhout was active in restoring both. who was master of the choir-school from 1527 and His extant works are very slight (1540-51). The commercial instinct of the nation showed itself in decided success with music-printing and organ-building throughout the century. of Spain in 1556 the political and condition of the country became very unfavorable for artistic advance. ranked among the strong composers between Des Pres and Lassus (many for a and works.66 THE LATER NETHERLANDERS 141 continued to be a fairly independent musical region. engaging also in music-publishing. from 1542). His facility gave him repute for a time (works. perhaps studied under Willaert at Venice and in 1547 established a music-school at Antwerp. ce> di. from 1568). 1564). in the service of wealthy patrons. He is . 15 50?). and a daughter married S6verin Cornet (d. entered the choir as a singer in 1545 and succeeded Barbe in 1563. GSrard de Turnhout (d. 1595). but this led the Catholic provinces in the south to ally themselves either with Parma or with Spain itself. Benedict Ducis (d.. migrating to England. Thomas Crecquillon (d. 1625). 1580). mostly secular. He advocated solmization with the syllables bo. Hubert Waelrant (d. since for almost half a century the energy of the people went social From Union of seven into struggles for freedom from Spanish tyranny. 1 time organist at the cathedral. In 1579 the Utrecht of the northern provinces was the of the beginning later Republic. library scattered or burnt. was about 1510 head of the Musicians Guild at Antwerp after service at Mechlin. such as Antoine Barbe (d. Jean de Turnhout (d. : was from 1577 one of the choir-trainers at Antwerp. when he returned Chapel Antwerp 1572. choir-trainer at Brussels in 1539-55. the traditions of Antwerp Cathedral were sustained by a few leaders. born about 1520. ga. the accession of Philip II. where he was first AndrS Pevernage (d. choirmaster at Antwerp. 1557) from 1544 was choirmaster to Charles V. was choirmaster to the Duke of Parma at Brussels from about 1586. but in 1592 was called to Madrid. born about 1517. from which modern usage probably derived its do and si. from 1584). entered the University of Louvain in 1529. His style was melodious and clear (works from 1554)born at Courtrai in 1543. probably born about 1480 at Bruges and a pupil of Des Pres. sons were in the choir. After the death of Jacotin in 1528 (see sec. about 1577 became where his decided gifts as composer were displayed (works from 1574)Cornells Verdonck (d. later. During his service at Antwerp the cathedral was plundered by a fanatic mob. 47). who. was a choirboy in the Royal to at Madrid from continuing till 1598. born in 1564. The chief centre of activity was Antwerp. where he died (few works. perhaps. c. besides holding church offices elsewhere. His two later choirmaster. His son. His many motets and chansons (from 1532) are unfortunately much confused with those of Benedictus Appenzeller. 1591). 1582). ni (known as the voces beiges or 'bocedization'). after 1618). ma. .

perhaps because of the unsettled conditions during the Wars of the Roses (1455-85). He had a sure instinct for the essential differences between vocal styles and those suited to the organ. and from His madrigals (from at Antwerp or Brussels. late in the century through the genius of Sweelinck (d. century English music suffered a check. 1624). a model and incentive to cathedral and private es tablishments. born about 1560 in England. a posthumous) Noe" Faignient (works . . visited Rome in 1595. Its isolation itself. 45). from 1552 choirmaster at Liege Christian Hollander (d. by the number of monastic and cathedral choirs and organs. were but partially published in a standard edition (1895-1903). the son of the organist of the Old Jan Church. choirmaster at (works from 1539) Oudenarde in 1549-57 and then in the Imperial Chapel at Vienna (works from 1567) and Emamiel Adriaensen. His works. and an object of astonished admiration from foreign visitors. which are now better known. being the real founder of the true fugue. As the century went on. Other composers were Petit Jan Delitre. English players were more and more drafted into .I 42 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 67 Peter Phillips (d. by the chartering of a monopolistic Minstrels' Guild (1469). with its development from a single subject through the use of double and triple counterpoint. He was trained at Venice by Zarlino and G. The very early and efficient share of England in the origin of counter In the second half of the I5th point has already been noted (sec. compiler of lute-books (1584-92). as one of the great players and teachers of the age. and has not always been justly appreciated. . Gabrieli. and on his He soon became famous return in 1580 became organist at the Old Church. and during the reigns from Henry VII. by the conferring of musical degrees at both Oxford and Cambridge (from 1463). The Tudors were all music-lovers. born in 1562. has resulted from the difficulty of getting at the documents. emigrating because an earnest Catholic. before 1570). during his life. but also to England's 67. became canon at BeUune. The more the story is studied. and by popular interest in singing of all kinds. and with a basso continuo. and by ex for the whole North German school ample and precept served as the pioneer of organists. (1485-1509) onward the Chapel Royal remained the chief rallyingpoint for musicians. but are now collected Amsterdam came into prominence English music in the i6th century stands by England. was due primarily to geographical reasons. 1621). the more interesting and even astonishing it becomes. The neglect of the subject peculiar relations to the Papacy. 1 596 was viceroyal organist show him to have been a contrapuntist 1591) and sacred music (from 1612) His fame as the first writer of a true in the Palestrina style. But even then some interest was indicated by the maintenance of the Chapel Royal (flourish ing from at least 1465). of great ability is now disputed in favor of his countryman fugue on one subject (Burney) After 1610 he wrote somewhat in the new monophonic style Bull (Davey). vocal and instrumental.

among whom the follow at Wells in 1447? Mus. modeling of styles under the influence of Protestantism she made an original combination of polyphony with the new materials of Protestant liturgies. ments . mental pieces (before 1510) several instru VIII. in 1490. During the long reign of Elizabeth (1558-1603) sacred music again became notable in connection with the new Prayer The remarkable power. later organist at St. leading to contrapuntal achievements of out a long line of talented madrigalencouragement then given brought first Stuarts. Richard Davy. Book. 1529). the leading genius of Mus. probably in the from 1510. Master of the Chapel Nicholas Ludford. the earliest group. his impulsive break with pre-Reformation period ended under Henry VIII. Robert Fayrfax (d. Then came. Alban's at Boston till 1530 and Chapel about 1510-20. England deserves credit for much progress She seems to have led the way in writing peculiarly her own. is Henry that are the first of the kind anywhere. Hugh Aston (d. organist Gilbert Banastir. even when the existence of good English compositions was but slightly known. organist who was one of the few to write a mass on a secular melody then at Henry Abyngton . motets and ballads (probably . and John Taverner. 1547) was not only a patron of music. and quite as remarkable. its The English cultivation of the madrigal and relatives was also strikingly original. Master of the Chapel Royal from 1465 bridge Master of the Chapel in 1482-1509. ists which continued into the troubled time of the music. An outbreak of icono clastic zeal against the old order followed. organist at Magdalen who is said to have written the earliest Passion College. (1547-53)? the first of the Anglican Church. in 1463. with the drafting steps in the full organization Under Mary (1553-8) the old usages were of new liturgies in English.67 EARLY ENGLISH CHURCH MUSIC service 143 on the Continent. but played on before 1530). 1522). with Rome about 1535 and the suppression of the monasteries and religious houses in 1536-40. for keyboard instruments. after the Oxford. at Cambridge in 1501 and at Oxford in 1511. (d. known. probably in the service known by instru of the Countess of Richmond. Netherland style. The number of early composers known ing may be mentioned : is large. (1509-47). D. which wrought havoc in The choir-libraries and organs and which condemned especially all elaborate service- under Edward VI. Her development of counterpoint early in the century was distinct from that of the later NetherIn the re landers or their disciples. . Whether or not at the opening of the 1 5th century true coun terpoint was first invented by Englishmen and by them handed in the i6th century But over to the industrious Netherlander may be a question. 1497). later Archdeacon of York.a#d composed masses. somewhat revived. D. at Cam (d. Oxford.

and the radicals (later called Puritans). His style. a Royal for a time. before organist and choirmaster 1559). several remarkable (including father of Eng anthems and a few madrigals. While in these the outlines closely resembled those of Roman services. A for more than a century. was organist at Ely from 1541? perhaps brid-e. canticles and in 1575 (with his pupil Byrd). when doctrine. The English Reformation was a peculiarly complicated movement. about 1535.. 68) 68. who would keep all possible continuity with the ancient church. At first the English love of independence was But later. but to with a musical Breviary offices) received a special accent. including masses. was occasioned by his personal pique at the Pope's attitude toward his marriages. at St. born about 1510. . publishing a mass. For a time should so fit it was demanded that whatever music was used the syllables with solid chords that every word of . quite as influential as any convictions about nation by her cruelties and when the refugees returned from Geneva at Elizabeth's accession. the last of which remained in use The Prayer Book and Music. reconstructed liturgy of the new national Church. instrumental writer of London. and became clergyman varied musical settings (1553)? he left rical version of the Book of Acts with Latin and English motets. etc. leaving many organ-pieces of historic interest.I44 Christopher THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 68 at King's College. treatment equal to that of the Communion tended to be quite Anglican ritual music has always quence.' since he was the link schools (see sec. the secession of Henry VIII. In conse itself. (before 1560). he left a gigantic one for eight 5-voiced choirs). John Record (d. Thomas Tallis (d. Besides his curious met in 1560. Thenceforward two parties began to form the moderates. 1572) began as a choirboy also in the Chapel in 1497. authorized two successive forms (i549> 1552) and Elizabeth still a third (15 59). Although the reactions on the 'Continent under Luther and Zwingli were immediately known in England and approved by many. distinct in its texts and spirit. Paul's. a Pas extensive works in MS. sion. yet in practice Morning and Evening Prayer (corresponding not to the Mass. CamTye (d. the Anglican position Mary had exasperated the became decidedly Calvinistic. was the best his day. He is sometimes called <the between the old and the new lish cathedral music. who preferred to sweep away all traditions inclined to oppose and begin afresh. was one of the earliest undertakings Edward VI. The latter were more and more ritual music because of its associations with the Catholic system. many more motets motets published during his life (1560-75). organist at Waltham Abbey till 1577? obtained a monopoly of musictill 1540 and in the Chapel Royal Besides the tunes. 1585). was singularly able and unartincial.

was a choirboy at St. and In 1544 he was almost martyred for was more theologian than musician. first a choirboy the Chapel was at Magdalen College. Creed.. much influenced by Marot's French ants diverge in after 1570.organist there. completed in 1564 and used till 1650. Communion (analogous to the Mass) With these. Book services. 1544). this pression overmuch. and the Preces. the English (or 'Old Version ). completed and discontinued Church till about 1700 or after. John Merbecke (d. but strangely Robert tthyte (d. readiness of Knox and his over 140 tunes in a much richer style.' the English This latter form has hid a counterpart of the older Latin motets. also born in 1523. over without break into those Although the Elizabethan composers pass the earlier leaders should be sees. the Litany Among the famous early settings of parts "of the liturgy were Psalms and Communion in Plain(Stone. motets and anthems (from 1550). In 1550 he few anthems. venture in hymn-tunes was the Goostlie Psalmes of Coverdale the derived from Lutheran sources. required in Morning or Evening Prayer became frequent after 1560. a post From 1561 he cian of high order. 1566). Paul's. ^ Royal. and Responses (Tallis. The contrast with the best Calvinistic music is curiously in circle to utilize the The first 1 < ' English reluctance. m forgotten . 1550). besides leaving a mass and a tings of ihe Prayer later life he his Protestant views. 99). when version the Genevan. and 1562 and supreme in the Anglican The English variant the Scottish. plain harmonic type of writing was again supplemented by ample counterpoint.wotet style 1552?). He in 1523. This was overshadowed' by (1539). and latex. at St. was Master of the Chapel Royal. The composition or in the all the canticles. Georges. came the writing of 'anthems. Song (Merbecke. etc. for the longer canticles it was heavy and hampered musical ex Before the end of the century.68 EARLY ENGLISH CHURCH MUSIC 145 a not unnatural re the text should be obvious to the hearer action against the profuse and intricate style of many contra For short texts it was entirely applicable. remarkable modern development. as variable parts. 1574) was highly esteemed Vfesb He succeeded Tye at Ely in 1562. then involving dramatic as well his time. Versicles of of whole Services settings in . His madrigals are famous as musical in 1542 became m m gifts. Psalter begun by Sternhold in 1548 and gradually enlarged metrical three very different vanin England and at Geneva until 1559. the Canticles. and at the best had but about in common metre was almost wholly while the Scottish used many metres and had 40 tunes of a plain type. and from 1551 organist left services. removing to afterwards. but puntal settings. London. Oxford. then. 1585?). was both a poet and a musi Richard Edwards (d. born issuedhis famous Plain-Song set Windsor. John Sheppard. i of the early given here : 7 th century (see 69.

Though perhaps not absolutely unexcelled at every point his in and . including some gals. and in soon entered the Chapel Royal and in 1591 In 1601 was the first professor of music at Gresham College. He was often in trouble > (d. in England strengthened 1588 Italian madrigals began to be reprinted Under this stimulus a long the national interest in secular composition. sec. but a compeer of Palethe greatest English composer of only The list includes masses. of decided historic importance. was in the Chapel Royal organist at Lincoln with Tallis from 1575. with 20 organ-pieces. show him a worthy contemporary and a pupil of Talks. 1623). He is supposed all showing motets and anthems. he traveled on the Continent He was a remarkable per becoming in 1617 organist at Antwerp Cathedral.146 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 68 He left to have been Tye's son-in-law. 1628). born in 1543 from i S7 c and later in 1563. vices and anthems (some possibly by of Tye and Tallis. anthems. true variations. psalms. numerous ^Richard Farrant other Farrants). As about 1562. His ser sympathies. and remarkable virginal-pieces. and was joint-publisher because of his strong Catholic monoDolv in 1585. and superior that he is counted not works (from 1575) are so many. succeeding to the its organist. songs an instrumental writer he was long unrivaled. became William Byrd (d. with some instrumental fantasias. motets. an expert contrapuntist and a prolific composer of keyboard-pieces former. born became its organist. was organist at Hereford from 1582. and in 1613 migrated to Brussels. though the earlier of them series of further composers appeared (see were immediately connected with those here mentioned. 69). varied the century. minster in 1567. 1507-1607 as a virtuoso. madri strina and Lassus. 1580) was in the Chapel Royal from 1564. John Bull (d.

In the hands of certain Italian masters both the French chanson and its analogue. wit or passion in the language of common life with The lyric beauty of the words called for delicacy and charm. but this. The Madrigal and Part-Song. real strophe-like divi ' No all The counterpoint was sometimes developed sions were usually avoided. simply because in < the older counterpoint what is now called form was either lacking or extremely irregular. the artistic solo. The early indebtedness Netherlander to secular music has already been noted (sec. The word i madrigal came from the Troubadours and meant originally a pastoral song. though occasionally the advance of the voices might be checked and then begin again. Its spirit came from secular poetry. could only be supplied contrapuntally. especially in Italy.' but usually passed from theme to theme. The laying out of the music was governed by the flow and balance of the text. and the number of chansons that they produced side by side with more pretentious works. though. Indeed. INSTRUMENTS. the Italian frottola. each then specially devised for the phrases '47 . which. But it was reserved for their dis of the ciples in the i6th century to lift it into prominence and thus to transform the spirit of all composition. evidently there needed to be some departure from the ponderous style of the motet. of the words as they came. Its musical sense followed when such poems were taken as texts for vocal treatment. was learning how to set forth topics of sentiment. ' The madrigal was simply the lighter and gayer type of standard part-writing. was natural that the Italians should lead in developing It this lighter style. about a borrowed 'subject. to match the sparkle and play of the words. but in later usage it was 'applied to any lyric poem of decided artistic value. This aspect of early counterpoint was never lost. 43). which steadily advanced into a distinct and brilliant history of its own. strict definition of the madrigal-form is possible. passed over into the madrigal. 69. though without any close adherence to the mere syllables or lines.CHAPTER IX THEORY SECULAR MUSIC. in the absence of any due recognition of lyric music.

Jhan Gero in 1542. Van Wert in 1558. largely from Verona and Padua. what were estant motets and anthems of Germany and England. madrigals proper begin to appear in print in rapidly increasing numbers. and arias. it prepared the way for other The historic raised to ex essen really polyphonic. De Rore in 1542. often first The origin of strong madrigal-writing was with the Venetians. importance of the madrigal ^It afforded a chance for genius secular music to honor and Although ercise itself in fields otherwise untouched. sung. G. it served as a toward independent instrumental music. and in the early dramatic were long a usual feature. Nanino in 1586. construction were chains of madrigals. Nanino in 1579.I4 g THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 69 but aiming con handled imitatively. On merely set off on analogous lines of its own. Gabrieli in Striggio in 1560. even for dramatic monodies tially vocal it revealed The earliest attempts at the expressive possibilities of melody. in 1564. flexibility and grace of sec These prefigured the Prot ular music than had been customary. with points of real modulation. which at the out step the transcription of what was written to be set was great enrichment. but it is impossible to say exactly who was the writer in the form. (1502-8) were about 900 frottole by Among North Italian writers. Properly a effect rather than a show of learning.B. Porta and Palestrina in 1555. since forms. M. Annibale in 1562. Petrucci's earlier collections . often with strictness and dexterity. Vecchi and G. the leading writers entering the field in about this order: Willaert in i5i9. since it was evolved gradually. but which presently Hence it is just to say that the madrigal was the 16th-century is representative of what In a number of cases now called chamber music (Riemann). Arcadelt in 1538. Many a license of treatment crept before it was accepted in stricter writing. Willaert is named as the inventor. Monteverdi in 1583. Orazio 1575?. since almost every active writer gives but a hint of the magnitude in Italy was a madrigalist? and the fertility of several of them was enormous. called madrigali spiritztali motets in a style that sought to bring into were put forth church services more of the warmth. Gabrieli in 1554. De Monte and A. but with the madrigal was based upon one of the tended toward the modern gradual change of view about harmony usage In later examples the or minor. G. is evident.Festain 1531. Lassus in 1552. A. and the German Hassler in 1590. stantly at beauty of mediaeval modes. to the the other hand. Soon after 1530. This list of the subject. Merulo and Caimo Marenzio in 1580. catching rhythmic side into the madrigal dance-movement. della Viola in 1539. In both Germany opera madrigals and England latter's it amalgamated with the true part-song. These slight works were the forerunners of the madrigal. major more or less of of the form became more definite.

His canzonets (from 1593). Thomas Weelkes. he spent much time abroad from 1580. Germany and Italy. visiting in 1598-1606 with peculiar France. John Dowland (d. his renown rests on his incomparable madrigals. John Wilbye gained of 'the chief of English madrigalists by some 65 famous specimens of exquisite beauty. canzonette and villanelle (almost 20 vols. was almost equally expert (works. so that at the opening of In The earliest MS. but considerable instrumental music and some anthems. who also 1597 with ' field with success in several books. specimens come after 1590. though Thomas Morley His theoretical treatise (1597) was influential. was organist successively at Winchester College and at Chichester. from 1599 and at Dublin from Michael Este. not only wrote many fine madrigals (1604-38). from 1580). who was born near Brescia and a pupil there of Contino. organist 1609. with (from 1598). work. Francis Pilkington was connected Thomas Ford (d. born in 1557 and a pupil of Byrd. including a few anthems and hymn-tunes (till 1614). addition of his own. 1634) is and others scattered entered the the title in collections known from one book of fine madrigals (1597) or MS. with a short (1605) and a translation of Ornithoparchus' pavans On positions. cases competent composers wrote little else. 1626). the more famous writers are here the dance. being stimulated To 1 7th century the English school really devoted itself to this form. Partly because of his Catholic associations in early life. was exclusively and famous as a virtuoso upon the lute. he held two or His madrigals and ayres (1596-1621) have He also issued a popular set of instrumental book (1609). George Kirbye (d. date from about 1560. with Chester Cathedral (ayres and madrigals. first at Triest and from 1580 at Rome. During the next 40 years about 2000 madrigals were published. and more remain in MS. 1605-24). the following should be the many added : entered the (d. the last as court-lutist. his instrumental pieces and limited sacred music are also notable. 1630). choirmaster at Lichfield. the pioneers Edwards and Byrd. a secular composer. born in 1563. Paul's. . and succeeded to Byrd's monopoly in 1598. remained in use to the present. The English development grouped together. Chapel Royal in 1592. 1604-18). after being for a time organist at St. mad ballets (1595) and ayres (1600) constitute the best of his rigals (from 1594). though i their activity reached far into the /th century. c. proper with the lighter and gayer styles of the part-song and For convenience. Thomas Bateson at Chester (d. in the service of Cardinal Luigi d' Este. already mentioned. 1599). Although also a sacred writer.69 THE ENGLISH MADRIGALISTS 149 sec. 77) All the above have been noted in earlier sections except Monteverdi (see and Luca Marenzio (d. John Bennet issued one book (1599) some other pieces. but the greater number by reprints of Italian works. of the madrigal was prompt and but marked by an instinctive effort to merge the madrigal rich. three returning to England. besides being employed honors at the Danish court. where from 1595 he was organist in the Papal Chapel. 1602).

especially in Germany. organist at the Chapel Royal from 1604 and at Westminster Abbey from 1623. probably reverting thus to its primitive In England the line between the madrigal and the type. music-master in the royal household and in the Chapel from 1625.). motet. and a tendency to use the form over and over for successive stanzas. Cambridge. a division into lines or strophes with cadences. 1625). In Germany true part-songs were the rule and reached a notable prominence with both secular and sacred words. exerted a wider in though fluence through his madrigals (from 1609). motets and canons. and even the 'frottola' was not strictly a contrapuntal form. harmonic basis was not confined Yet in practice everywhere the together that they madrigal and the part-song lay so close influenced each other and often coalesced.150 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 69 1648). In France and the Low Countries the chanson often veered toward the part-song. The part-song ' ' differs from the madrigal in derivation and character. both in its normal form and with contrapuntal elaboration. (d. Orlando Gibbons (d. is by far the greatest name in the series after Byrd. illustrates a process of evolution common in 16tha form that originated almost within the circle of un century music conscious folk-music. while the to the ecclesiastical modes. born not greater than several of the foregoing. though developed thus for a time. and then proved so consonant with the trend of technical progress as to become typical. anthems and hymn-tunes to re markable madrigals and instrumental pieces (see also sec. being primarily an attempt to arrange a folk-song or similar melody for three or more voices with little more than note-for-note The madrigal was the secular counterpart of the part-writing. 99) . but the part-song. treble. and finally disappeared in what was called the 'glee. was both a secular composer (from 1607) and a writer of anthems (in MS. .' part-song. While musicians were thus discovering the latent capacities of the madrigal as a branch of counterpoint. Thomas Ravenscroft Paul's. what are more properly called part-songs were not neglected and. In most countries the pursuit of the strict madrigal died out in the lyth century. born in 1583 and a choirboy at King's College. his collection of tunes (1621) and his treatise (1611) on Measured Music. about 1582 and a choirboy at St. the part-song the ter there companion of the chorale. were often still more cultivated. has survived with unlessened vigor to the present day. His abun dant works (from 1611) range from services. In the lat was usually a continuous dominating melody in either the tenor or the. was adopted into artistic use without a full sense The of its significance. part-song was * 1 always fluctuating. then. 1 1 Thus in Italy the 'villanella or 'villota was explicitly a part-song based upon a popular air. 1635?).

at the serviceable as librettist . with a The circle of Florentine dilettanti was originally a social club drawn to gether by common tastes. Such declamation was practically a lost art. della Viola (1541-63). 1642). since without the solo the element of personality in song was kept at a minimum. himself a poet and amateur musician. Merulo Only the last of these (1579). The chief names. and time Ducal Inspector of Art at Florence. Giovanni Bardi. who like Pietro Strozzi. Bardi having moved to Rome the poet Ottavio Rinuccini (d. who took wise served notably as a composer in the new style part with Merulo and Striggio in the wedding music at Venice mentioned Marco da Gagliano (d. Count of Vernio. in practical experiments and zeal Giulio Caccini pamphlets (from 1581) and a lutist whose versatile (d. trained musician. was specially successful. above and later heartily accepted the new ideas at the time a young student for the priesthood. afterwards most Emilio del Cavaliere (d. 1618). wealthy and cultivated nobleman. who from 1592 was the head of the movement. nothing significant could be accomplished. were Jacopo Corsi (d. at the wedding of Duke Francesco of Tuscany at Venice in 1579. 1600). 1633). and numerous attempts A were made 1 to rediscover it. ^ so a we ^" student and writer. besides Bardi. Throughout the later i6th century composers were groping toward dramatic music. A. These experiments were recitatives called monodies/ the first of which were simply slight accompaniment. the astronomer. but a talented lutist and a good . singer in the Ducal Chapel from 1565 skill powerfully aided the movement. The Florentine Monodies. Gabriel! (1585) and Orazio Vecchi (1594). ambition was to restore the Greek drama in its entirety. led to a war of pamphlets between Venetian and Florentine critics. Striggio (1565-85). drew about him a group of dilettanti in literature and art who were all inquiring after some method of dramatic ex Their pression of an intenser form than was then known. ducal choirmaster at Florence and later at Ferrara. Jacopo Peri (d. but later a composer in the . but before long became animated by a positive purpose of revolution in the direction of solo music. . a rich patron of the arts and a good player on the gravicembalo. ously defended the who new led the way ideas in . 1602). monodic form* . as by A. This raised the question of musical declamation as a means. later one of the composers in the new style not so famous as his son. About 1575 there began at Florence a movement that had important consequences. who was well versed in musical work Vincenzo Galilei (d. in Several experiments were tried with incidental music for plays (intermezzi) madrigal style. 1621). 1604). a Roman noble. c. .70 THE FLORENTINE MONODIES 151 70. and one of them. So long as the only recognized type of writing was contrapuntal.

most musicians sought pro ficiency in playing it. harpsichord and their relatives artistic possibilities. The i6th cen from its predecessors a bewildering variety of in struments. two viols (tenor and bass). hackbrett (dulci mer) andtrumscheit (nun's-fiddle) in the wind and group. Instruments and Instrumental Music. cromornes and other horns. since gave opportunity for concerted effects and for Variety of force and color. having obvious capacity for concerted effects. but they certainly contained the germ of both the recitative and the aria. pending the time when experience should determine which contained the largest tury inherited the organ. at once applied in musical plays. 71. utilized variously. harp. 76). the lute was the characteristic instrument of the period. most of which it continued to use. drums and some nondescript forms. two forms of lute. bagpipes. harpsichord proper). and the artistic importance of some of clavichord. followed in 1600 by two more significant works. with such success that by 1585 attention was strongly attracted to what seemed like a new style of decided value. All kinds of music were arranged for it. were more and more perceived! this sub both descriptions and wood keyboard instruments (omitting the is Virdung's Musica getutscht (1511) includes. several varieties of flute or recorder. giving cuts. psaltery. Dafne> with words by Rinuccini and music by Peri and Caccini. which latter is the most elaborate of all. with After some tentative essays (with more or less madrigal material). and among percussives. Much pains were taken with its construction. in 1594 was produced the first real musical drama. Pratorius' Syntagma musicum (1615-9). . The remaining forms were small and portable. wind and percussive These were groups. His list besides the ^ schalmey bombarde (oboes). and socially it was more fashionable than any other instrument. about a century after Virdung.152 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 7! Galilei and Caccini were probably the first to write monodies. zinken. The monodic plot style was and personages. trumpet. Just what these monodies were is not clear. clarion and trombone. commonly known as 'the first opera' and 'the first oratorio' respectively (see sec. stood in a class by themselves. The keyboard instruments them. the lyra (hurdy-gurdy). Other similar sources are Agricola's Musica instrumental (1528) and. representing the standard stringed. in the stringed group. especially the lute and the viol. That it contributed powerfully to the it The . an invaluable source on ject near tfie opening of the century.

The tone. but was capable of fine gradations Dexterous players got good in skillful hands. curved or bent sharply back. .. tuning varied somewhat. . the latter most resembling it . from the little single. FIG. r b * " ' ~ ". a neck of varying width and length. bardy But the full development of viol music was delayed until the tinct. strengthened within by a soundpost under the bridge and by one or more longitudinal soundbars.) The viol was not yet as much valued as the lute.71 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IS3 awakening of a ous.. Italian Lute. Previ 1 ously. The recognition of instrumental music as distinct from vocal was one of the striking advances of the i6th century. . but the others pairs being 1 t chiterna. was and """ ' / . 7th century (see sees. of which the uppermost or chanterelle was tuned in pairs. with but 4 strings. 110-112). were an oval or pear-shaped body. usually about 13 strings of gut or wire. but its unique singingtone was appreciated and its possibilities were being diligently studied.. either flat. produced by incisive twanging with the finger-tips. in chord(The modern derivatives of sequences and even in polyphonic passages. up to the big the * orbo. chiefly because incapable of concerted effects. customary sizes varied greatly. the belly being pierced by 1-3 carefully shaped and located soundholes and bearing the bridge (usually placed obliquely and to one side) to which the lower ends of the strings were fastened. and a head. slightly nasal. but its taste for true instrumental composition is obvi mechanical limitations were such that gradually it was supplanted by the viol. containing the tuning-pegs. Late in the century several varieties had become dis Brescia and Cremona in Lomincluding the true violin. effects in in shape. flat Its essential features in front and vaulted behind..' 'archlute' and chitarrone'. the lower sometimes carried off at the side of the The fingerboard and used without stopping. . 54. melodies with accompaniment. were already the headquarters of the best manufacture. true accompaniments and all independent writing for . all properly 1 with a double or extended neck and head and The accordatura or method of 20-24 strings. . with a fretted fingerboard. with a range of 3-4 octaves or even more. the lute are the guitar and the mandolin. though it continued in some vogue till the 1 8th century.

56. five 55. lute. . FIG. FIG. 57. the lute family.154 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 71 FIG. ' also with part ' strings off the fingerboard. the largest of forms. Theorbo. 57. with "^ ' pairs of strings off the ' ' ' "'" ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' fingerboard. Archof the FIG. 56. 55. 4 (The terms ' theorbo and arch-lute are used rather indiscriminately for the above Bass-lute or Chitarrone.) FiG. FIG.

perhaps . The passamezzo or movement prefiguring the minuet. . 1536-63) . England.. this movement is significant only as regards music for the organ. Julio Abondante Giovanni Maria da Crema (per Melchiore de Baberijs (at least 9 books. contrapuntal peared early in the century works of the motet or chanson class were written to be either sung or played and.71 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 155 instruments had been either unknown or used only casually. Of these the leading German. was also common. French. drafted for purely instrumental use. these two being frequently united into a two(from its springy steps) movement form resembling the suite in miniature. Printed lute-books in tablature appeared also in dance style. 'ricercari. In either case the desire was first for concerted effects upon a single instrument. The earliest publication of lute-music was by Petrucci (1507-8). but the mere fact that a beginning was made in other keyboard music. the fugue. with the 'galliard' (gaillarde. since from these tentative efforts came great results later. 'toccate' (pieces to be touched on the occasionally approaching or 'senate' (pieces to be sounded by instruments instead of < 1 1 key-board). triple with the 'allemande 1 (German dance). fiung) _ both of the latter being usually of the sinfonie 1 nature of free preludes (later called < or < ritornelli '). Collection. preserved. was pioneer in secular writing for the keyboard in ' Byrd ' (d. and other examples have already been noted. Other instrumental forms made up largely of passages. dances or similar pieces were . virginal-pieces. only partially haps 3 books. a slow movement in duple rhythm. It remains to enumerate a few of the earlier Italian editors : Francesco da Milano (7 books. 1564-7). So far as the production of particular works or the settling of specific forms of composition went. English frequently through the century. often rhythm. 1546-8. a quick movement in triple rhythm. more) . nations were though with vague and shifting ideas of what combi most serviceable. in in which was much thematic imitation. a gay or also called 'saltareDV merry piece). in pieces for the lute and viol. 1546) Giacomo Gorzanis of Triest (at least 4 books. on the other. which was once associated with Queen (2 books. With the unfolding sense of the range of musical art this neg Two different lines of experiment ap lect could not continue. fancies ). but the further notion of combining instruments together followed speedily. . is important. a flowing movement ' in quadruple ' were of rambling structure. and in rudimen tary chamber music. made up An English MS. a < ' ' 1 passepied. 1546-9) be found in England toward the end of the century. from Padua). The dances most vogue were the pavan (padovano. 1623). presumably of earlier date. contains three largely of dances. and were variously called fantasias (or. the earliest large one being that in the Fitzwilliam though The real Elizabeth. on the one hand. Virginal-books begin to not in printed form.

later at Rome. and later at Navarre. and finally at Nivelles (Brabant). Nicolaus Wollick of Paris (works. then in the Papal Chapel issued about 1475 tne nrst P rinted dictionary of musical terms and left a large number of tractates in MS. Franchino Gafori (d. besides some compositions. matic tones that were far ahead of his day. A more than a routine or There were traces. Augsburg and Freiburg [Nachtigall] (d. Fifty or more authors might be standard named. he was drawn into the strenuous strong supporter of the in 1482 by Bartolomeo Ramis de Pareja. prefiguring the maturer theory of the 1 8th century. 1507-11). writing upon of the Solmization. 1501-12). c. and Simon de Quercu of Vienna (1509). i537)> r va l tutor Passing over Jacques Le Febvre [Faber Stapulensis] (d. Intervals. who was then attacked by Gafori in 1518-207 and who responded with emphasis Ramis took positions about the scale. 1511). men and women. Mayence. into Latin in 1536. with summaries of composers. needs of singers Notation. etc. THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY Literature about Music. we come to Sebastian Virdung. 72 To give an adequate account musical books from the invention of printing to many 1600 is here impracticable. his greatest in 1496 and others later. in dealing with musical procedure annalistic manner. 1522). and many writers (like the often curious Latin many composers) were known under names. who published in 1511 (in German) his invaluable treatise on keyboard and other instruments (illustrated). of the dawning art historic spirit. several leading names follow Pietro Aaron of Venice (d. [Jon. Frankfort and at Paris Breslau (works. too. 1545) issued works (i5i6-'45) that resemble His Gafori's in scope. besides his own theoretical book in 1515. about notation and tablature. with practical directions c. Michael Keinspeck of Nuremberg (both writing in 1496). seeking to it describe how the evolved and treatises how differed in different countries. to in 1487. chiefly Italians or Germans. which Ottomarus Luscinius translated 1536) of Strassburg.. organist at Basle. Joannes Cochlaeus Dobnek or Wendelstein] (d. last work contains a list of various musicians. subjects like Plain-Song. however. and Sebas Again passing over Wenceslaus Philomathes of Vienna (1512) Cracow (1515). Counterpoint. few. interval-ratios and chro in 1 1521-31. with reference to the practical were constructive theorists. published his first treatise older views of theory. followed in 1491 by Ramis pupil Giovanni Spataro (d. were still written in Latin. 1552) of Worms. a Spanish teacher at debate A opened whom Nicolb Burzio of Parma (d. works and instruments.. 1475-87. 1541). and composers. 1518) responded Bologna. from 1484 connected with Milan Cathedral. but take the progressive side of the famous dispute. tian yon Felstein of : .I5 6 72. till 1500. paraphrases of their real had been some Almost all choirmaster in the Royal Chapel of Naples in Jean Tinctoris (d. in 1480.

of which is a valuable bibliography of Italian musical books and MSS. from leading composers the whole set forth with This work was epitomized by his step-son WonGlarean also edited the works of Boethius (1570). 1526).72 MUSICAL LITERATURE 157 Heinrich. His works (1558-88) for the first time wrought out the distinction between the major and the minor as two complementary types of harmonic structure (developed with great fullGioseffo Zarlino (d. '47). the second (d. though unsuccessful in a public debate. . the enterprising Wittenberg publisher. He also edited collections of Protestant music. Hein rich Faber of Naumburg (d. Loriti [Glarean. 1558) of Wittenberg (1556). with very popular handbooks (1548-50). With him worked Georg Rhaw (d. 1563). with methods de Aranda of Portugal (1533) Antonio Francesco Doni for the flute-a-bec. is known by his excel which Dowland translated into English (1609). an extraordinary traveler. the earlier of which was expanded by Gumpeltzhaimer of Augsburg (1591) and by Vulpius of Weimar (1610) Juan Bermudo of Portugal. as against the prevalent Pythagorean theory. Venetian composer and choirmaster (see was altogether the greatest theorist of the age. besides psalms and a Passion. Martin Agricola of Magdeburg (d. 1590).. who left a written opinion (1551). . . contains his noted contention that the whole fabric of mediaeval music rests upon 12 modes instead of 8. and the others discussions of theory and notation. and is notable for a work (1529) in which the major third is correctly fixed with the ratio 5 14. Andreas Ornithoparchus. . 15 63). book (1555) and by the invention of the complicated 'archicembalo. published two works (1515. 1548). (Cf. the first being a masterly account of all kinds of instruments. 1561) issued important treatises sural music (1532. the second of which. who himself issued a theoretical handbook (1518). 1552). later was indorsed by Artusi (see below). lent general treatise (1517). cited clearness. the sec. 1539) was a careful student of ancient musi cal writings. '37). . Finck(d. with other useful acoustical distinctions. a Netherlander in the which about a half-century Papal Chapel. . with Matheo Stefano Vanneo of Ascoli (1533) a text-book for the lute (1523) Silvestro di Ganassi of Venice. the Dodecachordon. The ing forward the reaction against chief arbiter of the debate was GMselin Danckerts. author of two books (1544-50). viola and violone (1535-43) a cultivated Florentine. defended his views (1551). Wicol6 Vicentino.) Names of less significance are Hans Judenkunig of Vienna (d. on men Ludovico Fogliani of Rome (d. Basle and Freiburg (d. pupil (1549) of Des Pres and ex-member of the Papal Chapel (1552). in his enthusiasm over the revival of the Greek chromatic and enharmonic genera. as ordinarily taught. Ramis above. 56). 1556) by a series of works (1528-45) achieved a unique reputation as a scholar. 1574). from his birthplace in Switzerland] of Cologne. and Hermann . Sebald Heyden of Nuremberg (d. a pupil of Willaert in the service of the Este family at Ferrara and Rome. on instruments Adrian Petit Coclicus of Wittenberg and Nuremberg (d. was opposed by the Portuguese Vicente Lusitano in a and. thus help 1 the older diatonic theory of the modes. with many examples acumen and negger in 1557.

wrote three elaborate works (1593-1602) designed to combat views held by various friends about harmonic questions. (d. deserves mention as the first editor of important Greek treatises (1552). after 1612) issued in two parts (1593.158 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 72 ness in the igth century). Vincenzo Galilei of Florence dramatic monody William Bathe handbook (1584) (d. a Flemish physician in Venice. in his zeal for a return to the of the Greeks.1609) an elaborate an indication of the advance in that branch of Thomas Morley (d. an erudite classical scholar. the third reasserting Vicentino's contention about chromatic tones. published several works against Zarlino (1581-9) in connection with the memorable Florentine movement. the first of which was the earliest printed work on the monochord. and set forth the principles of counterpoint in its higher and more intricate applications. issued in 1577 a finely written treatise in which musical rhythm is discussed in relation to rhythm in poetry. court-organist at Naples from 1558 and later of Salamanca (Spain). one of which contains an advocacy of bocedization. He also left in MS. issued several able books (1592-1612). is to be remembered for an first MS. besides an earlier book on lute-playing (1568). extensive other writings. special Franciscus Salinas (d. published in two widely separated parts (1592. 1612). while part of another is devoted to a genuine history of music. Giovanni Maria Artusi of Bologna (d. an Irish Jesuit of Salamanca. an industrious but highly conservative writer. 1604) important in 1861. Cyriak Spangenberg of Strassburg (d. c. Sethus Calvisius pforta (near (d. c. 1602). which was published . including translations of ancient authors and a work on the theatre. among other things. 1614). He was useful in Naumburg) and from 1594 directing thought into harmonic channels. work on the Meistersinger (1598). also for a time in court service at Vienna and Munich. Ercole Bo'ttrigari of Ferrara and Bologna (d. the octave is accepted in place of the hexachord as the norm of scales. 1597) was a somewhat useful writer of small text-books (1590-2). 1600). 1613). the noted madrigalist. issued extensive works (1586-1603) in which he vainly strove to check the tendencies away from the strict counterpoint of the old school. including a valuable account of instruments. 1615). 1622) a celebrated treatise on contrapuntal composition. aiming to develop the ancient theories as the author understood them. 1590). Lodovico Zacconi of Venice (d. 1627). Girolamo Diruta (d. with numerous illustrative examples. shares with Bathe the honor of leading the way in England with a general theoretical work (1597) which exerted a wide influence. discussion of organ-playing music. Cyriak Sehneegass of Friedrichsroda (d. is known from a in which. Antonius Gogavinus. from 1582 the distinguished cantor at Schul- at Leipsic.

countries. the century is marked by an outburst of extraordinary artistic abundance. but with a goodly proportion of secular compositions as well. large amount of effort and skill. and by adopting into serious writing rhythmic and accentual forces refinements from secular sources. The area of strict counterpoint. content to go on doing the like of what had been done. tones was left to the singers' discretion without written mark. Composers of importance now number some hundreds almost as many as in the i/th and they are scattered through all the leading century Their known works count up into the thousands. by reaching out after revolutionary extensions of the modes through chromatic tones. and the few ultra-conservatives were unable to hold a following. was widened in various ways by increasing the vocal and gathering them in contrasted choirs. both for the better forming of the melodic phrases and for the smoother At first the insertion of irregular semi articulation of the harmonic drift. but ultimately the necessary sharps or flats were written above or in the staff. The forms adopted are often extended and complex. but from that date it became the subject of formal rules. The period was Musicians were not enterprise. Even those wedded to the spirit with the of old lines of ritual composition usually supplemented or modified the old methods. by experimenting with alternating tonalities or modulations. by heightening the expressiveness of individual voice-parts and playing them off against each other more effectively. what was called 'musica ficta' reached its climax in this This was an instinctive recognition that chromatic modifications of the modes were not only permissible but necessary in certain situations. in cases where the tritone or other objectionable intervals . but must needs strike out new paths. by cunningly developing new beauties of close imitation (even by novel applications of the pure canon). then.73 SUMMARY OF THE CENTURY 159 73. possible to tell how early or how far this license was applied before 1500. But other features command instinct attention. The most salient external feature of the i6th century is the sudden expansion in magni tude of the world of music. in final chords (making them regu larly major). chiefly designed for the church. especially in the formation of final or other cadences. for ex ample. Summary of the Century. so that into many single works went a In mere bulk of composition. by introducing more frequent harmonic passages as a foil for polyphony. It is im practice of The century.

the genuine harmonic idea of composition now disengaged itself from the purely contrapuntal. The unique importance of the . at first following the vocal type slavishly. and in the treatment of thirds sixths in certain connections. since the tonal and While instrumental styles for a time floundered helplessly in their search for proper forms or types. Associated with this recognition of chords as working units was a new analysis of scales and tonality. All regular composition had been for voices in chorus. Instrumental writing branched off from vocal with timidity. whereby was disclosed the imperfection of the modes as formulae (embodying the ancient tetrachordal idea) and of for the instinct of secular music for octochords (or heptachords). and a dominant and subdominant that were accessory chord-centres with the tonic. . Melody and harmony were thus found to be twin faces of the one truth of tonality. the chord as such was another unit and that such massive units might be joined in series. Hitherto melodic the hexachords. voice in its this progress was the unit of reference and that what Now it was felt that chords were produced were incidental. It to be seen that the chorus of instrumental tones. a cadential leading-tone. the organ-fantasias and the clavichord-dances of as a great experimental period. so that a piece for organ. and the hand ling of tones in simultaneous masses or chords was felt to be The old notion had been that the individual of importance. leading-tone as establishing the tonic and providing for obvious cadences now attained its full significance. now began but presently noting that every instrument capable of concerted effects has a genius of its own. making the voice-part motion Thus a revolution of incidental to the harmonic sequence. Room was made major or minor scales laid out in procedure had rested on arbitrary assumptions as to the principality of tones now it circled inevitably about natural foci to which certain primary chords belonged. the future of such styles department of musical art was prefigured in the lute-music. was equally valid. diverse from one for virginal or lute ought to be essentially mechanical elements are different. with a positive keytone. Furthermore.l6o THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY and 73 occurred either melodicallyor harmonically. a choir. one that did not so much came to pass procedure gradually destroy or drive out the old as reveal a deeper principle with which the old might be associated without losing its own value.

it owing to current methods of tuning. could be secured only through resemblances or contrasts of melodic and harmonic design be tween successive strophes. This threw a of the solo. as the doctrine of tonality unfolded. cluster of tones might be thus unified about a single centre. This was the principle of the < basso continue or ' ' thorough-bass that came into use immediately after 1600. It brought to the front the question of 'form' the lay-out of movements in sections or phrases. and. each with some completeness in itself. especially in lighter composition. a fresh sort of progress be worked out. it was necessary only to indicate the intended melody and the appropriate bass with some conventional signs attached. it appeared that a melody carried within itself the implication of an harmonic sequence. The increasing study of popular music tended constantly to alter theory in other ways. it followed that by altering one or two of them the centre could be changed. Popular music also brought into view the artistic possibilities Not only might a melody have beauty in itself and be highly expressive. whereby. and was probably resisted as vulgar and mechanical. and all with some definite relation of length to the others. then. new office light upon accompaniments.73 SUMMARY OF THE CENTURY 161 The acknowledgment of a full scale with its absolute tonality as a unit of thought led onward toward a still more momentous If a possibility. M . it was found. In dances and popular songs it was The problem was to use it without sacrificing indispensable. showing that the primary the latter was not to supply further independent but to declare the chord-foundation that the melody melody. This chord-foundation. could be outlined by means of a continuous bass upon which the desired chord-series could be built up in accordance with a few simple rules. yet definite advances toward now began. which was its essence. of implied. To suggest a whole effect. it was already seen. Though the modern theory of free modulation in all directions was still im possible. and the proper harmony could ' be supplied at sight. But its utility as a principle of organization gradually became clear. the harmony might move from scale to scale or from key to key without losing continuity and with a decided gain in expressional and structural value. besides passing from chord to might chord. This was directly opposed to the genius of contrapuntal structure as usually conceived. but. the general continuity and unity of the whole movement. This higher unity. since the alteration might be smoothly introduced.

and until lay the key to full lyric was in hand. as the primary type of design. since 'subject/ yet practically many voice-parts to the at every point there should be a dominating melody. . polyphony presupposed a melodic the shift of emphasis from a mesh to structure as defined by melody wrought Finally. attention a revolution from polyphony. entrance into the whole vast field of the artistic aria and of the lyric drama was impossible.!6 2 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 73 monophony. thought that to which all else should contribute. of Here this key and dramatic expression. to a Perhaps strictly this was hardly revolution. was indescribably novel.




92. 75. 113. 82. 112. The South German School. THE VIOLIN. 106. The Intermezzi. Monteverdi. 114. 80. The English Masque. Spain and Portugal. The German Singspiel. in. The Thuringian School. Opera-Writers The Opera at Rome and Naples CHAP. Cambert and Lully. . The Bach Musical Experiments. of In and Cesti. 78. CHAP. XIII. 85. Venetian 1670. 1 08. The Earlier Venetian Opera- 10 1. 103. THE ORGAN STYLE. THE EARLY MUSICAL 94. 77. I Oratorio. Venetian Church Composers. 164 . The Early Operas as Dramas. The Genesis of the Violin. Music. 93. HE OF 104. 98.EXPANSION DRAMATIC Music. 89. 81. 83. The Opera in Germany. 86. The Great Violin-Makers. 97. and the Oratorio Family. PROGRESS IN CHURCH 91. The North German School. In France. 1 10. Style. Carissimi The Rising Importance struments. Mediaeval Plays. Style. The French Ballet. In Germany. Schiitz DRAMA. The Rise of the Organ Italian Organists. 105. Early Violin Music and Vio linists. 84. X. Summary of the Century. XIV. The Keyboard. 99. 107.PART IV THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY CHAP. Writers. 102. 87. Purcell. In Western Europe. The Early XI. Literature about Music. . In General. 76. In England. CAL LITERATURE. CHAP. 109. after ' MUSI Stringed Instruments in General. XII. In General. The Roman School. 74. The Organ. 96. The General Survey. 100. 88. 95. Cavalli. 79. CHAP. 90.

independent genius quarters of Europe. In Germany the devastating Thirty Years War (1618-48) almost para lyzed social energy. were a new repulse of the Turks in the east. which was soon propagated from Italy into Germany. In France the great feature was the long reign of the ambitious autocratic. but none of these had immediate relation to musical progress. the organ and other keyboard instruments is perfected or decidedly improved. although the actual it was great. Italy now fully replaces the Netherlands as the musical head is In Germany. in which took place the lamen table exodus of the Huguenots before and after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685).CHAPTER X THE EARLY MUSICAL DRAMA 74. especially for the organ. its modern form. England was racked for an equal time by the struggles between the Stuarts and the Puritans. Italy was comparatively peaceful. society and thought along lines previously indicated. in sacred music. (1643-1715). ending in 1660 with the restoration of the monarchy. the reduction of the Empire to a merely nominal character. except. Striking events In the musical world the energy already developed had mo to proceed in spite of external conditions. and in displayed France a special aptitude for concerted instrumental writing. and the colonization of America. amount of was not marked by the most dis 1 tinguished achievement. especially the opera. in the century the most notable new fact is the Early rapid evolution of dramatic music. being a time of ex tensive readjustments in politics. of instruments like the violin. artistic activity So. 165 Performance now . Indeed. not only for the time. and luxurious Louis XIV. In general history the i/th century has less distinctive character than the i6th. France and England with interesting results. the rise of Sweden. again from Italy as a centre. however. General Survey. To this followed the vigorous advance mentum enough of instrumental music. perhaps. so that music of a higher order is demanded and scope given Musical theory continues to crystallize towards The manufacture for instrumental as well as vocal virtuosity. in literature. but long afterward.

even though originally they may have contained no important musical features whatever. being a sort of reenactment of the is sacrifice of Christ. and in its climaxes is sensationally curiosity The impulse to it is universal in all ages. The beginning was doubtless in the liturgy itself the Mass. with personages. it is of great interest as a preparation for the creativeness of the iSth century. The Mystery was properly a representation of some Biblical story. for instance. all of which were origi nally designed to give religious instruction and edification. It is here mentioned simply to justify references to the general taste for drama. Its development was most natural in connection with the stories of Easter. The entire modern drama theatre and opera is imme diately descended from practices in the Middle Ages that were instituted and sustained by the Church. developing situations and a denouement of some sort. though from the first tending to pass over into secular diver nection clearest with the particular undertakings sions. action. of which the musical drama was a result and by which at first it was dominated. to transfer certain forms of music from private to public dency patronage. All the fine arts have been power The Mediaeval Plays. exciting. 75. But the con known as Mysteries.166 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 75 becomes differentiated as a significant branch of musicianship. These were the direct precursors of the opera and the oratorio. fine art. even the static arts of sculpture. This general thesis may be extensively developed. The fascination of dramatic art in all forms rests it upon the fact that recalls living experiences. continually piques as to the outcome. and of course the mobile arts of poetry and music in all their larger forms. predestined or unex pected. In modern society the drama stands as a separate and independent But it is not always remembered that other fine arts are con stantly handled dramatically. resent or suggest a story. with consequent changes in the standards of musical ambition and in the social influence of the art. Miracle-Plays and Moralities. painting and architecture. affected sooner or later by the universal craving for dra fully Dramaticness is a quality in art not easily matic impression. Correlative with this is the ten especially on the vocal side. . It usually involves features or arrangements that rep defined. While the century presents no composer of the first order.

75 THE MEDIAEVAL PLAYS including all .mythological or historical dramas. either as a vehicle for the dialogue or as a comment or in In such cases the forms used were either borrowed from Plainterlude. romantic or magical incidents. varying widely in subject The Morality was an allegory in which qualities or other abstract notions were personified. casionally i ' It was properly religious or moral. hell beneath and earth between. comment-passages. By the i6th century. which tended more and more to swing away from the Church. Miracle-Play was an offshoot of the foregoing. with not a little superstition as well. and was well on its way toward the modern The differentiation of the opera began when it was perceived theatre. Christmas but The earlier renderings were by ecclesiastics in churches or monasteries. so that it betook itself to the market-places or the fields. These stages were often mounted on wheels and drawn from place to place. the lives of Biblical characters. with the accent upon mere amusement. Greek chorus (often arranged for the audience as a participant in the and interludes and by-plays of all kinds. the Exodus. while in As a others they were undertaken by the various guilds of craftsmen. cases their maintenance became a municipal function. its first purpose it consisted in elaborations of for mulae like the Lord's Prayer or the Creed. The Latin. and of it was early extended to subjects like the Creation. but among the accessories were passages for narrators (supplying parts of the story). somewhat after the fashion of the ancient In all action). The words were taken from the Bible direct as far as possible. rule. farther In many as the Passion-Play at Oberammergau in Bavaria. and one variety of not so closely liturgical in origin. There was no distinct Song of musical writing until near recognition of the peculiarly dramatic types There was little real scenery. The common tongue replaced the and by-play of a comic kind was slipped in. The Though was ecclesiastical. occupying parts of several days. these expansions of church services became protracted per formances. or prepared in similar styles. Its tendency was to em phasize heroic. liberties were taken with the narratives. but oc assumed didactic forms of a more general sort. Gradually. The use of music became frequent. Mysteries ceased with the Reformation. that the vehicle of impression might be musical throughout and when appropriate musical styles were devised. its materials being taken from the legendary lives of the saints. development of these public plays varied in different countries. It passed over readily into . heaven above. often with great freedom of treatment. These features. where large crowds could gather and every kind of topic and treatment could be tolerated. from the I3th century caused the form to be less approved by the church authorities. then. Bunyan's is Pilgrim's Progress a well-known literary example of the Morality idea. and the Last Judg ment. but survivals exist even now. the Flood. or folk-song. one of the favorite forms being elaborate stages were often provided one separated into stories. but somewhat the end of the i6th century. . 1 67 the events from the Betrayal to the Resurrection. these the staple procedure was dialogue between the personages. the street-play had become a common institu tion in all leading countries.

France and England. in Greek extended then. a continuous dramatic tradition and practice from ancient times even till the I5th century. these was Both of these lines the latter pointed clearly toward the opera. perhaps with Caccini. But about all this. came efforts later the name ' oratorio 1 for a sacred musical drama. and from 1565 he enlisted the services of G. We . his efforts being so successful as to lead in 1564 to the formation' of a brotherhood for popular instruction. to be sung after his addresses. as about analogous dramatic traditions in Latin here and there in the the available data are meagre. within the Church. and still exists) Singing was magnified by Neri as a help in his meetings. for Italy was slow to adopt the culture that expressed itself in the Greek language. Maria prominent at in Vallicella. 70). 76. . West. Music and dancing were used so freely that certain works were at least virtually operettas.168 It THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 76 should be added that back of the mediaeval drama. much of whose history is illustrated by literary remains. wrote music for Rinuccini's Dafne^ privately given at CorsPs house. and in bringing poetic styles into conjunction with musical expression. Musical Experiments. probably a crude recitative. and in 1594 Peri. sometimes sometimes in hostility to it. valiere followed in 1588-95 with works on classical topics. Girolamo monastery and later of Sta. Animuccia and Palestrina of the Papal Chapel in the preparation of laudi spirituali plain From this practice settings of sacred words. While the use of music in some way as a dramatic accessory was common in the i6th century. Galilei is said to have been the pioneer with a solo scene from Dante's Inferno and some Casettings from Lamentations. In all these the style was monodic. who em singing in popular gatherings for instruction in Biblical ployed topics. Apparently. 1595) was a zealous Florentine who from about 1550 was Rome in philanthropic arid educational work conducted at the oratory (oratorio) first of the S. while (see sec. but at first their importance lay in discover ing strictly musical ways and means for dramatic expression. One of made about 1560 by the Roman priest Neri. the remarkable Byzantine interest in the drama and its musical accessories had no direct connection with the rise of Italian opera. These seem to have represented every type and quality. especially in Teutonic Europe. Filippo Neri (d. though Neri's were not themselves dramatic. called the Congregation of the Oratory (which has had many distinguished members in Italy. of progress were profoundly influenced by the prevailing types of dramatic effort. know little of the details of the first Florentine experiments. lay multifarious Byzantine undertakings. because the works are not preserved. By way of Constantinople. a peculiar interest attaches to two Italian experiments. from the classic tragedy or comedy down to the rudest vaudeville. and the other from about 1575 by the Florentine dilettanti The former slightly prefigured the oratorio.

The whole forms a well-reasoned guide to the new art of solo-singing. with ritornelli. the performed version being made up from both and the two at once published. correct intonation and enunciation. though their excessive use is deprecated. are carefully explained Two and illustrated. including tone-formation. except that he writes more freely for the the voices. extended examples of solos are appended for study. Rinuccini's poem Euridice was set to music independently by both Peri and Caccini. though successors adherence to the Morality type was not at all characteristic of its and. however. its this class). illustrate the combination of the Mystery with stories of classical mythology. The sense of the text is often musically expressed is with effectiveness and evidence of latent power. how rapidly . signed for a gravicembalo. Venice. In 1600. These works mark beginning of the musical drama. etc. all the others of which are lost. part-song movements. with a Cavaliere died the violin suggested to strengthen the soprano throughout. two large lutes and a lira grande (large viol). the above works were set principles of dramatic singing embodied in by Caccini in 1601 in the preface to a book of accompanied solos called a phrase which is still used to describe the many features Le nuove musiche in which theory and praxis about 1600 were consciously departing from the The forth The general thesis of Caccini's preface is that singing should be old traditions guided by the desire to bring out the meaning and artistic force of the words. but he left explicit directions that show his This is often called 'the first oratorio. The ac companiment is written for a gravicembalo (harpsichord).' They also. Peri's version opens with a seven-stanza prologue in re citative style. solos. a long passage for a triple flute and a final dance.76 THE FIRST OPERAS AND ORATORIOS 169 In 1594 Orazio Vecchi's Amfiparnasso was produced at Modena. In 1600. like their many successors. which was either an unconscious demonstration of the ineptitude of that style for dramatic use or a satire (this work is A similar work was Banchieri's La pazzia senile. Embellishments of various kinds text-interpretation. no successor appeared for almost a quarter-century is to be assigned to (unless possibly Agazzari's small pastoral Eumelio. but technically more elaborate.. a large lute. It includes recitatives. Cavaliere's Rappresentazione di anima e di corpo had been produced at Rome. for the marriage of Henry IV. but some ten months earlier. short choruses. the use of the three principal registers. with a final chorus in an instrumental intermezzo. freedom of delivery. and Maria de' Medici at Florence. one in four parts with dancing and the other contrapuntal. apparently as one of a series of sacred musical dramas under the auspices of the Oratorians. 1606. a comedy wholly in madrigal style. Emphasis is put upon vocal execution in all its parts. actually indulging in florid runs or fioriture. also. indeed. This work is not only more extended than the above (some 90 sections). Caccini's version is in the same style. two alternative forms. etc. year before his work was given.' artistic sense of dramatic values. . given in 1598 at extant). the joint production being usually called * the first opera. with only bare indications of the chords intended. and shows ideas about its technique had matured. The dialogue proceeds in recitative with brief interjected choruses. a double The accompaniment lira de and two flutes.

They were invaluable students of the structural texture of composition as an end in itself. but slightly more expanded. became . His series of dramas (1607-42) made the form of composition in Italy and started opera the most popular even difficult leaps. This fame was different from that of any of his great predecessors. studied under Ingegneri.170 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 77 in 1607. in somewhat and symmetrical phrase-plan. in his experiments with instru Gradually his efforts incited imitation advance by other composers. and he must still be regarded as one of the formative geniuses of musical history. He stood forth as an innovator in his disregard of the customary conjunct effect demanded sudden and voice-writing so far as dramatic through Monteverdi it achieved a success that brought it before the whole musical world. where. a work cognate in style with those Gagliano (d. while he brought to the front the importance of so adapting musical pro cedure. mentation. early showed musical aptitude. Part of this was due to the readiness of Monteverdi to cast aside whatever was not serviceable for his immediate dramatic purpose. Monteverdi. Monteverdi's fame spread speedily throughout Europe. 1642) of Peri and Caccini. The old polyphony was apt for certain kinds of feeling only. and for those closest to the popular heart. to the utterance and delineation of every phase of warm emotion that it might be come a many-sided rescript of life in all its intenser aspects. by Marco da In the direct Florentine succession was the setting. While the Florentine enthusiasts are to be honored as pioneers in the New Music. even by revolutionary changes. and part to the peculiar musical eminence of Venice. to the the begin establishment in Venice of the first opera-house and further ning of a long line elsewhere. and was transferred to Venice. an interest that gradually spread everywhere. The New Music now became at least the promise of a voice for many more. 1643) was born of humble parents at Cremona in violist 1567. of Rinuccini's Dafne. Claudio Monteverdi (d. lost its local character the genius of the mature and experienced musician 77. in 1637. They also led. their efforts might not have had at once so large an influence if a new factor in the The movement presently situation had not been introduced. in his vigorous pushing of the solo beyond the tame and timid limits of the early recititive to at least the his sense of the value of a stage of the arioso.

a fanfare prelude and many ritornelli. was to cater to the public taste. Mark's in Venice. dance-play. 2 bass viols. and Of the most famous. Arianna (1618. while Bologna so that the institution spread more operas were often given in theatres. Other started in Venice. At the outset the musical drama was wholly dependent upon the extravagance of wealthy individuals. text by Rinuccini). But 1700 (the first founded in 1661). // ballo deir ingrate (1608. Striggio). The de especially by discovering business velopment of the musical drama and the opera-house ever since. 2 large lutes. was called into being a new class of organizers. The staple form the recitative. 2 cornets. in 1613 he was made choirmaster at St. Thus was opened a new field for singers and instrumentalists. too. In the later works special effects appeared for the first time. respectively the librettist and Before 1700. With the establishment of opera-houses it became a public amusement and a source of musical education. where he remained in sacred music. 10 tenors. like the trernolando and the pizzicato. a small flute and three portative organs. with passages of sustained melody looking toward the later aria.77 MONTEVERDI 171 to the Duke of Mantua (where he was choirmaster from 1601). including hints of novel effects and some interesting con trasts between groups of instruments. text by Badoar. For several years he was engrossed though continuing secular writing in small forms. is still Orfeo marks a great advance on previous experiments. and there are frequent choruses and instrumental numbers. The first management of rapidly than its edifices. Rome had but 3 in cities followed much more slowly had none till 1680. text by Busenello). 2 violins. text by first opera-house). . but re turned to the opera in 1627-30 and again in 1639-42 (after the opening of the Of his 12 dramas only 4 are extant. After at least thirty years' experience as player and composer. and began publishing canzonets and madrigals in 1583. harpsichords. have been closely interdependent whose business ' it ' the Venetian opera-house (1637) was that of S. and in the last there are dialogues. since every opera- house made up its company afresh at intervals. a double harp. Thus. text by Rinuccini). half of them before 1670. The accompani ments are diversified. besides many solos. Orfeo (1607. but the parts are not usually written out 2 simply indicated by a figured bass. duets and a trio. new works or performers. but no chorus. 3 trumpets. and was strictly private. a clarion. the managers or im presarios. known in a form perhaps not authentic). in honor till his death. houses had been for example. no less than 16 operathe composer of the first work given. Cassiano. The orchestra was extraordinary 2 viole digamba. only a fragment remains. but it is more declamatory. under Ferrari and Mannelli. 1} incoronazione di Poppea (1642. // ritorno d? Ulisse (1641. showing sympathy with the newer features of composition. and after great success in 1607-8 with his first three dramatic works.

a Francesca Caccini. the organist and church of Imola & a secondary drama in spite of their detached use in the pauses of an other play. and a later ballet. wrote a number of works of this class (1603-28). '17) Paolo Quagliati (d. 1638).1/2 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 78-79 Contemporaries of Monteverdi. the texts mostly by Rinuccini. who were not ready for the sustained effort of the real opera. Among the many famous may be made of a comedy by Bardi instances of the early use of intermezzi mention at Florence in 1589. Adriano Banchieri (d. 1610. to afford composers a chance for experiment. Marenzio and Cristofano Malvezzi (d. but also the tendency to treat intermezzi as intermezzi were prepared. which illustrates not only the rapid advance of the new style toward question ably sensuous representations. followed soon by others in northern Italy. Filippo Vitali. Caccini. and finally to lead the way toward the opera buffa (see sec. Gio vanni Boschetto Boschetti brought out at Viterbo in 1616 his Strait amore. were (besides Gagliano noted above) Girolamo Giacobbi (d. operas. Cavaliere. and Loreto Vittori . and Bologna. From this time intermezzi were certainly as numer ous as operas. probably the first native opera-writer in Bologna (intermezzi. before 1623). - 78. whose play was produced at Rome (1611) from a movable stage. mezzi/ sometimes After 1600 these turned steadily from the older contrapuntal c ' style to monophonic solos and dances. 1608. fixing . They served to popularize the new monodic style. The Intermezzi. the music by Bardi himself. The Florentines were prompt to use such forms. one of which (1607) was a pendent in the new style to his La pazzia senile (1598). I n tne same period was Schiitz. Peri. 1630). though usually far less important. meant to be performed between the acts of literary plays. Giacinto Cornachioli (1629). as a rule represented each by but one work. and were called intermedi or inter * ' ' balletti when dancing predominated. the tne l ast f ur a ^ f R me (1639) pioneer in Germany (Dafne. the talented Florentine. 1634). Domenico Mazzocchi (1626). Such entr'actes were common in the later i6th century in the madrigal or dance style. Michel Angelo Rossi (1635). Carissimi and CestL Among perhaps twentydramatic composers who entered the field before 1670. 126). parts of A Cavalli. . but in many entertaining pieces of small dimensions and often humorous tone. similar example is a series by Ottavio Vernizzi in the 1623 first of the kind in Bologna. three were decidedly the most influential in the characteristic five 79. The dramatic fertility of the age was shown not simply in extended and serious operas. 1627. usually with a slight plot and some personages. Stefano Landi of Rome (1619). 1597). temporarily in Rome (1620) daughter of Giulio Caccini of Florence (1625) . for which several composer Bosco.

all that Carissimi had wrought out in the cantata. Instead. he did much to develop the duet or dual aria. Cavalli realized that in every strong dramatic situation room should also be made for absolutely lyric expression through solo song.79 CAVALLI. musical interest and value in itself. Carissimi. 82). often with interesting imitations between the voices. be used in both opera and oratorio. and Cesti of Flor ence. not an elaborate variety of recitative. includ He transferred to the opera ing much of the comic element. having great This was the true aria. while pursuing similar lines of advance in the oratorio. with a better work in ful alternations of style. He was important. At first he also clung to the chorus. became important in succession. Cesti went beyond these in the technical variety and vigor with which he developed what they had begun. pupil and successor of Monteverdi. thus retaining the literary stand point that marked the first experiments. added a valuable appreciation of the essential powers of the voice as an instrument. a pupil of Carissimi. These three. The latter had been the type from which more flowing or declamatory passages had been developed without evident differentiation. CARISSIMI to AND CESTI 173 forms valli of Rome. His power of genuine invention was more conspicuous. too. able in what came to be known as the 'cantata specially usually a short solo was 1 which variety was secured by skill sometimes one in which several voices were handled characteristically as if they were personages. His own arias were not carried much beyond folk-song patterns. but gradually omitted it altogether. but also . and led the way more positively toward the freedom and brilliance of effect that later made daz He zling vocalization the crowning feature of the opera. These were CaVenice. Carissimi of who devoted himself to sacred music. though the action. though strict contemporaries. but a song embedded in Cavalli thus brought to the front an element that before long came to dominate the opera completely. both in breadth and in abundance. Rome and Vienna. for attention to the chorus and to the harmonic enrichment 'of accompaniments (see sec. occasionally they suggest the da capo form that later became the rule. but as an operawriter chiefly associated with Venice. Cavalli's special service lay in the full recognition of the aria as distinct from the recitative. with more of charming and vivacious brilliance.

82. in 1660 returned to Rome as tenor in the Papal Chapel. La schicwa fortnnata (1667). see sec. probably under Monteverdi. but he owed his education His whole career was spent at St. and hence A special word should therefore be adopted. some solo cantatas. at Vienna. but with ability. and choirmaster from 1668. ments and instrumental numbers were carefully and freshly con ceived. In widely reproduced elsewhere. as singer from 1617. second organ ist from 1640. art. as to Milan in 1653 and to Innsbruck in 1662. was written jointly with P. For Carissimi. but he In mere number of works he falls did more to set forth the opera as a permanent type of musical thus rounding out the first stage of progress that had been before. besides. Nearly all (1639-67). and from 1666 was second choirmaster of the Imperial Chapel at Vienna. A. held the stage at Venice till 1683. a begun by the Florentines almost century Francesco Cavalli (d. to a noble. and advanced binding of the movements into The the plan of scenes and acts toward its later completeness. He married into a His operas numbered about 40 esteem. Genserico (finished by Partenio). operas (from 1649. 1676) was born at Crema about 1600. dying at Venice while bringing He wrote some 12 out his last opera. Orontea (1649). was published. Besides operas.One. Ziani. He left. but almost no church music. wealthy family and enjoyed much two-thirds of them crowded into the years 1642-55. II porno d^oro (for the marriage of Leopold I. Bruni. a ^ ^ ut two a ^ter r ^3). were first given at Venice. with about half the others. determinative of all progress in secular music. The most noted were La Dori (1663). The first blossoming of 80. was first produced at Vienna.and again Ercole amante. and was His real name was Calettitrained at Venice. orchestral resources. he wrote some church music (from 1645). It fixed a type of musical drama that for almost two centuries was extremely popular. His accompani chorus he used sparingly. though without special increase in much behind Cavalli.174 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 80 a balanced whole. the rest appearing mostly at Venice. including an 8-voice Requiem. which was Xerse (1654).. and. In 1646 he became ducal choirmaster at Florence. while the initial "work. 1666). but only one. giving XIV. the opera at Venice involved more than the opening of a newmethod of musical expression. He was likewise called upon to grace other occasions. and the comic Le disgrasie cVamore (1667). 1669) was born at Florence about 1620 and studied with Carissimi at Rome. The Early Operas as Dramas.. Mark's. The most famous was Giasone (1649). said about the dramatic treatment . giving Xerse (with incidental music by Lully). 1660 he was called to Paris to assist in the festivities at the marriage of Louis in 1662. first from 1665. Marc* Antonio Cesti (d. whose name he took in return.

the expen diture for costumes. at the performance of Cesti's // porno d^oro at Vienna (1666) a special theatre. Intrigues. even America! Hungary. first wholly taken from Greek mythology. The denouement was always happy. seating 1500 persons. with quantities of animals. divided into three or more acts. slaves.. entanglements through disguises magical or superhuman power. and the tricks. Italy and 67 scenes. sea with tritons. were introduced for spectacular effect. while absolute comedy became more and more frequent Personages were usually multiplied. brettists (Busenello being. poets of ability served as li apologetic nature.named as the most gifted). Bohemia. and the Olympian heaven^each open was bewilder with its divinities. 5 acts Spain. of prodigious display. it early The stories were at settled into an arbitrary style of its own. Novelties were con- As . the texts were hack-work. Italian poets. applications of like.000 thalers. etc. As an illustration. ill-conceived where works were given as parts of lav bombastic.80 THE EARLY OPERAS AS DRAMAS 175 ancient drama and While the early opera derived its topics and material from the its form from the mediaeval Mystery. Germany. the nether world. while at the beginning was usually a con siderable prologue by mythological characters or personified ideas and at the end a licenza or epilogue of a dedicatory or Occasionally. especially those that 'had already been used by same plots constantly recurred with The same subjects and the slight variations. scenery and manifold accessories tended to be enormous. plants and other natural objects. There were 100. each containing many scenes with shifts of setting. machines or figures were devised to heighten the illusions. The cost of production was said to be Freschi's Berenice at Padua (1680) was another example a rule. the scenery included landscapes and a harbor view. the opera season was limited to the time of Carnival seasons after Easter and (Epiphany to Lent). both as The action was actual participants and as a dumb spectacle. but. In the prologue appeared the personified divisions of the Empire. Austria. and the number of characters respective ing. Huge or grotesque birds. was built in the the castle courtyard. but supplemental in the Autumn wore sometimes undertaken. but more or less in all cases. Jewish. Especially ish private festivities. and abounded. often hasty. as a and rule. how ever tragic the story. Oriental or early Christian history were soon added. Great numbers of soldiers. but tales from Roman. citizens.

Paolo Sacrati (d. Until about 1675 the orchestra was usually rather meagre. When the at least 700. name. to offset which the intermezzo or the ballet was the former tending to be a second play within the a relief main one. analyzed. being the librettist of MannellPs first two operas and all of his own. but later at least list is During the sixty The Earlier Venetian Opera-Writers. number of operas years from 1637 to 1700 an extraordinary 81. probably lived at Venice. from 1653 at Ferrara. and the latter becoming ultimately a somewhat per manent addition to the spectacle as a whole. strumental music (see sec. where his Andromeda (1637) was the first work. : was early famous as a theorbist and later as a poet (dramatic works. and to the fertility of new works averaged four or five per year. re peated under his direction at Paris (1645) at the request of the Premier Mazarin. Benedetto Ferrari (d. 1681). he spent most of his life in court service at Modena. but brief and independent numbers in the midst of the action preludes. 112). appears that about 1670 due to the rise of independent interest at Bologna and Na Prior to 1670 the certain writers. presented 6 others (till 1666) at Venice. and also issued collections of church music (from 1639). 1644). The difficulties with scenery necessitated long waits between acts or scenes. born at Parma. Andrea Mattioli. Florence. ritornelli a gradual expansion of the steadily increased in importance. and The most important the Venetian style dominated everywhere. His 8 operas or lesser dramas were mostly given at Venice (1639-64). and Mantua till at least 1671. later at ? . Ferrara. necessitating This had a decided influence upon the entire development of in forces. and the earlier ones were repeated at various places. all at Venice finally choirmaster at Modena. (1639-48). produced 7 operas (i 650-66) mostly at. In this first period important writers were the following Francesco Mannelli. Piacenza and Ferrara.176 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 81 which explains the immense number of works stan tly demanded written and emphasizes the cases in which certain of them were given more than once. three times as many. After a short term at Vienna. Till long after 1700 Venice kept far ahead of all other cities in the number of first productions. but was To his credit are 7 operas. ples. born in 1597 and probably trained at Rome. after those mentioned. is that of Legrenzi. Ferrari's associate in the first opera-house. from 1646 choirmaster at Imola. The most famous was the comedy La finta pazza (1641). 1650). it appeared in Italy a decided expansion took place.

Pallavicini. from 1665 organist at St. (1662-73). besides learned canons. was more prolific. Before his oratorio-composer to be emphasized is Carissimi. and P. besides another Marco Marazzoli (d. 1692). was long at the court of Bruns wick. Mark's. him the growing interest in instrumental writing becomes notable in connec tion with the opera. mostly 1675-84) were nearly all produced at Venice. His distinguished pupils were many. from 1672 head of one of the Venetian conservatories. F. in 1657-64 (if not longer) choirmaster at Ferrara. . born at Venice. 1690) was born near Bergamo about 1625 and studied with Rovetta and C. costume and action. (1655-62). M. Mark's. 94). 1662). a conceited singer at St. Francesco with intermezzi (1654). His 18 operas (from 1664. 1654). mostly from 1666). the Venetian attention to the The one Italian former left the latter undeveloped. Mark's. producing over 20 operas (from 1657). his nephew and pupil (hence operas (1645-9) called Rovettino). A. To these maybe added at Venice Giovanni Rovetta (d. and at Palermo. besides 2 oratorios. each at Genoa. besides psalms (1680). From 1654 he was organist at Bergamo. 1711). etc. . 1668). 1677). from 1657 choirmaster at from 1669 organist at St. He was also eminent for many sacred and instrumental works (see sec. including Lotti and Caldara. and ^ chief from 1685. Giuseffo Tricarico. and from Bergamo. Francesco Cirillo. Monteverdi's successor at St. and is conspicu ous for a decided development of the orchestral accompaniments and for suc cessful handling of comic scenes and plots. with 2favole. one of the many protege's of the Cardinals Barberini. . at Ferrara and Vienna. besides and Giovanni Antonio Boretti of Parma. Outside of Venice before 1670 may be noted. at Rome. with i (1653) at Paris (1647). He brought out 14 operas at Venice (from 1652. but from 1676 was second choirmaster at St. mostly at Venice. often committed Carissimi dramatic details to a Narrator/ emphasized the function of the ' . at Viterbo. Giovanni Legrenzi (d. at Naples. with 2 at Rome and Vienna (1650-66). with 2 Righi. with i (1642). Abbatini (d. born at Venice.82 THE VENETIAN OPERA BEFORE 1670 177 Antonio Sartorio (d. both being given with musical materials. Vincenzo Amati (1664). 1681). Mark's in 1643 and a distinguished church composer. the two forms (so far as both were time the difference between attempted) lay only in topic and text. from 1681 also second choirmaster at St. 1676 at Naples. with 2 (1654-5). scenery. with 3 (1659-64) Carlo Grossi. with at least 6 (1659-77). Pietro Andrea Ziani (d. a famous harpist and from 1637 in the Papal Chapel. Although the musical drama began and sacred varieties. 82. church works (1640-60) and instrumental With pieces (1691). Valentini (d. with 3 (1642-58). With him begins the transition to the fertility of the last part of the century. Luigi Rossi. Mark's. Mark's. with at least 8 church works i . and with the same set aside the theatrical presentation. in both secular The Early Oratorio. Giovanni Battista Mariani (1659) . He was highly extolled in his own time. with 2 Giambattista Volpe (d.

church music includes many motets and some masses (one for 12 voices on the old melody Uomme arme. church services. an early Roman writer of cantatas. strictly Biblical. . while several celebrate the life of some saint (especially Loyola). said to be the last written on that hackneyed < 1 subject ). A. a pretentious German theorbist who pushed himself into church circles at Rome.178 chorus. 1711) of Bergamo. besides others in MS. Jonah. 1674). Giuseffo Tricarico at Vienna (1661) . . together with some secular and halfin German. He As a contrapuntist he was notable. 1670) of . born near Rome about 1604 and probably trained there. only a few are Joy of the Blessed. a Roman lawyer. with 3 (i 665Vienna. . was from 1624 choirmaster at Assisi and from 1628 at S. with 2 oratorios (1631) Luigi Rossi. . Apollinare in Rome. attention to the oratorio continued a considerable extent. 1650 ?). the first to mention the sjgns for Stefano Landi (1634) crescendo and diminuendo. Jephtha. the Last Judgment. pieces. not as a follower of Palestrina. madrigals. besides cantatas. stands almost alone in his adherence to Biblical subjects in oratorios the Flood. and fully recognized the value of a distinct oratorio His own oratorios were short. later Giovanni Antonio Manara of Bologna. but accommodation of the old facility to the new conceptions of tonality. As As compared with the genius in for oratorio- writing that presently developed Germany. for the He is commonly reckoned Carissimi his as next to Monteverdi in importance in the century. with organ accompaniment. with a treatise on singing (known only His contributions to the monodic style have already been mentioned. at . the Among other oratorios up to 1670. with 2 (i 662) and Maurizio Cruciati. as has been noted. Daniel. The meagre of Italian oratorio-writers in the early period includes Johannes Eieronymus Kapsberger (d. . but a work and aria. developed the cantata of recitative utilizing the dramatic forms with a more or less dramatic plan. THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 82 manner. His oratorios number 15 or till his death. the century went on. the Italian . 1650) Marco Marazzoli (d. He also. the most famous being Jepkta and Jonas (dates unknown). the Judgment of Solomon. but are still decidedly interesting. 1630). and some list are moralities or similar works. 3d ed. often designed either for a available for use in actual Giacomo Carissimi (d. a noted theorbist of Bergamo (c. Francesco Bazzini (d. Abraham and Isaac. Ezechiel. though the use of Biblical sub in Italy to jects increased. P. Giovanni Antonio Boretti of Parma. also of Bologna (1667) 85) It will be noted that what interest existed was chiefly at Rome. one at Rome (1658). Ziani (d. humorous 1689). Job. and single voice or for a few voices. remaining His more. but the early types persisted without special improvement. an opera. the Papal Chapel (1647). Belshazzar. writing 2 oratorios works and several lute-books (from 1604) (c. 1660). left many cantatas.. 1662). Loreto Vittori (d. solo Domenico Mazzocchi.

with 5 (1685-9) ? Perti of Bologna (d. 1700). 1680). Most of these were chiefly famous as opera-writers (see sees. 1715). after 1711) of Bologna and Mantua. Ariosti (d.writer. with 14 (from : n 1683) Pasquini (d.82 THE EARLY ORATORIO 179 zeal composers in this form from the first displayed but moderate and power. . with 3 (from c. Bononcini (d. with at least 3 (from 1692) . with 10 (1700-13) Sances (d. Stradella with perhaps 8 (c. 90-91). of which S. 1721) G. Vienna. the great Neapolitan. c. Giovanni Battista is the (d. 1716) of Ferrara. Italian At Vienna. . Bassani (d. and the public interest in it was slight Yet the total number of works produced was not small. . with 3 (1707-11). (from c.. with over 10 (from 1685). 1710). 1750) of Bologna. the organist of Rome. 1756). with (from 1677). 1726). with 16 (1694-1717) (1693-1709) and M. Ziani (d. workers in this with 4 field included Bertali (d. 1738). 1700). the fol lowing oratorio-composers may be noted Provenzale of Naples. After about 1660. of Modena. 1670). Bononcini (d. with 4 (1687-1704). Scarlatti (d. passing over those with but one or two works. Colonna (d. with 4 (from 1688) . 1740). with 3 (1691-1706). c. (1663-5). 1669). with Aldrovandini (d. Badia (d. Gianettini (d. 1725). the (1666-72). prolific M. with 5 3 (c. etc. with 3 Draghi (d. 1679). Pistocchi. . with over 30 (from 1669). the eminent singing-master of Bologna. A. with 5 opera. 1689). A. 1695) of Bologna. and Polaroli (d. best-known. A. . 1722) of Venice and Vienna. 1681). London. B.

and events were illustrated by dance-en sembles. the story of the early opera was by no means con fined to Italy. and out of their varied interactions were of gradually shaped the The French Ballet. carrying with them the styles to which they were wonted. verse and song that dancing favored. duced were presently overshadowed later ones. In General. The strong influence upon musical progress of the later opera is clearly due to the intricate blending of several tendencies that first attracted attention in the i/th While the works pro century. Although the rise of the Italian opera under Monteverdi. With these Plays. the German singspiel and the English all secular masque that derivatives in some way of the mediaeval Mysteries and Miracle- types opera found in the i8th century. The Italian dramma per musica. The Italian opera thus came into contact with drama that were on the verge of a definite musical development and that needed only a slight impulse to advance to national types. Italian musicians visited other countries or mi grated to them. Prominent among these were the French ballet. The age was eager to adopt or create the musical drama in any available form. was but one of several forms native styles of were capable either of independent evolution or of varied combination. the interest by of the lines of experiment then initiated is unquestionable. action.CHAPTER XI THE EXPANSION OF DRAMATIC MUSIC 83. From at least the 84. for dialogue cast in the form of reciprocal verses that manifest. as a dramatic I4th century the trend of French taste in this direction had been It itself in a liking for pantomimic spectacles. The distinctive feature of the ballet form (to which it owes its name) was its emphasis upon actual dancing and upon the kinds of structure. but with differences of traditional treatment. the Italian opera either competed or coalesced. Carissimi and Cesti has unique historic importance. with its accent on grandiose recitative. showed in which situations 180 . Cavalli.

. ments as specially effective means for the decoration and elabo Thus was early laid the ration of dance-themes of all kinds. Les Clercs de la Bazoche. though not the composer expense of its incidental music. of Mysteries and Miracle-Plays were common and ambitious in^ various French towns. but play. now lost. For over two centuries afterwards the performances lar works. in whose Passion. some form has remained peculiarly characteristic of the French drama. progress paused for almost a century. While not avoiding foundation of that sprightly and brilliant type of composition a that has always been characteristic of the French opera of great utility to musical progress even when its works type were not The of the highest intrinsic value. It is suspected that there were other simi story. The French mind was not content with the more or less form less Italian recitative or any treatment of the arioso not dis that was not a clear 'tune. etc. serious themes. light song and dancing. The Trouvere pleteness. this early ballet might As it was.84 THE FRENCH BALLET l8l could be sung to dance-steps.' It tended at tinctly rhythmic first to exalt piquancy of tonal effect above truth to the text. of its unlimited spectacular popularity of the form. The notable performance in 1581 of the Ballet comique de la reint was almost as early as any like undertak (properly Cird et ses nymphes) Its scenic scale is shown by its ing in Italy and much more pretentious. to the low estate of a mere Though what is now called the ballet has fallen the orchestic divertissement in the grand opera or been transformed into form that might its historic prototype was significant as a dramatic force. proper. The possibilities. . and for a general shaping of words and music by the neat and exact form of dance-patterns. Its arranger. have been the forerunner of the modern opera had circumstances favored it. of peculiar because wholly devoid these being replaced by the secular features of amusing ligious elements. evolution of the French drama is traceable with exceptional com Only a few points need here be mentioned.600.000 francs. The reaction of all this upon musical method was decided. (1589-1610) If some constructive genius had have become the progenitor of the opera appeared. The mascarade ' or mimetic ballet was not a French invention. Robin et Marion (1285). sembled that of the was the Italian violist Baltazarini. especially because the record that under Henry IV. was re l after 1500 in and it became specially associated with French court festivities. over 3. Its music re Italian madrigal-plays in that it did not include solos. usually under the care of societies like the Confrerie de la sans Souci. is evidenced by about 80 ballets were produced at court. it frankly sought to devise entertainments rather than to evolve a grand form captivating Ere long it seized eagerly upon instru of monumental art. Les Enfants hands the free use of music and dancing increased.

opera-production and occupying a Securing the royal favor and a new opera-house successfully as to establish the opera in Parisian regard. Lully was certainly talented on the dramatic side. as Lafintapazsa (1645). Cambert and Lully. Detached solo songs and Italians. the former of whom supplied of the constructive impulse. But. instinct for popularity presently versatility and made him monopoly the of in (built 1672).182 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY A Sacrati's 85 few attempts were made to import musical plays from Italy. progressive musical workers were began to be put forth in 1661 by Michel Lambert (d. the court-poet. 1691). . Whether Perrin or Cambert It is more likely that they originated any of these features is doubtful. he put forth a surprising series of works. At this point appeared the Italian Lully. the first and last slow and sonorous. both ballets and real operas. But the (d. whose cleverness. which united the Italian and the French styles so leading figure. Meanwhile. Without being a genius of a high order. . with a keen sense of the values of musical means. and French imitations seem to have been taste for theatric spectacles attempted in 1646-7. scenic display than to musical coherence or dramatic power tendency to handle the recitative and arioso with emphasis . he exalted the forcible delivery of the words. the second quick and a loose and rather miscellane fugal a grandiose and irrelevant prologue ous plot on a subject from Greek mythology. 1696) part-songs the first important French singing-master. with more attention to . much followed up till 1671. : work was given an overture in three Notable features in the plan adopted were these movements. even when he thus missed . Opera in French and according to French ideas took shape in the hands of the mediocre poet Perrin and the composer Cambert. 85. its early miscellaneous plan to a In this the literary leader was Isaac de Benserade whose first work was given in 1651. with himself as its chief and almost only exponent. though French had long been supported by players and managers from Italy. while the latter was the ex Their first joint experiment in 1659 was not ecutive genius. At the same time when the Italian opera was already tending to develop the music at the expense of the drama. were features to which French taste was already committed. father-in-law of Lully. when a more pretentious in the first public opera-house in Paris. a constant on the de and a marked readiness to suspend clamatory possibilities of the text the action for ensembles of the ballet class. Rossi's Orfeo (1647) and Cavalli's Xerse and Ercole amante (1660-2). the advanced from more sustained unity. the Italian musical drama commanded ballet but scant applause.

came to Paris about 1645. after Perrin in 1669 had secured an opera-monopoly and the first public opera-house had been built. was a dependent of the Duke of Orleans. 1675). He was taught the violin and lute as a child. proud and unscrupulous. he joined Perrin in some operatic works. organizer and director that he is called the founder of the French opera. In 1672 he secured the exclusive privilege held by Perrin. 1677). and again. but these show him as a correct and careful writer for the time. including motets. probably of noble parents. de Montpensier. one of the king's chief favorites. As Pierre Perrin (d. imperious. at first as a kitchen-boy. excitable. raising the-whole establishment to high From 1653 he was court-composer. to his advancement. of both divisions of which he became leader. technique of the recitative and restrained the drift toward merely pretty tunes. and not a little ingenuity in In practical success with the devising fresh accompaniments. Les peines et plaisirs de P amour). In 1672 Lully wrested the monopoly from Perrin. began the series of about In 1681 he became court-secretary 15 operas by which his fame was made. He was indefatigable.85 CAMBERT AND LULLY 183 the richer and more affecting uses of melody. by using dances freely. 1687) was born in Florence in 1633. he far outshone all his contemporaries and immediate public successors. advancing the capacity a composer. remaining a dominant influence for many decades. where he died in some court position. He sought to captivate by ingenious en semble climaxes. and in 1665 became musician to the Queen Dowager.. he was taken to Paris and installed in the household of His musical talent soon led Mile. Isis (1677). Only fragments of his works have survived. was involved in many difficulties and spent some time in prison. and. Catching the notice of the Duke of Guise. musical ability. Besides writing various detached pieces. served as organist at St. curious mixture of unquestionable ability and mere dexterity as a courtier. Ariane. 1688). His death was occasioned by a blow upon the foot from In character he presents a his cane or baton while conducting a rehearsal. and was ennobled. Perste (1682) and Armide (1686) . He did much to unfold the latent possibilities of the overture. first in 1659-61 (La pastorale. but he had such gifts as player. The success of some of them was due to the skillful librettos of Quinault (d. From 1658 he wrote over . Jean Baptiste Lully (d. born in Lyons. wrote several librettos that Cambert set He was a clever dancer and singer. and died in poverty. Honors'. especially as This improved the characterizing personages or sentiments. finally into the private band of Louis XIV. incidentally of the operatic orchestra. with some to music. published poems. in a new theatre specially built. songs and preludes. he often showed power in stately and noble effects. and by a novel amount of instrumental numbers. composer. and Cambert betook himself to London. Adonis). was a pupil of the courtclavichordist Chambonnieres. becoming through his ballets efficiency. Robert Cambert (d. in 1671 (Pomone. His leading operas were Alceste (1674). born at Paris in 1628.

but in spite of real ability was He wrote many ballets (from about 1675). Andr6 Cardinal Destouches (d. several names : should be mentioned Marc Antoine Charpentier (d. The German Singspiel. 1749). the Jesuit College. of the Duke of Orleans and of the Jesuit Col He was Lully's lege. 1694). a few operas (as royal favor. another pupil of Lully. 112). besides an operatic privilege at Ope'ra Of his 10 operas (1687-1706) the best was Thttis et Pette (1689). Andr6 Campra (d. but became a pupil of Carissimi choirmaster to the Dauphin. cise meaning. for the gamba royal orchestra. Although Lully's vogue long prevented the success of others. and 18 oratorios. de Guise.1 84 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 86 30 ballets and similar works. with other trials. in youth undecided between the priest hood and the army. from 1697 he turned to secular music and from 1722 was court-conductor. 86. finally becoming choirmaster at the Sainte Chapelle. 1709) was Lully's pupil and long his assistant in com A royal favorite. being used of mediaeval plays in which songs were introduced in the midst of the spoken dialogue without distinctly adding to the dramatic The term slngspiel has no pre any of the German derivatives of the ' ' The taste for both part-songs effect by their musical treatment. Midie. After long service (from 1679) as choirmaster at Toulon. 1744) was much more important. from 1677 he was concertmaster at the pleting his operas. from 1685 in the insanity. From 1697 he was royal inspector of music. His style showed Italian influence and had richness in ensemble and instrumental effects. '35) the most noted were Hisione (1700). 1741) began his career as a musical sec. and his place in the history of orchestral music is almost as important as in All of his three sons were musically gifted. returning later to serve the Duke of Lorraine. wrote 4 operas (1693-1709). went to Italy to and returned to France as study painting. pieces for instruments. The failure of some. finally took up music. (see page to the king. Lille. and solo songs was so early developed in Germany under the impress of folk-music. though without reaching special eminence. with psalms and masses. Of his perhaps 20 popular operas (16971718. an d after 1700 was choirmaster to Philip V. 1704). Toulouse. born at Paris in 1634. His Isst (1697) was so successful that he began serious study and produced about 10 operas -(till 1726). He is sometimes named the inventor of the minuet. '22). with many pieces Henri Desmarets (d. He wrote several operas and ballets (1693-1704. except for the time. of Spain. Aries. the Sainte Chapelle and Notre Dame. Driven out by the intrigues of Lully. he entered the service of Mile. some to texts by distinguished poets. like He also composed some church music and many violin-solos and Moliere. that of the opera proper. unable to compete with him in special rival. that it was inevitable that all dramatic . 1728). Pascal Colasse (d. and from 1683 held court positions. drove him to alchemy and finally into MarinMarais (d. Tancrlde (1702) m&Lesfestes vinitiennes (1710). competing unsuccessfully for a higher position in 1683.

showed his sympathy with the new Italian dra- . As in Italy. 1740. the early culti vation of dramatic music was wholly under the patronage of powerful princes as a court luxury. Nurem berg. The Opera in Germany. 87. and what are often styled the first German plays. For the most part the early story of German opera is simply that of the Italian type trans earlier German planted. more or less public. 1644) were really singspiele. also. when they gradually detached themselves from the In the I5th century they dropped into original church vul and I4th garity. Heinrich. In this case the sings piel tion. Brunswick. that an effort should ultimately be made to construct a play out of a chain of vocal numbers almost or quite without spoken dialogue. a posi which it retained until almost. but lyrical. though late in the i8th cen tury came a notable effort to revive it as a distinct type (see sec. like Dresden and Munich. 1576). Hamburg. but other courts. altogether the strongest German com poser of his age (see sec. 1651. except to modify the slightly imitations of the Italian opera. Ere long the erection of theatres or opera-houses. from which in the i6th they were lifted again into dignity by the poets Paul Rebhun (d. 1689. 1659. often of music adopted. 1546?). great was early operas (Schiitz' Dafne. was undertaken Munich. 1627. 1668.th century the stimulus of the young Italian opera felt. Song-plays of some sort are traceable in Germany as early as the i3th centuries. with Berlin not until 1742. Until this later development the singspiel exerted no important general influence. Dresden. and his follower Jacob Ayrer (d. the French vaude ville and the modern operetta. but nearly all of them have disappeared. Among the establishments where the opera was thus taken up. Leipsic. were early important About 1680 Hamburg became tion of leadership the chief centre in northern Europe for operatic music. 1605) the last of whom is sometimes called the inventor of the singspiel. differed from the opera in the form was not dramatic. Hanover. The number of singspiele produced during the century was probably con siderable. Hans Sachs the Meistersinger (d. 1691. From this time the singspiel becomes merged in the opera.87 THE GERMAN SINGSPIEL 185 experiments should seek such musical extensions and decora It was natural. Schiitz of Dresden (d. Vienna. Until about 1690 the works given were either those imported from Italy or those of the singspiel class. 1667. 1678. 1672). In the I . laid out which strict upon the strophe-plan. 1691. that of the Emperor at Vienna was the most conspicuous. 158) the result being analogous to the English ballad-opera. and Staden's Seelewig. 96).

with I (1670) and Carlo Agostino Badia (d. Innsbruck) and by Cesti (1665-9). 1738). supplying 2 singspiele (1678) who wrote 14 (1679-86). (1637-57) and Leopold I. . at : Antonio Draghi (d. (1657-1705). 1655). 125). are noteworthy Antonio Bertali (d. Sigmund ballet. t*16 following resi dent composers. besides many Johann Wolfgang Franck of Hamburg. festal plays. organist which were later revived by others or choirmaster at various courts (Copenhagen. ballets. Besides the chief organist and director and their The toward the end of the century a court-composer Distinguished composers and performers were often brought to Vienna by imperial invitation for special under assistants. while showing the German taste for orderly and expressive song. two of these. serenatas. Ferdinand III. was appointed. Halle. . nomi in the Italian manner. 1669). the a Nuremberg organist. where in 1691 he built an opera-house. two of which were . 121. court singers and players sometimes numbered as many as a hundred. . Besides the imported performances of works by Cavalli (possibly in 1642. pro logues. 1725). mostly 1669-95). court-choirmaster at Oetat Hamburg. where from 1679 he brought out a great many singspiele. Johann Theile (see sec. with 7 (1691-3). for over 30 years in the imperial service. ing the series of important 18th-century writers (see sees. all Italians. Giovanni Felice Sances (d. in the Chapel Emperor Leopold inserted from 1637 and Bertali's successor as choirmaster in 1669. Das geistliche Waldgedicht. with 8 '50. about 15 (1678-83) and for Leipsic. the first court-composer. 1700). Orpheus und Eury dice (1636). and writing for Hamburg several German dramas for the opening of the Important advance waited Hamburg opera-house in and Philipp Krieger (d. Vienna as a headquarters of Italian opera was due to the exceptional musical enthusiasm of the Emperors In the I7th. with 20 operas and not to mention others whose stay many lesser dramatic works (from 1697) at Vienna was briefer. etc. Bayreuth. Dresden). but lacking many usual Italian features. open . . Hanover. repeated at Hamburg (1694). one or two of tingen and Kusser's predecessor Celle. 96). 1678. now extant. There are but drama that ' is 1 nally scattered references to other works before 1675. Seelewig (1644). takings. certainly in 1662. of singspiele included Nikolaus Adam Strunck (d. during the i/th and i8th centuries. wrote the earliest German musical Staden (d. with operas (from 1653) the incredible number of over 170 operas. were The prominence of composers of ability. Weissenfels). in many cases with arias by the .1 86 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 87 matic style by setting a German version of Rinuccini's Dafne (1627) and by a music of which is lost. 1679). where the writers an extraordinary violinist employed at various courts (Brunswick. still longer at the court. 1700). (from 1661. In 1696 the powerful composer Fux appeared. more in Italian. sacred songs (1681-1700) Johann Georg Conradi. besides being lavish in their patronage.

3 more at Hamburg (from has survived entire. works of Lotti in 1717. already named at Munich. his son and successor. His ing singing i-n London. At Brandenburg and Berlin under the patronage of the Prussian court the giving of operas began just before 1700 with some small works by Karl Friedrich Rieck (d. stands out as the most famous name in the early German not of the highest opera. though in absolute genius . from place to place in his career. 1705). of Schiitz. 1739). b at the Thomasschule in Leipsic. 1688). a musician's son at PressJohann Sigismund Kusser [Cousser] (d. most famous as an organist. from 1704 teach choirmaster at Dublin. 1704).87 THE OPERA AT HAMBURG 187 At Munich the list is also striking Johann Kaspar Kerll (d. He moved much from first training there and at Stuttgart. But the Italian Giovanni Andrea Bontempi (d. coming from Venice to be court-choir and Carlo Pallavicino master about 1650. 1732). until revived by the important . though chiefly engaged in church music. a highly trained and efficient composer. both Germans. Jason (1697). who . with 15 (1678-91) Agostino Steffani (d. his last work being completed by Strunck. from 1698 at Stuttgart again. 1693). and a few by visiting musi cians. 1693) and I at Stuttgart (1698).frora 1693 director of the Hamburg opera. Pietro Torri (see sec. court-organist in 1675-88 (see Hanover below). producing some 10 operas with signal success. the royal choirmaster. 1682 court-musician at Stuttgart. was not far removed from that of the singspiel. whose two early dramas have been mentioned. being from 1683 at Strassburg. choirmaster from 1671. Only one. It was here that his him honors from the Elector and a bishopric gifts as a political agent secured from the Pope. Kusser and Keiser. 125). For a quarter-century operatic interest was slight. Progress then waited till the opening of an opera-house and the advent of Graun about 1740. Italian art of dramatic singing. 1728). Reinhard Keiser his father and rn near Weissenfels in 1674 and trained by (d. brought out here 3 operas (1662-73) ended his career here in 1688. Giuseppe Antonio Bernabei (d. his mature style compar ing favorably with that of his greater contemporaries. who was court-choirmaster from 1688 till succeeded in 1710 by Han del. as a link with the next brought out here his first operas (from 1681) century. who as court-choirmaster led the way with 4 operas Giuseppe Ercole Bernabei (d. from about 1690 at Brunswick (orWolfenbiittel). but both sensi tive to cosmopolitan influences. received his He wrote 1 1 operas. At Dresden the dominant influence in the middle of the century was that . and. and from 1710 viceroyal talents as organizer and leader immediately advanced the Hamburg opera to so that he is said to have been the first really to establish in Ger burg. . with (1657-68) 5 (1674-86). of which 7 were produced at Brunswick (from 1690). 1727). His many the well-developed style importance. a prote'ge' of the Elector from boyhood. That which gave Hamburg its peculiar eminence in opera at the opening of the i8th century was the marked ability of two composers. is At Hanover the one name of importance Steffani.

. 1740). Claudius Casar (1703. Lesser composers at Hamburg were Johann Philipp Fortsch (d. elaborate scenic effects and. Chapman. with Italian In 1706 he put forth a statement arias for the first time). (1689) was by Paul Christian Schindler opera In England the dramatic form toward the opera was the 'masque/ originally im ported from Italy in the i6th century. and 7 at Copenhagen (from 1722). noted works being della virtu (1700). his readiness as a attention. but the operatic genius was influenced by it more or less. 4 Passions. Keiser's predecessor as director. Crcssus (1710). and he contributed to Handel's early growth With him German subjects first came to the front. Its development into a national type of musical Purcell drama hardly came to pass. court attention to it under the Stuarts checked the advance of the more in its greater literary finish. THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 88 Before he was 20. since many of serious drama. that led and declamation. however. period was about 1700. 2 at Ludwigsburg passed His official positions varied. much dancing. This was a piece of private theatricals in which members of high society in disguise (whence the name) acted out a mythological or other fanciful story with dialogue 88. etc. (d. a and Georg Bronner versatile physician. 120). Milton. Throughout the century almost all leading English com posers wrote masque music. 1732). Under the Commoawealth masques were at length sup pressed because of their tendency to coarseness. he did not always observe.). His most brilliant Adonis (1697). etc. Laforza many solo cantatas and songs. so Hamburg. the masque came to differ the best poets undertook it The fashionable (like Ben Jonson. considerable singing and incidental pieces for in struments. that he aspired to be heard at written 116 operas or similar works. of his dramatic principles. (see sec. etc. Though the subjects and the style of his librettos were often poor. The English Masque. Though resembling the French ballet at first. which. Fletcher. 1724). Most of his subsequent career was there. motets. (from 1719). first with 6-7 (1693-1702). He is said to have but he was always a leading spirit in musical enterprises. he won applause by an opera at Brunswick (1692). His popularity choruses or orchestration. but with the Restoration in 1660 they came in again. though dances were used freely. and thus gradually the musical masque became important (sometimes under the Italian name 'opera'). except 3 years at Weissenfels (from 1706). but specially developed by English poets.188 rank. melodist and his clever handling of effects gave him a hold upon popular He devoted himself chiefly to the aria rather than to recitative. In Copenhagen the (d. as time went on. with about 10 operas (1686-90) . stimulated other musicians.

Daniel Purcell (d. born in England of Italian parents in 1613-4 John in 1613 Coperario [Cooper] (d. 1717) Masques continued to be written much later. combined them with some features (especially in choral writing) strangely neglected. 1628). of masques or similar plays were all either in in church (d. as elsewhere. an eminent violinist been the introducer of the (d. 1645) . crowning genius of the period. lutist. and it seems that the revival of public concerts and even of some sort of musical plays in 1656 was either by direction of the Protector or with his implied approval. there was much writing of detached songs or scenes either as incidentals to some spoken drama or in a similar style. 1736). the (d. During the Commonwealth there was a notable amount of ested in music music-printing. 1695). being expert in it. . Yet all the Puritan leaders were inter It all itself. 1607-13 Thomas Campion in 1609 (Ayres) Alfonso Ferrabosco (d. 1674) in 1667-77 Matthew Locke (d. whose fertile gifts in spite of the brevity of his career. brought the originality. but he himself outstripped all before in true melody. gambist and court -teacher Nicholas Lanier (d. . 1620). 1666). in delineation of personages and situations. Making up for the lack of travel century to a brilliant close. . Purcell. too. simply because they objected to the ornate cathedral services and to the abuses of the theatre. but they were overshadowed by the Italian opera under Handel and ' (d. in 1653-75 m 1667 Pelham Humphrey (d. and in daring His many-sidedness is reinnovations in constructive detail. royal choirmaster from 1640. The one master with both dramatic and was the extraordinary Purcell. in 1634 > . he seized upon the finest points in the Italian style. poet and physician the second of the name. 1735) ln 1695-1707 1707) and in 1700 John Weldon (d. who might have been another strong if had been longer. 1627). like Milton. The better-known composers court service or engaged . musical intuition and assiduous study. and applied them to the treatment of plots that were essentially strong. 1778) in 1733 and after. in 1676-1706 Jeremiah Clarke in 1681-1707 (over 40 works) John Eccles (d. others. 89. (d. has been the fashion to say that the Puritans were hotly opposed to music. so that any list of masque-writers might be reasonably extended to include many composers of and i ' ayres the like. his life. 1677) from 1675 Henry Purcell John Banister. Sr. as by Arne (d. his brother. in 1613 William Lawes (Comus) Henry Lawes (d.89 THE ENGLISH MASQUE 189 It should be added that in England. in music recitative into England. many of them. 1662). in characteristic and telling accompani ments. \ . who is said to have . . 1679). by Purcell's use of Continental methods had been prefigured by opera-writer Humphrey.

Congreve. in purely chamber music. some written for the masque The Tempest (1667). both masques or plays with incidental music and full operas. first under Cooke. while now he appears as one of the most crea tive geniuses of the century. and in every grade of opera. festal odes. with the His compositions include 25 anthems and many title of composer as well. While claiming that his wish was to in " 11 troduce the " seriousness and gravity of " the most famed Italian masters. a great number of solo and other songs and some good chamber pieces. who is extraordinary. chamber music and numerous His compositions include. Even before he died. and catching from the French also a ideas' peculiar to himself. aged 27) was a choirboy in the Chapel Royal when it was organized afresh in 1660. The culmination of his dramatic efforts came when he was joined by Dryden as a poetic collaborateur. early left an orphan. but so utterly devoid of conse quence. D'Urfey and Dryden. in festal odes and tributes. became a choirboy in the Chapel Royal. In 1680 he became organist at West minster and in 1682 also at the Chapel. turning his attention for a time to an thems. later studying His evident genius led also with Blow. Pelham Humphrey (d. Arthur (1691) The number furnished texts of important poets Tate. In these appears songs. and the ver satile instinct with which he supplied settings for their varied plays shows a Beaumont and dramatic artist of the first order. and its succes's encouraged him to put forth songs and musical dramas in quick succession. Fletcher. since he worked with equal power in stately and thoughtful church music. that taste for declamatory passages which suggests his latent operatic talent. In 1666 he reentered the Chapel for a year. his superiority was well discerned. and wrote anthems before he was 17.THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 89 markable. and in 1672 became choirmaster. Henry Purcell (d. of which King is chief. including Shadwell. \ almost 40 dramatic works. 1695. besides 3 services and at least 100 anthems. 1674. aged 37). After him no native English writer appeared "to fill his place or continue his work. he contributed powerful . It is a tragedy of history that his career was not only so short. In 1664 the king sent him to France. taste for dances. in 1675 to his setting a play by Tate (later poet-laureate). then under Humphrey. the most famous of a musical family. where he was a pupil of Lully.

from about 1676 was court-organist and later choirmaster at Modena. besides some cantatas and'psalms. born at Bologna in 1661. early a singer at Mark's and pupil of Legrenzi. choirmaster 1700 in the Imperial 20 operas at Venice . for Modena. Francesco Antonio Pistocchi (d. where his over 20 operas (from 1666) were mostly produced. born at Palermo in 1659. born at Bologna about 1630 and organist there till 1683. . and Giovanni Domenico Partenio (d. is chiefly dis tinguished as a church composer. Jacopo Antonio Perti (d. from 1667 court-choirmaster at Dresden. Rewrote several operas (1679-1700). with 3 oratorios. born at Vicenza and from about 1660 choirmaster there. 1756). From 1687 at Parma. Mark's. was al so associated with Bologna. many cantatas and motets. with over 15 oratorios and 4 Passions. but with many -absences at Venice. with 2 oratorios. 1721). 1726). besides earlier masses. with half as many more and about 10 oratorios at Vienna. wrote about 10 operas for Bologna. where he was early a singer at the cathedral and the and motets. Marc Antonio Ziani (d. bition was simply to win immediate success by catering skillfully 90. Giuseppe Felice Tosi. called out others in Venice itself. 1690). 8 years old (1667). besides many church works. Venice and other cities (1679-91). several St. but their am worthily in this. in 1700 at Vienna.90 THE VENETIAN OPERA AFTER 1670 191 Venetian Opera-Writers after 1670. then choirmaster at Ferrara. about 1697 at Ansbach (Bavaria). 1701). In this second period of the Venetian school there is no name of high rank. especially Bologna and Naples. cantatas 1 at Mantua till 1686 and from Chapel at Vienna. mostly for Venice. Antonio Gianettini [the same as Zannettini\ (d. from 1666 a singer at St. and Legrenzi's successor there and at the conservatory. A curious book of his pieces for instruments was published when he was but opera. Giovanni Domenico Freschi (d. to the taste of the time. dies For reference. with 4 (1669-82). made his early reputation by over (1674-99). Bologna and Venice. the more notable writers of Venice and Bologna are here enumerated : In 1670 there were already at work Carlo Pallavicino (d. which stimulated the composers already at work. 1715). number In the eagerness for effective melo and many of them. brought out 14 operas at Venice (from 1671) and an oratorio. being choirmaster at Bologna from 1690. oratorios. in 1701 he returned to Bologna and presently founded the famous singing-school that soon became a model for others. He wrote about 20 operas (1679-1717) after service at Modena and Rome. 1688). though many composers eminent in other fields worked Several were extremely prolific. with about 10 operas at Venice (1674-1705). dramatic power and truth were more and more neglected. The increase in the of Italian operas about 1670 was clue to the'popularity of the style. and gradually aroused emula tion in other cities.

stripped Lotti in prolificness. While at the end of the century operatic enthusiasm was keen at Venice and Bo logna. The Opera at Rome and Naples. lest of external effect being uppermost. 1722). 1736). 1707-17. and M. Mark's. 1690). with about 50 . winning success especially with Coriolano (1723) with and Lucius Verus (1726). his talent was above the average. left the priesthood to devote himself to the viola d' amore and the opera. a pupil of Perti. He was strongest as a church composer and teacher. '93. but was outclassed by Handel and returned to He was a well-trained musician. born at Bologna in 1660. brought out n operas (from 1683). and choirmaster from 1736. besides Though writing rapidly and superficially. preceded Lotti at St. besides i at Vienna (1716) and 2 oratorios (1712). At Venice he produced over 20 operas (1683. Scarlatti. 1745). 1740). besides cantatas and instrumental dances. a pupil of Legrenzi. first links connected with St. 4 at Vienna (1703-8) and 4 oratorios. later eminent at Vienna. Attilio Ariosti (d. '96. he far out 1690 and vice-choirmaster from 1692. but in opera imitated Lully and Italy. born at Brescia and a pupil of Legrenzi. 1710). This list might be indefinitely extended. with (1696-1711) and 5 oratorios (1691-1706). being singer from 1687. composing 8 more (1723-7). dramatic development at Naples. A. Mark's. In Italy he wrote 4 He was operas for Venice and Bologna (1686-1706) and a Passion (1693). he added 3 more. 91. Aldrovandini. In 1715 he went to London. (1694-1741). with several operas at Venice (from 1689) Albinoni (d. a fine violinist. and in Faramondo (1699) are found court-choirmaster at Berlin in 1698-1705. Other North Italian opera-writers whose work extended into the i8th century were Caldara (d. 1740). especially when the genius of Alessandro Scarlatti began to reveal itself. mostly at Venice. 1726). second organist from from 1704. from 1688 at Modena. etc. second organist from Entering the operatic field. being singer from 1665. so that new works were put forth in large numbers with great popular success. where he added 2 more (1700). with an oratorio (1687). and. c. arias in da capo form. they should overpower the voices.. beauty He was cautious with instruments. with 19 (1697-1710). He was rather a melodist and a master of finished style than a dramatist. the rest of Italy was content to take its But there were signs of a operas mostly from these two cities. accompanied recita analogous to those of Scarlatti.1 92 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 91 Domenico Gabriel! (d. besides 15 at various cities many other works . producing nearly 70 operas (1684-1721). Carlo Francesco Polaroli (d. '36). born about 1667. but in opera-writing he was also one of the between the older style and that of Scarlatti and Handel. invited to Dresden in 1717-9 with his wife (who was an able singer) and a competent company. 3 oratorios for Vienna (c. tives. With him properly . as the period was excessively prolific in works of short-lived in fluence. an eminent 'cellist of Bologna. Antonio Lotti (d. Bononcini (d. was all his life 1692. His Roderico (1684) was widely repeated.

Maria di Lo- reto. founded in 1566 (though begun as a small enterprise in 1535).91 RISE OF THE 'NEAPOLITAN OPERA 193 begins the Neapolitan opera. and often counted their pupils by hundreds. but not specially profound. Onofrio a Capuana. 1589. 104). and Delia Pietade* Turchini. then oratorio S. In 1744 the third was transformed into a theological school. at least giving a fictitious interest to his career. show resident in Rome. Immediately after was established the Real Conservator di Musica. 8 oratorios (from 1676). duets and madrigals. Pomri di Gesti Cristo. Naples about 1645. S. numerous cantatas. and that he was murdered at Genoa. mostly at Rome (see sec. but to the steady conservatories. which took the place of all and still continues worthily the noble traditions of three centuries of musical fruitfulness. 1725) is also to be mentioned because his active Francesco Provenzale career began Naples. the famous Roman organist (see sec. but in time they became notable institutions of popular art. and in 1808 the fourth was dis D continued. He left a really later. An extensive romance has grown up about him that may or may not be true. first at Rome. 1576. 125). Nearly all the great musicians later associated with Naples were students at one or more of these schools. (see sec. century. They attracted large bequests and distinguished teachers. later at About 10 of his operas and at least 3 oratorios appeared before 1700 (from 1679). Bernardo Pasquini (d. wrote 7 operas (1672-92). A few opera- The rise particular composers. biographically he - His Giovanni Battista (published 1676) is his best-known work. . 1665-81). in 1797 the first and second were united. Alessandro Stradella (d. 1710). some time before the century closed. about 150 in all. all founded in the i6th of the Neapolitan school was due not only to the genius of and diffused influence of four till centres of instruction the i8th. 1681 ?) should probably be named here. which him to have been correct and skillful. one for the opening of a new opera-house and one for the private circle of the famous ex-Queen Christina of Sweden. where he produced 2 operas (1670-1) and some oratories elsewhere. 1583 (but not definitely devoted to music till late in the 1 7th century). 125). notable number of works. Alessandro Scarlatti (d. though is an It is conjectured that he was born at enigma. which were important These were Sta. while some music has been attributed to him that was He is said to have been a fine singer and harpist. including 10 operas (c. These were all originally designed as charity-schools for poor children. which was destined in the i8th century to supersede the Venetian and to give the law for all Italian opera throughout writers also appeared at Europe Rome. besides being a successful teacher and church writer. is the first prominent composer at Naples.

In General. virtuosity became gradually common. though not remarkable. a worthy development began in Protestant choir and organ music on the basis of the This movement was augmented by that vigorous in chorale. tion of both musicians efforts of a small secular works and In Italy. and steady gains were made in devising forms of composition germane to the instrument. the operatic stage was transferred to the church (of course with The oratorio was recognized as the link be religious words). The organ itself now became more complete.as a spe Here the impulse came from Italy. terest in the problems of inner musical construction which has always marked German music as compared with Italian. tween the two fields. Through them the wealth of suggestion in chorale music was taken up and under polyphonic manipulation wrought into works of abiding value. Dramatic music inevitably affected all church music. 194 More . In England. cialty. of conservatives. the drift toward a secular handling of sacred ones was over and the number In Germany. also. however. in spite of the public. and it was frequently undertaken in both All these Italy and Germany. working an emphatic revolution from the severe polyphony of earlier times and often leading to a questionable sensuousness or sen In many instances whatever was successful on sationalism. the much less productive of church music of a high order. esting. but the greatest prog ress was in Germany.CHAPTER XII PROGRESS IN CHURCH MUSIC As compared with the i6th century. efforts. were important in relation to progress after 1700. distinctive was the attention to organ music. there were inter whelming. movements. amid many changes observ able in the treatment of sacred music. i /th was since the new zeal for dramatic music absorbed the best atten 92. also. These efforts pointed toward the culmination of Protestant music under Bach in the i8th century. though with contrasted results.

of the pontificates during the century were of musical impor Urban VIII. with its strictly a cappella effects. and Alexander VII. (1665-7) was a noted patron of lit None tance. Their success was relatively small. ' where there was no organ). In his writings (from 1610) he emphasized complicated canons in a style that he claimed to be his own. motets. born in 1575. His 1628. thus recognizing a distinction that has been a subject of debate ever since. in the interval being two years at the : included masses. since worthy names in the succession can be cited beyond the 1 7th century. Antonio Cifra (d. though often Chief of these was the use of the organ for accompani ment. M. c. the powerful drift toward the concertistic or theatrical style. very numerous and excellent works (from 1600) psalms. resisted. part-songs and ricercari. choirmaster at various Roman churches and later perhaps at Siena. madrigals. so that it is commonly said that This is not strictly true. vocal ornaments. which became a matter of course in most cases (though not in the Papal Chapel. was choir master at S. Luigi dei Frances: from about 1625. Without attempting an exhaustive catalogue. A pro lific composer of motets. 1655). producing what Another was the introduction are called polychoric effects. was choirmaster at Loreto in 1613-21 and again from about Lateran and five in Austria. . a pupil of Soriano and Nanino. masses and madrigals (from 1596). the Palestrina style ceased by 1650. 1638). neither of which were germane to the older As far as possible the Roman school sought to avoid style. a pupil of Palestrina and G. 1640). Nanino.93 CHURCH MUSIC AT ROME The Roman School. Romano Micheii (d. though erature and the fine arts. c. (1623-44) took pains to complete certain service-books. certain composers should be enumerated was from about 1609 Agostino Agazzari (d. It 195 at 93. was natural that Rome an effort should be put forth to maintain the traditions of the Palestrina style. and the handling of voices in ways not strictly of solo passages This involved the use of song-forms and often florid choral. Certain changes in style crept in more and more. the edicts on church music of the Council of Trent. and its quality of unworldliness. but the style was no longer a positive historic force. born at Siena in 1578. its restraint and purity of structure. he is notable as one of the first to use organ-accompaniments with a figured bass and to indi He also published a tract aiming to elucidate cate rules for the latter (1607). and that some new writers should seek to add to its repertory. ' Another was the Venetian device of several groups of voices.

1626). in skill and sometimes using as many as 48 voices. Peter's from 1620. Peter's. he wrote cantatas. entered the pupils. like and considerable Micheli. after 1639). Munich and Vienna. Luigi dei Francesi. born at Perugia. samples of which are given for 2. Virgilio (d. beginning Lateran in 1626-8. was and from 1629 in the Papal Choir. the The charm of this as there forbidden. born about 1595. born in 1604. rendered the Miserere have been authorized. more sensuously effective. was choirmaster of with the various Roman churches and at Loreto all his active life. disposed in 4-12 groups or choirs. . had a short life. though not the in MS. at S. and another of G. The author of many motets (from 1640) and 2 choirmaster at St. though partly laid aside by fflness_ (and somewhat Maggiore from an invalid thereafter). 1654). some for 96 voices in another are canons for 6. and married the latter's daughter. psalms and madrigals (1614-30) he often used organ-accompaniments with figured bass. he was called to Vienna. 1618). madrigals and dramatic works.)published from 1618. he was much sought as a teacher. from that [At least 13 such settings of of Festa (1517) to those of Baj (1714) and of Baini (1821). but largely sanctioned for use is his Miserere for 9 voices in two choirs. Orazio Benevoli (d. at Benevento from 1609. was from 1629 Mazzocchi 1646). 3. He was an expert in the old style (works but also wrote solos and duets. and as the founder of a music-school of repute. was trained by Cifra. volving extreme contrapuntal Antonio Maria Abbatini (d. was. remaining Papal Chapel in 1629. voices! . 1672). reproduction of which was ultimately and the barriers thrown about it have given it a fictitious renown. Beginning as choirmaster at S. G.] choirmaster at Padua Stefano Landi (d. a pupil of G. M. a specialist in canon-writing of the highest intricacy In one of his books he proposed a theme of which artistic value (from 1629). and often added extensive polyphonic instrumental parts. M. Peter's. 1677). Luigi dei Francesi from Recognized as an authority on the Paleat St. Nanino's 1652). followed by short engage-' . studied under Ugolini and was his most able successor in learned polyphony. the pupil and son-in-law After being employed in different but one full of activity. Maria Maggiore. His motets. officially best. 10 and 12 voices He also wrote motets.196 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 93 was choirmaster at Sta. many voices (up to 48). Pier Francesco Valentin! (d. Nanino and Agostini. as singer at Fermo. 1615. in 1627 he succeeded Ugolini at St. after one year at the Lateran. born in 1584 Gregorio Allegri (d. He was amazingly skillful in works of gigantic structure. but All his works were sacred. from of G. B. employing 1628). chiefly motets (partly The most famous. over 2000 solutions are possible. but partly published (from following Mazzocchi. motets. born in 1602. on Wednesday and Friday of Holy Week in the Sistine Chapel. 1629. 4 and 5 in another. Paolo Agostini (d. he is notable as a leader in the change from the stricter style to one oratorios. and including three terms at Sta. madrigals and 2 slight dramas (1654). besides two dramatic works. aged 36). Maria Vincenzo Ugolini (d. Nanino. about 1603. returned in 1646 to St. In his masses. Roman churches. Francesco Foggia (d. 1688). born about 1590. Nanino. and strina style. Besides church music (from 1627). In his youth he held court positions at Cologne. Peter's. masses and psalms (partly published from 1619) were technically able. after serving His works are in honor till his death. B.

as of Durante. from 1649 choirmaster at the Seminario and the Jesuit Church. with motets. when he returned to Rome.' Giuseppe Ottavio Pitoni (d. For St. with one exception (1697). pupil of G. 1664). some with organ and other instruments. composed a prodigious amount of sacred music (published posthumously). born in 1657 and living far into the next century. after 1668). He also left a MS. Matteo Simonelli (d. nephew and pupil of Ugolini.s and some literary remains. His works. from 1677 in the collegiate church of S. he studied with Natale and Foggia. 1630). From the age of 16 he was choirmaster in provincial towns. Allegri at Sta. whose works (1672-8-7) include masses on themes from Palestrina. who was useful as the editor of the new standard antiphonary. Lorenzo Ratti (d.93 CHURCH MUSIC AT ROME 197 ments in Italy. Agostino *in Rome (works from 1617) Giuseppe Giamberti (d. B. in the Papal Chapel from 1613 and notable as the author of psalms (1615) ex emplifying the overlaying of the voice-parts with florid embellishments. Maria Maggiore. His many works (left in MS. whose most noted work was a f (d. Musically precocious. they were not published. and was minutely acquainted with Palestrina's works. few lesser names may be added. he excelled in immense compositions for many voices available. From 1643 he was choirmaster at the Lateran. but. on which Baini based his monograph upon Palestrina (1828). besides being marvels of erudition and skill. from 1661 at His abundant S. was at once the last of the old school and the connecting link with a much later period. besides a small manual on com position (c. Antimo Liberati (d. after 1650). mass for 48 voices in 12 choirs (1675). He left considerable church music. Marco at Rome. choirmaster at the Lateran from about 1670. Peter's he prepared a complete set of masses. He was one of the first Italians to use the tonal as distinct from the real fugue (see sec. pupil of Abbatini. entered the Papal Chapel in 1662 and later was choirmaster elsewhere in Rome. were extremely numerous. Among his masses some are a cappella. and later served two of the city churches. . account of all the Roman polyphonists from 1000 to 1700. after 1685).) are written in a pure and noble style. like Francesco Seven (d. Peter's. after 1632). works (from 1642 or in MS. at his death he was working on a mass for 48 voices in 1 2 in separate choirs choirs. He was an important teacher. 1743). several oratorio.) were so finished 1 1 and noble in style as to give him the name of < the Palestrina of the 7th century. 103). pupil of the same masters and a patient student of Palestrina s works. Leo and Feo. after 1688). born in 1605. . 1690). sides writing motets (from 1628) from 1654 in the Papal Choir and from 1669 its leader. Bonifacio Gratiani (d. Nanino and AgostiniJ in 1629 the successor of D. from 1708 at the Lateran and from 1719 at St. graduals and offertories for the whole year (from 1617) . after study with G. which was highly regarded at the time. Maria Maggiore. and Giovanni Battista Giansetti. motets and vespers for an entire year. . and are still not generally Like Benevoli. is said to have worked at Vienna until about 1650. Allegri and Benevoli. be Domenico a Pane. lita Agostino Diruta nies. Lorenzo in Damaso and from 1678 at Sta. In 1653 he was in the Papal Chapel. A from 1622 choirmaster at Asola. and from 1630 at S. including every service in the calendar. be sides connections with several other churches not fully explained. almost untouched by the concertistic drift.

seems a visionary and self-de feating ideal. This contrast is naturally viewed by different critics differently. The papal authorities have striven to uphold an extremely conservative style. both sides and also that each view has dangers the one of such abstrac tion as to miss practical utility. especially with solos. passing over into concerted forms for two or more solo voices. in 1903) the dictum of the Council of Trent in favor of nothing but Plain-Song and strict a cappella polyphony. has constantly slipped away from the standards. on the whole. following in all their official rules (in cluding those of Pius X.198 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 94 94. 55-60) not only continued. so that to them the problem is not so much to keep church music uncontaminated by whatever is popularly powerful as to treat it in any available way that secures devotional elevation. With the general interest in secular music as normative of all musical style came experiments with settings of sacred words in rhythmic and even dainty styles that recalled the grace of the folk-song. justifies ually attained. and even the dance. the other of such yielding to transient drifts as to lose dignity and depth. the popu lar part-song. but took on a new and pronounced form as the Venetian opera advanced. was not afraid of slight develop these directions. even from about 1600. With the development of the organ and of organ-playing the desire for freely handled accompaniments steadily grew. But. often running off into rather wild vagaries. presently reaching out after orchestral effects as well With the uncover ing of the emotional and even passionate capacities of the individ The innovating ual voice came the increasing use of solo passages and solo settings of entire texts (with accompaniment). In the i7th century the general contrast between the Roman and the Venetian schools of sacred music that was noted in the i6th (see sees. since even Palestrina himself ments in them were first attempted by Venetians. But. But the common usage of the Church. unconnected with all current secular music. to many practical artists an absolute church style. what was known all of Not . provided only that the end is fairly estimated and act This brief statement may serve as a key to the profound an tagonism between two great schools of Catholic music that dates from the It is clear that there is reason on iyth century and is still conspicuous. tendencies included several points. the means. To the enthusiast for objective a cappella polyphony of the purest Roman type every deviation towards warmer and more subjective forms of expres complex instrumental accompaniments and vocal seems an echo of the theatre and a concession to vulgar taste. For them the end sion. All these were essential in novations. Venetian Church Composers. on the other hand.

also a fine opera-writer (see sec. is really next in the succession at St. Claudio Monteverdi (d. from 1702 Antonio Lotti (d. 79). 1676). with Colonna of Bologna. where the following composers may be emphasized : . as well as the model for many followers in the i8th century. though not choirmaster till 1736. he is counted even better as a church composer (works from 1654). besides being one of the earliest writers of chamber music (from 1655). 81). gave him great influence (see His first printed work was a set of sec. 4 theorbi. and concertato methods becoming obvious later. Mark's (see sec. Mark's. Mark's. from 1639 a singer in the choir and Cavalli's unsuccessful rival for one of the organs. he wrote much church music (left in Though largely occupied till MS. 1643) published comparatively little church music. etc. and a collection of motets. receiving its impulse from Monteverdi and becoming established in honor under LeThis free grenzi and Lotti. psalms and varied secular pieces. with instrumental accompaniments was one of the last (1641). becoming vice-choirmaster in 1620. Francesco Cavalli (d. including 24 strings. being a pupil of Rovetta. with some masses (from 1647). 90). Never in sympathy with pure polyphony. His many motets and psalms. but left more in MS. sometimes in a harsh or immature His 30 years way. madrigali spirituali (1583). but in 1627 removed to Bergamo. pupil of Monteverdi and Rovetta's successor in 1668. Mark's choir in 1617. the motets being accompanied from the first. his style being strongly marked by the new ideas and continuing the traditions of his predecessors. 1630). 1685) also spent his life at St. psalms. 1718 with operas. and composers. naturally commended style itself .Venetian school. are in the free style of his school.. following Biffi. Natale Monferrato (d. Giovanni Legrenzi (d. marking him as the culmination of the. He also wrote freely in all forms (from 1626). from 1647 vice-choirmaster and Cavalli's successor in 1676. Mark's and suc ceeded Grandi as vice-choirmaster in 1627 and Monteverdi as chief in 1643. since he was singer there from 1687. After him came Partenio from 1692. i bassoon and 3 trombones. as choirmasters Rovettino in 1690 (organist since 1665)^ all better opera-writers than church Biffi. though almost 50 years at St. entered the St. 1668) was early a choirboy at St. motets. strongly to popular taste.) of great dignity and beauty. 1690) studied with Rovetta and succeeded Mon During his administration the orchestra was increased to 34 players. 77).94 VENETIAN CHURCH MUSIC 199 as the concertato style was chiefly Venetian. began as choirmaster at Ferrara in 1610. service as choirmaster at St. tury Only second in influence as a centre for church music in the later I7th cen was Bologna. Giovanni Rovetta (d. One of the best early opera-writers (see sec. His many works (from 1607) include masses. He was also a favorite teacher and engaged in music-publishing. 2 cornets. wrote relatively little church music (from 1645). however. he tended to try new methods. 1 Alessandro Grand! (d. ferrato in 1685. Mark's. 1740).

master from 1690 Other North Italian sacred composers were Guglielmo Lipparino. noted as amadrigalist (works. choir Pietro Lappi. and the earlier German motets and other liturgical pieces were modeled upon their Latin adapt music to the new Protestant services for a time the distinction between these . choirmaster at . Gabriel! (works. also ranged over at first secular (from 1593). 1638?). Ravenna. c. dramatic style as against a cappella polyphony. Milan from 1645 (works. . sively at Correggio. (d. well trained and Benevoli. Galeazzo Sabbatini. choirmaster at Verona from about 1608-25). and then at Ferrara and some chamber music (from again. la Germany. born about 1565. 1695). 1634). pupil of G. at various places from 1612. . choirmaster master at Como from about 1619 (works. all sacred. should be two diverse tendencies in church composition. at Rome under Abbatini Giovanni Paolo Colonna (d. certato methods Francesco Mark's. . sacred and secular. 1649). but a practical highly educated Olivetan monk. secular songs della Porta (d. litanies and madrigals. organist at 1643) Ferrara from 1677. It was inevitable that in Germany there 95. 1601-27) Padua and Novara (works. and from 1636 choirmaster at Udine (works from 1640) . 1625-40) after 1670). Though was more nominal than real. for sacred Ercole Porta was one of the early users of orchestral support music (works from 1609). all sacred. choirmaster at Bologna in 1680-5. except regarding the chorale.) are of the latter in a style that puts him in the front rank of the church composers part of the century. 1677) the teacher of Corelli. and at Milan from 1631 Francesco Bellazzi. motets. master at Faenza. a pupil of Guami.200 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 95 Adriano BancMeri (d. usually with free use of conGiovanni Antonio Rigati (d. . the other seeking to and spirit. choir Orazio Tarditi master at Mirandola. Stefano Bernard! (d. including several madrigal-plays. Ignazio 161 5 and at Salzburg in 1628-34 (sacred and secular works from 1 61 1) Donati (d. organist at various places from 1622 and from 1647 choir all sacred. 1756). Perti (d. (works. . His compositions. He was organist in 1599-0. another opera-writer. was cathedral-choir Jacopo Antonio and wrote fine sacred works (from 1681). from 1618) . a very prolific writer. choirmaster at Padua in 1651-77 (works from 1637-57) and Giovanni Battista Bassani (d. His numerous sacred works (from 1677. the one perpetuating the older Catholic traditions. 1666). . 1638?). 1615. was cathedral-organist at Bologna from 1659 and choirmaster from 1674. also of Milan. In these he showed a keen sympathy with the semithe usual sacred forms. from 1613 succes at Brescia (works. from 1612) . and founded a musical society which later became the Bologna) famous Accademiafilarmonica of Bologna (still existing). 1716). chiefly at Bosco (near and Imola. 1600-37) Giovanni Ghizzolo. with fully 25 collections (from 1628) of masses. Francesco Petrobelli. with many sacred works. musician of influence. with many in MS. perhaps a all sacred. and a was not only a learned author. earty a singer at St. psalms. an able violinist.

service at may be noted: Asprilio Pacelli (d. This development was upheld and furthered by the growth of organ composition (see Chapter XIII. but to open up new achievements for it. the Venetian type of church music was more likely to be Schutz of Dresden. Their harmonic style pushed its way into choir music. with masses.95 CHURCH MUSIC IN GERMANY 2OI of Protestant music gradually became prototypes. at Salzburg 1597) master at Innsbruck." prefiguring the be more significant nobler work of the i8th century. for which German writers now began to show their eminent While Italian power in this field was on the wane. however. second choirmaster from 1649 anci first from l669' with Felicianus Schwab many motets. psalms and hymns (from 1603) at Giovanni Felice Sances (d. ). though had its with northern Italy was went. Chorales were immensely popular and their number rapidly increased. psalms and secular songs (from 1633) ? . 1679). who. these names . then court-choir Johann Stadlmayr (d. Thirty Years War (1618-48) interfered with the steady flow of musical progress. mostly in Austria or South Germany. the separation more obvious. so far as definite influence close. ^ . than their Italian prototypes. the ablest German composer of followed. in the Imperial Chapel Vienna from 1637. As samples of Catholic composers. enabled the art place promptly after 1650. It is from these operatic music really beginnings that modern German and English church took their rise. motets. of Roman birth. Under his lead and that of some others. a But the connection isolated disciples. was from 1603 royal choirmaster at Warsaw (motets and psalms in 1603-7. the Germans were preparing not only to preserve the old skill. 1648). concerted passages and every the church without such formal disposition was brought into sensuousness as to be debilitating. its The Palestrina style in it purity was never dominant in Ger many. after from Rome. and. though never driving out counterpoint. of the early part of the century. notable tendency set in to apply concertato writing to church use in a more wholesome and suitable way than was common in The German church cantata and oratorio soon began to Italy. In many places musical establishments were wholly The 1 suspended (notably The momentum to resume its at Dresden) and social life generally was unsettled. 1623). the century. solos. Thus the new methods of device of accompaniments. capacity. studied at Venice and was fully alive to the new movements there.

Thomas- schule at Leipsic (see sees. from 1677 Johann Schelle. novel effect. organist at Bamberg (works. Johann Melchior Gletle. H. except that title < Cantor' often This it is practically equivalent to Kapellmeister as earlier used. In the annals of German Protestant music the appears. 1693). 1728). from 1657 Sebastian Knupfer. from 1631 Tobias Michael. from X 597 cantor at Zittau and from 1604 at Freiberg (Saxony). master at Hanover. 1 7th century the cantors here were from 1594 Calviszus. schools. tions from 1667 at Munich and court-organist from 1675. with important masses. etc. all the official music of the community sometimes involving the societies and bands of players 1 churches. Being without controlling traditions. matically. Demantius (d. and from 1688 choir K. Munich and Vienna (see sec. of activity in Protestant music was naturally Here we encounter a and the neighboring states. a Franciscan of Weingarten and Constance (works. with masses. Bach dying in office after an average term of 22 years. Ambrosius Reiner (d. from i6i6/. implying some measure of responsibility for civic education. 1674-85). 105). In many ways the most famous instance has been in the . many secular songs and canzonets . 1672). Schein. Saxony series of composers who united great technical skill with a deep insight into the possibilities of sacred song apart from the Catholic ritual. where the list of cantors begins early in the I5th century and is complete from 1531 to the present time. belongs not to a princely court or a cathedral. 87). archducal choirmaster at Innsbruck. followed in 1701 by Kuhnau and in 1722 all by/. besides dramas and keyboard works. 193). 117. Georg Arnold. The office has existed in most German towns and cities. they ex perimented freely with many forms from simple part-songs and The centre was no solos to extended counterpoint. and them were eminent in both fields. their innate German earnestness held them back from many of had to triviality or excess. the opera-writer (see sec. though not wholly averse to dramatic Even when they essayed to treat church music dra styles. choral the incumbent often having the title of Town-Musician. They evidently felt that there fixed boundary between the sacred and the secular. with many masses and motets (1667-84). motets and litanies (1643-56). Kerll (d. 1651-72). sometimes with care of ' duties confined to a single church or school. the great organist at . Yet few of them do with the opera. S. (1669-89). 1634-56) . with important works (few published. 1643). pupil of Kerll. but to a municipality. choirmaster at Augsburg. was an abundant and versatile composer of both Latin and German church music (from 1602). In the Christoph. often including elaborate vocal and orchestral combina and Steffani (d.202 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 95 [Suevus]. in some of which instruments were combined with J.

1 615). 1640). as well as his artistic relative. adding Thomas Selle (d. 1607). besides secular works. cantor at Konigsberg from 1602. His style was eclectic. fr ^3 choirmaster at Coburg. c. and richly illustrates the lines of progress going on in Germany. variously educated by study and travel. pastor at Erfurt from 1608. with varied works (from 1602). 1639). 1636). with num bers of chorales and songs. of the century. from 1609 organist at Bayreuth and from 1616 at Nuremberg. T Melchior Franck (d. evincing power as a harmonist. he was famous as the editor of hundreds of choir-pieces works of his own. from 1604 choirmaster at Wolfenbiittel. with church music. both harmonic and contrapuntal (fromi6oi). including incidental music for student-plays. Johann Schop (d. part-songs and dances Erhard Bodenschatz (d. cred songs by Rist and a quantity of motets and madrigals (in MS. 113. includ (d. besides some works of his own. . was also m . (For his literary work. pastor near Eisleben. though also productive. secular songs. from 1602 a Passion (1613). were called 'the three great S's Christoph Thomas Walliser (d. was 1622 cantor of the Nikolaikirche at Berlin. 1621). psalms and other choir-pieces. an choir-pieces (1613-21). see sec. ranging from the purely polyphonic to writing concertistic solo-writing. was from 1616 cantor of the Thomasschule there. 96. 1648) was professor and musical director at Strassburg. His genius was so superior in every way that he.) Pratorius was a per sonal friend of Schiitz. including many part-songs and dances. largely secular. 1665). besides being an author of capital gifted and prolific composer importance. a composer . melodious and masterly style was shown in a vast number of vocal and instrumental works (from 1609). 1 06). His smooth. some original.95 CHURCH MUSIC IN GERMANY 203 (from 1594) and various dances. chorales and settings of the Gospel pericopes Johann ing of Eccard. edited invaluable collections of Protestant motets (1603-21) and of chorales (1608). Johann Staden (d. (d. were Melchior Vulpius cantor at Weimar. with Schiitz of Dresden and Scheldt of Halle (see sees. who was at the accomplished player Danish court from 1618 and town-musician at Hamburg from 1621. 1630). early a choirboy at Dresden and a lawstudent at Leipsic. 1646). His Muses Sionitz (1605-10) is a gigantic collection of religious part-songs. lute and wind instruments. including many concertato pieces for many parts and a notable Choralbuch (1627). Michael Pratorius (d. was a in many styles.). some polychoric for as many as 30 voices. was a fertile writer of but including sa part-music in the Italian style (from 1624).voiced. with a Stobzeus . together with a Passion (1620) and popular text-books for singing (1592. 1634). ' from Johann Criiger (d. wrote varied sacred and secular works (from 1606). from 1637 cantor at Hamburg. Less important. Besides being important as a and chorales theorist. His sacred music (from 1605) includes numerous motets. perhaps.prodigiously fertile and a notable master of melody. both vocal and instrumental. pupil Michael some finely wrought motets (from 1624) and festal choral works with a Passion (1608) and Altenburg (d. all in a style attractive to a modern taste. with varied vocal works (from 1602). on the violin. 1662). a Choralbuch (1631). besides theoretical books. (from 1619) and of Choralbiicher (1644). Johann Hermann Schein (d. 1663). often many.

(His official stipend. Heimidi ScMtz (d. With him begins a style that is intensely re without having a necessary connection with the usual ligious the tone of his church services. His striking success with the Dresden Chapel and his gifts as a composer brought him . too. works of the dramatic Besides the general use of recitative and other solo melodies. the whole built out poetically in various ways. he made the instrumentation a strong accessory. 96. from which artistic production was his chosen recourse. but a religio. He was familiar with Italy and plainly influ enced by Venetian models. His life is said to have been beset domestic bereave by many pupils. including noted settings of religious and (especially by Rist). especially as to polychoric forms. with abundant works in many forms (from 1620).204 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 96 poems (from 1630) of melodious church music. especially during the Thirty Years' War. From 1617 (really from 1615) till his death 55 years later he was electoral choirmaster at Dresden. Often. reflective or contrapuntal. the voice of the audience). returning in 1613 to be court-organist at Cassel. declamatory.us concertdrama. as in all species. Besides equaling or excelling his contem poraries at various points. Schiitz and the Oratorio German music While the new Style. by several trips to Italy and by three extended visits to Copenhagen to act as courtconductor. and (as also of noble choruses. Later writers will be grouped under Schutz. his long service being broken. 1672) was born in 1585 at Kostritz (Thuringia). he had something of that prevision as to musical progress that marked his greater successor Bach just a century later. Yet work is essentially German as well in its serious ness and solidity. besides dances and other instrumental pieces .) His eminence has lately been recognized afresh. however. richness of effect and a tendency to dramatic methods. was a choirboy at Cassel and a law-student at the University of Marburg. suitable either for the church or elsewhere. also of it interjected chorales were. Johann Dilliger (d. yet Schutz stands out as a typical and dominating figure. At intervals through his life he produced works in which may be seen the outlines of the German oratorio a form that is not a sacred opera. Schutz emphasized the function of Narrators in addition to the personages in action. from 1619 cantor at Wittenberg and from 1625 at Coburg. In 1609 he was sent to Venice by the musical Landgrave Moritz to study under Giovanni Gabrieli. but sometimes upon chapters like Isaiah liii. was never equal to that of Italians in the court employ. in the I7th century was certainly not impetus in due to the genius of any one man. and his works are now accessible in a great fame and many accomplished ments. based properly upon the narratives in the Gospels. The earlier works of this class had been all Passions or the like. 1647).

To the list in the oratorio belong the Resurrection (1623). then. 1651). They are numerous and extensive. often called the first Ger man opera.96 SCHUTZ AND THE ORATORIO STYLE all 205 being standard edition (1885-94). Johann Rosemniiller (d. a Bohemian. 1684). pattern. who. Words (1645) an ^ the four Passions. 1629-50). Almost all leading composers began to pay attention to dances of several sorts as offering scope for ar tistic development All this new life had important historic rela The achievements. cially as of the greater Bachs rested upon extensive in earlier experiments. though Him trained for the law. educated at Leipsic and teacher in the Thomasschule there in 1642-55. Schiitz Leading names among the many these : the period following are Heinricn Albert (d. The use of more or instruments in combination was free and often ingenious. as dramatic impulses became stronger. sacred except some early madrigals (1611). besides other works). and the singspiel Dafne (1627. In the vocal field a notable fea ture was the attention to solos less of the folk-song which. under a charge of immorality fled thence to . 1645). he became famous as one of the first real song-composers (8 collections. His works (from 1639) range from dances and other instrumental pieces to many-voice masses. was from 1635 organist (Saxony) and from 1639 at Zittau. was from 1630 cathedral-organist at Konigsberg. tions to the work of the next century. Andreas Hammerschmidt ' at Freiberg (part-songs. 1675). From about 1650 there was a striking increase in originality in all German music. and is often called the father 1 1 of the (d. however. but score lost). Schu'tz nephew and early pupil. 1638-50. affecting both sacred and secular writing. to which may be added the Psalms (1619) and the Symphonies sacrcs (motets. various pieces for court festivities. espe concerns the handling of certain wind instruments (like krummh'drner and zinkeri). tended to give way before the concertistic aria. in which the style the Seven treatment of choruses often rises to concert grandeur. and in clude interesting melodic and concerted effects as well as some good counter Specially noted are his Dialogues between God and a Believing Soul point. self a good poet. German 'Lied.

206 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 96 S3 pJ N " E > W i-S*UCQ W 2.N O > a > ri s . o s ^|O w ffi H -~%- ui__2H_r N ^ .

Wolfenbiittel. and a set at Stettin. Arnstadt or and they finally (besides a collateral branch at Meiningen). 1665). 1706). had a restless career Johann Hamburg. a Passion (1673). united them in a sort organists and cantors. probably a pupil of Schiitz. Johann Rudolph Ahle (d. Though an able contrapuntist. S. he also wrote part-songs and dances. Erfurt Their chief headquarters were Eisenach. Merseburg and NaumHis works included. largely devoted to music. 1652-1709). over 20 masses.97 THE BACH FAMILY Venice. Theile (d. they thriftily made their way. where his strictness involved him in some difficulties. many able pupils and issued text-books. from 1650 cantor at Gotha and from 1671 choirmaster at Darmstadt. a Christmas oratorio (1681). styles. Although always of humble station and often sufferers from the ravages of war. he His published works (from 1645) were mostly Wolfenbiittel in 1667." places As they. The Bach Family. His many works (from 1671) were like his father's. multiplied and won place as singers. dances. Liibeck. besides singspiele at Hamburg. paralleling Albert's secular songs. players. Christoph Bernhard (d. and returned to Dresden in 1674 as Schiitz' successor. Throughout the ijrth century the Bachs of Thuringia steadily became more notable as musicians. their intense family feeling of Bach guild. His son. trained at Gottingen and Erfurt. he wrote choir music of moderate value (from 1647). he left but few works (1665-7 and in MS. 1724). to concert chiefly in religious works. using all forms with a strong leaning His instrumental accompaniments were also good. and so generally cultivated music that " town-musicians were actually called the Bachs.)- Wolfgang Karl Briegel (d. Most organ of . was from 1657 court-choirmaster at Stuttgart. Bach. 1673). but advanced to the aria as distinct from the song.)> and were valued at the time for their originality. He was named poet-laureate by the Em peror in 1680. and was in turn followed by J. established the custom of an annual family reunion at one of these for choir or them emphasized sacred composition but almost all worked freely in secular forms as well. 1692). In 2O7 became ducal choirmaster Hamburg and at some way cleared. burg. Samuel Bockshorn (d. lived earnest and in some upright lives. be came in 1664 cantor at Hamburg. Besides text-books. Gottorp. was from 1646 cantor at Erfurt and from 1654 at Miihlhausen. of instrumental pieces. was second choirmaster at Dresden from 1655. Johann Gsorg Ahle (d. He had 97. succeeded him at Miihlhausen. 1712). was very prolific (at least 25 large books. town-musicians. with some motets (more in MS. after teaching at Pressburg and Nuremberg. all showing immense skill in counterpoint. Besides both Latin and German church music (from 1655) and a kind of Passion (1660). with about 120 religious songs or arias. other sacred works. helped by generous friends to his education under Schiitz and in Italy.

family of record. ArnChristoph of Erfurt and stadt (d. . i. it is to be noted that in the third generation two of which splits into three -giving four names are tabulated on page 206. Hans ^ l6 ^ christoph O f Eisenach . Bernhard of Eisenach (d. Jakob of Eisenach (d. after 1735). Egidius (io) 21. I7> j h. Joh. for travel or study at musi none of them enjoyed opportunities own region. j^b of Ruhla (d. (8) of Arnstadt (d. e*. 1703) j oh- Michael of Gehren (d. 11. Sons of Joh. (d. 2. III. & of some official importance. 1626).the three centuries In *eneral. 1682 ?) 10. there be any equal instance Their varied activity in the toward their superemment re- nown of Johann Sebastian in the i8th in the careers Bach and his talented sons. Johann (3) of Erfurt (d. 7. Georg Christoph of Schweinfurt (d. /*/* Christian (9) and (d. Egidms of Erfurt (d. r \ VI.208 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURA 97 Until far into the i8th century. Veit (d. Joh. Joh. lines. 3. being complicated by The full genealogy cousins from 1550 to 1850 perhaps 400 Bachs are Durino. especially for instruments. 1682). Joh. but far. artists neighborhood. but their enterprise and cal centres outside their to keep well abreast of progress in their intuition enabled them the massive value of their cumula It is hard to describe art in tive influence. principal first For reference. 13. in any field can be of hereditary genius later I7th century led worthily on indeed. 22. 1697). ^^ Gunther 1683). Joh / c h ri stoph of Arnstadt l6 ^d 4.T Eisenach : of Gotha (d. 1749) Sons of Christoph 12. its bevond named Certainly no that rivals them. initials. s Wendel Christian of Erfurt 9. N Son of Lips V. 1673). Joh. 1619). 1661). -\ 7 7) ' 682). Sons of 5. Christoph of Gehren (d. Hans'the Player 1 ^ (d. I9 . ^ t Sons of Heinrich (7 )_ IV. (6) Sons of Joh. 5 } J h. Heinrich 1 of Arnstadt 692) (4) Son of Wendel lg> . Christoph of Erfurt (d. 1718). 1620).Erfurt (d. not only Saxony and if. Nikolaus of. Joh. each the ereat branches separate. Lips (d. the marked by his person being I. Hans of Wechmar. (d.J oh - Ambrosius of Eisenach II. presumably his brother. 1717). known 0f these about 60 occupied positions the intermarriage ot is intricate. ^ 6.

Ambrosius (13) 24. Joh. Christoph Friedrich of Muhlhausen Biickeburg (d. Christian (50) of Meiningen 52. Son of Georg Michael (34) of Halle (d. 1795). Joh. of Stockholm (d. Joh. 1771). . Joh. Valentin (23) 36. 1755). Sons of Jakob (18) of Meiningen 32. 39. Joh. Valentin (d. Tobias Friedrich of Uttstadt. orchestra belongs remotely to and won universal respect as painstaking. Ohrdruf 40. 1784)44. 34. Joh.-97 THE BACH FAMILY (12) 209 Son of Georg Christoph of Schweinfurt 23. most carefully trained by his father (who was organist He was probably for 38 years town-organist at Eisenach. Michael. Joh. Christoph (24) 38. Chr. 35. Ernst of Arnstadt (d. Miihlhausen. Joh. Christoph (15) 28. 1788). Joh. having an He was not in sympathy with the many voices and in organ extemporization. Joh. 1739). 50. Ludwig (d. man and artist. ningeD (d. 51 Son ofJoh. Nikolaus Ephraim Sons of Joh. Son of Joh. earnest and the oratorio class. Joh. 1720). Bernhard of (d. and one of his motets for double chorus prevalent dramatic styles. 47. (d. 46. Andreas. 30. Sons of Joh. Sons of Joh. Joh. 45. Philipp (d. From 1665 he was the time. Samuel Anton of Meiningen (d. Joh. ' 41 . Joh. Joh. 1721). 1744). Christian of Milan and London (d. Joh. 1773)Elias (d. Schweinfurt the greatest were the the 15-20 names belonging to the i7th century of Heinrich [7] two sons Of : was born at Arnstadt in 1642 and JohannChristopliBach [15] (d. Lorenz 37. of of Lahm (d. Friedrich of 31. Gan- of Mei49. Sebastian of Leipsic (d. Joh. Ernst of 1777)Sons of Joh. 1782). He educated his . 26. 1781). 1846). 1703) there for over 50 years). Friedrich (46)Wilhelm ofBerlin (d. Gottlieb Friedrich dersheim. Gottfried Bernhard of of Erfurt and 29. Karl Philipp Berlin and of of (d. 1 846). Joh. Christoph of Ohrdruf. Sons ofJoh. Christian 1814). 25. Christoph (14) 27. 1741)of 33. 1785)- Michael (d. Wilhelm Friedemann Halle (d. 42. Christoph England. Sebastian (26) 43. Emanuel 1739)- Hamburg Sons of Joh. Son of Joh. as well as one of the ablest the most original of the motettists of m handling unusual instinct for form and great facility organists. Son of Joh. Christoph of Ohrdruf (d. Ludwig (32) 48. Joh. Joh. Joh. Bernhard (21) Weimar (d. Joh. 1750). Georg VII. though He was simple. Nikolaus of Jena 1753)- (d. VIII. Jakob 1722). Heinrich of Oehringen.

psalms and part-songs (from 1631) in the Italian style. was naturally cultivated In France. 1695-1712). and Louis XIV. Christoph was courtand town-piper at Arnstadt from 1671. born at Arnstadtin 1648. however. remaining till his death. Johann Ernst [27] (d. Michel Richard Lalande (d. that from the i/th century a special form of motet. 1695) and Johann Christoph Bach [14] (d. Spain and Portugal. four sons. 1739). may be mentioned Arthur AuxCousteaux (d. His more numerous motets and organ-pieces are not He was one of the earliest of the only learned. Quentin and later in the Royal Chapel. motets. Although church music in every cathedral and principal church in France. would have been royal organist except for his youth. He was the strongest French church composer of the time (fine motets. average talent. made besides writing many ballets (from 1678). and possibly slightly influenced who lived at Eisenach till his tenth year. was Johann Sebastian's successor as organist at Arnstadt in 1707. Developing special talent for the organ. go on using old works or simply adopt The tendency was Italian to works as they came out.210 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY Johann Sebastian. 1 98 his cousin s son. but rich in ideas and feeling. was a somewhat prolific writer of masses. 98. the vilhancico/ arose in both Spain and Portugal. in request at Erfurt from 1667 and at Eisenach from 1671. trained. Ambrosius was a good violinist. 1693). family to take up instrument-making. 1726) won notice as a choirboy at Paris and secured instruction in playing various instruments. in which choral opening and lack of originality is ' The same remarks . was similarly In 1673 he became organist at Gehren. though he was less gifted in form. apply to Spain at this period so far as concerned. became the first wife of Johann Sebastian in 1707. His genius resembled his brother's. violinist Johann Sebastian was the last of his eight children. teacher at St. : Two composers. the youngest. became teacher in the king's house and from 1683 was one of the royal superintendents of music. especially as regards invention. hold. 1694). so that her four surviving children. Maria Barbara (d. though of but life. however. was so strong in other directions that few masters of sacred music appeared. Johann Michael Bach [16] (d. 1645) and almost indistinguishable. though there was no other mu sical interest of importance. 1656). Mention should also be made of the two sons of Christoph [6] : Johann Ambrosius Bach [13] (d. including three sons. yet the trend of musical interest under both Louis XIII. who were twins (b. It should be said. living a curiously troubled Of his five children. Of his five daughters. from about 1675 ne served several churches. 1720). were descended from both the second and the third lines of the great family.

beginning during the Spanish domination (from 1580). but worthy of remembrance the nevertheless. was an eager and accomplished musician more musician than king. Evora. but reaching its height after indepen dence was recovered in 1640. He left many works for large numbers of voices. (d. including rare MSS. with su perior magnificats (1618) at still Spanish works of this period are unpublished. also trained at from 1628 at the Carmelite monastery in Lisbon.98 SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE CHURCH MUSIC 211 closing movements were combined with a middle movement for a solo voice (analogous to Almost all many English anthems). 1683). a P u ptt of the famous music-school of Manoel Mendes at Lisbon. the in use. 1643). with many works. 1722). also with many works (in MS. MSS. Bare mention may be made of Sebastiano Aguilera de Heredia. also He was the teacher of Joao IV. 1656). Of this a partial catalogue was pre Almost exactly a century later (1755) this library was totally de pared. Carlos PatiSo (d. Felipe da Magalhaes studied at Evora and was court-choirmaster at Lisbon and a good teacher (works.. 1605) at Evora.). besides writing theoretical treatises (1649-54). choirmaster Madrid from perhaps 1633. choirmaster at Saragossa early in the century. and talented none of them exerting notable composers were encouraged influence on general progress. Under him (" church music was cultivated with assiduity. that are still highly regarded. Portugal. of which first king. on the other hand. Joao IV." says Von Waxel). besides a comprehensive collection of Spanish and Portuguese works up to that time. Of some scores of composers whose names are known and whose works lie hidden in various cathedral archives. being widely scattered. col an enormous musical library. with important work (1602-39) in the intricate style of Be: nevoli. . This catastrophe doubtless wiped out hundreds of works of which no other copies now exist. enjoyed in the I7th century a time of decided musical activity. and rendered a thorough survey of Portuguese music impossible. madrigals. the following are important Duarte Lobo (d. He was an (d. Joao lected . Manoel Cardoso (d. mostly polychoric. IV. was from about 1594 choirmaster active teacher. and Juan Perez Roldan (d. 1650). Little is therefore known generally of their value. 1635-91). stroyed in the great earthquake at Lisbon. clude three collections of masses. from all countries. 1661) was the most eminent composer in the middle of the century. Patino's successor. From that time to this the mon archy has been in the hands of the House of Braganga. was choirmaster there and His works (1613-48) in Joao Louren$o Rebello (d. probably the best in its day. Appar ently notable composers were few. large numbers of works for the Catholic service were produced.

. Paul's from 1604. 1647). In choirmaster at Madrid English church music in this century passed through varied vicissitudes. 1656). organs and all . With them are to Thomas Nathaniel Giles (d. Michael Wise (d. 1660-1708). 1685). royal Chapel. organist at Westminster in 166*980 and from 1695. from 1641 at Windsor. 1708). Ravenscroft and 0. 89). what interest there was in church music centred at Oxford and Cambridge. Andre da Costa (d. be named Tomkins (d. twice 'choirmaster at Lisbon equally deserve record. 1709). Christopher Gibbons (d. 1641). Este. 69) were many good church composers. 99. the famous Master of the Chapel Royal from 1660. 'curious music. the madrigalists (see sec. from 1639 at Dub and lin. Purcell (see sec. England. tne father of the poet. Many musicians who were prominent after 1660 began their activity before the Civil War. choirmaster at St. John Blow (d. Gibbons. an able player and a . (1603-25) the heavy harmonic style was replaced for a time by a return to the old But counterpoint. and Adrian Batten (d. 1676). Under James I. and from 1664 at Magdalen College. Among like Morley. 1637). royal composer from 1661 and later in the service of Queen Catherine. son of Orlando and pupil of Edward. Matthew Locke (d. During the political turmoils. 1697). Of the many church composers after 1660. Oxford. and Antonio Marques Lesbio from 1698 (works. with the overpressure of prelatical authority after 1630 came the Puritan reaction and the Civil War. such as Felipe da Cruz. from 1638 organist at Winchester and from 1660 of the Chapel. from 1614 singer at Westminster and from 1624 organist at St. 1650). organist at Windsor from 1636 and in the Chapel from 1660 . like William Child (d.' not because it with a hated system (see sec. such as dra matic solos and generally homophonic treatment. Weelkes. now began to adopt French and Italian features. 1633). the ablest composer being Orlando Gibbons. 1698). from 1610 organist at Ely Martin Pearson (d. 1699. 1672). Benjamin -Rogers (d. singer in the Royal (d. John Milton (d. sacred music till the Restoration in 1660. besides being organist to the Chapel from 1674 and royal composer from. 1677). organist at Salisbury from 1668 and in the Chapel from 1676 the best of the series . from 1597 in the Chapel Royal . besides Humphrey and Henry may be noted Henry Cooke (d. John Amner (d. preceding and following Purcell. as well as of West minster in 1660-5.the apparatus of was music. when cathedral choirs Services and anthems and the Chapel Royal were reinstated. Paul's. one of 1687). THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 99 Many other names perhaps . The wide spread lack of interest in religion reduced the popular power of all sacred music. though the genius of Humphrey and Purcell was respected.212 . organist at Worcester. during which a fanatical on slaught was made on choirs. but because associated This crusade made a gap in 88).

1717).. Among important and (1641). suicide). Daniel Purcell from 1688 organist at Magdalen College. architect 1710). Cambridge. who wrote dramas and odes as well as anthems London. Oxford. in the Chapel Royal m l6 70 or (d. that belong to the next century be other composers of services and anthems active work before 1700. G 5 s. organist at Winchester from 1704. and Turner (d. dean of Christ Church. Oxford. Tudway (MS.>99 ENGLISH CHURCH MUSIC writer of the ornate order. about 1715-20). 173)? fr from 1704 Professor of Music. Clifford (1661. his life. German Positive Organ (i/th century). Henry Aldrich (d. 1707. . the British and musician. from 1689. 213 prolific Thomas Tudway all at King's ganist William College. . Several in the Chapel Royal from 1700 and its organist 1692. gan collections of church music were those of Barnard the . . '63). a versatile scholar. 1740). whose library of music was the finest outside from Museum and Jeremiah Clarke (d. and after 1695 in (d.

a new tendency asserted Without giving up emphasis upon the voice as the pri itself. vocal music supplying the ideal norms of pro cedure. especially the organ. with the ex altation of objective forms over subjective. and of whatever could excite and pique attention by its impact upon the listener rather than merely give outlet for the feeling of the composer or performer. the entire viol family. Experiments with instruments were made at first either to imitate vocal effects or for their mere support or inci dental decoration. effects effects The taste of the time called for more impressive and more elaborate implements. and those sounded by a bow. all the earlier art-forms were vocal. instrumental music now shook itself clear and set out upon a vigorous development that had marvelous later consequences. it was perceived how advantageously mary mechanical implements might also be used by themselves and in ways essentially unvocal. ever. polyphonic and massive effects. and these implements and their in turn reacted powerfully upon taste. in the formal evolution of the art they were long remitted to a strictly subordinate place. how basis and essence. The entire theory and practice of artistic music up to the second half of the i6th century was vocal in As the i/th century approached. the latter because capable of the finest solo effects and because. and much more as it proceeded. But combined with this was the stimulus derived from the technical improvement of certain particular instruments. that is. The two classes of instruments that took the lead were those with a keyboard. XIII THE ORGAN STYLE The Rising Importance of Instruments. and all the early masters became dominant because successful with vo cal works. The former were prominent because capable of concerted. Perhaps chief of these was the mighty swing of interest from sacred to intensely secular music. In consequence. All the fundamental rules of composition were first laid down on vocal lines. The new tendency had many causes.CHAPTER 100. musical implement. 214 . Although in all stages of musical progress instruments are interesting.

but were confined to the middle octaves. they are so imbedded in musical praxis and terminology that apparently no more scientific sub stitutes are likely to come into general use. G#. their purity. wide. since only this limited range was needed to But as the notion of harmony and carry Plain-Song melodies. so The white keys are J in. al ternative semitones were sometimes provided. the lever) has always been obvious. . Although both keyboard and notation are mediaeval. as this some such order G not introduced throughout. The diatonic keys were often colored black and the semitones Semitones were at first the reverse of present-day practice. wide on is about 6J. r the latter being about 2 in. and the black keys f in. white now called modulation. notable achievements with both classes were delayed is the i/th century remembered ors to perfect them and The genesis of the modern keyboard can 101.in. The Keyboard. The length or compass of the keyboard has varied greatly. In modern usage 13 (white) keys occupy the lateral space of one foot. higher.101 THE ORGAN KEYBOARD constitute the 215 when combined. but it alternately stage in the evolution of musical theory to which the staff- notation is also accommodated. probably arose both from the desire to transpose diatonic melodies and use of musica ficta^ with its virtual acceptance of what from the now white keys were grpwing is Possibly the semitones came in gradually in B^. Efr. that an octave latter interspersed the The peculiar disposition of the longer and shorter keys among the former in twos and threes is clearly records a really arbitrary." former and about All these details are the result of centuries of experiment (see sec.. By the i6th century the keyboard asjiow known had become well established. top. for its persistent endeav to discover styles appropriate to them. but its special adaptation to the hand and to the production of tone mustMvebeen gradually worked out. 32). behind the The dip of all is usually about f in. though some niceties of measure ment and disposition were not fully settled. To avoid harshness. Its essential mechanical principle (that of not be fully traced. they Though later. F*. only So long as the mediaeval modes were used in what are The need of the chromatic semitones required. as both G* and Afr between and A. in. most flexible and expres till sive instrumental chorus the natural nucleus of the orchestra. Their tuning offered a problem not well solved till the i8th century. C*. In early organs simply a single octave or an octave and a half was not uncommon.

SS^rHif^S^*^ FIG. 62.2l6 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 101 FIG. Italiau Portative Organ (i7th century?).~ Italian Virginal or Small . 59. Italian Clavichord (1537). FIG. FIG. Spinet (iTth century) . 6i. German Regal (i6th century). 60.

early as the I3th century it appeared The largest were those permanently set up in churches as part of Next came the positives/ which were of their fixed furniture. being distinctly conducive in 102. keyboard was probably to the But it was early extended to small portative organ proper. From at least the I4th century it was also applied to the monochord. as the i /th century closed. Finally. there were still smaller forms. moderate size and could occasionally be moved as convenience Next were the portatives. Finally. While church organs were meant solely to support and intensify. and were coarse and strident in tone and awkward to play. 135). Among ' ' ' ( quality . it was applied to the dulcimer. In most early organs. producing the spinet. producing the rudimentary clavichord. the lowest octave was usually not only without all of the semitones (or even without some of the diatonic keys). and to some form of harp or lyre. pro When all the artistic ducing the first form of the pianoforte. but with the keys disposed in some peculiar order so as to bring them close together. pedal keyboards. the keyboard seen to be most interestingly related to musical progress (see sec. to avoid expense. The Organ. but the portatives and regals were really more significant. mediaeval instruments the organ used in church services. were often sweet and relatively easy to play. often in the shape of a large book (hence often called It is natural to think of the larger forms Bible regals'). the smaller forms could be used for all sorts of tonal experiments. organs or regals/ which were very popular through the later Middle Ages and it was on such domestic instruments that the modern measurements of the keys became established.' that is. At least as was conspicuous because in several forms or sizes. often called regals/ which were made so as to fold to gether. as connected with the historic importance of the organ. the compass was gradually stretched to three or four octaves or even more. the unison Plain-Song or some stiff counterpoint.' which were small enough required. This was specially common in * short. The original application of the * . virginal and harpsichord.102 THE ORGAN AND THE ORGAN STYLE the desire for concerted effects grew. is consequences of these applications are considered. to be carried about in processions or applied to purely private and secular entertainment.

Each maker had his own patterns or models. of the Organ Style. the wind-supply. that of the 'swell' in some form (to vary the loud- is of great peared before the early i8th century. into one instru ment. Not about the iyth century did the modern notion fully emerge of unit ing several distinct organs. but by about 1500 it began to be widely undertaken as a general trade. until Among ness of special devices. The mechanical problems of organ-making are manifold. so that organ-makers moved from place to place as their services were required. as now. the adjustment of one or more keyboards to the valves admitting the air to the pipes.218 to the THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 103 advance of keyboard technique. The arts of organ-play and of composition for the organ were doubtless developed ing largely outside the churches. the exact shape and propor tions of the pipes with reference to pitch and quality of tone (including the invention of those varying types of structure that belong to distinct i 'stops' or registers '). Yet it was seen that the instrument was capable of much more massive chord-sue- . and details varied indefinitely. The earlier experiments were strictly contrapuntal and modeled closely upon vocal styles. Under the first belong questions regarding the selection and preparation of metal and wood for the pipes.' where somehow it can be brought under a steady pressure ' and then distributed by tubes to the ' wind-chests under the pipes so as to be ready for delivery into the pipes as wanted. They are the pipe-work. so that we en counter from that time the names of many organ-builders. but it is doubtful if it ap The making of large organs differed from other branches of instrumentmaking in that most or all of the work was originally done not in fixed factories. No sure esti mate can be made of the number of instruments in use at any given period. but it is clear that by the iyth century they were common and that the ambition for mechanical improvement was thoroughly awakened. some of the tones) utility. every connection having to be made easy. and usually grouped under three heads the action. prompt and noiseless. though in the i6th and I7th cen turies they came into important use in church worship. The problem of forms of for the organ remained unsolved far into the I7th composition 103. but on the spot. Under the head of wind-supply fall the problems of pumping air into a reservoir or 'bellows. The Rise century. though more than one keyboard had often been used before. and many niceties in the adjustment of the 4 mouth ' or the reed by which the tone is actually produced. with the control of the several sets of pipes by stop-handles. It is re* markable how much difficulty has been encountered in avoiding leak Under the < action' comes age and maintaining a uniform pressure. each with its own keyboard. Organ-making was originally in the hands of monks. The addition of a pedal keyboard was common from the I5th century.

striking effects The trend of invention was long of contrasted tone-color. each voice proceeding in counterpoint as the others enter.103 THE ORGAN AND THE ORGAN STYLE 219 cessions. and the imitation continuing throughout. If the dominant relation is regarded somewhat as in the mediaeval relation of the plagal to authentic modes or vice versa. and of tedious or ill-organized imita As an offset. toward chaotic fantasias or ricercari with scales tions. in the invention of appropriate figures for elaboration. and hence far freer in details and more sensuously impressive than the old polyphony.' etc. using If. that is in the key of the dominant or at least is.' is literally in the key of the dominant. various dance-patterns were often trans ferred bodily to the organ. the true fugue. though distinctly novel. especially in the canon ' * passage in which a subject/ after being stated by one voice.' and the chorale-elaboration. and in the devising of harmonic and modulatory plans with real coherence and prog In Germany we now find increasing emphasis on two ress. and pointed toward the extremely liberal and majestic contrapuntal styles of the i8th century. 'fugue' is the most elaborate of contrapuntal forms. In the i/th century better standards came in. especially in the adoption of definite 'subjects' for exposition. particular forms. manifold unvocal passages and figures. with orderly and ingenious treatment of the melodic and har The genius of Germany monic substance of church songs. derivation usually designating what would now be called a canon.' if those a tone * Experiments with this kind of writing higher. though these did not fully comport with its dignity or its church associations.' the canon is 'at the unison. Its techni cal basis is the principle of strict imitation that was first wrought out 'by ' a work or the Netherlanders in vocal works. the fugue is real. the imitation one tone not in the original scale.' Throughout the i6th century the name 'fuga' was not uncommon. This was a legitimate advance. Its reaction was profound upon choral music and upon The all keyboard writing.) 1 ' early showed that there is a peculiar value in a canon at the fifth. is repeated note for note or interval for interval by another voice or by several voices in succession. 'at the second. (If the imitation uses the same tones as the subject. one based of a 'subject' its upon the keyboard and the organ tone instead of upon the voice. began to exercise itself in a new sort of counterpoint. This species of canonic imitation is characteristic of the true fugue. however. so that both the tonic and ' dominant series utilize the same scale-tones. The circles ' . the fugue is called tonal. much use of aimless and embellishments. with its systematic unfolding ' ' and its 'answer. one in which the imitation about the dominant as the 'subject' does about the keynote.

' midway between the ricercare and the toccata. Later more solid harmony came in. fugal fitting together/ pursuit.' the * 1 * 1 < * Until after 1600 the indepen inviting antiphonal or dialogue passages. famous throughout Germany. Sebald's in Nuremberg from before 1446 and at Munich from 1467. ' fixed All the favorite forms of writing were essentially fantasias. that of all sorts passages were frequent in to entire of writing. having no method. and with it the In Italy. generally tended often to adopt the 1 see (For some other features of the completed fugue-form. and the capriccio. and one or two in France. Mark's. organists known. whose famous organ at Halberstadt (1361) was described by Among In the the many early : 1 M. Among organ-builders were Jacobello. Pratorius in 1618. was highly beneficial to the whole theory of composition. as in many Italian sonatas' though very rarely expanded In subject. like Robert Labb6 (d. the reputed builder of the first organ at St. In Spain writing was much influenced by the frequency of divided stops. Not until then was there any clear sense of using solo melodies with accompaniment. the canzona in the French style. Contemporary with 1 him was Konrad Poumann (d. 1473). besides several players at St. Austria and Italy. freer use of pedals. The treatment was at first almost wholly contrapuntal. strong and majestic polyphony sec. 1432). then. with frequent changes of theme. a blind Florentine 4th century of noble family. 1475). and Nicol Faber.220 of the 4 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ' < 103 ' word is in dispute. the < ricercare was the closest and strong toccata. and to some extent counterbalancing the drift toward captivating superficiality that the opera was fostering with alarming success. appeared Antonio Squarcialupi (d. In the 1 5th century attention to the church organ increased. whose genius as both poet and musician won him renown and of whose varied works many specimens remain. Mark's (see sec. 139. 1397). Mark's in Venice.) /th century instrumental writing form. a notable pioneer. besides the players at St. 56). German usage. usually based upon a special metric pattern and disposed in short sections like a song. powerfully advancing the art of pure harmony. Italian usage favoring the meaning flight or Meanwhile. maintaining interest in counterpoint. On the whole. though not confined to a single or extended cantus. from whom come the earliest . dent use of the pedals was unusual. c. est. The influence of organ music. tn ^ blind player at St. a few stand out in prominence worked Francesco Landino (d.' The eminence of the organ fugue was due to the aptness of the organ under the hands of a single performer. a high-born favorite of Lorenzo de Medici at Florence and organist of the cathedral. but it was hampered by the imperfect theory of tuning. Joachim Sclnuid. at Rouen from 1386. more devoted to passages and other points of virtuosity. the maker in 1356 of what became the nucleus of the organ of the Thomaskirche in Leipsic. 6 works based upon a single i the i fugal final for and French 'overtures. as in the true fugue. which made only certain chords satisfactory and precluded free modulation.

Among Italian organists not already named were Florentio Maschera. Late in the century Italian writers began to publish col lections of strictly church pieces. Bull and Phillips. In northern countries should be added Leonhard Kleber (d. whence the writers were called coloristen)^ the presentation of structural ideas being choked or hidden under a mass of . the ricercare. Venice. madrigals and motets.. Sper' in Dio Bertoldo of Padua (d. and from 1591 at Lucca. from Luzzasco LuzzascM (d. 1 607). with many works (mostly burnt in 1734)* Philip . an original composer (from 1582) and the inventor of a clavichord with divided semitones (19 keys to the octave). 63). their general style. the third part of which consists of pieces in tablature for church use. from 1568 at Munich. also. the other in South Germany. De Rore. Mark^s. facilitating varied harmony in pure intonation. edited by his son. from 1579 at Genoa.' sometimes with a In the latter were some already capricious shifting from theme to theme. Bernard Clavijo. with canzone (1601). mostly in a style prefiguring the 'colorists'. represented by a large collection (1578). in which the ten dency was to alternate between solid chord-successions and flights of scales. thus marking the separation of the ritual use of the church organ from that of small.) In other countries. court-organist at Prague from 1576. private organs. especially in the second half of the with many others century.103 THE ORGAN AND THE ORGAN STYLE 221 Later German organists were Schlick of Heidelberg organ-studies. detail. highly praised as a player.). as instruments were in great demand. builders some others their general style being gradually evolved into forms like the toccata. De Buus. the French canzona. with popular canzone (1584) at Ferrara from 1576.. ricercari and canzone (1591) and Gioseffo Guam! (d. 1557 at Brescia. * (The last notable publication of the colorist' ingenious. Merulo. with toccatas. In Spain. es the Gabrielis and Antegnati. organist to the Spanish Infanta at Brussels (few works extant). sometimes with some semblance of a persistent subject. blind) and Hofheimer (d. 1537) of Salzburg and Vienna (see sec. . for over 30 years at Pforzheim (Baden). 1620). c. who edited an important collection (1522-4). By this time the number of organ- known had become large. a Netherlander. While these scattered workers often went beyond their Italian and German contemporaries in independence and in the percep tion of the styles suited to the instrument. besides earlier . named (see Chapter VIII. (also Both of these inspired many pupils. and later royal organist at Madrid. like Ammerbach. from 1588 at St. and Pieter Cornet. 1566). with some others. In the 1 6th century two notable lines of advance appeared. 1556). c. professor at Salamanca. also. they were as a rule less influential (except Sweelinck). the capriccio. tending toward a peculiar treatment of thematic material by an excess of mere figuration ( color-atur-en. Charles Luyton (d. especially by Sweelinck of Amsterdam and by several Englishmen.). Hassler. but petty. for 40 years organist at Heilbronn. with pecially Willaert. the organ was studied with success. 1590). the blind organist ot and II. An example is that of Antonio Valente of Naples (1580). like Byrd. the one in Italy under the Netherlander and the Venetians. 1611). school was the collection in 1617 by Johann Woltz. the Schmids and Paix. In the former were many composers already mentioned (see Chapter VII. etc. were Antonio de Cabezon (d.

brother Andrea Cima of Milan and Bergamo. but subordinated to a firm general and even impetuosity His style often has an energy ception. AtFerrara was Alexandra Milleville (d. 1644). since both the capacity As styles of writing became music were developing. He discarded the real for the tonal fugue. implying the existence of unusually advanced tuning. besides being a good player and com : and Bassani of Bologna Chioggia in which. Besides Agazzari. THE SEVENliL&NTH CENTURY Italian Organists. the following are notable Girolamo Diruta (d. gradually reduced In Italy the leadership plainly fell to Frescobaldi of Rome. and his works (from 1608) include every variety of form already named. taro (d. 1589). Peter's in Rome. Among his greater pupils were the Ger mans Froberger and Tunder. modern with stiff effects of the earlier period tonality modulation was often free. born at Ferrara in 1583 and a pupil of Luzzaschi. after 1612). the organ style is for the first time extended to other instruments. that betokens an absolute mastery of his materials. from 1544 Antonio Morat Modena and from 1575 at Ferrara. pupil of Merulo and organist from 1597 at and from 1609 at Gubbio. probably began his career at Antwerp. with com use of the pedals. 104 After 1600 the number of competent increased and their equipment became more players rapidly of the instrument and interest varied. the were softened by more real and decorative elements were melody and a richer harmony. its dignity. many of them meant for either the organ or the clavichord. but from 1608 was organist at St. paratively little They are written in the prevalent notation for the latter (a 6-line staff for the right hand and an 8-line for the left). with partite (variations). whose influence one of the noblest geniuses of organ-history.222 104. with its aptitude was more appreciated. edited an important organ-book (1593-1 609). he was enterprising adhering to the old modes in His use of chromatics and elsewhere. a famous player. His playing attracted great admiration. Gradually writing and for tonal variety. Novara and Brescia. wrote good canzone. successively at Milan. except for brief sojourns at Mantua in 1614-5 and as court-organist at Florence in 1628-33. and his etc. are also noteworthy. French by birth. and revived effective double counterpoint. . 93-94). Girolamo Frescobaldi (d. Giovanni Paolo Cima of Milan (works from 1606). 1619). Cifra and TTgolini of the Roman school and BancMeri (see sees. besides valuable poser. (from 1599). His works were many and diversified. While was widely felt. specimens of works by several hands. with his son Francesco. in its for intricate partbetter defined. His pieces abound con in technical difficulties. from undue prominence. ritual pieces. now known only by vocal works (from 1614). preludes and dances.

c. displaying ability within the old modes. opened with two lines of succession already established. as in other regions where the organ was connected with Catholicism. and the Between northern. born in 1637 and a pupil of L. (d. these developed later the Saxon or Thuringian school. besides producing much vocal music. 1645). 1686). absorbed attention. served in 1641-57 as imperial organist and clavecinist at Vienna with immense success. Johann Kaspar Kerll (d. 1693). 1710). In Germany the century 105. Giulio Cesare Arresti (d. besides writing dramatic works. a Tuscan. chiefly shaped by the genius of Sweelinck. Maria Maggiore at Rome (works from 1 702) He cari (1603. with some of his own. royal organist at Naples. France). and show a mixture of French and instrumental works Italian manners. and later settled at Hdricourt (E. '15). 1704). was organist at Strassburg till 1675. was court-choirmas Munich in 1656-73. . organ music of the fugue. foreshadowing that of the Bachs. Of his many style was solid and strong. ter at singers. but German by birth (c. becoming court-organist in 1677 and returning to Munich in 1684. In the south the most brilliant masters were Froberger of Vienna and Pachelbel of Erfurt and Nuremberg. whence he went to Rome to study with PaHis interesting instrumental works squini. influenced by both and ultimately the greatest of all In Austria Italian models were naturally followed.105 THE SOUTH GERMAN SCHOOL 223 Giovanni Maria Trabacci. and from about 1687 at Passau. collected a notable series of organ-pieces by various 17th-century composers. published a collection of pieces (1645) f r every part of the \hurch year. with the study In general. (from 1682) were largely for the organ. and then. of Scottish descent. born in Saxony in 1627. a Franiscan of Palermo. Georg Mufiat (d. delighting in such forms as briUiant toccatas. Vittori and Cesti and a student of Palestrina. then at Vienna and Salzburg. capriccios and suites of a secular character. stimulated by Italian influence at the outset. 1695). Bernardo Pasquini (d. 1667) was sent in 1637 by the Emperor to to study with Frescobaldi. . but with long intermissions. little was published during his life (one collection. His many works were published posthumously (from 1693). As a player Johann Jakob Froberger Rome he was quite as important on the harpsichord as on the organ. avoided secular themes and forms. issued two books of ricerworks and Giovanni Battista Fasolo. taught Durante and Gasparini. pupil and successor of Vernizzi at Bologna. Like Froberger. became famous as organist of Sta. was trained at Paris under Lully^ influence. but elsewhere the Protes tant chorales and their polyphonic elaboration. he divided his attention between the harp His organ sichord and the organ. besides vocal . The South German School. the southern. probably for travel. displaced by the jealousy of the Italian removed to Vienna.

from 1678 at Erfurt. a vigorous conception of the fugue as the greatest single form available. 1706). 1725) and Johann Krieger (d. and an enterprising and genial breadth of view as to the possibilities of organ progress. from 1655 at the Sebalduskirche. but was an excellent teacher. from 1690 at Stuttgart. from 1692 at Gotha. a prolific and admired com (d. He was diligently studied by the great Bach. Among them. 103). his most distinguished personal pupils being scattered from Hanover and Hamburg on the west to Danzig on the east and to Halle in Saxony. 1634). was trained at from 1674 at 'His official life was a broken one Altdorf and Ratisbon. with organ-pieces (1664) and other works. and. though kirche. were Johann Staden (d.224 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 106 a centre of Protestant music. Other names are Johann Ulrich Steigleder (d. though lacking in the power of extended and sustained treatment. who Johann Erasmus Kindennann (d. like the cessor in 1655 PMlipp Krieger (d. both organists at Bayreuth. Buttstett and J. . but to him is due the impulse that His later made Germany the home of the noblest organ style. influence was exceedingly wide. HeinrichScliwenimer (d. the son of Johann above. besides other instru mental works. 1695). who. he taught many good pupils. and was dearly one of his early models. a teacher . Bach (J. and also of Heinlein in 1686. was from 1635 at the Lorenza pupil of Kindermann. with its capacity for every phase of con trapuntal art. at the Sebalduskirche from 1620 from 1630 at the Egidienkirche. not only published good preludes and fugues (from 1645). though of eminence. a sound perception of the special qualities of treatment germane to the organ. I735)> both born at Nuremberg and more or less trained there. and Early in the century Nuremberg became the organists of its churches were often influential and productive in styles not all composers appropriate to the Protestant service. Several of his pupils were really greater than he. 1655). with ricercari and variations (from 1624). cathedral-organist at Ulm. 66. Wecker (d. and Sebastian Anton Scherer.. From him came 106. connection with Italy has already been noted (see sees. Bach's elder brother). of important pupils Paul Heinlein only late in life an active organist. and from 1695 at Nuremberg. His abundant organ-works were left mostly in MS. like Vetter. a con temporary of Scheidt. 1686). fied. who brothers were later prominent in central Germany. after work at Berlin. from 1677 at Eisenach. 1696). Vienna. born in 1653 at Nuremberg. Johann Pachelbel (d. uniting the brilliance and effectiveness of the southern school with much of the solidity of the northern. succeeding Wecker at the Sebalduskirche. a pupil of Kindermann and his suc Georg Kaspar poser. S. not to mention others. C. 1635) f Stuttgart. The extent of Sweelinck's The North German School. and the one from 1 680 at Weissenfels and the other from 1681 at Zittau. . He was one of the pioneers in the competent development of the chorale-prelude. 1655). While at Erfurt. Sigmund Staden (d. His style was diversi except some good preludes and variations (1683-99).

etc. at Hamburg and * Stralsund. and. right. preserved. remaining till his death. Paul Siefert (d. was from 1641 at the Marienkirche at Ltibeck. probably due to his his close SV success with vocal works. royal K traditions are choirmaster of Poland. being succeeded at his death by Ewald Hinsch. After brief terms of service at Wolfenbiittel from 1623 and at Copenhagen from His style is said to 1626. Melchior Schildt (d. born in 1601. violin-duets and short cantatas (from 1645). 1654). He was not so daring an innovator as i ' contemporary Frescobaldi. a pupil of Froberger. also born in 1614 at Nuremberg. 1666). was in the Royal Chapel of Poland for some years. sinfonie (1644). 62). though born in 1586 at Erfurt. he became in 1609 court-organist at the Moritzldrche for a time choirmaster as well. but little is known of his compositions. continuing till his death almost half a and century later. Delphin Strunck (d. His organ-works Leipsic. A few chorale-preludes of his remain. where. he be came organist in 1623 at the Marienkirche. kirche. where. (1650). Eeinrich. born in 1614 and a pupil of Frescobaldi. after studying with Sweelinck. but his eminence is unquestionable. after his study with the Dutch master. but laudatory references to his skill are and he taught Reinken. after being trained by his father and by Sweelinck (at the city's expense). which show him to be one of the founders of the art of chorale-elaboration that replaced the older colorist style. bora at Danzig. but his extant works (from 1642) are meagre. all three being nearly of an age) is. His works were largely vocal. studied 1630-2. Most of his works are lost. and chorale-preludes. Franz Tunder (d. except a few settings of poems by Rist (1651) and some scattered pieces. but no of his are now known. 1663?) came of a family of organists at Ham burg. to which Siefert replied in 1645. was brought up at Hamburg. his more famous successor. His traditional place as one of <the three (with Schutz of Dresden and Schein of Leipsic. however. nor perhaps as great a genius as his followers thought him. From him we have a few chorale-elabora tions and some motets with accompaniment. and from 1639 at the Martinikirche in Brunswick. but included the much-lauded Tabulatura nova (1624). born at Halle in 1587. 1667). and in 1640 became organist at the Nikolaikirche at style is said to have been dignified and even austere. he succeeded the former at the Katharinenkirche in 1625. the first of which was the occasion of a sharp attack by Marco Scacchi (d. Besides some MS. Siefert was opinionated and quarrelsome. Jakob Pratorius (d. the son of Hieronymus (see sec. and Fabricius of Leipsic. 1667) is sometimes called Sweelinck's best pupil. have been peculiarly expressive. though we have part-songs. before 1685). Johann Martin Rubert (d. he was from 1603 for almost 50 years organist of the PetriHis virtuosity was famous. Scheidemann (d. he was from 1629 at the Marktkirche at Hanover. showing the beginnings of the line-by line treatment that was frequent later. Returning to Danzig. organ-pieces. after working with Sweelinck. 1651). his only known works are two sets of Psalms (1640. Q Contemporary with him at Stralsund in the .106 THE NORTH GERMAN SCHOOL : 223 Sweelinck's greater pupils include the following Samuel Scheldt (d. 1694). 1680). was organist at Wolfenbiittel in then at Celle. '51).

With him the art of chorale-elaboration appears in full maturity. He also wrote a Passion. J. whom he hailed as his true suc traordinary interest on the part of J. players assisted^ and for vespers in Nearly 70 organ-works of his have survived. he won international organs fame. since he aroused ex S. to his master's. Though Jan Reinken doubtless over-conceited. develop ment into closely-knit movements of almost modern solidity. serving in Denmark in the interval. born in 1621 and a pupil of at the Dresden Chapel in 1641-2 Schutz.elaborations. was organist first at Copenhagen and was almost equal later at Husum (Schleswig). capriccios and many motets (from 1641). born in 1623 in Lower Alsace. and suites. so that Bach in his school-days there came directly under his influence. assisted and in 1647-54. father. should be Dietrich burnt. was born in 1637 at Helsingor (Denmark). and from 1702 at His works have almost all vanished (clavierthe Ntkolaikirche in Hamburg. 1733). not now known. the Nestor of North German organists. toccatas elaborations. and some variations and chamber music. and original in registration. Of his works we have only a few elaborations. mann at Hamburg and in 1663 followed him at the Katharinenkirche. His influence upon Bach was profoundly stimulating. largely chorale. with dances. etc. born near Bremen in 1654 and trained by his from 1674 at Stade for almost 30 years. Vincent Liibeck (d. studied with Scheide (d. facile and brilliant in technique (on the pedals as well as the man while as a composer he excelled in the uals). His will directed that his toccata. in 1668 he succeeded Tunder at Lubeck Provided with one of the best to custom). invention of characteristic themes and in their intricate. served suite. his ability cannot be gainsaid. a fugue. He His reputation in his day was also a remarkably expert violinist- . and founded an important series of concerts His extant works are mostly motets and some choralethere in 1668. virtuoso. At these. 1740). born in 1661 near Gotha. a cessor in chorale-treatment. where he remained almost 60 years.. Nikolaus Bruhns (d. also some wedding-hymns. GeorgBohm (d. a pupil of Buxtehude. but the fact that Bach repeatedly took pains to hear him indicates his ability. but effective.226 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 106 Marienkirche was Johann Vierdanck. Of his works we have several chorale-variations. 1728). MSS. famous singers and them Buxtehude wrote many Adendmusiken. 1722). with He was a thorough 13 fugues. Bach. in 1655 won appointment at the Jacobikirche in Hamburg. Buxtehude the (d.1674). was first trained in PachelbePs style and at Hamburg under Reinken. 3 toccatas. a Thuringian. Matthias Weckmann (. especially through his handling from 1673 f tne annual series of musical November and December which were perhaps instituted by Tunder and which continued till the early igth century. (marrying his daughter according in Germany and enthusiastically appreciated. 1697). From 1698 he was at the Johanniskirche in Liineburg. 1707). Pratorius and Scheidemann. the greatest of whole school. and some clavier-suites and sacred songs. with remarkable harpsichord-sonatas. After thorough training from the latter. where his father was organist 32 years. besides studying French instrumental music.

town-musician and organist at Arnstadt from 1641. Werner Fabricius (d. chorales. who with the distinguished brothers Joh. 1694). . Thuringia and Saxony) there was a considerable interlocking Workers here were affected by traditions from of influences. a Johann Heinrich Buttstett (d. His importance lay in his unequaled knowledge of organ-building. 1712). dances and a handbook on organ-examination (1656). pupil of his 1684 became organist at the Marktkirche at Halle. 1692). being famous both as a virtuoso and as an His extant works (from 1657) are motets. in Wilhelm Zachau (d. began as organist in 1684 an(i followed his master at the His works . some organ-expert. born in Holstein in 1633. his brother and pupil. He sought to withstand the drift toward freer styles in fugues. the Catholic and the Protestant sides. studied law as well as music at Leipsic. As player and composer he was careful and exact. 1682). by his brother Job. in the fourth generation. 1717) Christoph of Eisenach (d. 4 masses. 1673). and became organist of the Nikolaikirche there in 1657. 1679). from 1675 at Quedlinburg (where he wrote his best works). 22/ In central Germany (mainly 107. etc. his hostility to inartistic and illmade instruments. and an account of the organ at Gruningen. While their more both natural affiliation was with the South German school. 1727). church music by a pamphlet (1717). father. so that by the end of the century this middle school presented an amalgamation of the best from all sources. long line of organists in the Bach family includes. His fame rests on the fact that for several years before 1702 he was Handel's teacher. Conspicuous among the masters here were many of the Bachs. was taught by Selle and Scheidemann at Hamburg. 1706). The marked. won notice as a when not 12 years old. 113). born near Erfurt in 1666 and pupil of Pachelbel there. Michael of Gehren (d. and his theoretical writings (see sec. of which those on the organ were the Orgelprobe (1681). . was from 1664 organist at Hasselfelde. the stronger northern styles were eagerly studied and adopted. Christian succeeded Johann at Erfurt in 1673 an d was in turn followed (d. 97) long rather to the i8th century.(1705-20) include chorale-variations. Egidius (d. Predigerkirche in 1691. where he was also city-councilor and royal organ-inspector. and several in the sixth generation who be Heinrich's sons (see sec. Here the influence of Pachelbel became . Johann (d. born at Leipsic in 1663. born in 1645 i n tne Hartz.107 THE THURINGIAN SCHOOL . The Thuringian School. and Heinricli (d. 1703) and Joh. firmly grounding him in Friedrich the technique of composition. Joh. worker in chorales and the teacher of his two sons in the fifth generation. trained by two uncles. clavichordist Andreas Werckmeister (d. especially as Pachelbel was for a time at Erfurt. a worthy. and from 1696 at Halberstadt. the pioneer study of equal tempera ment (1691). town-musician at Erfurt from 1635 and organ ist at the Predigerkirche from 1647.

1722). and Nikolaus Vetter burg and an important writer on organ-making (c. and H. practical (from 1646). pupil of Chambonnieres. and several of them. with the elder 1675). 1663). professor at Salamanca. . In France key board music tended rather to styles suited to the clavichord 108. c. 1687-1714). In England almost every church composer during the century was an organist (see sec. though some excellent masters may be cited. 99). pupil of Wecker and Pachelbel. In 1678 the post of royal organist was divided between four incumbents. 1620) . 1626) . finally Bishop of Segovia (theoretical treatise. organist at Alcala (treatise. Rogers. Among these were Giullaume Gabriel Nivers with many works. Nicholas Antoine Le BSgue (d. collection. 1 690) from 1691 court-organist at (d. . Purcell. 1698). the advance of organ music elsewhere was much less significant. like Bull. 1710). In Spain and Portugal were Manoel Rodrigues Coelho of Lisbon (important Francisco Correa de Arauxo (d.228 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 1Q8 Among many other names may be mentioned Johann Kuhnau (d. In Western Europe. 1672) nillas (d. In France there were no noted players till toward the end of the century. an d Jacques Tkomelin. Blow . 1702). organist at Seville. Rudolstadt. after 1701). in development instead of the organ. and Josef CavaAndr6s Lorente (d. Gibbons. which was laying broad foundations for still greater production later. with some similar works (from [Nivers and Le Begue. 0. later an organ-teacher as well as lawyer.and organ-pieces for the Catholic ser vice. 1725). 1664). theoretical and (d. cathedral-organist at Urgel.] Another able composer for organ and clavier was Andrl Raison (works. a famous virtuoso. were among those who successfully opposed the i bizarre pretensions of Guillaume dit Manoir to rule the profession as Roi des a patent originally granted in the I4th century (book on violons in virtue of 1 music and the dance. organist at the Thomaskirche in Leipsic in 1684-1701 and Bach's predecessor at the Thomasschule Johann Philipp Bendeler (d. attained permanent distinction. 1708). Frangois Couperin (d. including choir. cantor at Quedlin. As compared with the portentous Germany. Only in England were these numerous enough to affect the national style as a whole. each serving three months at a time. 1703).

108. lyres a dulcimer 24. Stringed Instruments in General. 66. lyre. 54-57> 65. ' Both are usually placed away from the player. strings extend to tuning-pegs in the * Lutes are sounded by stopped so as to yield more than one tone. 30-34. Both are held horizontally and turned like the lyre. 36-38. Of all musical instru ments. The 'lute' and the horizontally. in fig. 25. lutes in figs.CHAPTER XIV THE VIOLIN. 52. 23. Upon the latter. 107 . 9. Zithers are sounded by plucking. 7o~77? 87. 8. along which all All such strings can be head. frets or bridges may be placed so that some or all of the strings can be shortened by Historically. 14. dulcimer. 26. 16. * device of stopping has been confined to the zither or psaltery. but parallel to it in the lyre. dulcimers by blows from a rod or hammer. 6. the strings running either across or Each artistic of these types has importance. 35. zither (psaltery). The < harp and the ' lyre are distinguished by having the strings either wholly or partially free from the soundbox (except at or near their lower attachment). 10. figs. except some larger varieties of the viol. 93. properly capable of but one tone. 29. lute though cases occur which are difficult to assign. ' ' * 'viol' are peculiar in having a slender neck or or most of the fingerboard projecting from the soundbox. Harps are usually held with the strings ing. with or without a plectrum. The ( zither and the * dulcimer have the strings stretched from end to end over the soundbox or soundboard. 49. 7. but lyres (unless very large) are held more or less horizontally. 50. ' ' under generic and viol. so as to present the strings to the player's right hand. 18. 27. often of great Harps were conspicuous in ancient times 229 . and viols in figs. 1 upright. with one edge of the soundbox down. had a distinct history. MUSICAL LITERATURE 109. 13. 21. those with strings for the sounding material have always been chief. this pressure and thus made to yield more than one tone. zithers in figs. 64. 67-69. the friction of a bow or plucking. 15. They may be roughly classified names like harp. 48. sometimes with a plectrum. but viols by sidewise something analogous. the string-plane being at right angles to the face of Each string is the soundbox in the harp. 6. 17. the pitch of which is not controlled by In both cases the strings are sounded by plucking or twang 'stopping. 28. in Harps of various kinds are shown in figs.


were more and more considered in the i6th century. 51) and many complicated forms. the zither type passed over into the harpsichord. from which also the curious nun's-fiddle or 'marine trumpet' was descended (see Fig. . in modern times they have generally Qth century. I modern orchestral as a chromatic until the early Lyres were characteristic in Egyptian and Greek music they continued in the Middle Ages as variants among the more common harps. Experi ments have often been made with keyboard viols. . not prominent . The clavichord. ' . especially through Mohammedan channels. they were .' some of which were lyres or lutes. but none of these has had success. they in ancient . . highly artistic instruments their advance was then delayed till the i Qth century. used but have since lost place. had regarding the remote ancestry of the violin.110 STRINGED INSTRUMENTS 231 Egypt and Greece. satisfactory results. and the dulcimer type into the pianoforte. 52). among the most interesting being those of the Kelts and from these has come in Assyria. and in the i/th assumed an artistic leadership among solo instruments that has since not been questioned. The Genesis of the Violin. though in mediaeval usage they were common because of their relatively great sonority in proportion to size and as . Dulcimers were known to the Assyrians and and they persisted into the Middle Ages in varied With a keyboard added. the whose perfecting and transposing instrument was not achieved harp. throughout the Middle Ages known in manifold shapes and sizes. but without It is likely that several early forms yielded which were gradually combined. Infinite discussion has been 110. f ' ' ' Egypt and probably by many Oriental nations thence. Among these suggestions probably were varieties of the crwth. been discarded. like the hurdygurdy (see Fig. began to compete with other types sometime in the Middle Ages. the other stringed instrument with a keyboard. Zithers were known in ancient times. was de rived from the monochord (uniting features from both zither and dulcimer). they came into great prominence in mediaeval Europe in the i6th century were chief among portable instruments in artistic valuation. Lutes were certainly the Greeks forms. being > now represented only by the guitar and mandolin. Viols which seem not to have been known to the ancients. though one has a striking likeness to the viol proper.

FIG. itan Milanese and Neapol Mandolins. Italian Guitars. or 'English FIG. 68. 68. Guitar. . 67.' Cittern. FIG. FIG. 69.232 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 110 FIG. 67.

flat backs. as were ultimately discarded. in shaping the bridge. and in settling the place and form of the longitudinal bassBut the models were still relatively thick from front to back. experiments were tried with more complicated forms. while violoncello or < small big viola. 49-50). which had from seven to Some many sympathetic strings of metal under or beside the fingerboard.110 THE GENESIS OF THE VIOLIN 233 frame (see Figs. but pre In the i6th is not certain. that is. and the bass. of technical perfected violin-model presents many points Every detail has interest. Yet the critical difference of the viol as to the method of sound ing tended always to keep the number of the strings small and decidedly to modify ' its outer contour. still later come the term Similarly < 6 or 'arm-viola and viola da gamba or Meg. in fixing it upon gains had been made in details a soundpost.' also in more than one size. 'violone' or <big viola'. had bar. Important influence doubtless came from some Oriental forms.) The larger the viol. great makers lay in gradually conquering every problem one of the several possible combinations and then in perfecting to the certain broad lines of While of the factors. and the early makers of the latter were generally luthiers. Besides the three or four standard sizes of the viol proper. i violino or little viola. cisely which of them and when in spite of its rectangular century every effort to improve the lute reacted on the viol. adhering . The genius of the are form and The adjustment fully involved. In the typical viol the in the lute. such as the <lyra' in several sizes. In the i$th century more than one size began to be made. and the c viola d amore. but they were 1 steadily being replaced by the true violin. and to this the name ' (Hence later the treble or discant viol was called especially attached. Naturally the ' was viola tenor size was held to be typical. so as to imitate the parts of the vocal choir. which was double-strung and required a broad. ' The mediaeval vielle or fiddle ' had a body more or less pear-shaped. and the shape and placing of the soundholes were capricious. the greater the need of providing means of free access to the strings for the bow and of augmenting the strength and rigidity of the body. of these transitional forms remained in use till about 1800. which cannot be briefly described. A 6 few of the transitional steps may here be noted.viola' viola da braccio ' i 1 i ' 1 7 1 1 were designations both of size and of position in playing. Probably before this. line of the body was The broken by a waist true violin type appeared only when the out ' ' with corners reinforced within by decided blocks. sloping shoulders and very variable contours. following that of the Troubadour rebec. and the results understood. of small variations in been exhaustively studied. high-arched bridge. but in the violin these fingerboard was provided with frets. early in the i6th century.

74. contours. 70. and unfinished bass- FIG. scroll and inlaid showing orna mentation (from Hipkins). Violin-Making the linings bar. bass-bar and soundpost.Making completed instrument. FIG. 74. 70.234 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 110 FIG. 72. jQioles *nd inlaid purfling. 73. . Violin-Making ribs. FIG. FlG. (1679) side Stradivari Violin view. neck and head. The same front showing contours. FlG. view. Violin. 71. 73. FIG. FIG. linings and corner-blocks.

since success in the art depended on the inheritance not only of patterns and models. The chief makers worked at Brescia a region offering superb mate in northern Italy in fine instrument-making. At Brescia the most noted names full. 1 < 1 the location of the soundholes and of the soundpost. and near rials. though perhaps the are Gasparo da Salb [Bertalotti] (d. in the early i6th century and even in the any true violins much antedate 1550. . size and placing of the nearly 60 pieces. took place between the middle of the i6th century and the first third of the i8th. though Giovanni Paolo Maggini his relation to the Cremonese makers is not clear successful with the larger viols and (d. pupil of Da Salb. 1609). join ing and gluing. to note the value of the corners. the other to the eye. especially Andrea (d. his two sons Antonio and . in the grace and harmony of the outlines. then the headquarters for artistic secular music. often rich tone with violins of a first . the quality of tone secured and into the 149)- one appealing to the ear. ever. 1680). but it is doubtful whether artistic viols were common. The evolution of the violin 111. 1640). The niceties of the art include not only the choice and proper season ing of the woods for every part and the minute determination of the shape. Bavaria. and their or Cremona disciples gradually became frequent throughout western Europe. but of cate manipulation. each maker had marked and often applied his own method in It is certainly most remarkable. The Great Violin-Makers. culminating with the work of geniuses like Stradivari and Guarneri. specially and his son Pietro Maggini (d. First stands the Amati family. established traditions ness to Venice.111 THE GREAT VIOLIN-MAKERS common to all. Austria and the Tyrol also had able masters. At Cremona the great makers are more numerous and renowned. Many instances occur of families of makers whose skill descended from generation to generation. Similar niceties enter making of the bow by which the strings are sounded (see sec. since these deter mine the centre and character of the vibrations transmitted from the Individuality is shown in the strings through the bridge to the body. who had many pupils. Several makers are often deli named I5th. c. but the very important treatment of the whole with beauti ful varnishes and the decoration of the head with its carved 'scroll and of Critical attention is required for the edges of the back with purfiing. c. that in the main the art of violin-making reached a culmi nation so long ago as 1700 which seems to be unsurpassable. 1611). with their perfect modeling. quite his father's equal. how construction that are individuality of method peculiar or unique ways.

Viola d'Amore. miniature or pocket vio often used by dancing-masters. 77.11 FIG. 76. with sympathetic strings. 75. ter called in Viola da Gamba and Alto Violthe lat France haute centre. .236 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 1. ' ' FIG. 76. Pochettes FlG. lins. FIG.

in South Germany until Violin-making of an advanced type did not begin lutes and viols were manufactured with sin far into the lyth century. who settled finall y at L ^ onS7 and J * B ' Vuillaume are extremely many. Thus in Pied mont was Gotofredo Cappa (till 1640). (till 1730). followers of Guarneri. S. Pigue (d. 1737). followed and Nicholas Lupot (d. Matthias Albani 1673). Antonio Stradivari (d. 1786) and other descendants. and Carlo Giuseppe Testore (till 1720). with Alessandro (till 1730) and continuing for two or three generations. and his son Matthias (d. 1638. whose instruments . Domenico Montagna and Santo Serafino (till 1748)? famous for a pupil of Stradivari (till c. after 1709) studied at Cremona and finally worked at Rome. senda (d. probably with several others. The acme of the art Guarneri family includes Pietro Andrea (working till c. (d. Gesu (from his use of I. coming to Rome from Salzburg. with his son Giovanni Battista (d. 1822). and the noted son of the latter. 1743). Still another of the same school was Giovanni Francesco Pres- son Giovanni traditions . 1745). . 1799). of whom generally preferred a small model and sought sweetness of tone brilliance. 1875). At Milan were Paolo Grancino (till 1692). Of was Jakob Stainer (d. grand pattern is of the high Greatest among their successors. 1683). the best of which extended about a quarter-century from 1700. whose best usually called del more than power or though Nicola's i 1 * ' * work equals family. 1684). also a Tyrolese. 1635). The Ruggeri and Lorenzo Guadagnini (till 1740). H. the chief of a large Parisian family that Other well-known Parisian makers are F. both as to refinement and brilliancy of tone. 1742). (d. In the Guarneri line was Lorenzo Storioni (d. 1859). and his sons. mark the with his sons Francesco and Omobono (d. beginning with Francesco (d. Among have been some Italians the closest students and cleverest imitators of the great French makers. L. whose style had several stages. From Cremona the developed art passed to other places. reaching far into the iQth century. his son Giuseppe his grandson Pietro and his nephew Giuseppe Antonio (d. representing Amati (till 1720). c. Jacobs (d. Later Cremonese makers of note were the Ceruti family and others. 1695). Stradivari's. Pierre Silvestre (d. At Naples the Gagliano family. who worked first at Palermo and later at Paris and London. 1740). 1755). Among Stradivari's pupils were Carlo Bergonzi (d. 1740) of Amsterdam. At Venice were Francesco Gobetti (till 1715). and as to grace of form. and whose achievements then. includes Giovanni Battista (till 1723). 1854) of Turin. Leading names are Peeter Dutch and many whose work follows that of Nicola Amati. a Tyrolese who studied with the Amatis and whose violins now rank only second to those of the best Cremonese artists.' on his labels). Stradivari. probably Nicola's pupil. a pupil of Nicola Amati. Nicola (d. was est rank. strength ened his style by incorporating Italian features. David Tecchler (d. 1720). in Vincenzo Panormo (d. though the many makers who then appeared the most original gular ingenuity.i82 4 ). begin the beauty of his varnish and finish. was one of Stainer's best pupils. 1743. 1813). and his with others of the same family. ning The same derivation is still clearer upheld for a time the Stradivari tradition.111 THE GREAT VIOLIN-MAKERS 237 all Geronimo (d. whose instruments are often confused with those of the Amatis.

But with the rise of the opera. witnessed the foundation of violin music and violin-playing. a harp. 1795). For more than a century -further. Bernhard Fendt (d. 1832). a Tyrolese. the greater was the stimulus composers to devise and work out special effects. therefore. Violin. effect. emancipation of the orchestra as a body of solo instruments was delayed until after 1750. often with clear signs that the value of the stringquartet as a nucleus was appreciated. settling of the for . Wil liam Forster (d. The /th century. Late in the century works by Legrenzi.making in German than The rapid improve Early Violin Music and Violinists.' But in 1608 Mon teverdi in his opera Orfeo employed 16 viols (including 2 violins) with 14 wind instruments. It remained Haydn and Mozart to make a permanently satisfactory adjustment. the true orchestra began shape with viols of different grades constituting almost half the total force. compare the make-up of orchestras at different peri we hear of accompaniments for intermezzi in contended with three or four times as many wind instru as 1565 bowed instruments. using both terms in the wide sense that in cludes all bowed instruments. 112 England began early and was at first more indebted to Prominent names are Benjamin Banks of Salisbury (d. Charles Harris (c. and several descendants. The more these were appreciated and the better be 112. and John Frederick Lott (d. however. 2 large lutes and 2 harpsichords. though more and more the violThe complete quartet was pushed into the foreground. 1807). It is instructive to ods. if not always consistently maintained. Scarlatti show a preponderance 1 which 7 viols ments and 2 harpsichords. In the later i6th century manifold experiments had been made with strange aggregations of instruments for concerted All these lacked a settled principle of organization. As early In 1600 Peri did not use viols for <the first opera. Richard Duke (till 1780). 1853). ment of the violin came to the instruments themselves. 1800). and his sons. and to players to i overcome the technical difficulties involved. and its larger relatives was due to the recog nition of their remarkable artistic possibilities. In the 1 8th century Bach and Handel applied the orchestra in very different ways. and Cavaliere only one for 'the first oratorio.238 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY to Italian influence. but of they modern orchestra on its present lines. These lay in two directions. each for his own contributed little to the purposes. solidity of harmonic structure was secured by the almost con stant use of the harpsichord. particularly under Monteverdi to take (himself a violist of long experience). concerted or orchestral combinations and solo effects. Lully and A.

one of the best violinists of the time. 1713). the vocal composer of sonatas (from 1693) Bologna and Ferrara. interesting for their attempts at imitative effects or toneMarco Uccellini of Modena followed (from 1639) in a stronger style. all treated with emphasis on some metric figure and on brilliant touches of executive effect. the selection and order varying. The germs of the later styles appeared somewhat before 1600 in works by and from 1620. violist at Bologna from. organist at St. and finally a lively. Gabrieli. gigue. second. a notable player and composer for strings (from 1677). the eminent Venetian. though with a tendency toward the later plan t pavan or allemande. dashing movement. B. : was Massimiliano Neri. Still abler of chamber-pieces. coranto. and fourth. since many minds worked upon the problem. and the sonata da camera/ which was practically a set of dances.112 EARLY VIOLIN MUSIC 239 in Prior to about 1650 there was little consensus as to the forms which purely instrumental music should be written. sarabande. all treated with considerable contrapuntal detail. the sonata da chiesa. . Among the known names are these Carlo Farina. not only strengthened the Further advance orchestra. his son. a flowing melodic section. 1690). but they show that he artist of true feeling. We cannot name precisely the pioneers in these innovations.' usually con ' sisting of a slow. His extant works (from 1683) are not point of view not ambitious. painting. Two varieties were distinguished. Mark's. where he won immense renown as violinist. Arcangelo Corelli (d. Bassani (d. After that date composers tended to apply the term sonata to pieces for a small group of Instruments or for a solo instrument with accompaniment. From him has developed by direct artistic descent a long line of violin masters of the greatest significance. stately introduction. Venice (works from 1644). and with real insight into the genius of his instrument. a quick fugal movement. 1692). violin solos were attempted. third. first. since later works imply so much of settled procedure. before 1685 became the prote'ge' of Cardinal Ottoboni Rome. published (1626-8) 5 sets G. Modena from 1674 (chamber-works from 1666). . with stringed chamber music soon after. composer and teacher. a Mantuan at the Saxon court. was made by Giovanni Battista Vital! (d. 1716). Tommaso after some years in at Germany. 1666 and choirmaster at Vitali. the Venetian organist. but wrote valuable chamber-sonatas (from 1655). who may have been the first to distinguish between the two kinds of sonata. with striking and G. born near Imolain 1653 and a pupil of Bassani. Thus instrumental composition worked itself free from the old imitation of vocal styles and launched out into forms that were perfectly suited to of. It is conjectured that some important composers of this period may have been forgotten. Legrenzi (d. the instruments used. a skillful consolidator of style rather than an in in spite of his simplicity and modesty. many and from a modern was an novator. though iso ' ' lated works showed thought and skill.

operas. were Carlo Ambrogio Marini of Ber Bartolomeo Girolamo Laurenti (d. mostly lost). In Germany. court-musician at Kremsier (Moravia) and . In the second half. Other Italian writers c. 1708). 1726) of gamo (many works from 1687) Antonio Veracini of Florence (works from Bologna (works from 1691) and the fertile opera-writer Tommaso Albinoni (d. . an ingenious player. except Corelli.music was not usually from that in the orchestral side of the opera. .240 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 112 Giuseppe Torelli (d. a noted gambist. very celebrated in his time. self-taught at Bologna and long violinist there. 1630) of Brescia . 1691. 1712). (many . but developed more as The operatic over parts of operas than as independent works. whose works (from 1673) ran ^ fairly with those of the Italians Johann Jakob Walther of Dresden. both bowed and wind rich Franz von Biber (d. 87). . in the first half of the century were Biagio Marini (d. from 1649 a player in the Imperial Chapel at Vienna and from 1679 choirmaster. especially in dance-forms and accompaniments for vocal works. was not only a close contemporary of Corelli. 1704). belong to northern Italy. . These two instrumental the two kinds of Italian . from 1675 at Salzburg. but after 1696 at Ansbach. Con certed suites of dances were frequent. with chamber music (from 1662) and many ballets for Almost posers . It will be noted that all these. though writing for bowed instruments was some what abundant during the second half of the century. Johann Pezel of Leipsic. the Ham burg opera-writer (see sec. were sonata. and elsewhere in Italy. essentially analogous to In them progress tended gradually toward clearness. but not a remarkable composer (works from 1676) Johann Schenk of Dusseldorf and Amsterdam. besides madrigals and motets from 1615). but * < with him was instrumental in defining the concerto and the concerto grosso forms in which either a solo violin or a solo group is thrown into contrast ' ' with a concerted accompaniment. 1745) of Venice 1692) works from 1699?). representative com being Briegel of Darmstadt (d. . cluding who worked variously in Italy and Germany (works from 1617. 1660). a very facile writer (works from 1652) Nikolaus Hasse of Rostock (1656) Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (d. . In France interest in pure chamber . notably industrious (from 1670) in writ Hein ing for various combinations of instruments. whose playing won CorellPs admiration and honors from several courts (sonatas. ture also became steadily more significant. no com manding master or historically important style was developed: all the works produced were sets of dances. 1680). . with works for the gamba (from 1685) and Strunck (d. with a few pieces (1641) and Tarquinio Merula of Bergamo and Cremona (chamber-works from 1626. 1700). laid out in dissociated being three styles or four distinct movements. in much vocal music) Giovanni Battista Fontana (d.

settled in London (works from 1687). 1695). 88. afterward a of public concerts (perhaps the first in England) . 1698) and Mention may also be made of Christopher Simpson in the royal band after 1662. 1678). fancies and 'rants' (dance-tunes) called the first significant English violinist. But the iand that lute-books were still issued from time to time. 1735). massive first movement. Purcell (d. the royal band because teacher and the leader his son and an Italian It John Banister. then a melodious slow movement. and Jean Rousseau. Many writers elsewhere from 0. a lutist and violist. generally of slight value. Nicolas a Kempis. Lawes (d. author on and composer for the gamba at Paris (1687). with much chamber music (from . c. especially late in the century. but the diffused interest is to be noted as illustrating the tendency of musical thought. 1677). In all this the influence of Lully was dominant. 85). concertmaster at the opera (works from 1688) . but better suites of dances were com mon after 1660. lute should be added that the strong 16th-century interest in the and theorbo. Mention should also be made of Marin Marais (d. and radiated more or less into Germany and England. Sr. a good gambistj with several instruction-books (from 1659) John Jenkins (d. with much gamba and chamber music (from 1686). 99) put forth chamber music. which were usually sec. in the royal orchestra 40 years from 1685. Jr. James II. named (sees. It is to be remembered that Lully (d. who left of friction with the French players in it.. and Queen Anne. 1679). and W. teaching before the Civil War and . 1687) first won recognition at Paris as a violinist about 1650 and that his works began soon after (see He was most successful with his overtures. with concerted pieces even before the Common perimented wealth. In England the established national zeal for secular vocal music passed over more or less into a care for instrumental Several composers ex works. then a lively fugal move ment. continued to some extent into the i/th. John ing sonatas. organist at Brussels. Early pieces were often called 'fancies/ which were somewhat contrapuntal fantasias. . (d.112 EARLY V/OLIN MUSIC 341 interest and artistic organization of detail and plan. (d. 1625) H. of viols steadily supplanted these older and developing family feebler instruments. and Nicola Matteis. 1728). an extraordinary gambist. includ Banister. (d. both as solo instruments and as parts of concerted combinations. violinist from 1668 to Charles II. Gibbons (d. No single composer of chamber music be came historically eminent. resuming with zest after it. 1660). laid out with a slow. 1645) to Rogers (d. put forth chamber-works as early as for 1644. 89.

Michael Pratorius (d. terest in music. THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY Literature about Music. in 1611 by C. ing almost 1200 closely printed pages Heinrich Baryphonus [Pipegrop] of Quedlinburg (d. For con The usual language venience. who also wrote encyclopaedia articles. including elaborate mathematical discussions. 1655) wrote extensively (from 1609?). He opposed solmization. 1640) of Rome and from 1630 at Siena. X. Gengenbach of Zeitz. The earliest treatise of Rome. Technical manuals of varying scope during the first years of the century were issued in 1598 by Orazio Scaletta of Padua (d. Scholarship of dictionaries busied itself still further with questions of ancient musical notable republications of Greek treatises. An early exposition of figured bass (1607) was by Agostino Agazzari (d. treated importantly of organ-playing and composition (1601-28). 1638). from 1601 by in 1 606-10 by Antonio Brunelli of Florence in Scipione Cerreto of Naples 1611-3 by Johann Heinrich Alstedt of Herborn (d. 1646). . The widespread forth numerous manuals and teaching of practical music called text-books. 1621). with several philosophical treatises on composition. the latter contain now known only by a few copies. theory. the eminent organist and composer of Bologna. by Nikolaus Arauxo of Seville (d. issued two or three works (1599-1602) in which history and theory mingled.242 113. 95). Erycus Puteanus [Hendrik van Put] (d. 1648). In these varied of study and literary production all the leading countries now taking her participated more equally than before. who also wrote (1638) on church music in the light of the action of the Council of Trent. for about 15 years at Madrid and from about 1608 at Naples. . issued two theoretical treatises (1609-13). 1663) . England lines place with the rest No exhaustive catalogue of works will be attempted. 113 The growth of intellectual in which began so fruitfully in the i6th century. Domenico Pietro Cerone (d. instruments and performance. but other languages begin to be used with freedom. and the drafting vestigation grew stronger and similar compendiums began. in 1618 by Thomas Campion of in 1618 by Giovanni Battista Rossi of Genoa London (d. was maintained and increased in the i/th. though its strong development was deferred till the i8th century. 1620) in 1620 by Francesco Rognoni-Taegio of Milan in 1626 by and in 16267 on solmization. Adriano Banchieri (d. assisted now by Musical acoustics appeared as a specialty. . Walliser of Strassburg (d. the century will be taken up in two parts. from 1607 professor in Louvain University. many now lost. 1634). . was the most important writer in the early part of the century. . choirmaster at Wolfenblittel (see sec. after 1613). only a rapid enumeration of those temporarily or permanently influential. 1630). His Syntagma . The instinct for historical in and more productive. is still Latin. on conducting as a specialty (1611) was by Agostino Pisa Georg Leopold Fuhrmann of Nuremberg wrote upon the lute and its music (1615).

harmony and counterpoint. 1650). Gaudentios. 1677). 1693). several enlarged. a monk at Paris. G. 1711) gave texts and translations of Aristoxenos. Nikomachos. Marin Mersenne (d. put forth several volumes (from 1641) as the results of his antiquarian studies. 1706) figured bass. . Rheims (d. and supplemented his magnum opus by several lesser works Criiger (d.. successively of Viterbo. . acoustics and general composition. in 1665-79 by Jean Jacques Souhaitty pher Simpson of London (d. 1666) from 1649 in 1648 by J. 1649) in 1657 by Giovanni d'Avella of Naples. Johann Battista Doni (d. c. 1648). in 1673 b Y G. treats recognized forms of composition and of technical signs and terms.. 1656) in 1654 by John Playford (d. Ahle of Miihlhausen (d. 1703) of Oxford. such as from 1640 by Lorenz Erhardi of Strassburg and Frankfort. in 1683 by Francesco Gasparini of Venice (d. Loulie" of Paris. Bononcini of Bologna (d. ii. iii. 1682) from 1646 by G. 1680). a Jesuit at Rome.113 MUSICAL LITERATURE 243 Vol. of sacred music from the earliest times and of ancient music in Vol. 1636-7) cleals with acoustics. . Euclid.R. His handling of ancient music was sharply challenged by Meibom. 1615-19. His Harmonic universelle (1627. (not completed) would have discussed the whole art of counterpoint. singing. partly grotesque. (d. published useful treatises on composition (from 1624?). 1693) of Paris 1673 by Matthew Locke of London (d. music (1623). (1634-48). . Able of Miihlhausen (d. 1639) na<^ published texts by Aristoxenos. '20) is a mine of information. with discussions (1657-99). in 1658-67 by Christo publisher. . 1682).. besides writing on ancient dancing (1618). the first English work on . the distinguished Florentine. f Giovanni Before this. of every kind of musical instrument then in use or his general torically known. 95). The chief of these was the Musurgia (2 vols. (3 vols. M. Nikomachos and Alypios ( 1 61 6). The monumental Notable among works on ancient music were those (from 1635) work (1652) of Marcus Meibom of Upsala and Utrecht (d. At intervals followed still better works Aristides Quintilianus and Capella. . . 1647). Spoleto and Rome and in 1696 by Etienne from 1687 by J. . of all the musicum . after 1701) posthumously by Gerhard Johann Voss of Leyden by King Joao IV. etc. G. with details about die training of choirs and bands. In scope and execution this work is one of the monuments of musical scholarship. with carefully executed illustrations . the London and Amsterdam (d. Egyptian music and still further with acoustics. Nivers of Herbst of Frankfort and Nuremberg (d. in 1673. i. in 1681-93 by Angelo Berardi. 1662). iv. 1673) Paris (d. 1678) a notable treatise on Plain-Song by Pierre Benoit de Jumilhac of also. . for 40 years at Berlin (see sec. by John Wallis (d. besides important chorale-collections (from 1640). i . 1727) Tivoli. Joannes Meursius (d. Bacchios. appendix. giving texts of Ptolemy. Technical treatises were numerous in the middle and later parts of the century. Vol. and Vol. treating of Other books dealt with ancient music. . Athanasius Kircher (d. in 1642-53 by Johann Andreas in 1640-66 by Otto Gibel of Minden (d. Porphyry and Bryennios. the medical use of music.. pursued similar lines. He also discussed Hebrew instruments. partly valuable. 1677) in from 1656 by Lorenzo Penna of Mantua and Parma (d. .

etc. besides his works on the organ and on temperament. 1630). 1697). Sieur Ducange (d. c. century presents no such essential novelty as the i6th. 1709) of Cambridge published (1676) a quaint book on church music. 1682-3). philosopher. viols. it was more notable. a Parisian lawyer. both of whom had previously written on composition . 1650). 1705). The mere fact that the art-form known as the was opera The extensively undertaken signified a prodigious change. published (1678) a valuable and Matthias glossary of mediaeval Latin. Hence. and since the popular applications of musical art now became more conspicuous. 1669). Thomas Mace (d. 1688). (1670). and musicians (1670) by Filippo and of about 20 Brescian composers (1685) by Leonardo Cozando. prepared a dictionary of com posers (1687). 1708) of Altdorf (in his History of Nuremberg. when it replaced church music as the principal object of pro- .th Century. Some lists or catalogues giving historical data were issued. by Johann Kepler (d. and by Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Tommasi (d. to succeed. 1713) of Rome (1680-97). publ. besides a guide to organ-playing. for example. General histories were attempted in 1690 by Wolfgang Kaspar Printz of Sorau (d. works of the same class were prepared by Liberati (d. 114. an account of 13 Venetian musicians (1605) by Giacomo Alberici. 1674) and the Meistersinger by Johann . accounts of Milanese writers . in another sense. it must appeal powerfully to the popular craving for amusement. (d. in his treatise on music (1618. 1650) and his letters (publ. and. Acoustical questions were discussed by Salomon de Caus. and by Daniele Bartoli (d. etc. (1619). 1743). the able organist of central Germany. after 1685) and by Pitone (d. Berthold Spiridio of Bamberg (1665). which Gerber used a century later. since it brought no further revolution in the fundamentals of com Yet. issued several on com position (from 1686). a Danish scholar. and in 1695 by Giovanni Andrea Bontempi of Dresden and MS. since what position. Kircher (from 1650). opera is distinctively secular. Wallis (from 1672) and Werck meister (from 1687). 1717). the great astronomer had been tentatively attempted before now advanced into con fident maturity. Louli6 of Paris invented the metronome in 1696. including many musical terms Hemrich Schacht (d. a Heidelberg architect (1615) by Rene* Descartes (d. Summary of the In one sense the i. (d. an important catalogue of dramas and operas (1666) by Leo Allacci Picinelli. as. 1617) of Speyer (1611-7). 1706). 1700). To the important collections of church music already mentioned may be added those by Abraham Schade (d. 1636). both of Rome. church music was extensively treated (1653-73) by Rome (d. c. Christoph Wagenseil (d. the lute and its music. by Mersenne (from 1635). the famous mathematician and .244 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 114 Cardinal Giovanni Bona of In the field of history. 1685). Andreas Werckmeister (d. general bibliographies (1611-25) by Georg Draud (d.

of thrilling situations were impossible without appliances very different from the feeble and colorless instruments of the i6th Hence suddenly this new group of instruments came century. yet from the first it has also afforded room and incentive to great artists to give voice to certain profound and intense emotions for which church music makes no demand. of sonority and delicacy. ocratic. of color and chiaroscuro. and of the modern use of the violin as the solo instru ment par excellence. with presently a new order of performers. the art of solo-singing received an al before. or perhaps since.114 SUMMARY OF THE CENTURY 245 it altered the whole social bearing of the besides affecting its inner character. In all this lay the promise of the modern orchestra. Though this excessive glorification of vocal technique at length made necessary a revolution in operatic methods. Music now competed for social regard in a new way. unsupported by the sentiments or institutions of religion. The hectic cultivation of the opera brought into prominence one or two sides of music that were but imperfectly developed For example. into view. together new impetus. Every latent power of dexterity and compass. -in a form essentially public and dem fessional ambition. for vocalists quite as much as for librettists and stage-managers. brought out the values of certain instrumental Especially notable was the rapid advance of the violin also The utterance of passionate feeling and the depiction family. of modern chamber music. was not only diligently cultivated. While it is true that the opera has always had grave possibilities of misuse in that it tempts to superficial methods and tends to degenerate into a vulgar diversion. It has therefore never failed to be counted one of the consummate tonal art-forms. Hence came an art of singing not heard before. . it yet served a purpose in revealing once for all the possibilities of the voice as an artistic instrument. method and aim. and then a new style of writing suited to the new resources. but such music demanded nothing like the versatility and magnetic self-expres sion essential to stage-declamation and the delivery of elaborate The 17th-century opera was necessarily sensational in arias. It is true that fine vocalization was re quired in the Palestrina type of choral writing. art. The opera voices. but enthusiastically applauded. until the display of virtuosity became the be-all and end-all of the musical drama.

it was clear. was keeping alive that feeling for counterpoint and thematic development generally which in the 1 8th century was to attain a fresh cul In this field German musi mination under Bach and Handel. in the and varied embellishment of pure melody. individuality of Out of them. cians proved themselves more apt than all others. but. still further enrichments of style.246 THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 114 tion In connection with these movements the theory of composi made steady advance. the pursuit of choral styles and of organ music was not given up. Meanwhile. the leadership had already passed from Italy to northern were to come 'sonata' Europe. In these more serious and thoughtful sides of the art. Dance-types pushed more and more into evidence of harmony proper * ' in serious writing. figures and energetic momentum. especially in the freedom and solidity as distinguished from counterpoint. with their clearness of plan. thus laying deep the foundations on which their country's later eminence was to rest. especially in the latter. and in production the establishment of form in general and of certain forms in particular. Already the and the overture were settling down into complex series of movements in which larger conceptions could find expression than are possible in an extended work without such separated and contrasted divisions. .


120. CHAP. THE CULMINATION OF THE EARLY ITALIAN OPERA. 125. 1 1 8. 117. CHAP. 126. 11 6. 137. 129. FORMS OF COMPOSITION. His Style and Significance. Opera in France. 136. 134. The Overture. Literature about Music. 122. 119. Johann Sebastian Bach. Instrumental Ensembles. THEORY AND LITERATURE. His Style and Works. The Suite. CHAP. 138. Other German Church Music. The Larger Forms in General. The Imperial Chapel. XV. 139. XVII. XVI. The Fugue. The The The The The Completed Art-Form. Georg Friedrich Handel. Opera in Germany. CHURCH Music 115. German Church Music at its Culmination. Rise of the Neapolitan School. Summary of the Half-Century. Opera Buffa. XVIII. 140. General Survey. of the Virtuoso. 131. 141. The Rise Solo Instruments.- Keyboard Stringed Instruments. 248 . 142. 132. The Church Cantata and Oratorio. Sonata and Concerto. INSTRUMENTS AND INSTRUMENTALISTS. 123. In Italy. 130. 121. IN BACH'S TIME. 124.PART V THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY CHAP. 135. Tuning and Temperament. In England. 128. 127. 133. The English Ballad-Opera.

Probably the widespread political unrest and the economic disorders of the time somewhat checked musical enterprise. the immediate impulse to creation in art was for the time lessened. of Eng land (1727-60). (1697-1718) the rise of Russia under Peter the Great (St. Maria Theresa of Austria (1740-80). of France (1715-74). in 1688 and 1714. historical movement from about 1690 were extremely complicated. and. the century may well be divided into two parts.CHAPTER XV CHURCH MUSIC 115. All the fine arts. The mediaeval vision of a Holy Roman Em Salient events were the dynastic changes in England pire was vanishing. too. (d. 249 . War of the Spanish Succession. the second looking forward toward the iQth. ending with the Peace of Utrecht (1713) and the success of the Bourbons. George II. 1713) and that forth with tended to displace the waning eminence of the Empire. though in both a host of other masters de this mand attention and in neither dictated by individuals. The first is popularly known as the age of Bach and Handel. influence of Sweden under Charles XII. but short-lived. the latter involving entanglements with Germany. Peter the Great of Russia (1696-1725). since music was but indirectly affected by them. and the Seven Years War (1756-63). . the first related closely to the i/th century. incidental to which were repeated collisions be the . while important gains were made in preparing for the science and literature of the future. The political conditions was the however great. For the reason and because then distinctly new points in musical procedure become prominent. the cornplicated War of the Austrian Succession (1741-8). Only the barest hints of these are needed. but of these the majority belong to the time after 1750. Petersburg founded in 1703) the strong advance of Prussia that began with Frederick I. suffered temporarily from the diffused spirit of intellectual doubt and criticism that now set in. 1 tween France and England on both sides of the Atlantic. 1 IN BACH'S TIME General Survey. The longest reigns were those of Louis XV. the second as that of Haydn and Mozart. the brilliant. The number of musicians of note in 8th century is at least three times as great as in the i/th. and Frederick the Great of Prussia (1740-86). The age was one of readjustments of thought.

the other mostly in England. led all this progress to a consummation so complete that no later period has been able to add much . rage for the opera proceeding with two great styles which Italy presently forgot. unlike Plain-Song. the fugue. which was the product of a different race chorale. German Church Music at its Culmination.250 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 116 The conspicuous happenings in music before 1750 were these. The invention of the pianoforte belongs the same period. shows itself as a new meeting-point between the old and the new. before 1750. namely. both for voice and for organ. during the violin first third of the century the to was perfected. both contrapuntal in structure. the first of the triumvirate of superlative geniuses now universally recognized. with a fuller recog the analytic spirit of the age. chorale. field In the pioneer. the motet and the immature liturgical oratorio. chorus music and organ music. and its fund of material was upon the and faith. Musical nition of the individuality of particular instruments. expression were much increased The possibilities of harmonic of by the growing acceptance The half-century the doctrine of tuning in equal temperament. though its special influence came much later. The older type of the Italian opera was perfected by Alessan- dro Scarlatti and Handel. The means of instrumental music were greatly improved. the one working in Italy itself. rising in a few of its achievements into comparison with the i6th century. came to a mighty culmination in Bach. a multitude of writers in the I7th century labored earnestly and fruitfully upon the chorale-elaboration. advanced on lines quite it Hence Protestant composition instinctively unknown in Italy. theory and science exhibited fresh activity in accordance with of clavier music Domenico Scarlatti stands out as a Chamber music continued to grow. then. Church music in Germany was an The great Bach intensely living art. in Germany it was based 116. Connected with this was the estab lishment by Handel of the English oratorio as a concert-form. The constantly growing. As has been noted. As has already been seen. While in sacred music revolved about the Catholic liturgy and drew Italy its materials from Gregorian sources. was vitally con nected with popular life and feeling. In the face of the preserved its integrity. In Germany the advance of church music.

though with art. and often another motet in the Communion Service. and some sical features very simply accompanied. and emphatically popular. Even on ordinary Sundays the often spreading over more than one day. themselves with enthusiasm. While such services were not universal. the 'principal music' (either a motet or a cantata). all the Bachs threw ally. beginning at seven o'clock. pacity of the thus entered by inheritance into the heart of the richest life of Germany as it stood at the opening of the i8th century.117 GERMAN CHURCH MUSIC AT ITS CULMINATION 251 Bach's work stood squarely within the lines then established. many chorales. the Creed. Pains were taken to vary the method of the musical exercises. upon that of several preceding generations. especially Italy choir. 117. in towns and cities full of traditions the Bachs and where several noted relatives were still at work. The accumulated artistic ca Johann Sebastian Bach. were an extended organ-prelude. the Kyrie. other special day were prescribed. a motet (usually in Latin). but without the instruments.He grew up and did all his mature work in of Thuringia and Saxony. some being either a cappetta or High Mass. He was keenly con countries. notably in the general . The technical It remained for him to fill foundations were already provided. not only the Bible lessons. others lavishly supported by the organ or other The afternoon service was also elaborate. like the Roman and Anglican. The outline of services closely followed the Catholic. none more so than the greatest of the family. the frequent congregational musical 1 For every Sunday and chorales and the prominence of the sermon. morning service was nearly four hours long. chorales kept them in the understanding and affection of the people gener Into this system. Eucharist. Bach family found manifestation in the genius of Johann Sebastian. but most of the chorales and some other musical exer The observance of high festivals was fuller in regular services. with its free use of music. the style with further vitality and to apply it to the utterance of ^grand ideas. especially that for the organ He musical and the welcoming impressions from every school. was favorable to The annual calendar was the old Church Year. Its order was like that of cises. including an hour^s sermon and the Eucharist. the versicles and the prayers. scious of the best tendencies of the time. His much from the styles of other catholicity enabled him to absorb and France.. By indefatigable study he made himself master of the literature of German music. few saints days. The Lutheran liturgy. in the chief townchurches they were a conspicuous item in municipal oversight and expen The use of the vernacular and of diture. the Litany. except in the use of the German language. The mu parts of it were in the old Latin forms. often embellished with prelude and interludes.

access to the fine school library. 1750) was born in 1685 at Eisenach. and this. but he was soon made town-organist at Arnstadt. he began the indefatigable independent study that contin ued through his life. but his greater legacy to musical progress is the far larger number of geniuses that have rejoiced to of his works. but not until almost a century after was there any adequate recognition of all that he was and that he did for musical art. his brother fruitful contact with Georg Bohm (d. with a Here he began com large new organ and opportunity for study and writing. a respected violist there since 1671. thither on foot) to hear the organ and choir music of Buxtehude. for the satisfaction of his success. Michael's at Luneburg (near Hamburg). In 1707. . where his soprano voice was valued. Here he had practice in the best church music. where his gifts as a player saved him when presently his voice broke. succeeding J. G. regardless In certain quarters and on some sides of immediate his greatness was understood and reverenced during his life. He long outstayed his leave. At the school he gained a fair classical education. and of gigantic expression for own intuitive aspirations. the veteran Danish organist. the opera. In 1703 his skill as a violinist gave him a place at Weimar in one or both of the court-bands. and at Ohrdruf. He also learned much of French chamber music from hearing the ducal orchestra at Celle. led him to remove in 1707 to Muhlhausen. with schooling at the academy at In 1700 a place was secured for Ohrdruf. Losing both parents before 1695. him in the choir and school of St. Now he is clearly seen to have been not only the consummation of the best progress of previous times. From the first he was grounded in the contrapuntal style as used by various schools of German organists. with some differences about details in his work. but cared little for the opera. and his taste set toward church and chamber music. organist From his father he received instruction on the violin and from on the harpsichord and organ. He often visited Hamburg to hear Reinken (d. Ahle. for power to sur levels of con was not ready. which his age he chose more and more to labor Accordingly.252 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 117 theory of composition and in instrumental music It was no narrowness that led him to disregard from the first he was probably conscious of his pass what was for the time exalted and to reach structive intricacy as a specialty. whose style powerfully influenced him. Late in 1705 he had leave to visit Lubeck (traveling the position in earnest. He trained many excellent pupils. 1733). the eighth child of Ambrosius Bach. he was given a home by his brother Christoph. the organist. 1722). In music. having no special master. Johann Sebastian Bach own him as master simply from the study (d. 225 m. but also the source of the strongest tendencies of all modern music outside of the dra matic field.

where he just missed seeing Handel. G. but chamber music of various sorts was in constant demand. and entered deeply into its de veloping sense of extended form. but in 1708 was called to be court-organist and violinist to the Duke of Weimar. former). probably because not fully appreciated at Weimar. pupils. as to Leipsic in 1717. to Carlsbad several times with the Prince. Here he attained absolute command of organ technique. Walther. adopting traditional outlines in part. concertos and similar extended forms. combining some features of operatic style with his immense resources in thematic writing. In 1717. and to Meiningen and Dresden. His celebrity had already begun to attract. happiest and best of his life. a strict Lutheran and a great lover of church music. and the Kapelle competent in the town-church the organist was the contrapuntist J. Leipsic and Halle. like Frescobaldi and Albinoni. where in 1714 he was sought as town-organist. including suites. The Prince of Anhalt-Cothen was highly cultivated and an enthusiastic musician he favored the Reformed Church. daughter of Michael Bach of Gehreu. but trans forming them by prodigious contrapuntal enrichment. and composed most of his greater works for the clavichord and harpsichord. guiding him in works for violin. but excellent. where in 1717 he challenged the boastful French clavier-player Marchand to a trial of skill which the latter lost by default. a form between the viola and the 'cello. His mastery of stringed instruments became prominent. Here he matured his views as to clavier technique and as to temperament. however. for which church music was un important. He studied Italian chamber music. gamba and ''cello that only a practical player could have produced (besides leading him to invent the < viola pomposa. he married his cousin Maria. French using both Italian and styles. . to Halle in 1719. Bach now had no organ. especially to examine or exhibit important organs. for a time Bach's intimate This period was one of the friend. proceeded to deal strikingly with ensemble music. but with great inde pendence. including part of the Well-Tempered Clavichord (1722). as to Cassel. like the flute. and to Hamburg . His new patron at Weimar was a model ruler. both solo and con certed. The court organ was small. perfected his knowledge as an organ-expert and wrote most of his finest organ-works. but every incentive in other directions. He derived much from the works of certain Italian masters. He also began producing church cantatas. He begarrwriting fugues and 1 clavier-suites. but held like the .117 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 253 He also. He He made trips away at intervals. 1 Here he wrote/ some what for -other instruments. began to reorganize the church music and to have the organ greatly improved. Occasionally he made trips to a distance. he accepted the place of court-choirmaster at Cothen.

The vised where Hasse was He made many trips. besides composing occasional music (processions. Besides living at the school and sharing in its While Ernesti to teach Latin as well as music. circumstances combined to make the later part of his life unhappy on His delights lay in his homeits public side and to drive him into seclusion. plicated. seldom more than twenty in number. a fine scholar and disciplinarian. the Thomasschule in Leipsic. and also claimed his to the university which his predecessor. Gesner. Anna Bach died in 1760. His grave in the yard of the Johanniskirche was later obliterated in municipal improvements. the pupils were few and poor. and many of his earlier works. his wife died so abruptly that 117 In 1720. and the narrow. usually devised with reference to the Lutheran liturgy and calendar. and the cantor was responsible to and the Church Consistory. to be honorary choirmaster at Cb'then was Technically. in whose band was Bach's son Emanuel. but lapsed again under his successor. fifteen years his junior. not a promotion. while he did not know the fact In 1721 he married Anna Wiilken of till his return three weeks after. however. discipline. tinder the new rector. and so deeply interested Weissenfels. in his many pupils. he was expected was rector (till 1729). In 1750 he died of apoplexy. Kuhnau. In 1723. 95). matters we're . He continued. Late in 1 749 he underwent an operation upon his eyes which resulted in total blindness. had legal rights as musician allowed to lapse. efficient resources he had for his public work organists that disliked his ideas. and was sustained. This latter contention he carried up to the Elector of Saxony himself. and also at Weissenfels. life. partly to he secured appointment as cantor at get better schooling for his children. and a popular hostility to all serious styles. his new position at Leipsic Its duties traditions were honorable (see sec.also diligently re tion of the most ambitious sort. Yet the situation was trying. a body of immature singers and players. served much as his copyist and he was shared fully in his ideals. weddings. In spite of Bach's increasing better. attained renown and importance. however. in music that she engaged in detailed study. and to the various In 1747 he was invited to gathering-places of the Bachs in Thuringia. in high honor. part of the time as dependents upon the town. The surviving sons. THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY where he won the admiration of the aged Reinken. where he remained till his death. . for the drift of popular interest was toward the opera and even the school pupils were con It is pathetic to realize what in tinually being drafted as operatic singers. In 1730-4. He . partly to enlarge his artistic field. at Carlsbad. a beautiful singer. the equipment and interest of the Council in the musical work discipline neglected. renown. though choir-school for its were laborious and com the four The school was administered as the both the Town Council town-churches. Potsdam by Frederick the Great. His wife and his three unmarried daughters struggled on in poverty. especially to Dresden. in his visitors from abroad. funerals). with one ex Of seven children by his first ception.254 in 1720. and in incessant composi Leipsic period is marked by the writing of an enormous number of cantatas and several oratorios. to Weimar and Cb'then. but his supposed remains were discovered in 1894 and reinterred in the church on the I5oth anniversary of his death. Bach asserted his authority as supervisor of music in the two much for them and attending to all leading churches. was received with the greatest favor.

for unlimited development. Up to his time music had been groping after the formal means Bach realized the neces for sustained and cumulative effects. three remained and four daughters. each with its and for immense climaxes suitable to the noblest conceptions. especially for While perfectly had small patience with pretension. but abilities dox Lutheran. or with solo instruments in combination. other direction he chose to work the influence of his organist's method of thinking and writing is obvious.118 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH . varied stops. in the union of several keyboards. And in whatever the fugue attained an unsurpassed grandeur. In the details of structure Bach never fails to be a contrapunt how far his polyphony transcends that ist. he hated parade He was a prodigious worker. His expression was grave. and many facts show the depth of and their bearing on his musical and social life. arching brows and an ample forehead. his religious sentiments The centre of Bach's art was His Style and Works. As the subjects are unfolded. with a full face dominated by keen eyes. sity for strong thematic material. He formed intimate and loyal friendships with those ness and pungency. of the has character and meaning in itself. and dogged about his official rights. or with voices as such instruments or in chorus. the toccata and strategy. and in the continuity and majesty of tone characteristic of the instrument. but ened readily into kindliness or humor. he instinctively fastened upon the concerted style of the organ as the field for Here. he found room for solid harmony. for contrapuntal organization. He was reserved in conversation. and becoming also an expert He was a devout and ortho in organ-building and a good musical engraver. Its subject-material is almost all original. 118. whom he could respect. it is clear that the whole is greater episodical . and of thirteen by the second. but analysis shows mere pedant. Though organ eminent in dealing with stringed instruments. whether with the smaller resources of the clavier. s and for marshaling parts and sections with the utmost artistic In his hands the chorale-elaboration. tant and composer by persistent self-discipline. for manifold polyphony. aware of his eajrnest students. but wrote with clear decidedly dignified. suggests more or less and often achieves decided melodic clearly a harmonic idea. sparing no effort to acquaint himself with all styles except that of the opera. bined with matter. first trained as a violinist and always music. in all. five sons In appearance Bach was stalwart. 255 six marriage. his fullest expression. rising to supremacy as execu and boasting. He was considerate as a critic. interwoven and com beauty. but bright In manner he was courteous.

and listener. for works were published during his life. tive sense of the relation of formal structure to the expression of the is mind and soul in universal terms. The marvelous melodic material in his hands pre ' With the the plastic part-writing of the later igth century. He had begun application of rhythmic to foresee the sonata-form. but of ideal Its significance has proved too great to be ex personality. and of the grasp and metric energy. ' and of key-relation so as to open for use the whole range of Instead of writing down to players and sing tonal possibility. having an organic unity to which all details con All music of this sort is intensely intellectual rather than sensuous. Very few of remained in his MS. 118 tribute.256 than THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY its parts. and demanded the new systems of tuning as to proper keys/ iar. presenting many hundreds of distinct composi tions. His music. simply because technique for him was subordinated to conception and construction. of melodic invention. Yet Bach's works are almost incredibly varied. while many are known over to be lost The recent authoritative edition (1851-96) numbers large volumes. He was not but far ahead of his times in the only a prince of polyphonists. a true rescript not only of his own personality. Shakespeare and Goethe. with ductility of all its symphonic possibilities. sages latent artistic capacity of dance-forms he was perfectly famil Technically. The grandest quality of his larger works cannot be described It lay in the mental view of the tonal material and in words. hausted by later generations. Hence it is natural to class him with creators like Michelangelo. fifty . he imperiously called of keyboard fingering and for a vocalization extreme in its difficulty. he had an intui timents. from brief chorales to gigantic choral or orchestral works. but Bach's works never lack an obvious overrul of the merely learned 'level ing sentiment that lifts them out means chosen demand mental But the into that of living art. for a new method that is its handling with reference to the embodiment of ideas and sen Like all artists of the highest class. Most of them more than a century after his death. therefore. Hence maturity and experience in both performer his works 'are not fully appreciated except by those of advanced culture. ers or making technique an end in itself. of every device of form. he was thoroughly radical regarding modula He threw aside the conventional notions tion and technique.

II. the principle again. John (1724).. three. While he himself seems not to have approved of the pianoforte in the types first presented to his attention. . So strenuous was Bach for this that wherever possible he insisted upon himself tuning the clavichords or harpsichords that he was to play. many inventions. including the St. etc.equally all the ing. The chief works for clavier alone are the Das wohltemperirte Clavier (48 preludes and figures. To these are to be added about a dozen concertos for one. two. fingers instead of mostly the middle three. The vocal works include (a) many secular cantatas. (d) 2 Magnificats. The Church Cantata and Oratorio. Here. 12 suites. and even four claviers with orchestra. 1744). for Easter and for Ascension. (c) 5 Passions. and hence of adopting the curved or curled position for the hand instead of a flat or rigid one.119 JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 257 The greater organ-works include nearly 20 extended preludes and fugues. Pt. by thus increasing dexterity. The second principle was that of equal temperament in tuning. use of extended vocal works of a more or less dramatic type in Lutheran church worship is so important that it requires treat ment by itself. he contributed to the advance of pianoforte music. As has been noted. Pt. he was ahead of his age. so *^hat modulation might take place freely in all directions (see sec. 1733-8. although he did not originate itself. partite. (d) for varied combinations of solo instruments. serenatas and com plimentary pieces. being the chief) and several shorter ones. 136). I. In two directions these works involved technical procedures that were comparatively novel. viola pomposa or 'cello alone. while his Passions and similar. his church cantatas probably amounted to about 300 in all. besides Das musikalische' Opfer (1747) and Die Knnst der Fuge (1749). Matthew (1729). The first related to the method of keyboard finger Bach threw his influence in favor of employing . In this he anticipated and guided the practice of the later iSth century. and (e) several overtures for orchestra. when the question of pianoforte technique became urgent. the latter of which requires other instru ments in part. as had been the tendency. as well as by his methods of composition (largely induced by his liking for the delicate clavichord). the St. a few toccatas. together with similar church orato rios for Christmas (six parts. . 1722. Bach's relation to the 119. a passacaglia. and many chorale-preludes and elabo rations. 1734). (U) for flute. and many of his works were almost unplayable otherwise. The WellTempered Clavichord was a conspicuous fruit of this conviction.. 5 large masses (that in B minor. (a) for violin. The chamber and orchestral works comprise a multitude of sonatas and concertos. (c) for violin with orchestra. (b) over 200 motets and cantatas for the Sundays and festivals of the Lutheran Church Year (being about two-thirds of five complete annual cycles of such works). violin or viola da gamba with clavier.

a clergyman of Weissenfels and Sorau. with musicians and decidedly popular.prepared at the same time connected with the special character of the Sundays and other days of the Lutheran calendar.258 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY his 119 church oratorios and number 15 or more. Picander) of Leipsic The musical setting of such texts at once became common (d. and from 1724 by Christian Friedrich Henrici (nom-de-plume. and the polyphonic choruses and accompaniments built on the lines of organ composition. logical series of The peculiarity of the whole lay in its congregational point of view. secular or sacred. Carissimi Schutz of Dresden. was not great. the word cantata came to be applied in the 1 7th century to a work in which Bible passages delivered by a solo voice in recitative or arioso were interspersed with congregational chorales The first impetus here came from or with choruses in similar style. the form of the preludes and often of other numbers from chamber music. on the other hand. or The effort was usually to unite some thread of story ideas with expressions of devotion or meditation. and as distinguished from one for instruments. it meant specifically a solo onward used it. since it In Germany. promptly upon this immature form for semi-dramatic musical treatment and poetical texts specially . but exemplifying many variations of handling. The first noted poet was Erdmann Neumeister (d. some of the German people it was often spondence to the warm Protestant piety sentimental. Its artistic importance. 1756). from about 1650. who wrote five complete annual cycles (1704-16). This form became popular in the offshoot from the prevalent opera. the chorales from the Protestant service. Bach's handling of the cantata varied much in different cases. This was clearly with elaborate accompaniments for a solo instrument. his greatest Among evident that into them was put much of his since they offered an outlet at and many of The word i cantata ' has been variously used.diverse elements into . an all the leading composers from services of the Catholic Church. works. and it masses (which belong to an these are allied' class) is choicest thought feeling. often abundantly. Similar texts were soon attempted by others outside the church circle. however. had little independent development. for about a century in which recitatives and arias alternated. and In its corre herein it differed radically from the operatic Italian cantata. as from 1711 by Salomo Franck of Jena and Weimar (d. once for his musical skill and his sincere religious nature. Thus the recitatives and arias are of operatic origin. often scena. and the elements emphasized came from many sources. intensely subjective and even extravagantly The new interest in the opera about 1700 throughout Germany reacted Hence arose a demand for of cantata. 1764). In the i6th century it meant simply any vocal work In Italy. starting from the freestyle of the Italian poetical madrigal. But his genius succeeded in fusing these . 1725).

119 CHURCH CANTATAS AND PASSIONS 259 unity and applying them to the exposition of Almost always the chorale is conceptions. and remodeling them into a novel and powerful unity all his own. but ready to adopt other plans as well. unfortunately. He thus contributed notably to one branch of the development of the oratorio as a significant art-form. usually for at least the casual hearer. would be deter evidently feeling that the dignity of the total impression mined by the music. They involve the same structural elements. or The methods adopted at diiFerent naturally aroused peculiar interest. usually there is a detailed development of the sentiment of the words. Sometimes there is a prelude or overture. and constitute important parts of the total effect. Yet. Passion vary widely. or might contain verses of hymns suit able for chorales or part-song settings. The text periods in the history of the musical selected might be wholly Biblical. serving as the musical text for the whole. or such melodies alterbe cal form might Plain-Song . though often with a profundity of interpretation that escapes The accompaniments. general popular knowl In selecting his texts Bach often used those of inferior literary quality. Yet in editing these texts and in laying them out for treatment he was guided by a fine dramatic instinct. but rest on texts that are still more evidently dramatic or his The torical in substance. Here again we find him taking forms and materials that had been used before. that lie was not only fully aware of the current style of showing da capo aria. elaboration. As soon as extended musical treatment of the mediaeval Mysteries be came common. Passions and other festival oratorios of Bach are really expanded cantatas. strongly in the opening and closing numbers sustained religious conspicuous. ferings and death of Christ. some solo instruments besides the organ. and in its detailed treatment often carried to the extreme of contrapuntal The form of the solo numbers varies greatly. often usually presented at least. or might consist entirely of"a freely The musi incidents. The enormous extent of Bach's work in this field indicates how much it engaged his interest. either in similar or different connections. are full of learning and originality. the intimate connection of all these works with the specific type of Lutheran service of the period in makes it impossible to maintain them edge and appreciation. composed narration and elaboration of the Gospel melodies throughout. the preparation of settings of Gospel stories of the suf of other texts based upon these stories.

or less dramatic form. Scandello (i 550-70). there were many. the to be written with care soon Special texts for dramatic Passions began most popular of them being that by Barthold Heinrich Brookes (d. recitatives. and dramatic choruses. Funcke (1683. after 1600 with recitatives and ariosos. rather than the purely dramatic. he combined elements from various styles. Telemann (1716-66). though their emotional con tent was different. (before 1500). _ Bach's treatment of the Passion-form was in a sense eclectic. Demantius (1623). Machold (1593). often with madrigal numbers. with some distinction of personages. both plain and accom panied. Theile (1673). De Rare (1557). arias in extended form. The regular use of such texts with varying musical settings continued to be a feature of Good Friday services until late in the i8th century. with the fullest use of instrumental resources for accompaniments and in that even for independent movements. The use of chorales varied greatly. Chr.260 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 119 Throughout the i6th nating with chorales or polyphonic numbers. ^/^7#72^ (1568-70). Kuhnau (1721). Schultz (1653). Easter and Ascension. Mattheson (1717). Harnisch (1621). ^0/tf (c. i^). Zdtfmr (1573-82). to and others. Koike (1697). Obrecht (before 1505). aBurck (1568-74). Sebastian?. and after about 1675 w i tn tru e arias. and some others. after 1700. Daser (1578). Victoria (1585). the plan of which was analogous. Handel (1704-16). Vulpius (1613). and irregularly till much later. Cluck (1660). but he was also ready to employ intensely dramatic methods at certain points. Mandnus (1620). with the first true arias). and towards 1700 their congregational rendering was largely replaced by solos. In the German Passions there came be a tendency to adhere to fixed plans of text and treatment that amounted almost to a liturgical formula. Matthew Passion (1729) and the Christmas Oratorio (1734). composers undertook settings in full motet or part-song century expert Experiments followed in more form. The more famous of this group are the St. . as by Walther (1530-5 2). (1672). Handl (1587)? Gesius (1588). Schiitz (1623-66). In these works the liturgical oratorio reached a culmination that has not since been surpassed. often of gigantic proportions. Reiner (?). He approached the matter from the liturgical or devotional side. With his five Passions proper be long his festival oratorios for Christmas. 1747) of Hamburg (1712). including cho rales of different degrees of elaboration. both of which remain in the reper tory of competent choral societies. Of dramatic works. polyphonic choruses. Keiser (1704-12). Among the older polyphonic or motet Passions were those by Davy Gallicuhis (1528). including more and more solo material and about 1700 tending to pass over fully into the style of the Italian oratorio.

120 THE MUSICAL MASS 261 in that in Bach's attitude toward the musical mass. The result is a monumental sublimation of ritual music. though influenced some what by the second. belong properly to the church oratorio class. but have a range of abstract topic often reached by the historical oratorio. Other German Church Music. however. sometimes with inventive ability.th century continued into the i8th. his contemporaries generally sought to gratify the taste of the time. since it. treated not as an accessory of a church service. especially the great one. . virtue of his mastery of technique. Catholic liturgy that its treatment had been either fully sub ordinated to its ritual surroundings. Tradition the form bad been so closely identified with the actual ally. Parts of them were used at Leipsic. B D The general interest Protestants in music for the organ and the choir in the later i. or. though for without leading to the invention of new styles of positive im In vocal music the prevalent forms were of the portance. developed along conventional lines of method and sentiment. sometimes in slavish complaisance. The revolt from the older a long period severity became steadily stronger. Organ music persisted longer along the serious paths of the fugue and the chorale-elaboration. drift of the period was against church music in its purity. In the text of the mass (all of which was in some use in Lutheran services) he saw possibilities of gigantic artistic expression. but as an end in itself. Hence his masses. among German While Bach. and idea not It has been supposed that Bach's attention to the mass was partly in connection with his official relations to the Catholic court of Dresden. followed neither of these types. usually treated after the sentimental cantata or fashion of the opera. pushed on to achieve hand and ments of enduring value. with the Passions. Passion class. of diverting chamber music on the other. if elaborate. was extremely original. but artistically it was confused by the rapid advance of the opera on the one 120. is a setting of a Catholic ritual text. minor Mass is to be classed the great Magnificat in With the (1723 ?). Bach. With but few exceptions. but it is not clear that any of his works of this class were actually used as wholes in Catholic services.. especially as shown B minor (1733-8). a Protestant and apparently not writing for ritual use in -a Catholic service. etc. too. but with the constantly diminishing vigor. his profundity of thought. by and his independence of mere popularity.

later he was afairly cordial judge of the latter's greatness. Reinken Lubeck. His oratorios were a in scholarship and churchly sympathy. him in a hasty duel (1704) . like Theile (d. is also cantatas and a fine Passion (1721) in a flowing style. he became in 1712 choirmaster at Frankfort and in 1721 town-musician at Hamburg. The opening of the century is further marked at Hamburg by three strong who gave at least part of their talents to composers of nearly the same age. retiring because of increasing deaf is credited with some ness. '35) Kuhnau (d. Buxtehude (d. 1703)? succeeded there by Joh. mannand Handel solo cantatas were in 1716. Christopli burg. : respectively. like century opened with a large Bach of Eisenach (d. he began to write cantatas this time he was intimate with Handel. 1764) began After writing several operas (from 1699). about 65 in about 25 anthems for weddings and funerals. by Matthesonin i7i7andbyStolzel (d. his experience nor his character fitted him to enter deeply cidedly stronger serious attempt to utilize the his musical life at Hamburg as a choir Johann Mattheson (d. though almost wholly self-taught. annual cycles of cantatas (said to comprise about 3000 numbers). Pachelbel (d. cathedral in 1715-28 (preceding Keiser). 44 Passions (1716-66). besides many detached ones. 1740) There were also noted vocal contrapuntists. After short terms as court-musician at Sorau from 1704 and at Eisenach from 1708. Though best known for his critical writings. boy new dramatic methods in connection with sincere For a short time he was a friend of Handel. written to poems by Hunold sec. and again from 1728. His his sacred works including 12 fertility and rapidity were almost incredible. His numerous and exhibited the facile melodic skill shown in his Neither operas. but nearly killed public worship. but de cantorate. Egidius Bach (d. organist at Leipsic from 1684 and cantor of (1704). 129-130. Regarding Handel's works of this class. at least His style was less melodious and effective than Reiser's. 87). 1733) at Lime(d. 1706) at Nuremberg. . 1722) and Lubeck (d. service. 1725. 1749). remembered for many the Thornasschule from 1700 (preceding Bach). 1714) at Joh. church music Reinhard Keiser (d. At Leipsic University. written during his 25 oratorios and cantatas. at Weissenfels and Zittau Merseburg. several oratorios. see sees. he 2 Passions and a mass. he was cantor at the in 1690. Bernhard Bach (d. His activity as a church composer began at Frank fort and continued side by side with his operatic and instrumental work. Joh. and Bohm (d. where he continued till his death over 40 years later. 1717) at Hamburg.262 The THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 120 number of great organists in. 1727) at Erfurt. and numerous posers of his day. while studying at enthusiasm. to Matthesonin versatility and Georg Philipp Telemann(U 1767) was superior In 1701. and to serve as organist. (see the latter text being also set by TeleKonig (171 1) and Brockes (1712). but was popularly so effective stallation-pieces. 1739) took U P church music first from 1704. and the two Kriegers (d. 1749). 1707) at and Buttstett (d. accompanied solos of various sorts. 1722). Several of his Passions are known. into sacred music. when at when cantor at Hamburg the height of his operatic career. His style naturally tended to be super that he was one of the most famous com ficial.

from 1717 was court-com Christoph. transitional period in German church music from 1700 respectively. liann Dismas Zelenka (d. 1729) attended the Thomasschule at Leipsic. many motets. 3 requiems. at Breslau.] (d. contrapuntist. and his work fellow-student with Johann Friedrich Fasch (d. 1673). Forster (d. festival music. (having His church compositions include many Pas of Heinichen. cantatas. including masses. in Italy. 1761). and Meinrad Spiess (d. 1745). chiefly sacred. Germany were Georg Gebel [Sr. for the vigor of his He was an accomplished accompaniments and often for the music. with 2 oratorios. wealthy patrons. through their mothers.12 GERMAN CHURCH MUSICIANS : 263 In central Germany the drift away from contrapuntal methods was delayed more or less of the older order by the influence of a few masters Gottfried Waltfcer (d. and learned writers of the period. 3 oratorios. etc. of the monastery of Irrsee. and profited by the musical opportunities of the city. were intimate was brought up at Erfurt. 1750)? organist at Breslau from 1713. prolific . oratorios. Darmstadt. removing thence He was in 1707 to be town-organist and later court-musician at Weimar. whence Besides his operatic and in 1718 he returned to Dresden as court-choirmaster. in eastern and southern Two other sions. works are chorale-elaborations. At music. including a at Merseburg. diligently cultivated and Zeitz. Most of sec.. Leipsic University in 1707 From 1710 he was busily engaged. chiefly masses and motets for he cultivated the older styles. especially notable difficulty of his voice-writ commanded the respect of Bach. 1745). besides instrumental works. In 1713. etc. where he was organist from 1702. for some years at Naumburg. and serve with them to characterize the important to 1750. he wrote much church the Catholic service. He produced a prodigious amount of 8 double annual cantata-cycles.. ing. one of whom was the Prince of Cothen whom Bach later served. instrumental works and a manual of figured bass (1711). but his works are cantata-cycle and many other confused with those of the earlier Kaspar Forster (d. 14 Passions. Prague. but ultimately adopted the easier Italian meth and the entire ods. Gera variously employed failed to win the cantorate was court-musician at Zerbst and at Leipsic from 1722 which Bach secured). a Bohemian whose tireless industry produced first over 20 masses. poser cantatas in the Italian style. Stolzel at Leipsic from the popular style of Kuhnau and Telemann. famous as a player and traveled much to perfect his knowledge of organ styles. and Gera successively. enabled him to travel and work in Italy. 1758). loo psalms. Bayreuth at Gotha. in which he was almost a^ He was the author of the first musical dictionary (see 14-0- David Heinichen (d. Bach were closely related Jokann Walther friends and artistically akin. 1748) and J. was 1707. S. etc. close contemporaries of It is to be noted that all these composers were Bach and Handel. I749)> after good trainingatSchneeberg. and in 1719 became court-musician at (from 1712). many besides secular works. but from about 1709 devoted himself to music at Leipsic. Technically he preceded Bach in advocating free fingering His assistant from 1719 and his successor was Jocircle of keys in modulation. chiefly upon opera-writing. his extant successful as Bach. studied law there and practised at Weissenfels. pupil He is said to have written over 300 works. entered Gottfried Heinricli Stolzel (d.

he was also able and fertile in sacred music. 126). 1753). 1750). more fertile than dis Henri Jacques de Croes (d. he became in 1735 the prote'ge' of Frederick players of Prussia. 128). His Johann Peter Kellner (d. continued the Lutheran traditions as organist and church composer at Minden from 1726 and at Nordhausen from 1732. on the other hand. though some greatest in other fields than that of them were industrious in the latter. with some organ-compositions.264 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 120 In the next group of composers are several whose fame is of church music. with some His Passion cantata Der Tod Jesu (1755) (see sec. Best known by his theoretical and critical for his relation to the development of the piano writings (see sec. and from 1740 was royal choirmaster at Berlin a post more con spicuous than stimulating. represented cantatas and about 12 by numerous masses. several masses and a fine Te Deum (1756). aj both player and composer he served to perpetuate the noble organ style. including 2 annual cycles. 5 Passions. psalms. 5-6 Passions. motets. . Te Deums. Other Catholic composers in various parts of northern Europe were Valen tin Rathgeber (d. Saalfeld. organ-pieces style motets. 135). was fluent. 165) and forte (see sec. and enjoys therefore a peculiar renown. but without decided originality or force. became court-musician at Dresden in 1731. 1786). from . who. since the king demanded mainly French and Italian He wrote many cantatas. a pupil of Bach and organist from 1721 at from 1726 at Weimar and from 1730 at Leipsic. his works and other cantatas. with more or less phonic of the theatric sensuousness that is essentially diverse both from the classic restraint of the old Palestrina style and from the in tellectual depth of the later German counterpoint. trained at Antwerp and first 1729 choirmaster at Ratisbon. Ristori Brussels). 125). 1782). methods predominate over polyphonic. the popular opera-writer (see sec. The increase in the num In general. won his first success in opera. Christoph Gottlieb Schroter (d. to including 7 cantata-cycles. but lacked energy and sublimity. his works including many fugues. was one of the best and improvisers of the day. but from 1749 again in and G. remains in annual use at Berlin. gether harmonist gave his style a decided richness. besides his operas. Karl Heinrich Graun (d. preludes and suites. but also early undertook church composition. Johann Schneider (d. After ten years at Brunswick. A. monober of Catholic musicians of note is striking. etc. 1759). wrote many masses. many festival His learning as a with fugues and chorale-preludes for the organ. oratorios. A devoted admirer of both Bach and Handel. 1788?) was from 1728 organist and cantor atGrafenroda in Thuringia. 1787). active there. many Latin styles. motets. mostly written after he His style was attractive melodically. with 3 oratorios (see tinguished. 1783). sec. the most brilliant of the Catholic writers of the time in Germany. besides some cantatas and a Passion. was Johann Adolpli Hasse (d. Magnificats. beginning as a choirboy at Dresden. of whose many works few remain Belgium (at of Dresden (d.. a monk of Banz in Franconia.

Johann Ludwig Krebs (d. and many songs. mostly sacred. was from 1729 Johann Heinrich Rolle (d. though lie wrote considerable sacred music. including several cantataleast 10 Passions and several other similar works. whose fame as a player was extensive. . Besides operas. His invention was not equal to his dramatic ideas. 1753). 1780). and from 1747 at Rudolstadt. organist at Magdeburg His works were exceedingly many. due his third son Karl Phiiipp Emanuel Bach (d. 121. The Imperial Chapel. and from 1756 at Altenburg. from 1741 a teacher in Poland and from 1752 prominent at the Berlin court. however. but notable also for worthy church music. a organist at Dresden from 1742 and cantor at the Kreuzschule good player and favorite church composer. who was a player of the first order and a powerful writer for both organ and choir.) named above. a prolific but dry composer. mostly but not wholly forsaking the old ways of a cappella polyphony. becoming organist there the next year. Passions. chorales and organ-pieces. though not of insight (see sec. Here may be added. 1785). but not eminent as a composer. from 1735 court-choirmaster at Dresden. at oratorios (Der Tod Abels. with many fine to dissipation. are confused with his father's. a few oratorios. 1785) began church composition as a boy of 13 (1731) at Magdeburg. organ works and some cantatas. of his motets. etc. 1783). From 1736 he studied Jaw at Leipsic and began practice at Berlin. Among the many pupils of the great Bach who in the latter part of the century attained eminence in church composition were his eldest son Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (d. all in a style remote from that .cycle. 15 or more cycles. (His works. 140). 1785). being the most admired). but whose later life was spent in poverty and disgrace. 1774). Matthias van den from 1741 organist and carillormeur at Louvain. and Gottfried August Homilius (d.] (d. organist at Dresden from 1733 and at Halle in 1747-64. much admired for his facile style. 1771. master. and a theorist of importance. 1788). where in 1740 he resumed From 1746 he was again musical work at the court of Frederick the Great. from 1755. 165) Johann Friedrich Agricola (d. over 20 Passions and similar works. most eminent as the founder of the forms of instrumental composition that charac terized the period of Haydn and Mozart (see sec. besides several operas. a ^ ne organist and popular singingteacher. in the above series.12 i GERMAN CHURCH MUSICIANS 265 Georg Gebel [Jr. the current of composition in Catholic countries theatric tending steadily into new channels of expression. with a cantata. mostly in the homophonic Johann Philipp Kirnberger (d. under Bach's care for about 10 years and esteemed by him his best organ pupil. including many cantatas. from 1744 at Zeitz. he wrote many cantatas and 2 Passions. and succeeded his father as town-musician in 1752. style. from 1737 at Zwickau. though not Gheyn (d. court-composer at Berlin from 1751 and Graun's successor as royal choirmaster in 1759. . 1784). the precocious son and pupil of the Gebel organist at Breslau. besides clavier-pieces. While under Bach and his con temporaries Protestant music was attaining its great culmina went on tion.

chief from 1774. assistant from 1700. the offices of choirmaster. 1709). assistant from 1716. Fux (d. 1715). assistant choirmaster. there was a decided lapse of imperial interest. 1736). 1772). in touch with Germany on the one hand and with Italy on the other. Joseph L 1711) and Charles VI. but a theorist and tial teacher of exceptional ability. assist ant from 1697. Gassmann (d. chief from 1751. F. B. assistant from 1726. L. attracted a host of great directors.266 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 121 In both church and dramatic music at the opening of the century Vienna was one of the most notable centres. 1769). as well as an organizer who knew to hold in some sort of harmony the diverse elements of the large imperial musical establishment Prominent how his coadjutors were the among Italians Caldara. by Rentier in 1730-46. chief from In the Imperial Chapel and 1715. A. under Maria Theresa. Conti and Porsile. M. assistant from 1713. C. 17 oo-u. Stephen's. Georg Reutter [Sr. by Giuseppe Porsile in 1720-40. Wagenseil in 1739-77. by Fux from 1698. Ziani (d.. The title of court-com and upon Mozart in 1787-91. 1686. chief from 1700. Leopold I. itself the number of active musicians. singer from 1665. This latter office yielded no special salary after 1770. A. players and singers. chief in 1746-51. composers. by Bonno in I739~74> by G. chief from 1772. by G. In spite of the fact that in the middle of the century. Predieri (d. 1741). F. Georg Rentier. and by Gassmann in 1763-72. 1788). Caldara (d. Mozart and Beethoven. poser was held by Badia in 1696-1738. 1740). organist and chief singers commanding good salaries. Jr. while at the court he was theorbist in . the Imperial Chapel. vocalists instrumentalists rose to fully roo under Joseph I. a composer emphatically of the old Palestrina school. with the Chapels of the two Empresses Dowager. by Francesco Contim 1 713-32. 1705). Stephen's as organist from and as choirmaster from 1715.] (d. by Matteo Pallet a in 1733-41 and 1749-58. but masters of other nationalities did not wholly fail of honor. chief from 1712. more learned than original. vz& Josef Bonno (d. and of the cathe dral church of St. (d. (d. Talented Italians were natu rally in constant request. 1774). L. assist ant from 1746. Under (d. three successive Emperors. (d. The list of choirmasters includes Antonio Pancotti (d. but the title continued to be conferred. 1738) served at St. and to about 135 under Charles VI. com poser. as upon Gluck in 1774-87 Bononcmi'm ^ During the first forty years of the century the most influen leader was Fux. this earlier time presaged in several ways the remarkable eminence of the Viennese school in the later period of Haydn.

toccatas. with many . with 10 oratorios in the Italian manner. besides operas and serenatas. 1772). several. 9 Italian oratorios (1706-36) lowed that of Scarlatti.] (d. his work is wholly associated with Vienna. was assistant choirmaster at St. where he was greatly admired. 1774). 1758) was born at Palermo. 1770) was the son of Georg Muflfat (see sec. secular part-music and important chamber music. at Prague) was the most His use of the orchestra was vigorous and rich. he was also a strong writer of masses and other church music in contrapuntal style. 3 requiems. a long and distinguished career at St. etc. Stephen^ from 1705 and chief from 1712. was choirmaster to the Empress Elizabeth in of . when he turned him off abruptly because his voice was no longer available. Francesco Conti (d. Except for a period of eight years (1705-13). 1732) came from Florence in his twentieth year (1701). but of whose early train ing nothing is known. His great theoretical work was the Gradus ad Parnassum (1725). of great learning. His works include valuable fugues. 1738) was also a Venetian. It is curious that he still clung to the old mediaeval system of modes and to the strict a cappella methods of writing. well trained. worthily to chamber music. like the Missa canonica (1718). etc. He was trained under Fux and served as court-organist and at Passau. cantatas. and was favorably known as a church composer by 1720. ranking with the masters of the Italian school. treatise 733- on Plain-Song. producing. 2 Te Deums. 105). being in request for his gifts as a theorbist. court festivities of these Costanza e fortezza (1723. His best works were all sacred. He dis left a large number of masses and motets. studied under Czernohorsky and Fux of Vienna. Johann Joseph Fux (d. Stephen's and the court from about He was a facile composer of some brilliance. a Bohemian theorbist. the son of the earlier Reutter above. Matteo Pallota (d. had Georg Reutter [Jr. including 54 masses. he wrote some 15 oratorios (from 1694) and many cantatas. Apart from brief terms at Mantua and Rome. He 1725.. harpsichordist in 1717-63. a Styrian by birth. appeared at Vienna as organist at the Schottenkirche in 1696-1702. Prague . and he contributed brilliant. which remained for almost a century a standard treatise. with 8 oratorios (1727-40) covered Haydn in 1740 and was his master till 1749. besides many clavier-pieces. His style fol born Gottlieb Muffat (d. and over 50 cantatas.121 THE IMPERIAL CHAPEL 267 his His works are confused with those of 1697-1703 and organist from 1700. with little yielding to the prevalent ope ratic and homophonic styles (except in his dramatic experiments). and in court service as composer or choirmaster from 1698. for the organ. Though most fertile in operas and oratorios (32 in 1712-35). especially in opera. he remained in the imperial service.. many motets and psalms. besides a MS. Antonio Caldara (d. more talented son and successor. mostly for the chorus. but including more attention to He also wrote 8 operas and 12 other dramatic works. He also wrote much Carlo Agostino Badia (d. but of no great genius. 1736) was born at Venice and began opera-writing there as early as 1689. Besides numerous operas. Franz Tuma (d. 1741). though not called to Vienna as court-composer till I Of his works several masses and motets remain.

but only a few of them proved fully sensitive to the differences between church and concert music. undertook oratorios expert in both. and Johann Ernst Eberlin (d. no doubt. 1762). masses. all Italian of this and later periods show the lack of those composers remarkable restraining and modifying influences in sacred writ As contrasted with their behind ing that were influential in northern Europe. with about 30 instrumental pieces. In other cases such details will be found in later sections regarding the opera. and cantatas upon Biblical subjects or episodes in the legends of the saints. and it is not strange. . psalms and other ritual music. Assisi . besides some excellent composer. destroyed by fire in 1754) (works mostly he was in the a Swabian of whose life little is known except that from 1725 and choirmaster. were overwhelmingly dominant in Italy throughout the opera Between these and the older ideals of a cappella church century. theatric music entirely and to confine prevailing drift toward works in something like the old style. THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY and was later 122 a church connected with monasteries. and the public they addressed was not permeated by any fulness or depth of homely similar breadth of religious thoughtThe conditions of their piety. rank among the best of the period. and who was not only a noted but a superior sacred composer teacher (as of Tartini. but themselves to sacred without notable success. 1740). and 13 oratorios. or equally Most of them. including fugues. but the reason for this was evidently that such works called for methods that were at least partially dramatic. toccatas. however. Many of the leading op era. As will be seen. with all practical work were different. bridge successfully. Gluck and Tuma). that their church compositions seldom rise to the height of permanent value. litanies. In the following notes.2 68 1741-50. the spirit and methods of the In Italy.. music there was a gap so wide that hardly any composers could A limited number essayed to resist the it 122. Padua.writers. details are given only where the emphasis of the composer's work was wholly or mainly laid upon sacred composition. They had them no such traditions of majestic organ polyphony or of fervent congregational singing. and service of the Archbishop of Salzburg as organist whose able organ and church works. Bohuslaw Czernohorsky sively at Bohemian Minorite. a (d. who worked succes and finally Prague. A such as few other Austrian church composers should be mentioned. were diligent composers of masses. He was chiefly masses and other works. etc. German contemporaries. their artistic ability.

1784). 1780). a Neapolitan. 1 757)7 fr m 1 7 2 9 an opera-writer. Allegri and of Baini the honor of an Tonvmaso Baj few other works remain in MS. with a fine Stabat Mater (1713). Maria Maggiore in from 1709. were more and especially that gradually a . at Parma. but from 1735 choirmaster at Udine. 125). and who wrote over 100 solo cantatas of much beauty. where he composed an incredible amount of masses. made his first reputation as an organist at Padua from 1722. from one to four voices. nual rendering on Good Friday. is almost exclusively known by the beautiful Miserere which shares with those of G. 1739)? a well-born Venetian lawyer and official. CHURCH MUSICIANS 269 latter part of the 1714). at Vienna. largely in the pure Roman style. but many still in solo cantatas. Giambattista Martini (d. Pompeo Cannicciari (d. in Eng land. and Bartolomeo Cordans (d. thoroughly trained music (though he called himself a dilettante). but including several oratorios and cantatas also. and finally in Bohemia. (from 1690). 1736). He further wrote nobly for the organ. who wrote a large number of famous set of Psalms (1724-7) for. they are to be ranked with the great Germans for successfully effecting a compromise between the needs of the form of church worship with which they were connected and the new styles of composi tion. 1744). 165). all of them re nowned in opera (see sec. who Church in Rome from 1696 and the author of a col of organ-pieces (1716). Emanuele d'Astorga (d.122 ITALIAN (d. still better known as the most important theorist of the age and the first of the great musical historians (see sec. being considered the most able of his time in Italy ? and was also a masterly writer of contrapuntal church music (mostly unpublished). became choirmaster at Bologna in 1725 and produced from that time a vast amount of church music of every description. Francesco Antonio Vallotti (d. this type. wrote many masses. but evolved more Melodies of flowingly and "simply from a plain chord-series. together with chamber music and part-songs . including short residences in Spain. motets and psalms in a rather eccentric style (many said to have been purposely destroyed. While they tended always to depart widely from the patterns of the earlier time. new conception of melody began to one not dependent upon either a contrapuntal or a emerge strenuous and restless harmonic sequence. Most prolific and characteristic in the field of church music were several masters of the Neapolitan school. a Bolognese singer in the Papal Choir from the zyth century. 165). Benedetto Marcello (d. the names of Domenico Zipoli. psalms and motets in strict style A Rome c. choirmaster at Sta. a native of may be added at the Jesuit who lived a roving life. though apparently devoid of learning. a * preserved). without altogether throwing away the dignity and ideality It was in the hands of this group of writers of the older styles. best known as a learned theorist (see sec. To lection these was organist Palermo.

c. 1736) was a pupil of Scarlatti and of Provenzale at of the conservatories. all forms. not particularly His repute throughout Europe. as a vocal expert show in the suave writing of his cantatas (see sec.270 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 122 more appreciated as genuine vehicles of feeling. but he also wrote abundantly for the church in a rich and imposing style. being the most famous). studying under Greco and Scarlatti. including masses and motets. the first of the great Neapolitans. with one oratorio. Francesco Feo (d. but notable. 1744). His ablest work was in opera (see sec. century. succeeding the latter as teacher and educating a multitude of Being without dramatic ambitions. his best work being a Stabat Mater (1785). he is better known for considerable sacred music. suitable for the This transi sentiments. Pasquale Cafaro (d. but. 1725). not specially cantatas. and was esteemed at the Papal Chapel and at he was assistant or chief choirmaster in 1703-6). leaving a great number of works in tractively written. chiefly in the Roman manner. 125). 1787) was the pupil and successor of Leo as teacher. ten years younger than Durante. His extraordinary readiness was supported by ample feeling. 1766). was trained at Naples. and genuine heartiness of works seldom lack Nicola Fago (d. with literally hundreds of cantatas. was even more prolific in sacred works. is attested by the unusually strong. a Stabat Mater and an oratorio. Niccol6 Porpora (d. Nu Naples. however. Leonardo Leo (d. elegantly and at harmonic richness. including many can His gifts tatas and 6 oratorios (Sta. a pupil of Carissimi about 1680. though most influential through his operas. His best-known work is a Magnificat in B. . his chef d^ceuvre being an a cappella Miserere for double choir. and served as choirmaster at Naples from 1716 and also as the teacher of several noted pupils. expression of both religious and other tion opened the way for much that was most valuable in the styles of later periods. motets and vespers. after 1740) studied under the singing-master Gizzi and with Pitoni of Rome. (where He Maria Maggiore is said to have written 200 masses. Fago and the Roman master Pitoni. 1755) was also a Neapolitan. set for as many as ten voices. and. . 125) Francesco Durante (d. He wrote in all the usual sacred forms. like him> was a church composer as well as opera-writer. succeeding the latter as teacher at one merous church works (from about 1700) remain. he devoted himself to sacred great pupils. was a pupil of Scarlatti. he held his own with the best Roman masters of the later iyth Sta. Alessandro Scarlatti (d. though working ultimately outside of Italy. mostly solo. and 10 oratorios (from 1693). Eugenia^ 1721. written in a good. Thoroughly at home in all the intricacies of coun terpoint. He wrote 4 oratorios (1713-32) and some fugues composition. He cultivated both fields at once from the out set of his career at Rome. probably under Scarlatti. the most famous singing-teacher of his day. except for their for organ. % Though the composer of 6 operas. so that his learning worth. wide distribution of his works. style. a great variety of psalms.

organist at Ely from 1682. 1774). though his career was very short (see sec. The declining school of English church 123. etc. he is known by almost 100 anthems. Blow its William Croft (d. written mostly in a manly and sterling style. trained in the Chapel Royal at Westminster and choirmaster organist from 1704. and Tudway in 1730 as professor of Accounted the leading church musician in England. 1719). latter half Later composers of this group. 1749 choirmaster at St. pupil and in 1697 suc of which are still prized cessor of Child at Windsor. some and John Goldwin (d. though for a time it was slightly offset by the genius of a few worthy choral writers. pupil of Greco. Among the more prolific anthem-writers whose work began before 1700 were James Hawkins (d. PauPs. Chapel Royal. 126). 1736). followed Croft in 1727 as organist and composer to the music at Cambridge. 125). besides being organist in the Chapel Royal. of which a Stabat Mater for two voices (finished just before his death) and a Salve Regina are the best. 1786). His collec tion of Cathedral Music was completed by Boyce. pupil of Purcell and organist at Oxford from 1694. tury came a period of barrenness in which musicians were more interested in glee-writing than in anthems and when the latter were largely concocted by adaptation from various sources. whose works fell mostly in the middle or of the century. 1729). mostly in the Chapel Royal. . with 21 anthems. and for a time the inti mate friend of Handel. he also wrote some incidental theatric music. pupil of Blow and organist at Winchester from 1693. music has nothing to show in the i8th century that compares with ' Germany verse ' or Italy. with 75 verse and foil anthems Vaughan Richardson (d. with 24 anthems. 3 light operas (1737-48). a pupil of King at St. The taste for services and anthems of or solo sort. where from 1718 he was organist. was the composer of nearly loo anthems (30 published under and From 1700 to 1703 in 1724). 1736). In England. often of decided a service and a Te Deum. Peter's in Rome and from 1754 in Wurttemberg (see Perez (d. '44). after 1782).123 ENGLISH CHURCH MUSICIANS 271 Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (d. John Weldon (d. 1729). 1755). continued. won renown for the simple and unaffected charm of his church works (from 1731). who was from sec. Chapel Royal. succeeding Blow as organist in 1708 and named composer from 1715. i ' . 1727). That there was vitality left in English church music is evidenced by" the fact that Handel con But before the middle of the cen tributed to it to a small extent. and from 1701 connected with the . which set in powerfully towards the the end of the I7th century. 2 ora strength (especially 40 published in 1743)? torios (1737. many songs and catches. and Abos (d. with 35 anthems. Durante and Feo. were the great Jommelli (d. besides serving at two of the city churches. He assisted in founding the Royal Society of Musicians in 1738. Maurice Greene (d.

with 53 anthems. a famous blind 737. pupil of Stanley. Greene's successor at the and Chapel Royal. often similar pieces. He is gratefully remembered for a great collection of Cathedral Music (3 vols. with 38 anthems. organist at York from 1734 and in 1 756. from 1738. at Worcester from 1731. Oxford. at Magdalen College. organist at Shrewsbury from 1 729. with 23 anthems and 2 services the Temple Church from 1734)? a pupil of organist in London from 1724 (at Greene and a warm admirer of Handel. pupil of King. 1806). (West England) for several years turned much to editorial work. the materials for which were partly col lected by Greene and bequeathed by him to Boyce. It is notable that none of these contemporaries of Handel showed a marked tendency to imitate his style. etc.. Travers (d. several masques and odes (from 1 734) many songs and His style was solid and noble. He is commonly ranked as the last of the older group of masters. with pusch. became increasingly deaf and His compositions include about 70 anthems.. 2 services. 3 oratorios (i 757-74). organ . and some chamber music. 3 services and considerable secu . 1758). many harpsichord-pieces. organist in London from 1725 William favorite set of part-songs . Greene and Pepusch. at John Alcock (d. 1760-78). and a 1777). a Psalter. pupil of Greene and Peand chamber works . etc. lar music. Hayes (d. John and at the Chapel Royal from 1737. 25 anthems. was conductor of the Three Choirs from 1737. began his active career as organist in 1734 in London. became composer to the Chapel Royal in 1736 and its organist in 1758. 2 oratorios. organist in London Lichfield in 1748-60. with 45 anthems and many secular pieces . 1783). William Boyce (d. organist at Cambridge from 1731 and at Winchester from 1 John Stanley (d. pupil 1742. from 1734 and professor of music there from James Nares (d. a service. pupil and close imitator of Croft. . 5 services.2/2 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 123 Minor composers of the period were James Kent (d. of Pepusch. 1776). 1 786). with 6 anthems. 1779). with picturesque color and beauty.

The demand of the public for an point of view. T 273 . besides occasionally enriching the plot by purely instrumental a numbers. many voices were for the time rare. Out of exciting entertainment. art. The observance of these rules was general during the early i8th century. were employed lav with many stage more spectacular singularity than the highest ishly. these combined influences a strangely rigid set of rules for librettists and com procedure was developed by which both in defiance of dramatic sense posers were governed. considerations. The musical elements contributed by the 1 7th century were the recitative as the best method of developing active situations and expressing trains or sequences of feeling. and costuming. the part of several opera-writers in the i/th century. The chorus remained almost unutilized except in and ensemble effects^ of subordinate and artificial fashion. often with taste could approve.CHAPTER XVI THE CULMINATION OF THE EARLY ITALIAN OPERA In spite of undeniable Completed Art-Form. It must be admitted that the however it plan adopted had points of practical effectiveness. partly artistic from a really dramatic or musical 124. may be judged as a type of strict dramatic as a popular form it was enormously successful for the time. At all events. and certain features resulting from them continued into the igth. sometimes and truth. that century was little more than It was only toward its close that a time of experimentation. the form of the opera became definitely settled by a consensus The particular form chosen was due to a variety of of usage. the aria as the of moments of peculiar interest or states of "lyrical embodiment intense emotion on the part of individual characters. genius on with their hundreds of works. Scenery accessories and devices. and partly due to the whether highly artistic or not. and the orchestral accompaniment. lending color and vividness of char acterization and enhancing the interest of all vocal numbers.

in the 1 i aria di voice-part and usually provided with an accompaniment of greater importance. In such duets the voice-parts were often handled in somewhat exact contrapuntal fashion. echoing or imitating the melodic figures of the vocal part. This type of solo has great values as a purely musical form. in which the forcible enunciation of the text was the special feature. and is cognate with the longer song-forms generally.' pro- . IE the former style. sentiment. marked by sweeping skips and more prominent ' . but not agitated. especially song. with few skips. festal pomp or warfare . the recitative verged more or less upon the lamation. a and manner. Thus. expressive of heightened. but it has obvious dramatic drawbacks if used too persistently and stiffly. and which depended for its effectiveness upon the vigor and harmonic suggestiveness of the melody alone. it arrests action and exaggerates emphasis on some plot was less possible. The arias had come to section mainly in the principal key and some second section contrasted with the first in key prelude ' i the first. moving water. and ranged to passionate dec all the way from simple narration or conversation up In the latter style. and the 'aria di bravura' or 'd'agilita. expressive of placid or meditative emotion the i aria d' portamento was similar. in which rapid or vehement advance in the a first be cast usually in the da capo form homogeneous manner. if its text harmonizes with it.274 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY < 124 The recitatives were either 'secco. arias tended to fall into somewhat distinct ' classes according to their melodic and harmonic treatment and their con * sequent fitness for certain types of feeling.' but at intervals in each of the sections. feeling .' supported only at intervals by a few chords on the harpsichord.' in which every device of vocal virtuosity was employed. particular species being the 'aria parlante or talking aria. For musical reasons. These instrumental expansions in creased the musical interest of the whole. and a third section which was either a repetition of the first or an intensified variant of it. and supported by compact harmony. the 'aria all unisono. but duets in similar form gradually became recognized as affording room for musical and dramatic climax. situation or this early usage not only were arias introduced by a short instrumental or *sinfonia.* in which the voice was either unsupported altogether or merely doubled by a few instruments. usually in slow tempo. but also increased the difficulty of its satisfactory dramatic applica Arias were properly solos. accents. and the 'aria d'imitazione 1 or imitative aria.' accompanied through out by various instruments in forms having some musical individuality of their own. also. 1 * arioso or informal song. interludes or ritornelli were inserted. in single incident. declamation was utilized in any way that the story or the character speaking happened to suggest. or stromenta'to. in which a point was made of the imitation (usually more in the accompaniment than in the voice) of such sounds as those of bird-song. but with a much bolder melody. since. including elaborate runs or < divisions. As media for expression. the aria cantabile was characterized by a flowing melody. the mezzo carattere ' was more declamatory or descriptive. regarded as a highly developed tion.

The relation of the overture to the topic and spirit of the work as a whole was so slight that overtures were often transferred from work to work. if present. and also that no two successive arias should come from the same class. each of a distinct character. oppor tunities were seized to introduce instrumental numbers into the progress of the action. the hero or primo uomo being a high tenor and the latter until well the heroine or 'prima donna a soprano The ' ' ' on into the i8th century being an artificial male soprano. The aria parlante might also pass over under certain dramatic con i ditions into the 'aria strepitosa or aria infuriata. The principal singers in the cast for all these types as exhibitions of vocal dexterity that rule that in each acquired the right to have opportunity to parade themselves in all the more difficult and showy forms. especially in the final portion of the work. Some it was a mere tonal introduction in but one movement. every sort of embellishment. and usually the climax of interest included a grand duet between the leading characters. The harpsichord remained the basis or centre for the whole ensemble. So urgent was the demand < ' 1 it became the main division of an opera there should be at least one example of each of the principal classes. trills and turns. the second in quick tempo. and the fourth. like grace-notes. pictorial scenes anything to enhance the tonal variety and interest. dances. filling musical re general plan of disposing the dramatic and three or four male and three female sources involved properly characters. a dance like a gavotte or minuet. At the opening of a work was usually an overture of varied dimensions.' in which the acme of agitation or of violent passion was expressed. with tones at the extremes of the vocal compass. and the Italian. since the opposition to women-singers on the stage was outgrown only . and rapid variations or contrasts of register. the third a flowing melody in moderate tempo. which was first established by Scarlatti. having a first movement in full harmony. which originated with Lully. became better understood. having a first movement in quick and incisive style. Accompaniments were more and times more made a special study. particularly as the capacities of the orchestra Yet they were strictly accompaniments. more or less fugal and with more distinction of instruments.124 THE CONCERT-OPERA < 1 2/5 longed and intricate figures or roulades to single syllables. an inde designed to support and set off the voice. and even from operas to oratorios. a second like the third above. Besides the overture. the French. Two main types of overture were distinguished. The use of the orchestra also tended to become stereotyped. and a third again quick and often contrapuntal. stately and even grandiose. All these conventional usages arose from the popular conception of the musical drama as a grand concert-entertainment rather than a drama pure and simple. in all harmonic gaps and often serving alone. rather than to supply pendent development of the dramatic situation in any large way. but in larger works it consisted of three to four movements. such as marches.

At the end of the whole or of each act a madrigal or dance in ensemble was used some what like an epilogue occasionally similar numbers served as Except for these and the orchestral numbers. 1725). trade of librettist flourished long and was lucrative. the play might consist entirely of solos. Naturally. a Venetian at Vienna till about and. but as a reaction it was extreme. developed by the most ex acting discipline. The vocal accomplishments demanded were astonishing. It was perhaps a natural re action from the pedantry and heaviness of the contrapuntal If in the i8th century period. But it had little to attract poets of merit until the opera began to break away from its conventional rigidity. a Roman who was courtpoet at Vienna for a half-century from 1730. if any. performing in dumb show for the most part. Pittro Trapassi or Metastasio (d. Early in texts 1 8th century. The early Italian opera. however. . the opera would never have ranked as a great art-form. Librettists were constrained to force every story into a single mould and to prepare their lines wholly with reference to the arbitrary musical schedule in view. Silvio Stampiglia (d. since new were in demand. each some composed of alternate recitatives and arias in long series times as many as twenty to an act. more influential The the . but a capacity for tours deforce was more valued than artistic endowment. position of opera-singer was one of enormous e'clat and pecuniary It presupposed decided vocal gifts. such as altos and basses. three court-poets at Vienna secured renown by works of real power. and the same story was worked again and again. and Obviously. designed to provide an arena for the display of virtuoso vocalists. The profit. still. The plot was regularly laid out in three acts. difficulty. the author of about 35 libret tos. new ideas had not presently made themselves felt. prologues. 1782). 1750).276 with THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 124 Voices of low register. a Roman by birth who worked at Vienna from about 1700 till 1711 Apostolo Zeno (d. the texts were of the most mechanical and tasteless description. were not considered important. in vogue were those of ancient history or The subjects most mediaeval romance. a plan like this was hostile to dramatic freedom truth. which often involved no slight genuine musicianship. and were forced to win success by a one-sided cultivation of sensuous or sensational melody alone. Under the . therefore. Composers were equally constrained on the dramatic side. was simply a concertscheme of great artificiality. The chorus was little more than a piece of stage-furnishing. namely. 1730.

Many light works were often written. In England. French and English writers should be regarded somewhat by themselves. All these implied some degree the. The work of the singing-master naturally became of the utmost impor tance. The Rise of the Neapolitan School. ally. the operatic development at Naples from about 1700 was due to the genius of a series of masters. was an evident tendency to modify the Italian type in directions determined by other ideas. In many But there cases these were similar to those produced in Italy. while in France the ballet was decidedly popular. so that German. The The above description applies to the traditional dramma per the serious or tragic opera. 1 < festa teatrale.' etc. which was a revolt from the mechanical plan and the sentimental monotony of the opera In the opera buffa many of the old rules were delib seria. The brilliance of 125. notably at Dresden. With these two Vienna was closely were also produced abun dantly at several points in northern and western Europe. In Germany the singspiel was not abandoned. especially as operas in the languages of these countries now began to be associated. But behind this . and the latter continued in active existence. and many notable composers were equally famous as trainers. especially that which during the first half of the iSth century emanated from Naples or was -under the sway of its school. 4 1 of dissatisfaction with the fixed form of the typical Italian opera. musica or 'opera seria' Gradu as will be seen. too. Common names for such works were < serenata. Paris and London. the opera buff a or comic opera. greatest teacher of the century was undoubtedly Porpora (d. there branched off from this another form. The general employment of evirati for female parts was demoralizing. Furthermore. Operas written in numerous. ' ' erately set aside. 1766). what is here said applies strictly only to that form of opera which was essentially Italian. of whom Alessandro Scarlatti was the first and one of the ablest. and thus the way made easier for the recon struction of the serious opera that occurred after 1750. often in one act and for but two or three soloists. in which all sorts of deviations from rules were practised. as was the masque in England.125 THE CONCERT-OPERA < ' 277 old regime the arrogance and conceit of singers were proverbial. Hamburg.ballad-opera had a sudden vogue. The Neapolitan opera was the direct descendant of the Venetian. it though not so impressive Italian centres Italian in its personnel as had been.

portance under Charles relative enthusiasm under the in and independence and its intellectual im are meagre. 91). founded in the I3th century. also. Spain throughout the over to Austria (1707)? the War of the Spanish Succession. Leo. Spanish Viceroy at Naples. was visited there by Handel. Naples passed in 1735 regained its I. however. as a teacher and the stimulator He ponents.th. 1707. artists. In 1709 he went again choirmaster he was to servatories successively. ex-queen of Sweden. except to visit Venice in where he produced two operas. Maria Maggiore. Durante. but returned to Rome in 1703 to assist Foggia at Sta. fluence of the four conservatories already with possibly some stimulus from altered political conditions. While not himself the inventor of the main types of operatic procedure. teacher. is under the patronage of the well-known Christina. His most famous pupils were his son Domenico Scarlatti. It is noticeable that almost all the Neapolitan opera-writers were writers of noble church music as well.278 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 125 leadership lay an awakened popular mentioned (sec. yet the structure of melody was still so closely associated with polyphonic pro cedure that broad musicianship was required at every point. Kingdom In i6th and i. 1725) was born in 1659 at Trapani (Sicily). he is commonly regarded as the father of the completed opera earliest and most successful exits was influential. was due to his gifts as a tional forms. Greco. . was ruled by of The Naples. Feo. conductor and composer in every style then in use. Logroscino and Hasse. Thus around him grew up a circle of gifted of other geniuses. Alessandro Scarlatti (d. His musicianship was many-sided. who together gave a memorable impetus to composition. His handling of the orchestra won the astonished praise of Cor ellL His methods and style new regime. was teacher at three of the con and was for a short time royal choirmaster under the It is not dear that he ever traveled. whose till Soon after. for he was eminent as singer. succeeding him there in 1707. Though the salient feature of the opera at this stage was its attention to affecting and distinctive melody. harpsichordist. it is Although data as to Scarlatti's early training in the harmonic and clear that he was thoroughly grounded and was able to handle it in tradi contrapuntal learning of his age His eminence. melodist and his instinct for the ordering of extended operatic works so as to achieve a maximum of sustained interest. he became choirmaster to the 1689. in styles that show their seria certainly one of descent from the masters of the preceding century. He supposed to have studied at one of the schools at Naples and also under ^o he produced an opera at Rome ^ n I0 Carissimi at Rome (before 1674). often with much oppression. Naples.

1757). a assistant royal choirmaster from 1709 and chief from 1728. with (d. Caffarelli. and from about 1745 taught at Vienna. the great harpsichordist (see sec. without much dramatic con tinuity or special characterization of the personages. much to establish that form. largely for Rome and Venice. serenatas and madrigals. 1766) was born at Naples in 1686 and studied at one of His first three operas ap the conservatories under Greco and Mancini. Teodora (1693). with a rare duet or terzet. Other opera-writers of after 1741). several operas from about 1709 (as EustacJiio) and an oratorio. Besides . 20 operas from 1697 (as Ariovisto. he resumed opera-writing. where Haydn sought From 1748 to 1750 he competed unsuccessfully with Hasse at Dresden. mostly for Naples. this early time were Francesco Manciai (d. Laodicea e Berenice (1701). but without From 1736 he was at the head of one of the music-schools of his help. including one at Rome. and ulti and several mately returned to Naples. La caduta de* Decemviri (1697). 140). is able and enterprising. the vigor and beauty of his arias is generally notable. Among the most famous are La Rosaura (1690). usually in three movements. Domenico Sarri (d. little While his usual plan included more than a series of arias. Wind instruments he da capo form of aria did used sparingly. // Medo (1708) and Tigrane (1715). 1739). 1724) . Senesino and others. and Nicola Fago from 1704. especially for the His liking for the strings. and in 1733 was called to great success. Altogether he wrote about 45 operas oratorios. 1736). fixed a type that rivaled that of Lully in popularity. and the renown of his many pupils. besides a number of oratorios. the recitatives are often fully accompanied. London to assist in the combination against Handel. being numbered 114)7 . characterized by little real genius. with a few operas c. Besides his operas.125 SCARLATTI AND THE NEAPOLITAN OPERA much to Handel's development. but some for Rome of these only about one-third are extant. particularly . . 1721. Later like Farinelli. His overtures. About 1711 he began to be peared in 1709-11. with over 15 popular operas and some Bomenico Scarlatti (d. though considerable cleverness. his almost innumerable sacred works (including 200 masses) he wrote at least 1 1 5 operas (Griselda. with a slow movement between two quick ones. because not satisfied with their purity of intonation. Niccold Porpora (d. 1702) and 4 oratorios . he wrote many secular cantatas. oratorios from 1702 (as Didone abbandonata. known as an expert singing-teacher. an eminent teacher and sacred composer. strung together with recitatives. Mancini's successor at court. indicates his efficiency. Venice. Some solo cantatas rank higher because of in the orchestration. 279 contributed versal and his works secured him uni of composition verges renown among thoughtful His fertility upon the incredible. critics. and the orchestral writing. with good teacher.

later serious (as Ifigenia in Tauride and Astianatte^ 1725). In the handling of the orchestra he surpassed Scarlatti. he entered the Imperial His works (from 1719) were Chapel. after 1740)7 an accomplished composer of church music. from about 1711 was at Vienna.. Francesco Araja (d.2 go THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 125 He was a master of the art of vocalization. after serving for Spanish court. typical exponent of were Domenico Gizzi (d. 1789). with 14 operas (from 1730) at Naples. 165). 1786). including (1751-5) the first operas in Russian. a pupil of Leo and Durante. a pupil of Greco. 1800). stands with Scarlatti and Leo as a leader in style. 122). where from 1720 he was composer. Leonardo Leo (d. the their adaptation to the voice. Venice and Vienna. besides and some church music. c. at the suggestion of Fux. left a surprising number of works. pupil of Fago and Scar an oratorio in 1712 and Naples and of Pitoni at Rome. and finally a monk. Nicola Sala (d. His influence with attention to breadth and brilliance of general effect. Pasquale Cafaro (d. won renown by an opera in 1714. . which were very popular. the earlier comic (as Lo cecato fauzo. for Vienna and representing a fusion of styles. 122). famous as a theorist (see sec. employed by the press Amalie. besides Naples. 1777). rapidly advanced as a teacher and was welcomed as a gifted were Pergolesi. oratorio (1739). rising His success extended to other Italian cities often to grandeur and passion. Other composers after 1725 include Girolamo Abos (d. with a few operas and oratorios (from 1737) Giuseppe Scarlatti (d. his learning and versa Francesco Durante (d. for a time from 1738 choirmaster at Sta. 1733). London. Rome and Venice. c. Among his many pupils Besides excellent sacred music (see sec. 1767). pupil and successor oratorios . especially at Naples and Venice. pupil of Gizzi. especially as concerns the wind parts. first at Florence. Jommelli and Piccinni. Gaetano Latilla (d. 1732). though sec. who was at St. He helped also to raise the standard of orchestral writing. Petersburg in 1735-59. tility 6 operas (1713-31) and an giving him much renown. for a time royal choirmaster at Naples. almost all dra matic (from 1719). 1744). In 1715. etc. composer. Maria Maggiore in Rome and from 1756 teacher at Venice. 1755). but mostly at the Russian court. Venice. almost wholly dramatic. born at Naples. 1787). with over 35 operas (from 1732) . not himself a secular composer (see shaping the Neapolitan almost because under him as head of one of the conservatories were trained all the versatile opera-writers by whom that style became powerful told for clearness and elegance of melody. throughout Europe. including perhaps 20 operas or similar works (as at the Em * 1 all written Spartaco. the old Italian school of singing. They and the include nearly 40 operas. bora near Naples in 1694. Alessandro's grandson. 1726) and 13 oratorios (as Giuseppe riconosciuto. I745)> anc* his Other important singing-teachers pupil Francesco Feo (d. with over 10 operas (from 1730). with a few oratorios. as He often utilized texts by librettists like Zeno well as in suavity of melody. 1719). Rome. with 27 operas (from 1740) at Naples. 1750). Leonardo Vinci (d. he wrote about 60 operatic latti at works. later at Naples. a short time Giuseppe Porsile (d. in a style of expressiveness and charm. and Metastasio.

Leading composers were beginning to travel more and Italians were in request at all mu sical centres in Germany and at London. Quite as important were his ing depended on the inspiration of a good residence .125 THE NEAPOLITAN OPERA 281 iards of Leo. pupil of Durante and choirmaster in Rome. and in 1749 he was again at Rome. but fell below him in vigor and brilliance. the court interest having nagged. produced with success his 1} errore amoroso. his early style was formed before he came in conta'ct with the Neapolitans and was always too individual to be treated with theirs. with almost 20 operas and oratorios (from 1745) . It will be observed that gradually the vogue of Neapolitan works spread far away from Naples. This failure shattered his health. after 1782). Demofoonte (1764) and Armida (1770? Naples). at Vienna in 1748 he was intimate with Metastasio. the far greater Handel belonged to this group. pupil of Mancini. His style was too dignified and forceful to serve well in comic works. broke up somewhat the formal reg ularity of its aria forms and improved some technical details. bringing out several further operas. was trained there Leo and Feo. Artaserse (1749? Rome). from 1739 choirmaster at Palermo and from 1752 at Lisbon. Among his about 50 dramatic works were Ezio (1741. Stuttgart).writer. due to the change of style that his long German had produced. though way. especially under Durante. Naples). with about 30 operas (from 1740) at various places. for a time as choirmaster at From 1754 he was court-choir St. Rome). 1774) was born in 17 14 near Naples. Chief among these of the school was Jommelli. and. besides some first operas (1737-8). who for a time had great apostles renown from his many works for both theatre and church. also. Venice). Merope (1741. slighter works. and Davide Perez (d. under an assumed name. In 1769. The German Hasse matched him in fertility and in melodious In a distant ness. sandro (1757). in the schools. and the two Span Dominico Terradeglias (d. of which Demetrio (1752) z&dSotimanno (1757) were specially successful at Lisbon. 1751). Nicola Jommelli (d. Eumene (1747. Bologna). he returned to Naples. with 13 operas (from 1736) in Italy and at London. At Rome from 1740 he was patronized by an English noble. the earliest. producing much church music. abundant new works and master at Stuttgart with extraordinary privileges and salary. Ifigenia in Aulide (1751. Peter's. at Bologna in 1741 he came under Martini's influence in coun from the Council and terpoint. however. He brought an access of emotional intensity into the style that in creased its dramatic power. Pelope (1755. at Venice in 1741 and later he received honors began notable writing for the church. and his best writ text. Achille in Sciro (1749? AlesVienna). His sudden fame led to extensive travels as a favorite opera. and by his his accomplished leadership made the musical establishment famous. but with a star tling want of success.

1790). to whom much of his later success was due. in 1746 to Munich. At Dresden he was often visited by Bach. receiving from the Neapoli 1 tans his permanent style. and from 1773 lived in Venice. touching almost all branches of composition. His more famous operas were Sesostrate (1726). though slight in contrapuntal He essayed every variety of Catholic church music. 1781). side. 1770. Johann Adolph Hasse (d. 1756. Its success was due to its perfect adaptation to the taste of the time. where he died. enjoying great local honor and having leave frequently to travel. and writing and Venice. Another com poser of the same class was Giovanni Battista Lampugnani (d. the opera. small orchestra or solo instruments most of these without distinction. in 1740 to Paris. While the Neapolitans were thus developing especially on its melodic idle. many masses. From 1731 he was court-choirmaster at Dresden. Artaserse (1730. at Brunswick. 90) who worked on into the i8th century were M. of much less value. a Miserere (1774)? etc. 1783) was older than Jommelli. (1771). in the siege by the Prussians. no operas after . a famous ( 1755)? a Passion (1749). partly from Alessandro Scarlatti himself. he moved to Vienna. the Saxon Chapel being broken up. written in a smooth. was from 1754 choir master at Brunswick and in 1762-80 at Cassel. . 1715). In 1748-50 occurred trips to Italy. In 1722 he went to Italy for a ten years sojourn. His style was melodious '59) and the intermezzo Piramo e Thisbe (1769) and singable rather than marked by dramatic or structural vigor. In 1760. and at Milan along with his last opera. including some oratorios. besides church music. In 1730 he married the prima operas for both Naples (from 1723) donna Faustina Bordoni(&. Ziani (d. some of them twice or thrice over. Ruggiero His fertility was enormous. the later writers of the Venetian little school were not to real progress.6)< a great Requiem (1756). He wrote some 14 operas in a style resembling Hasse's. Alessandro (1731). writing in all about 20 operas (from 1737). His dramatic works included some 10 oratorios and about 70 operas. everywhere in request a series of operatic contests with Porporaat Dresden. thoughtful style. Perti (d. Arminio (1731. though always fluent and graceful. was given a serenata by the boy Mozart. From 1764. his property was destroyed. including most of the MSS. In 1721 he produced his first opera. forms. after some years of wandering. La clemenza di Tito (1737. '45). He was born in 1699 near Hamburg. for a complete edition of his works. Attalo (1728). A. a pupil of Leo and Durante. as hacco also left some instrumental works. though their numerous works added Among the composers already mentioned (sec. c. He Laudatepueri{i74. but outlived him. at Vienna he came into rivalry with Gluck. where he came under Keiser's influence. Antiochus (German text). as a popular favorite. motets and cantatas. continuing composition. as to London in 1735 ( to compete with Han in 1753 to Berlin. with operas at Venice and Milan from 1736. a Milanese who succeeded Galuppi at London in 1744 and lived at Milan from '40). besides many del). He set about 25 librettos by Metastasio. 1787).282 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 125 church works. and was prolific in so natas and concertos for harpsichord. Iguazio Fiorillo (d.

and was last heard of at Vienna and Venice. chiefly for Munich. where in 1688 he : was choirmaster. Lotti (d. w about 20 (from 1732) . 1737). 1788). F. of which the series in London are the best. Ariosti (d. C. after 1739). lived a long and checkered life. He was a clever writer along conventional lines. P U P^ of Porta. and G. 1784). Born about 1660 at Modena. court-composer from 1739. a leader in the Ac50 operas (from 1694). the clavier. and from 1738 choirmaster at Munich. and from 1725 At Vienna were also notable the contrapuntist Fux (d. Josef Bonno (d. when he was called to London first as Handel's operatic colleague. moved from place to place. from 1689 court-organist and the successor of Bernabei as choirmaster. His works in clude over 30 operas. with perhaps 10 (from 1740). largely for Ital Among the Venetians were Giovanni Porta (d. produced 14 operas (from 1711). active in London in 1737-40. 1741). Polaroli (d. Mark's. pupil of Vivaldi at Venice. Francesco Gasparini (d. 1777).) ^ At Munich were Pietro Torn. cantatas and many instrumental pieces. born at Marseilles and educated at Parma. with even more (from 1706). 1727). 1769). 1750). and from 1751 at Naples on a pension. In 1731. Wagenseil (d. with about 10 (from 1726). and Fortunato Chelleri (d. from 1720 in London. finally as organist at St. Giovanni ian theatres. he was also at Rome. Piacenza. besides considerable church music. from 1739 assistant choirmaster at Vienna and from 1747 chief. 1732). opera-director from 1726. choir master at Breslau from 1725. where his first 15 more (till 1722) at court-choirmaster at Cassel. (See sees. and at Hirschberg from 1740. but principally associated with Venice. trained at Bologna. 1737). being convicted of plagiarizing from Lotti. with about 15 operas. (d. Francesco Conti (d. 1722). with nearly 30 dramatic works (from 1702). with about 30 operas (as Numitore. from 1713 court-composer. later as his bitter rival. and connected with the court music at Vienna in 1691-171 1. and Daniel Gottlieb Treu (d. and Andrea Bernasconi (d. at Prague from 1727. Berlin and other cities before 1716. the ablest of the three composers of the family. with about 25 operas (from 1721). besides other works. from about 1700 chorusmaster at one of the Venetian conservatories. born at Stuttgart. pupil of Corelli and Pasquiniat Rome. (1720) to Astianatte (1727).virtuoso.125 THE OPERA AT VENICE AND VIENNA 283 1717). but known as an opera-writer at Vienna (1738) and Venice (1741). 1766). pupil of Lotti. 140. brought up at opera was produced (1707). 1740) and Caldara (d. c. 1749). 1755). London). the strongest being oratorios . several oratorios (as Ezechia. from Astarto some church music. no operas after about 1720). at first a teacher at Venice. Battista Pescetti (d. of which the details are in part obscure. first With Breslau are associated Antonio Bioni (d. 1736). 1740. c. 121. with some gifts as a melodist. followed by about various Italian cities and in Spain. 1720. . in the imperial service from 1739. 1757). he left London. C. wrote about Luc' Antonio Predieri (d. with about 20 operas. cademia fllarmonica at Bologna and probably choirmaster at the cathedral. Besides these the following should be mentioned Giovanni Battista Bononcini (d. with about 25 operas (from 1690). from 1753 at Munich and in 1755 Porta's successor.

which had been going on from the opening of the century. about half of them comedies. began the reclamation of the opera to pulse was given by true dramatic mission. The im certain Neapolitans. diversify in general. competed successfully with Pergolesi at Rome with his Nerone (1735).284 126. 2 operas. The number disposition of the characters in the cast were elastic. some string-trios and a grand mass for 10 voices. piquant dialogue and acting were with vivacious differentiation of the personages. though it was drafted with but two characters in the cast and a simple string-accompaniment. melody from simple harmonies did much to His career was cut short by consumption while he was working on his Stabat Mater. because of the delicacy of their workmanship. finally . traveled widely as an operawriter. Besides writing much church music. the low voices. THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY The Opera Buffa. in 1733 he scored an epochmaking triumph with the comedy La serva padrona. Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (d. used as intermezzi. These now they began to compete upon more equal terms lightly. first at Parma Paris. with such clever adaptation to popular taste that he is often called the founder of the ope*ra bouffe. 2 intermezzi. espe and were favored. slipped in for sheer pieces had long been Often two ut diversion between the acts of the opera seria. followed by several who belong rather to the Venetian group. sonatas. btit were later revived to some extent. No others of his 14 operatic works. after study with Greco. Thus* from a source at its first unrespected. He wrote over 30 works. a pupil of Durante. Durante and Feo. born at Naples. appeared from 1731 as the composer of an oratorio. in certed numbers and climaxes in ensemble were in demand dramatic sense short. a single perform works were thus united at terly disconnected an opera seria in three or more acts interlarded with an ance. acts producing an anomalous opera buffa in two or more humorous pieces had been esteemed dramatic mixture. but with the opera proper. 1736. the type came to be as much vitalized by as the serious opera was dominated by the spirit of the concert. and and then at (from 1755) took up the French operetta. But his exquisite sense of characteri zation and his novel evolution of indicate dramatic possibilities. 1775). con essential. aged 26). attained signal importance. especially because in them the conven tional restrictions Comic were not applied. 126 Soon after 1730 the many experi ments with the comic opera. He left some important trio- Egidio Romoaldo Duni (d. were notably successful during his brief life. The popular and artistic success of some of these works tended and revolutionize the prevailing notion of the opera to cially basses.

when the series of his over 20 operas. with some But popular additions by Destouches and especially Campra. In 1747 he went to Palermo as a teacher of coun is known His special contribution to the advancing opera terpoint. where from 1748 he was second choirmaster at St. 1753). the comic operas Calandro (1716) and Don Chiscotte (1727) are notable. began.' in which dramatic interest was developed by the essential humor genuine of the plot or the text. ballad-opera. the rest of his life was spent at Venice. Mark's and in 1762-5 chief. The glitter of costuming and staging. In 1729. made his entire He was an career outside of Italy. Vicenza) failed. or the <interm&de' and 'vaudeville. buffa was the climacteric ensemble at the close of the acts. increased skill with accompaniments and in a more piquant .' which were often analogous to the German singspiel or the Eng lish up to the later *op6ra comique. where airs from his works were in demand. Giovanni Alberto Ristori (d. 1763) was also one of Durante's pupils. The * ' with styles in vogue varied from the ballet or dance-spectacle. Lotti and the organist of various churches. interest in the serious opera was constantly hindered by the craving for scenic divertissements of an ephemeral sort.' music and some interesting instrumental pieces (see sec. 148). born at Bologna. His 115 operas had a great vogue. Among his 15 or more dramatic works. What gains there were lay in force and unity in the whole. and further works were ex tremely popular. however. his best in No special progress took place The Opera in France. but nothing of him until 1738. was from 1722 a pupil of He was also a clavier-virtuoso. 1 765-8). Except for two sojourns in Russia (i 743-8. His first opera (1722. which was later 1 works were // Governatore AmongHe preferred subjects that were farcically (1747) humorous. His works retained their vogue till displaced by those of Piccinni. being engaged from 1715 at Dresden. spoken sensuous charm of dancing evolutions and the catchy lilt of than noble or impassioned light song were far more prized sustained arias. besides writing freely in secular and sacred forms. 1785). Dorinda made a hit at Venice. and // vecchio marito. well-considered scenes or dramatic declamation.127 THE OPERA BUFFA 285 Nicola Logroscino (d. accomplished player on the organ and harpsichord. introduced into serious opera. but showed his gifts as a buffo writer. and their verve and jollity won He also wrote church for him the name of 'the father of the opera buffa. all comedies except one (1750). From 1741 he was in London. often treated to some extent through the dialogue. born near Venice. Baldassare Galuppi (d. and wrote almost exclusively in the Neapolitan dialect. its accent upon studied alternations of movements set to brilliant orchestral accompaniments. About onethird of them were comic (mostly after 1750). French opera during the first third of the century. The works of Lully continued to be regarded as typical. 127. but later returned.

was long Baptistin Stuck (d. where he studied with Marchand. For a time in southern he was organist at Lille and Clermont. operas (from dare (1720). ballets and instrument in the operatic orchestra. the pioneer double-bassist Francois FranoBur (d. brought Jean Claude Gillier (d. Jean Baptiste Maurice Quinault (d. solo cantatas and some suites. I753)> several ballets. Francceur also wrote some violin-sonatas. born the court and at the Ope'ra. (from 1713). devoting himself to theoretical study and the writing of church works and clavier-pieces. Jean Philippe Rameau (d. orchestra. including the supervision of the Ope'ra from 1736. 1760). superintendent of music at Ver 1728) Ope'ra. at 18 he was sent to Italy. 1787) and Francois Rebel (d. 1737). To these the following may be added a violinist at the Come'die Francaise. 1764). 1738. but soon incurred his jealousy. but was uninterested in Italian music. etc. and produced jointly 10 operas (from 1726).286 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 127 that many writers of handling of the voices. and Michel Pignolet de Montfcclair from 1719. like Jacques Aubert (d. at Florence of German parents. ductor of the Concerts spirituels and composer to the Come'die Italienne (works from 1711) . one produced at the Colin deBlamont (d. such as Pyrame et Thisbk (1726) and Tarsis et Julie (1728). 1744)? in 1712-33 an actor and stage-singer at the Come'die Francaise (many works. with many solo cantatas (from 1706). though his views on harmony were too novel to be readily accepted. being a pioneer on his as 'cellist : He wrote some 20 operettas. attracting attention when but 7 years old. insane). notably MlUagre (1709). and became recognized as the foremost . like forerunners of the lished Comtdie Frangaise and Comedie Italienne (the Qp%ra. notably works Several of the opera-writers already named (see sec. later con employed by (d. sailles chamber with ballets (from 1721). Other temporarily popular composers in the light vein were Joseph Mouret from 1707 in the service of the Duchess of Maine. was a precocious After a good gen davier-piayer. Manto la fee (1711) and Poly1709). It is notable were drawn from the ranks of the operas at this period The dominant composer after 1735 was Rameau.Comique) . born at Dijon in 1683. after 1700. and several instrumentalists. both first appearing as boy-violinists at the Ope'ra in 1710 and 1714 respectively. with over 15 (d. which were the vogue for a time. While the serious opera had its home under royal patronage at the Acadlmie (later the Grand Opera). 1755). . 1775). 85) produced Campra (mostly before 1718) and Destouches (till 1726). Returning to Paris in 1721. were life-long friends and collaborateurs in a series of court offices. After visiting Paris in 1705 and touring France as a violinist in an opera-troupe. he steadily advanced in reputation. in 1717 he went to Paris. several other theatres became exceed the fluctuating TheAires de lafoire and the more estab ingly popular. They did much to fix the taste of the Parisian public for the light style. eral education and becoming noted as an organist. of which Les dieux de and Sancko Panqa (1727) are examples. 1737). la foire (1724) out perhaps 20 operettas (from 1696).

Castor et Pollux (1737). in the royal band and from 1745 at its head. 1797). with 15 works (from 1752).123 RAMEAU AND THE FRENCH OPERA 287 Under wealthy patronage he first attempted a Biblical opera (libretto by Voltaire). since there were brought together the singspiel. he wrote writing.Italian and French par ' tisans. He was beset by continual controversy and intrigue. known throughout Europe as a dancer. but his industry and vigor were unflagging. the philosopher and theorist (see sec. In this contest a prominent figure was Jean Georges Noverre (d. The Opera in Germany. who arrived in 1755 and exerted a strong influence on the ope*ra bouffe in general (see sec. Enee et Lavinie (1758). with 9 light operas. 1 . the Italian opera and certain French ideas as to instrumental music. being by Antoine Dauvergne (d. and each sought by every means to discredit the other. Gradually ^his prestige displaced that of Lully. pioned by the critics Grimm. of whose few dramatic works (from 1745) Le devm du milage (1752) achieved a signal success. so far failed that he almost gave up dramatic From 1735 till 1760. and the Italian Duni (d. dance-num recitative. 141. and the the court. . 1810). In 1752 broke out the curious strife between. 141). 138. in some 60 pamphlets). The French party ultimately triumphed and the historic ope'ra comique fol lowed. opera after opera with increasing success. of which Les Indes galantes (1735) was the most popular. the tripartite overture. 3 oratorios and some motets (from 1742) Jean Jacques Rousseau (d. while his later Pygmalion (1770) became the prototype of the melodrama. etc. however. leader at the Concerts spirituels and from 1755 conductor. though their styles were not Both used much declamatory radically different. who strengthened the dramatic quality of the ballet and wrote a noted book on dancing (1760). French organist. 1778). 1772). see sees. between which the literary and social antagonism was intense (expressed. both marked me bers. It is true that in some cases German opera-writers showed dra- . 126). for instance. a violinist from 1737. (For his other works. Dardanus (1739) and Zoroastre (1749) being the largest. chief of which were Les troqueurs 0753)> usually called the first opra comique (with spoken dialogue). The Italians ranged themselves under the name of the queen. many many arias with strength. and his Hippolyte et Arid* (1733)* though undeniably powerful. which was not accepted at the Ope'ra. the French under that of the king.' which was occasioned by the advent of an Italian troupe with their own repertory of works and with Their side was cham singers trained in the fine art of vocalization. etc. more decoration than organic Lully had the keener dramatic sense. with nearly 20 others of the ballet-opera type. Diderot and Rousseau. press 128. but Rameau was musically more gifted. He also made a freer use of the chorus. 1775). It seems as if Hamburg should have led in significant operatic progress in northern Europe. lodic beauty . known as the Guerre des buffons. and the public for two years or more were sharply divided into two parties. a violinist at the court and the from about 1740 and Mondonville s successor at the Concerts Op&a spiritueis in 1762.) Other names are Jean Joseph Cassanea de Mondonville (d.

Cfcristoph Graupner (d. and would have been appointed before Bach came into the competi tion had not his Darmstadt patron objected. 1760). Telemann also wrote at least 600 overtures! His wide popularity led many lesser writers to imitate his style. 120). somewhat from the In details the German style differed but in general spirit and method it tended to treat composition as a stereotyped trick which could be learned by any one once for all. This was not wholly bad or useless. Until that time there was little German opera much trious of distinctive quality. is Brief reference. * ' of the ' ' already been noted really belongs to this monotonous class. and against which at length came a revolt in the second half of the century. and of Telemann's 40 or more. and a virile use of rule they surrendered themselves to a facile copying of Italian melodious conventionality. but as a trapuntal experience. his fertility and his power have already been noted (sees. the latter freely and superficially. in 1706-9 he was in Keiser's orchestra as cembalist. Hence became common a Italian. Handel belongs to the Hamburg group. prolific. he became totally blind He was enormously the penalty of excessive application. 1739) to tne Hamburg opera. though he had no later connection with it except as he gave one of his Passions there in 1716. 1767). style which is often called that an official. but outwardly correct. and then went to Darmstadt. 129). perfunctory. partly to music-engraving. based on sound con the orchestra. mechani zopf or perruque cal style. In 1750. already named as indus church writers (sec. son's 8. the chief were Cleopatra (1704) and Hmrico IV. originality : due certain composers of renown. 1764) andTelemann (d. 87. After training under Schelle and Kuhnau at Leipsic. but in Much that has historical perspective it seems tame and flat.288 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 128 matic force. Damon (1724). from which Handel vigorously broke away. therefore. The relation of Keiser (d. vigorous harmonic structure. In 1722 he was one of the aspirants for the cantorate of the Thomasschule at Leipsic. (1711). however. especially in church music (1300 pieces left in . Flavins Bertaridus (1729) and Genserich (1732). since it favored the wide extension of many sorts of works in many places. lifeless. had a similar connection with Hamburg. like Handel. It was from this that Bach turned in discouragement. where in 1712 he succeeded Briegel as choirmaster. 120). the tendency of the Hamburg circle was mainly toward making it universal in Germany. if not all of Both Mattheson (d. the former Of Matthesparingly and with angularity. almost exactly contemporary with Handel. From him the youthful Handel received in 1703-6 an impulse to dramatic work that bore immediate fruit (see sec. wrote operas from about 1700. In a limited sense. Unfortunately.

as a natural consummation of movements that had been long in progress in Italy and Ger many. Catone in Utica (1744). among which Valeria (1712) was He specially popular. united learning with a gift of tunefulness. etc. setting him in another category. Georg Friedrich Handel name was properly Handel. 289 MS. Popular examples after the erection of the new opera-house in 1742 were Artaserse (1743). He was the son of a re spected surgeon and his second wife (28 years younger). 120). at Darmstadt). 120). But the final application of his ener was unprecedented. the eminent church composer (see sec. is [The family (d. 1759) was the remaining prominent opera-writer of the time. like Stolzel.] There no record of musical ability among his ancestors. and who himself edited many librettos and often contributed some numbers. since he stands out as the most powerful opera-writer in the early Italian manner. and the fact that this took place in England and acquired concen trated influence there has linked him closely with modern choral music. artistically not so high. His Italy. Prague. but the boy's eageri. produced over 20 operas (1711-23) at Breslau. not directly connected with Hamburg (see sec.129 THE OPERA IN GERMANY '19). chiefly for Berlin. the daughter of a Lutheran pastor. by Early in his mostly at Hamburg. i. melody and clever workmanship. To a certain degree he appears. and was also an organ contrapuntist in the direct German line. Karl Heinricli Graun (d. later commonly anglicized into Handel. Adriano in Siria Graun's style resembled Hasse's in agreeable (1745). Although he was keenly alive to the dominant tenden cies of his age and facile with conventional writing for immediate to the oratorio getic and sturdy genius popular success. though. His father destined him for the law. whose taste was for French imperious and Italian styles. His operas numbered over 30 (from 1726). like Bach. where he was director under Frederick the Great. Bayreuth and Gotha. Handel. . but practically for a long time more effective. 1749). but his popular impress has been infinitely greater and in its sphere thoroughly healthy and noble. 1759) was born in 1685 at Halle. career he also wrote about 10 operas (1707-1 genius was Naumburg. His individual works usually do not bear such minute analysis as those of Bach. which he cultivated travel in much admired and was certainly above the average. Demofoonte (1746). The circumstances of his career developed artistic characteristics very different from those of Bach. he also often broke through traditions with the confident independence that betokens original conviction and creative invention of high order. The historic position of Handel is peculiar. Certainly he towers in dignity above all others of his contemporaries except Bach. 129. Gottfried Heinrich Stolzel (d. and in works for harpsichord and orchestra.

In 1702 he entered the new University of Halle. and the public. the Elector succeeded as George L. producing a noble set of anthems.THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 129 the notice of one ness for music was Irrepressible. Florence) and Agrippina (1708. at the sudden death of Queen Anne. Soon he appeared as a composer. In 1715. especially the so-called Utrecht Te Deum ^ndi Jubilate. and finally. followed on a to Italian traditions. Italy for further operatic His Italian sojourn extended Florence. At 1 1 he was taken to Berlin as a (1696) prodigy. his father died. they went together in to 1 703 Lubeck to visit the aged Buxtehude. Becoming intimate with Mattheson. mother. he made a hit with Rinaldo (1711). which the new king disapproved. In 1710. and Handel was fora time in disgrace both for Ms long absence from Hanover and for his part in the Utrecht celebration. a quiet and earnest woman. 1712). ceeding at once to London. traces of this remain. his education was guided having by his . Venice). his first English oratorio Esther (1720). from 1707 to 1710. cians. pro ducing 4 operas. with Handel and G. regaining favor. In 1716 he composed his second Passion for Hamburg. he succeeded him Pro as choirmaster to the Elector of Hanover. and 2 Italian oratorios. Rodrigo (1707. Bononcini as directors. His style became externally accommodated though without sacrificing its native freshness and force. violin and oboe) and (clavier. with leave for further travel. From 1697. is said to have written much. In 1704 he produced his first Passion. In 1713 he began writing sacred music to English words. but few In 1703. His power as a choral writer was already clearly visible. he narrowly escaped being After about three years he betook himself to killed by the latter in a duel. of strict composition was rapid. returning to Germany and introduced by Steffani. he entered Keiser's or chestra at Hamburg as second violin. Till 1719 or 1720 he was choirmaster to the wealthy Duke of Chandos. organ. In 1714. besides winning applause as an organist. however. after a quarrel with Mattheson. Almira (1704) being the first. after attracting under the organist Zachau of the father's patrons. patrons Rome and Naples. formed In 1720 an aristocratic stock company. was met by careful instruction His mastery of playing (d. was to give operas. work. 2 im mensely successful operas. B. the serenata Acts and Galatea (1720) and some harpsichord-pieces. and a . Venice. in search of experience. The Royal Academy of Music. second visit by Teseo (1713) and later by a few other dramatic works. with repeated stays at Everywhere he was honored by musi He wrote some notable church music. he was assigned court salaries that continued till his death. besides becoming organist at In these early years he the cathedral. The same year.

From music. had produced the oratorios Deborah and Athaliah (both 1733). The appeal of these works to English re and their eminent intrinsic value secured for them not only immediate popularity. Judas Maccab&us (1747). The hostility of Bononcini. He was buried in West Personally. Handel losing all his savings and In his efforts to hold his public he had suffering a partial stroke of paralysis. Samson (1743). Theodora (1750) tt&Jephtha (1752) The Messiah being produced on a concert-tour to Dublin. since his command of resources . also Acts and Galatea. to which Senesino deserted. Muzio Scevola (1721. Handel's self-respect then impelled him to organize a company of his own. so that their general influence came much later. Ottone (1722). In his later years HandeFs enemies disappeared and his powers as composer. yet generous and strictly honorable. Ezio (1732). As life progressed. These works vary in method. however. is almost wholly contemplative and devotional. etc. outspoken. while Israel in Egypt is unique for its gigantic series of pictorial plague choruses. thus constituting a musi its masterly libretto ligious feeling cal type of great importance. revived Esther with dramatic action.5} . for which he wrote 13 more operas. etc. after Bononini s In disgrace. and had also written fine court > 1| anthems and considerable instrumental music. became entangled with the politi cal antipathy between Whigs and Tories. Poro (1731). Solomon (1749). Abbey with notable public honor. his inborn Ger man seriousness became more apparent. Rodelinda (172. Alessandro (1726). turning with a sure instinct to choral works. His handling of singers and players was imperious. conductor and organist were universally acknowledged. backed by the prominent Marlboroughs. Porpora. but minster continued active till within ten days of his death. In them all the choral numbers are lifted to a chief place and developed with extraordinary variety and vigor. Arianna 0733) an d several pasticcios and hasty works. . especially Senesino_and the prime donne Cuzzoni and Bordoni (later Hasse's wife). 1737 the two enterprises ruined each other. The oratorios. D Messiah (1742). the others being by Bononcini and Mattel).129 HANDEL 291 powerful troupe. Handel was bluff and hearty. Their recognition by Continental critics was slow. From 1721 the bitter rivalry between him and Bo noncini was taken up by numerous partisans. this time he practically gave up operatic He now produced about 15 renown almost wholly rests. including Lotario (1729). For this Handel wrote 14 operas. much inclined to society and with keen insight into character. He was now 53 years old. He was blunt. the ma jority being modeled in dramatic form. In 1753 he became almost totally blind. Joshua (1748). 3d act only. but an enduring influence upon subsequent English composers. and in 1728 ruined the enterprise. sometimes caustic. and in which. (1740).Scif zone (1726). led in 1733 to the formation of a rival company. on which his modern Saul (1739)? fsrael in Egypt (1739). Hasse and other famous opera-writers cooperated. and The Messiah^ following * ' (by Charles Jennens). Tamerlano (1724). and it is dear that his religious works were expressions of earnest conviction and feeling. finally led to disgraceful riots in the theatre. including tne serenata Allegro. including Radamisto (1720). He was an indefatigable worker and in composition exceedingly rapid. but often shrewd and clever. was inflamed by intrigues and competitions between leading singers.

Galuppi (1741-3). Scarlatti's Pirro e Demitrio in i7o8. B. various Italian composers were represented at London. competing with Domenico on the harpsichord and organ. He accumulated a con and was never married. G. Porpora Bononcini's Camilla in 1706 and Almahide in 1710. Rome and Naples. most of them was casual or altogether lacking. Many good per trips to the Continent in search of singers. His Style and Significance. and a few composers competed with him. and from Steffani. his development was mainly an independent one. In Italy for a time he was intimate with musicians Later he made several hurried at Venice. B. From 1726 he was a naturalized Since Handel lived through he was contemporary with all Yet his contact with the masters who have been considered. besides several nondescript pasticcios. 130. ? Granting whatever at may be necessary for the bent given him and for the influence of his later condi tions. Keiser. rivalry to Handel. This made it possible to deal freely with all forms and to devise new ones. was absolute and his flow of invention unlimited. The Neapolitan school was then only just taking shape. 1723-7). Porta {Nitmitore. Mattheson and Telemann. where traditions were unformed. In England he must have encountered the memory of to his PurcelFs career. In Italy he certainly met Lotti. His youth was spent in the atmosphere of German church music and the Ham burg opera. his first teacher. coming a few Italian operas had been given in London (M. Scarlatti (Narcisso. Hence he was able to be the founder of a special English tradition which still continues. Bononcini's Etearco in At intervals afterward 1711). who was a close friend for years. British subject. Ariosti (seven. Bononcini (seven works. first the whole half of the century. though only the first was old enough to be significant. Gluck (1746) and Terradeglias (1746-7). Just prior A. formers worked under him in London. in Italy Hamburg and . from the Hamburg triumvirate. He was fortunate in choosing to work in England. G.Mancinrs Idaspe in 1710. Lampugnani (1743-5). 1719). But his com parative isolation kept his works from being widely known else where and delayed the full recognition of his genius. Up to the middle of his career he was probably cognizant of the chief tendencies of the operatic world. I733~5 '4 2 X Hasse (a few from 1734). The predominating school in vogue was certainly the Neapolitan. Corelli and the two Scarlattis. The closest personal influences upon Handel in Germany came from Zachau. which had ended 1 5 years before his arrival. usually in (four or more. as Dom. guided by his own desires and the possibilities of his public.292 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 130 siderable fortune. 1720-7). 1720).

3 by Metastasio. The librettos came from various hands 7 each by Paolo Rolli and Wzccolb Francesco Haym (d. they were masterly.form the chorus was feasible as it was not in the theatre. The step from the opera to the oratorio was a short one. over 10 pasticcios. contemporaries in characterization. ex liturgical. so that effective contrasts and climaxes were never wanting. and energy of particular numbers than in any remodeling beauty of accepted methods. move ment and figure the general quality and the personal reactions And his instinct for arrangement was of a dramatic situation. but far more immediately effective gives his works of this class a commanding interest . emo Here he applied the resources of his contrapuntal skill with a lucidity. He much excelled his simple chord-scheme. 1-2 each by 10 others. nervous harmony. embodying in phrase. His originality was shown more in the essential truth. with some unassigned. * He perceived that in a concert. his masterly use of choral means not so original or learned as Bach's. unerring. The subjects are almost all from classical mythology or history. His operas are no longer known because based on poor librettos and written in an obsolete musical and dramatic dialect. This fusion of the dramatic recitative and aria with the ecclesiastical motet.130 HANDEL first 293 a dramatic musician. since Handel's notion of the oratorio was primarily dramatic and not He transferred to it precisely the same methods. such librettos as he could get. with some from mediaeval romance. his ambition Under this impulse he took such forms as his age provided. but. Although much of his success in this field was due to the excellence of some of his librettos. and that tions of religion for the expression of the profound and collective its use on a grand scale was inevitable. The full list of his operas (1704-41) includes over 40 full operas. being made by one who was at once a veteran popular musician and a truly devout man. His resources of melody were unrestricted. and several serenatas. and then put his music together as he thought cframatic effectiveness of all Handel was centring upon the opera. breadth and sublimity seldom since surpassed. cept in the one feature of the chorus. measured by the standards of their own time. 1729). evolved out of a complex. as in later writers. rather than from a required. resulted in a new composite type for the English oratorio that has ever since persisted.

These are but examples of the many singers of the age whose dexterity as vocalists company) two pupils of Porpora. The substance of most of like Dryden. and to most of his oratorio perform ances contributed what were called concertos/ partly probably It * extemporaneous. and to may well be added one or two of the serenatas (especially Allegro. were represented. Morell but principal and other poets. Francesca Cuzzoni may be of interest. all. in London in 1738. His clavier style was much less important. 1761). Unfortunately for historic accuracy. Gioaccliino (d. partly later published. and Caffarelli These last were life-long rivals for the highest place in the operatic world. in accompaniments. finally engaged against Handel. 1770). to which they technically belong. in He used the orchestra of their disregard of chorale-material. effectiveness of plan and vigor of treatment that marked In his vocal writing. two works (Samson and Allegro) came from Milton. his day with dramatic variety and power. He was a superior organist. in many overtures and in some incidental numbers. though often interesting. l and interpreters made them long renowned. several of his best-known works have been greatly modified by later adapters (as. The orchestra as he found it was much stronger in the wood-wind than is now common. whose rivalry lasted about 20 years. 1783). rather than churchly. 1781). church works. Without dis them the tinctly advancing established forms. These works are dis and they stand detached tinctly concertistic. in London London in 1726-8. in (d. and Faustina Bordoni (d. usually on the French plan. In addition to the in 1722-8 and 1734. It is dear that he occasionally . and (in the hostile in [Carlo BroscM] (d. His in spite of its jocularity in parO and a few of the larger the pith of librettists were Chas. the works was. he brought into freshness of idea. Giovanni Conti (d. notably. 175)* 30.Jennens and Thos. in Lon Caresfini 1760). Senesino [Francesco Bernard!] (d. in London in 1733-5. Madrid. he wrote some 70 overtures. Farinelli London in 1734-6? at ^ r in c urt service at [Gaetano Marjorano] (d. the most famous male were Antonio BernaccM (d. c. number about 20. 1782). Pope and Gay. Biblical. don in 1736. of course. later a great in London in 1720-7 and 1730-5. from the German school. and the harpsichord or organ far more indispensable. remains to refer to Handel's services to instrumental music. including a few early works. L L It would be quite impossible to mention all the noted singers to whom much of Handel's popular success was due. 1756). A special word should be added about the charges of plagiarism that have been made against Handel. in London in 1716-7 and 1729sopranists teacher at Bologna. but a brief enumeration of some two mezzo-sopranos.294 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY these 130 His oratorios. The Messiah by Mozart in 1789).

the son of a German who came to England in 1716 to be HandePs assistant. and the author of Anecdotes about him (1799). numbers were strung together by a spoken dialogue into a loosely connected story. just as he transferred sections from one to another of his original works. 1795). In 1710 he founded a society for the study of the older composers. 1749). 1 satirists of the bombastic style current in the Italian opera. of more serious music. His first of the style. Around the mention of : John Christopher Pepusch (d. their arrangers may be grouped some notes of other dramatic music in Handel's period In all. was from 1715 both librettist and composer of many He was one of several able successful ballad-operas and similar works. pupil of Steifani at Hanover. of which The Beggars Opera (1728. from 1717 a number of masques or pantomimes (somewhat akin to the ballad-operas). ' borrowed subjects. From 1732 he wrote several operas in Italian or English (as The Tempest. John Christopher Smith (d. often called the author of "God Save the King. From 1715 he brought out several masques and later 3 ballad-operas. copyist and conductor. . strict creativeness being subordinated to concertistic success. later his organist. 1752). and from 1712 preceded Handel in the service of the Duke of Chandos. B. however. Essentially it was an inferior sort of comic opera. he produced the opera Calypso (1712). besides clavier- pieces. born at Berlin. contributed also to others. Johann Ernst Galliard (d. 1756). and also oratorios (as Paradise Losty 1758).131 THE ENGLISH BALLAD-OPERA 295 adapted whole passages from other composers to his own uses. and its popularity from 1728 interfered with the success Most of the writers in this style. another 'German. We may doubt whether Handel's intent was deceptive. Incidentally connected with the general course of musical events.. was the appearance in Handel's time of a kind of English called the 'ballad-opera/ This was an amusing. about 45 ballad-operas were produced in a little over 15 years. 1 Many is of the cases are merely those of artistic practice. 1743). Besides some church music and many in strumental pieces. Italian opera in MS. the legatee of his MSS. often satirical. though in itself insignifi cant. a music-teacher in London. But it was an age in which pasticcios or medleys abounded. musicianship was excellent. The English Ballad-Opera. play in which well-known popular songs or similar singspiel. as his Harmony (1730) shows. Draghi as court-organist. but his invention was slight. words by Gay) was the From 1737 he was organist at the Charterhouse. came from the Royal Chapel there to London in 1700 as cembalist and compiler of Italian music at the Drury Lane Theatre. was teacher in the royal family under Queen Anne and succeeded G. was HandePs pupil. and surely there is no doubt about his capacity for origination. and left an In 1742 he translated Tosi's work on Figured Song. ' Henry Carey (d. which was and an established 131.

London fertile m^ of the series. the oratorio the most Thomas Augustine Arne (d. cultivated all styles up to the Italian are classic. known. of which Artaxtr*** (1762) 0/43) and some hghter pieces Comus (1738). if not earlier. His set recitative and the florid ana. Thus English ballad-operas a few to be given similar half-musical entertainments began and became American cities certainly from 1735. of Shakespeare's songs tings of some America.) . was born th~ue AM women-singers were used were VCTV successful. was The Disappointment The first ballad-opera drafted in America the use of 18 popular airs.296 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 131 in B counted the best.^ (1761) He was essential y a song-writer. (See also sec. naturally copied many and features of its social life. being in constant com munication with the mother-country. 164. and From I 7 33 he wrote numerous operas masques in 1710. but he in the chorus for the first time. In his oratorio/. (1767) the libretto (by Andrew Barton) involving because its The projected performance of this at Philadelphia was given up whom the songs were to be arranged is not By satire was too personal. though other dramatic works. The English colonies in m fairly frequent after 1750.

too. dependent implements. now stepped forward into decided prominence influence. the old gamba and the new violon cello. profound or intense personality. and the noblest field of the Meanwhile the less vocal solo began to be fully perceived. which was quite unvocal. interest somewhat considered. personal voice of certain instruments was more carefully studied. especially as they were capable of concerted effects of The stringed keyboard instruments. trumpet and other wind-instruments. with much. in the lute and the theorbo had not yet also ceased. especially the violin. as in finally. the expression through the Thus the voice of intimate. but Thus the suggested by the genius of the instrument itself. From this extreme the i8th century gradually reacted in favor of something more normal. to bring out their contrasted possibilities. . more external accomplishment of the mere vocalist gave place to the fine art of the true singer. the voice had often been used as if it were first of all a marvelous machine. capable under training of dazzling feats of tonal legerdemain. view regarding methods of musical procedure was the closer attention to the artistic use alone of various instruments that before had been chiefly ancillary to vocal effects. The great development of the vocal solo aroused an analogous develop ment of the instrumental solo. and to it was transferred much that was possible for the singing voice. giving clear tokens of their later immense Hints of all this had appeared before 1700. namely.CHAPTER XVII INSTRUMENTS AND INSTRUMENTALISTS One of the signs of a broadened 132. and the oboe. Solo Instruments. but the early i8th century rises much above preceding periods in defi 297 nite achievements. and this tended more and more In the I7th century. moderate dimensions. instrumental solo began to advance as a distinct art-form. under the opera regime in its early stages. but the flute was with occasionally the Furthermore. The solo instruments thus used were chiefly those of the viol family.

298 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 132 FIG. Tenor and Bass FiG. 79. Bass and Tenor Recorders or Flutes Donees. FIG. . with cylindrical bore. Flfites & Bee (the last double). with Treble. 80. So. Flutes and Piccolo. the second flute of metal. 78. FIG. FIG. Bass and Treble Recorders. 78.

Probably because of its many strings and its relative ease. the lower two covered with wire. France and England. Every variety of flute was made in different sizes or pitches. and it steadily pushed its way to the Both Bach and Handel clearly perceived its value. having 4 strings tuned in fifths (c G d a). it continued in use long after it was really superseded by these finer forms. galoubets. From early in the i8th century. however. and virtuoso playing upon it ceased In Italy it became obsolete much earlier than in Germany. did not From that become artistically prominent till the early i8th century. brilliance of the flute tone. were more and more appreciated. with its capacity for rapid execution. 1750) was the last of the strong writers for it. the only one to hold its place was the < viola* viol with flat back and 6-7 strings (usually tuned D G Its tone was a cross between that of the tenor violin and a')- the violoncello. The flute. The number of finger-holes more than 8. but weaker and tamer than either. Bach (d. so as to form a family by themselves. Modern music retains only the treble. iio-m). Among the technical advances in play ing was that from only the first three positions (Corelli) to the seventh. cross-fingering and increased force. since about 1840 the modern flute was rarely has reverted to the cylindrical type. but in the 1 8th century it was usually conical. 1713) but its wide expansion in the hands of many able composers and players belongs to the 1 8th century. flageolets and other direct forms having a beak or mouthpiece. chromatics and upper tones being secured by The scale had many inequalities. though in use everywhere from time immemorial. 1773) in developing its music. Bach was specially successful with the was indefatigable flute. Violin composition of importance began earlier. a difficulty not fully fingering involved considerable stretches overcome till after 1750. Occasionally for solo purposes a form called the octave-violin was made intermediate between the tenor and the 'cello. and his younger contemporary Quantz (d. It was first made early before 1790. among solo types that still obtains. i ' { the above octave-violin combined. receiving its first strong direction from Corelli (d. in the I7th century.' a large older forms of viol. establishing for the instrument the eminence . . being unsurpassed in his voluminous writing < for it. which has always been the chief form for 1 From 1700 the sweetness and solos. so that certain keys and successions were difficult. The ' violoncello is properly a bass violin. time the German or transverse variety steadily superseded the older recorders. ' since become common for nearly a century. forming a full family. but did not its upon it appeared.132 SOLO INSTRUMENTS 299 The perfecting of the violin took place in the first part of the i8th century (see sees. its tuning being an Bach's viola pomposa' was a small octave below the violin proper. all Of the c e a d' da gamba. the accordatura being an octave lower than that of the tenor violin. Most of the older cross-flutes had a cylindrical bore. type of 'cello with 5 strings and a compass equal to that of the 'cello and scattered virtuosi front. J. Gambas were often made in several sizes. and the still higher piccolo. with gains in finger-dexterity and in bowing. S.

such as the schalmey. but. about 8 fingerholes. so that ultimately the oboe artistic importance. Better instruments imply conspicuous. 81 . as solo use became greater. the bombarde or pommer.300 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY The oboe (or hautboy) and the bassoon.th century. belong to a large group of double-reed instruments known from the 1 133 the earliest times. The Rise of the Virtuoso. was made in graded sets. use from the ear1 ^ I7th centur^ In 133. In 6th and iyth centuries various kinds were common. such as came to pass in the later Another was the i. agency for accompaniments. The krummhorn or cromorne differed from these in having a cylindrical bore and hence a lower pitch. Still another was the free use . likewise. all with a conical bore. and made in sets or families of different sizes. First of these was the full recognition by composers of the value of purely instrumental writing. its expressiveness and its adaptation to pastoral or idyllic themes. All these were gradually consolidated in the 18thcentury into a single family with three chief representatives. too. it. among ment of the orchestra develop as a special as in the progress of the opera. /road. cially m ^nt allied Serpent a wood-wind instru- to the zink or wooden cornet. The older instru ments b*v.. achieved FIG. The bassoon proper or fagotto dates from the 1 7th century. thick reeds. sounded by a cup-shaped mouthpiece. In the i8th century the instrumental virtuoso or concert-expert became for the first time Ex musicians until several steps were taken in the public use of the art. etc. and the bas soon (bass). But they could hardly become a distinct class fully better players. chalumeau or shawm. and gave a loud and rather coarse tone. esperegarded for its pungency. ceptional performers on any instrument had always commanded attention and often good positions in courtly or private estab lishments. the cor anglais or English horn (tenor). the oboe (treble). the reeds were made more delicate and the tone sweeter and more refined.

followed by several other similar enterprises those of Banister at Lon . Bach arranged and expanded 16 of his concertos for clavier and organ. with miscellaneous programs by singers public performances. 1743). which later (from 1781) < became famous as the Gewandhaus Concerts. was from 1714 in the orchestra of and director of one of the conservatories. the theatric opera. in the lutist and theorbist. 1 7th the gambist and violinist. ing the lines of an earlier club at the University). This new institution joined with the opera to make music on a large scale a function of society in a way the historic which cannot be overestimated. earlier classes Of the many violinists of the period the following : were either the ablest or important as pioneers Antonio Vivaldi (d. accomplished clavichordflutist and oboist. the influence of Corelli by accent 35 operas (from 1713). followed by pianists. to a German prince at Mantua. . In previous chapters some pioneers and leading representatives in the have been indicated. Such lists in the other classes cannot be made exhaustive. hude and i Important early instances of concerts are the Abendmusiken of Buxtethose of the his successors at Liibeck (from 1673 or earlier) Tonkunstlersocietat of Vienna (from 1672) those by Keiser at Hamburg follow (from about 1700) those of the Musikverein of Leipsic (from 1743. He was a very fertile writer. etc. the Con certs spirituels' on feast-days at Paris under the management of the Opdra (from 1725). from about 1707 choirmaster St. and In the i/th. don (from about 1675) and 1710). He supplemented of the true virtuoso.133 THE RISE OF THE VIRTUOSO 301 of the public concert as an institution distinct from the church service. in addition to ing brilliancy of technique with the impulse He pushed the concerto toward orchestral dimen of construction.. besides over producing about 80 concertos. solidity sions. became increas ingly popular. of Ancient Music (from with the festivals of the Three Choirs in West England (from and earlier) 1724) and the oratorio performances of Handel (from 1739 the prototypes of many others throughout England. also. cantatas and arias. born at Venice. prefiguring the universal modern custom. and players specially secured for the occasion. but certain leading names demand mention. many sonatas. . of under diverse auspices. significance of order in which the various kinds of instrumental virtuosi the i6th century the appeared is approximately as follows in i6th and i/th the organist. These are simply conspicuous instances of a public musical institution of the Academy which every variety was possible in many places previously unknown. ' . Mark's. Venice. or the private entertainments of a From early in the 1 8th century such court or a wealthy patron. The : ists in the later i8th and harpsichordists or cembalists became notable. in the in the i8th the 'cellist. .

was a pupil at Rome of From 1707 he was employed at Lucca. serving as a pioneer of style in 1712. embodying Corelli's principles. giving a powerful impulse to the great Tartini. were many and ambitious. devoting himself to teaching and some foolish business ventures. born at Lucca. remaining ( J From till 1721 he was violinist and director 7 2 3~5) at Prague. His works (from 1716). because of a secret marriage with Cardinal Cornaro's niece. His practical works (from 1734) included at least special devices of effect. 1764). and from 1728 was concertmaster at Dresden. with and passionate style. he lived for almost 50 years. from 1725 at Mantua and probably from 1732 at Amsterdam. 149). His and concertos of considerable difficulty works 1716) included sonatas at Prague. was an Istrian. but soon came under Veracini's in In 1714 he fluence at Venice and retired to Ancona to master the violin. Giovanni Battista Somis (d. he fled to the two years. the list who shares with Corelli the renown of heading of the greatest violinists. and for popular favor with (from and worth. as a virtuoso. He in the usual forms. his marriage monastery of Assisi. where he produced Geminiani. contain . 1750) was from 1714 a pupil and colleague of Vivaldi at St. Many the most celebrated is the sonata // trillo delDiavolo. In later life he rarely played in public. Giuseppe Tartini (d. 1770). also wrote one of the earliest violin-methods (1751). He was His theory of also a significant student of musical acoustics (see sec. however. was one of the earliest of the tuning. 1762). going in 1714 to London.302 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 133 had been a player at Dresden since Johann Georg Pisendel (d. in bowing was an advance on previous usage. setting aside the studies and show some strong passages. Pietro Locatelli (d. at first being slightly associated with Handel. where. after 1722 Germany (concertos London. his death a half-century later. and he excelled in double-stopping. except for a sojourn at Paris (1748-55). 100 sonatas and as many concertos. in operas and competed in 1735-47 at Italy again. improvements in the structure of bows (see sec. 1755). a pupil of Corelli (before 1713). Francesco Maria Veracini (d. trills and other and began to Antonio except for two years ' at S. Mark's. toured through Italy as a virtuoso. still classics His L? arts del? arco is a set of 50 variations on a gavotte of Corelli's. who became one of Vivaldi's pupils. though incompletely published. discovered the acoustical phenomenon of < combination-tones apply it practically. and to facilitate it he cooperated of these are . but not equal to Tartini 's. 1763) studied under both Corelli and Vivaldi and then worked wholly at Turin. After studying composition for was forgiven and he returned to Padua. but educated at Padua. with several other less important instruction-books. in Padua. 139). in MS.). and contributed to the growth of an intense player. founding a noted school of players iu that pieces. His ardent and eccentric temperament interfered with his success as an orchestral leader. and from 1710 toured Italy Corelli. In 1718 he established a famous violin-school. Francesco Geminiani (d. from 1717 chamber-composer at Dresden. He was an able 3 a keen sense of effect. clever jugglers with the violin in the display of dexterity and peculiar devices of His works (from 1721). whence. passion and daring. training His style united the finish of Corelli with greater vigor. many great players.

concertos. early and of Somis developed virtuosity. and an industrious com poser in a good style (from about 1750). Graun. a pupil of Palladini at Milan at Turin. his training of the tributed conspicuous royal orchestra and his many works (from about 1725) he con much to the sound establishment of German violin music. He was a skillful player. which under his He wrote direction became famous for its unanimity. remaining in his employ over 40 years. appearing at Rome and Naples before In 1748 he went to Germany and from 1750 had immense success 1730. much both for violin alone and for orchestra (see sec. After short terms at Merseburg and Arolsen. His Johann Stamitz (d. somewhat given to display in his early days. Jean Marie I/eclair (d. He was influenced by Locatelli.). and early became one of the finest virtuosi in Germany. the eldest of a talented family. but in profound expression. 1764. 1769). and in 1771 succeeded the latter as leader. 1796). 1757). Johann Gottlieb Graun (d. became a model to His beautiful and affecting style. Mark's in Venice and from 1741 a method works.' with monopoly-rights in the whole practice of music as a In 1750? in view of the general censure of this act. 147). secured the revival for himself in 1741 of the grotesque of Roi des violons. Less notable names are Pietro Castrucci * (d. trios. following him at his accession in 1740 to Berlin. H. somewhat akin to Tartini's.133 IMPORTANT VIOLINISTS and serving as an important link between Italian 303 and French part of Italy players (sonatas. was a choirboy at Prague and Dresden. from 1729 a obbligati) at Urbino. he became in 1732 leader for the Crown Prince Frederick at Rheinsberg. but soon turned to composition and teaching. soon a^ter Graun. He also wrote several operas opera and various choral (1756-64). are in the Corelli style. many successors. the elder brother of K. who came to London in 1715 and later was Handel's first violin (till 1737)* and who invented the violetta marina' (a form of viola d' am ore for which and Carlo Tessarini (d. 1722-34). but had more success with the oratorio Ruth (1763-8). His works (from 1723) in cluded fine sonatas. where at intervals during the next 40 years he conducted the He died (80 festivals. Etudes. but had marked gifts of grace and invention of his own. in London. From 1729 he was in the Ope'ra orchestra at Paris and from 1731 in the royal orchestra. murdered) was originally a dancer at Rouen and then at Turin. shading and verve. His works (from about 1733) included sonatas. a player in the royal band at Paris from mediaeval office 1733. He also wrote cantatas and a Passion (MS. studied with Pisendel at Dresden and with Tartini at Padua. whose extensive player at St. etc. Frederick's orchestra in 1733. 1786). By his own playing. an opera (1747) and a ballet. including concert! grossi. Felice de' Giardini (d. after 1762). besides teaching singing.)Franz Benda (d. concertos. 1774). where he became a pupil of Somis. besides Handel wrote . trios. appeared at Frankfort in 1742 and from 1743 was leader of the Mannheim orchestra. He entered excelling not only in dexterity. years old) while managing an operatic troupe in Russia. 1771). the office "was professipn. one of Corelli's pupils. significance lay in his stimulus to English players. (1740Giovanni Pietro Guignon (d. (many in MS. 4 . a self-taught player.

beginning with Jean (d. Similarly. flutist and violinist (flute-pieces. etc. many Another impulse proceeded from Pierre solos. Andrews eld est son. and Francois Andre" (d. who appeared in the Concerts The 'cello was introduced Jr. originally . Omitting the last-named. Henri Hotteterre (d. who name probably lived for a time at Rome (whence called k Romairi)* but made a great as a flute-player before 1700. the last great player on the gamba was Karl Friedrich Abel (d. and Louis. 1728). Gabriel Buffardin (d. 1 756). who first distinguished himself as a chess-player. and founded the Concerts spirituels in 1725 as a monopoly (in 1728 bought back by the Opra). from before 1700 as oboist. While the rise of artistic violin-playing who was royal piper from 1659. and from boy under]. AndrS (d. Pierre (d. and later served as a patient copy ist of musical works for the royal library at Versailles (dances and ballets from 1687). but later developed into a popular opera-writer Philidor family.304 emptied of his death. Nicholas (d. wrote several operas (16971701). Harm Marais (d. 1730).) title 133 before 112). 1695). a Provencal who from 1715 for almost 35 e sjcle$ Johann years was court-flutist at Dresden. Without adding further names. took place in Italy and spread thence to other countries. had two sons. a gambist. followed by his son. especially flutes and oboes.(d. 1728) was the most famous (see sec. 1795). bassoonist and cromornist. the chief being Anne (d. was succeeded in the royal band at Paris by his son Roland Ma it may be noted that 1735-8). c. I755)>the opera-writer (see but the real founder of the French school was Martin Berteau (d. 1731). but spent his One of the earliest tas and studies (1736) and visiting Frankfort in 1751. where in 1765-81 He was an able musician and wrote good chamber music and concerts. and Jacques (d. his sons and 7 (from 1759). noted as players and composers.and oboe-playing seem to have been earliest developed Foremost in this process were the many members of the Danicanin France. from 1668 a noted oboist and bassoonist in the king^s band. 1783. spirituels in into England James Cervetto. 1787). who entered the king's band probably about 1670 as oboist. a choir at Dresden. Anne's orother. Among the and 1730. a celebrated maker at Paris of wood instruments. known (d. life at Turin. suites. highly honored by Louis XIV. 108. 1679). the many . fine pupils. 1837). who was trained at Naples. from 1746 court-player he collaborated with Christian Bach in 1759 in London. known only through the reports of able critics who visited Rome between 1715 Another eminent Italian player was Salvatore Lanzetti (d. after 1749). also publishing a method (1699?). with his pupil. S. at least ten members of the family contributed to the advance of music for wood-wind instruments. also a player of various wind instruments in the Each of these brothers had four sons who were more or less royal band. (from 1708). Bach at Leipsic. and he rais (pieces. who was flutist in the royal band from 1702. Among the gambists popular symphonies. 1683). violoncellists an Italian pioneer was Franciscello (d. 1708). flute. after 1730). Bassevl [Cenretto] as 1739 anc* taught many in 1728 by Giacomo over IOQ years old). Anne s cousin. 1717). and Guignon resigned (See under Memoir. 127) players in France was Batistin Stuck (d. publishing sona 1780). sec. its THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY the rights and emoluments. sec.

a theorist and a critic of ability. guitarist and violinist who worked at Tournai from 1725 and Henri and Charles Baton. like the string-trio or quartet. treatises on in struments of the lute class (1727. 1759). The extraordinary interest of Frederick the Great (d. As tion may be made further illustrating the interest in various other solo instruments. the Quantz was a cultivated musician. Fabio Ursillo (d. Carlo Besozzi. To him are attributed some additions to its mechanism. From 1750 its artistic impor tance was fully established. . and for the large orchestra. from 1728 court-lutist at Gotha.134 INbTKUMJtMN JLAJL whose original training was as an expert trumpeter Joachim Quantz (d. and how to combine and contrast them. men of Francois Campion. Through began to it. the outlines of practicable concerted forms All this bore fruit in the next period in the practice of the early symphonists. who was himself flute a player and composer. the latter with pieces Ope'ra. but not remarkable. who with his two brothers made many concert-tours. as such entering the court-band at Dresden in 1718 but who there took up the flute so successfully that he was sent to Italy. Instrumental Ensembles. in 1703-19 theorbist at the Paris methods for the guitar. . a Roman arch-lutist. was in the Dresden court-band in 1755-92 (oboe-sonatas and concertos). '56) . An important oboist was Alessandro Besozzi (d. 1773). for through it were made the necessary technical experiments for determining how best to favor the peculiarities of the va rious instruments. be discerned. Herein lay the germs of orchestral composition. besides a method (1752). For the he wrote at least 500 pieces of every description (from 1734). Paris and London . 1760). The orchestra proper still continued to be mainly used as a part of the opera en semble. players on the (string-trios from about 1735) musette (bagpipe) and vielle (hurdy-gurdy) at Paris. so that distinct writing for it was rare except in the way But throughout the of overtures and special dramatic numbers. At this time Crown Prince Frederick heard him and had him at Berlin twice a year to and from 1741 made him chamber-musician at a high salary. and oboist. for further experience. returning to Dresden as flutist in 1727. writing well-known. With the improvement of solo 134. for the small or chamber orchestra (strings and some wood-wind). give lessons. instruments and the growth of virtuosity came notable advances in concerted music for particular groups. and from 1734 in Frederick^ employ as theorbist at Rheinsberg and Berlin. early i8th century chamber music in the proper sense steadily advanced. from 1732 at Eisenach. with pieces. to stimulate composition for it and improvements in it. did much to call attention to the flute. 1786). (from 1733) and a work on the vielle (1757). lute and theorbo (1705-30) and some Ernst Gottlieb Baron (d. 1775). too. in court service at Turin from 1731. flutist. His nephew.

somewhat as clarinets are now in a The military band. oboes and bassoons strong in proportion to the strings. for the opera the orchestral instruments were necessarily much used in large masses. 147) . It is also to be remembered that the was still essential to harpsichord or the the orchestra. Hence chamber music. oboes. Operatic music. there was as a rule but one player to a part. the total effect required that each player and each instrument should be above the average. The make-up of the operatic orchestra now became practically what it is to-day. like Handel. flutes. constantly stimulated attention to outlines of inner texture. But skillful writers. a condition somewhat hostile to delicacy of treatment. and individuality of detail was far more indispensable. made much of contrasts in suc cessive movements between groups of instruments. The frequent absenc'e of the viola or tenor violin is somewhat notable. into merely conventional ways of supplying instrumental back grounds and accessories. horns and trumpets. since accompaniments and de tached movements inserted in the dramatic action gave room The finer operafor great variety of effect and expression. told less for the minute internal improve ment of instrumentation than for its massive popularity. then. writers realized this. and to some extent afterward. though not influential upon the broad its fine scoring. In the small or chamber group. Furthermore. especially that of the more masculine and the latter more dominated by the of the string quartet or of the chamber band. Furthermore. usually from violins. but there were evident dangers and draw backs also. generally not more than two of any one sort. on the other hand. in the tuttis. the opera orches was decidedly important. embodying nothing original or force ful. with the important exception of the clarinets and their relatives But the quality of some of the instruments was somewhat (see sec. each part without ripieni and often one of them in the rdle of a solo. many passages were written for only the slender resources different. The balance of qualities was generally very different. the wood-wind was very In particular. organ The conductor used. 'cellos. Bach was fond of working out varied patterns of this kind with ingenuity and nervous vigor. with many players to a part. In the opera as then conceived the instrumental It was easy to fall forces were quite subsidiary to the vocal. were multiplied. since throughout the early i8th century. the former being true trumpet tone. almost invariably led from this central instrument.306 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 134 As tra regards the mastery of technical details. oboes and of the brass. variously selected. For chamber music many slightly different schemes were selected filling in many passages alone and cooperating . foil or tutti effects were therefore very different in timbre from those now heard. bassoons.

method of stringing. its supe utility. and often two or even three keys operated the same string so far as this there like the monochord could be managed without interference. much less. The clavichord and the harpsichord were inherit ances from previous centuries. in the Tonally and artistically they differed For a time each was felt to have its own special considerably. however. its character was directly dependent upon the pressure of the key. Throughout the i8th century three main types of stringed instruments with a key the clavichord. clavichord was a keyboard application of the principle of the medi monochord.) The strings were all of about the same length. as the pianoforte was gradually improved. In the earliest clear references to the clavichord (i6th century) the number of keys was about 20. not too ment The case and inside of the cover to be carried under the arm. at the close of the cen had practically driven the others from the field.135 THE CLAVICHORD. it could be deli a peculiar cately graded as to force. HARPSICHORD AND PIANO 307 135. The clavichord tone was thin. clavichords were often made with a string These were called 'bundfrei' or 'unfretted. the three were not distin Their mechanical differences lay in the way in guishable. stretched by a weight over a soundboard. properly but one string. metallic (since both strings and tangents were made of brass). and a movable bridge by which the string could be divided into parts having some desired mathematical ratio to each other and hence giving tones in the corresponding harmonic relation. the point of its impact determining the pitch of the tone. chord each key of the keyboard brought to bear upon some string a metal (brass) tangent. while the for each key. . which the strings were sounded. and in the iSth century the compass seldom exceeded four oc of the taves (that less than 50 keys). ' others were 'gebunden' or fretted. 1 large were often ornamented. incidental to this." and even be prolonged and given wavy effect by rocking or pulsating the finger (' bebung '). riority tury. So far as the keyboard itself went. is.' The outward shape of the instru was that of a simple rectangular box (usually without legs). thus diminishing the total size instrument and facilitating its tuning. Accordingly. but the number of strings might be In time. which was not so much a musical instrument as a device The monochord (as its name shows) had for the study of intervals. Keyboard Stringed Instruments. the first two in more than one form. while the pianoforte was new. (The vibration of the string took place only on one side of the tangent. Since. board were in constant and conspicuous use the harpsichord and the pianoforte. The essential feature was that the In the clavi pitch of the tones was fixed by the placing of the bridge. the other part of the string being deadened by a strip of cloth. and never powerful. and. it became so manifest that finally. however.' which was driven against the string and held aeval ' The bridge. but.

83. 82. 84. German Clavichord (ijth century). FlG. Diagrams of Harpsichord and Clavi chord Actions. .THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 135 FIG. FIG. Italian Harpsi chord (i/tri century) .

135 THE CLAVICHORD. Until late in the i8th century the harpsichord was the standard varied. since its success depended on mature experience in constructing frames. slipped back into its first position and a damper fell upon the string. . soundboards and the delicacy fortepiano. past which de pressing the key pushed a jack from whose side projected a small quill or When the key was spine by which the string was snapped or twanged.' as at first called) is essentially a key Each key has its own string. especially in the It had a decided ictus from larger varieties. sounded by a blow from a Its invention was delayed recoiling hammer that has a padded head. the quill. as well as in the drawing of heavy wire. soundboards and key-action. But it could not be reduced in the snap of the quill past the string. Mozart and Beethoven admired the clavichord because of its sympathetic expressiveness. lacking the sonority and ictus for public use. but in larger ones they stretched away from the keyboard. and. In the i8th century Paris and London were the lead ing headquarters of good makers. Haydn. were often elaborate. until the making of clavichords and harpsichords was well advanced. when the instrument had legs. however. Bach and his sons. each provided with a special form of jack and quill. and the harpsichord cannot known famous Ruckers family of Antwerp raised harpsichord-making to the grade of a fine art. these. was also occasionally made. more or less associated with that of the organ till the 1 7th. but definite data begin with the i6th. I9th century. For each key of the keyboard there was a corresponding string. The cases and covers were often highly ornate. It was no longer made after 1800. Hence the frame tended to be roughly triangular or wingshaped (whence the German name 'fliigel'). though instruments lingered in use long after 1800. for the sake of varied qualities. with a peculiar reedy quality. i ' < 1 ' The be as early as the I4th Their manufacture was century. sometimes had two Its manufacture ceased before the strings to a note for greater power. released. The harpsichord was simply a keyboard zither or psaltery. HARPSICHORD AND PIANO 309 composers like J. < power below a certain point without blocking (though variations in power were often secured by some sort of opening and closing shutter or Neither could its character be much lid. instrument for the theatre and concert-room. The their excellence of the best instru ments lay chiefly in the perfection of and precision of the action. the i clavicytherium. The harpsichord tone was vigorous and sonorous. controlled by a foot-lever). when the early history of both the clavichord It seems likely that both were traced. too. In the clavichord and harpsichord the strings needed to have some lightness The * pianoforte (or board dulcimer. strings running from side to side. Late examples. Large instruments. often had two or more keyboards. though its use continued later. resembling a modern grand The smaller varieties. But it was distinctly a private or domestic Instrument. which was jointed. and for all chamber combi For public use it was often made with two or three strings to the nations. An -upright form. note. S. known as spinets or virginals/ had the piano. The strings varied in length accord ing to pitch.

86. front view. Cristofori Pianoforte (oldest specimen extant. The same. 85. FIG.THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 135 p IG> 85. FIG. showing . 1720). action.

like the modern 'square Most of the great improvements in de popular Upright' was added. but what they were is unknown. Other pioneer experimenters were the Parisian harpsichord-maker Marius. including the introduction of a metal frame. . Its loudness can be indefinitely varied (whence its name) and the char Hence acter of its tone considerably modified by varying the touch. and has pedals by which the dampers may be held up at will. the must be thrown freely against the damper meantime must be kept string. the number of strings affected by the hammers reduced. but his fame as an inventor extended to Germany as early as 1720. tailed mechanism. which in 1705 he exhibited before Louis XIV. They have two strings to the note and a compass of 4$ and 4 1 . 1731). felts inserted between the hammers and the strings. How many pianos Cristofori made is not known. and Cliristoph Gottlieb Schroter (d. commonly known as the 'pantaleon or 'pantalon' (from his first name). HARPSICHORD AND 'PIANO and flexibility. with several peculiar to itself. an able harpsichord-maker. belong to the I9th century. The earliest instruments resembled . but before 1800 it turity. a dancing-master' at Merseburg. since the hammer very taut. an almost vocal roundness and sweetness. About 1695 Pantaleon Hebenstreit (d. The pianoforte tone is quite distinct from that of its predecessors. His success with it secured him court-positions at Eisenach from 1706 and at Dresden from 1714. and of steel wire of the finest quality in place of the original brass. actuated by a stroke from a soft. if the hammer-heads be good.' but from perhaps 1 760 they were made 1 still later the now after the clavichord style. Before 1709 Bartolomeo Cristofori (d. dating from 1 720 and 1 726. 1750). the space required for the hammers necessi The hammer-action was tated a gap in the soundboard at one end. appears to have been the inventor of the true pianoforte. the piano has proved to have all the excellences of both the clavichord and the harpsichord. devised an enlarged and improved dulcimer (with 185 strings). 1755) in 1711 Cristofori. it did not come into public had already become accepted as the keyboard instrument par excellence.- smallest space and far too many to be the harpsichord in ' shape. who exhibited models of hammer-actions in 1716. like the modern grand. as well as the gradual development of a perfect action. have all the essen tial elements of the complete action. and. It has a vigorous ictus. origi nally of Padua. more complicated than any of the direct jack-actions. but from about 1687 of Florence. octaves respectively.135 THE CLAVICHORD. too. strength ened by braces. On account of its mechanical imma use until about 1765. at Paris. since it uses the latent sonority of a tense and heavy wire. must then recoil instantly. His dulcimer. yielding hammer-head. The devices employed to secure all these results in the with the minimum of resistance and noise have been here enumerated. The only then. To increase its power and breadth it is now commonly made with two or three strings to the note. Some experiments toward a hammer-instrument may have been made early in the I7th century. even to the check to catch the hammer on its recoil. and off the string till the key was released. was without a keyboard. began to make hammerclaviers which were described "bySczpione Maffei(&. 1782). etc. extant specimens of his work. 311 but in the piano they had to be much heavier and drawn In the latter.

theory of intervals. was taken as the third of D in the triad then A proved to be flat by a i comma' (J). .g.. the final C will be almost a quarter of a semitone too sharp. efforts seems to have been connected with Cristofori's The next practical step was taken by Gottfried Sttbermann (d. and so on. to be felt as soon as the progress of harmonic feeling revealed the beauty and utility of the major triad.Ftf -A. instruments is an intricate one. f. and if Bi?. The theoretical objec tion to this is that if. this required a major third (J) distinctly flatter than the Pythagorean third fifths is laid The recognition of this true third (beginning early in the i6th (||). who in 1738 claimed that he had made models between 1717 and 1721. the moment that the fundamental scale is augmented by chro matic tones or the slightest modulation attempted. for example. it seems. Hence discussions of tuning steadily in The earliest-known creased from the i6th century onward. The practical problem of Tuning and Temperament. or unless ing is to be confined to but the number of keys to the octave is many more than twelve. similarly. 160). Modulation by D always made at least one tone in the new and every further remove made matters steadily worse. the Cristofori model (mostly. of tuning dates from 1571 (Ammerbach). But it was not till after 1755 and in England that piano-making became a business of importance (see 136.. F-A-C). which ruled until the i6th cen The Pythagorean is the only unit. though formal system this came far from solving the problem.'-f. century) gave a major scale with the ratios. which began to be discussed six centuries before the Christian era (by Pythagoras). Any attempt. f. The most serious practical difficulty began. proved difficult to use in determining chromatic tones . admirable as it was for diatonic harmony with out modulation. however this question is answered. from any starting-tone. was deduced from F. like the organ or the harpsichord. a noted who at intervals from 1726 made several pianos on organ-builder at Freiberg. to be smooth. . then D was a comma sharp. disregarding octaves). difficulties begin to multiply. I. one remove in either direction scale slightly false. a series of twelve out (C-G. G-B-D. C-E-G. 5~7-2 > 4-6-8 (e. one made up of three exactly similar triads. for. for Frederick the Great). by first making some one scale true and then making some other scale also true and then another. for if F#. sec. tury. like C. 1753). unless play tuning all keyboard a single scale or tonality. f. 1-3-5. But this perfected scale. broke down at the first step and ended in total confusion. 2. rested on the assumption that the perfect fifth (f) beside the octave. And. Back of it all lies the question of the true theory of intervals.3 I2 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 136 from 1726 organist at Minden and from 1732 at Nordhausen. -^. to tune a keyboard instrument. that is. to be used in laying out scales. etc. f. Neither of these or to have had any result. G-D. therefore.

' ' composers confined themselves to certain scales or keys. . however. On the other hand.or. were very good. and the equal' system. D. if C is taken as the starting-point. F* and B^ exactly 7 midway between their two possible values. which was first suggested just before 1700.' to i drive which out of the other intervals and This system was admirable so long as into them was the object of tuning. The result of this. Gt G# and A* more or less unusable. but A^ unusable. E^. especially in the use of minor keys. and often held to. * ' advantage. and D^. E^ and A^ rather flatter than they should be. and F* and G$ either moderately sharp or flat in some relations or . though not for The former system the organ. and has now become universal. El?. but in doing so is forced to make all of them equally incorrect by small amounts. The removal of f ' ' certain selected keys or tonalities as good as pos expense of certain others which were outlawed. C* ? D*.) The deviations of the worst intervals approached a half-semitone. but the fifths a quarter-comma flat. D$. G* and A$ decidedly 7 7 sharper than they should be/Dt .136 TUNING AND TEMPERAMENT 313 of the difficulty had to be sought through some 'temperament/ that is. D. which was in general use through the iSth century. The and therefore latter system seeks to make all keys alike equally usable. that the major thirds were as far as possible to be true. sought to make sible at the val of a The mean-tone system is so called because it assumed that the inter tone (as C . i ' * ' i : 1 in other words. F. have had historic importance. G. G* might be made correct. till much later. making every interval in every scale or key equal to the same interval in all other scales or keys. G. The ' equal ' system is so called because it assumes that the octave is to be divided into twelve exactly equal semitones.D) is in tuning to be made halfway (or a mean ) between the larger or Pythagorean 'tone () and the smaller (^). is that E and A^ are correct. came into more or less use during the i8th century. but the one sharp and the other flat in others. D and B^ very good in certain relations. is that F and G are almost exactly correct. and these collectively * were known as the ' wolf. C . by deliberately falsifying system some tones by a very small amount so that practical effects might either be truer or that the error might be so distributed Two principal systems of temperament as to be unnoticeable. but all others bad (if G* were favored instead of A^. the sweetness of the major thirds in the good keys was a decided . The major keys of C. and the minor keys of C. G and B a quarter-comma flat. (By a slightly different application of the system. B^. F and A D. comma sharp. The result of this. the mean-tone or practical tuning system. if C is taken as a quarterthe starting-point. A major would take Free modulation the place of Efi major and A minor that of C minor) was impossible. especially for organs.

In the i own tuners yth century tuning usually proceeded from F. however. is sacrificed to It must be added that the above theoretical comparison of the two systems holds good only so far as each is perfectly carried out by tuners and as the instruments stand as they are tuned. however. thus accentuating the alterations from the diatonic scale which led to the nomenclature of the chromatics (a process often observable in the playing of instruments of free intonation. or the practice of many orchestras till about 1880 (A =450-45 5). The is said to have 'tuning-fork' as a device for preserving a standard and since from C or A. are liable to be used. This system is admirable for music in which all keys. long continued to act as their to a large extent. every other possible key. and was especially concerned with the harpsi chord. In the 1 8th it steadily became more important. but in the iSth The standard pitch of the iSth century was de cidedly lower than now. the restfulness of the major thirds the brilliance and perfection of the fifths and fourths. Players on all keyboard Tuning as a i the instruments. if the few data can be trusted A =405^-42 2 vibrations per second. since whatever effect is produced in one is exactly reproduced in the rest. It is noticeable. especially as harpsichords and pianos were multiplied. 1753). pitch been invented in 1711 by John Shore (d. It is an uninvestigated subject.314 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 135 Exactly what is true of the scale of C is true of seriously so in others. . distinct occupation seems to have begun early in /th century. Under either of them un conscious or intentional deviations may be made by the tuner. and also in singing). Organ-tuning was still held as a branch of organ-making. If it were practicable to octave. and the structure or condition of the instrument may speedily introduce further changes. it make keyboards with fifty-three keys to the would be possible to play in all scales in pure intonation. also. a London lutist. how much the peculiarities of the two systems or of their traditional use by tuners has to do with the as serted differences between keys in emotional character. major and minor. tervals are sharper On the whole. It also favors enhar monic shifts of every sort. the now generally accepted French pitch of 1859 (A =435). that the sharped in and the flatted intervals flatter than they should be. as compared with Scheibler's pitch of 1834 (A = * 7 440). like the violin.

137.' though better applied to a circling or recurrent treatment within a as in a rondo or in a stanza-song. seen that no long and elaborate work can be intelligible unless either divided into comparatively short sections. Thus sets of dances were frequent. so that they overlapped. In all was common. In all these cases the total effect 315 . choruses. each with its own scheme "and subjects. processes that the eral notable A ' Works in several this term is movement. since some of them were variously construed by different writers. attracted in It was clearly creasing attention throughout the i8th century. the recita tives usually serving as rather formless introductions to the formal aria or chorus that followed.' and second. or developed in such stages and by such orderly mind can regard it as an organic whole. ' separate movements are often called cyclical.. each relatively complete in itself.CHAPTER FORMS OF COMPOSITION. XVIII THEORY AND LITERATURE The problem of The Larger Forms in General. especially for instruments. method or form in composition. so that about 1750 the way was open for certain further steps that were reasonably final. large works the division of the whole into movements Thus the opera and the oratorio were regularly made up of distinct recitatives. Any survey of them must consider two points. or greatly improved. Sev forms were brought over from the preceding period These were either perfected in a fair degree of advancement. first. arias. complete and satisfactory classification of all the extended forms in use after 1700 is not possible. etc. Thus the overture was regu larly split up into three or four sections. what internal method of treatment is used within single movements. how far and how they are built up out of more or less distinct move ments. in which the individual components were often so complete in themselves that they could be used alone or recombined in other orders without special inconvenience.

Third was the method of formal or virtual counterpoint. as in the fugue. but the artistic effect was strikingly different. and the third repeating all homophonic in essence. Within movements at least four general methods of treatment were recognized. usually with a drift in the first from tonic to dominant harmony and back again in the second. a the first and second in con form in three principal sections siderable contrast as to key and style. The lay-out was usually tripartite. with its strenuous activity dramatic music. was that of all strict . may be called the free thematic. development. re Fourth was a new method which capitulation. Its origin was plainly in the field of folkmusic and it had been steadily making its way into artistic music since the i$th century. but was creep It was ing into instrumental works somewhat. This method was becoming common for certain movements of forms like the overture. the two set in some contrast. that the first more or less literally is. organized with a dominating melody and an accompaniment mainly harmonic.316 in view THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 137 was plainly one of orderly variety or contrast. This method was not only universal in the solos and duets of operas. in which several voice-parts were intro duced with much individuality and made to proceed according This method church music of the old school and of organ music generally. of which the first belonged especially to vocal music and the rest were more associated in this period with in strumental music. which some characteristic rhythm was worked out in two groups of sharp-cut strains of some definite number of measures (strictly eight). which was not controlled the conventional by rules of counterpoint. In it a tripartite division was well recog nized exposition (of the subject or theme). the sonata and the conto established rules of imitation or combination. both vocal and instrumental. different methods of handling being used in succession so as to maintain interest and give scope for diverse procedures. It had already reached its climax in the formal fugue. but operated more homophonically or harmonically in a variety of ways. Second was the method of various dances. First was the method of the da capo aria. This method was typical in the suite and in all move ments in dance style. but was liable to appear in the fugal handling of any sort of movement or of a passage within a movement. distinctly the in in creation of the later i/th century. oratorios and cantatas.

To this scheme was often After the prefixed a prelude of some sort. or upon a rather vague harmonic musing before the serious discussion of materials was begun. (c) a melodious and often serious sarabande in slow triple rhythm. i sonata da camera' in * Italy.' This tentative plan was finally altered and ex tended to include at least four movements (a) a flowing allemande in quadruple rhythm. was the 'suite' or series of dance-tunes. for a * suite did not acquire its technical meaning at first. Among the forms in which regularity of out ward character was conspicuous. nor the variable form applied in preludes or 'sinfonie' of various degree. Attention has already been called (sec. the first third of the i8th century. the use of them in an artistic manner became notable. definite ^pattern. Such chains of dances had been used since early in the 1 6th century. Gradually the plan and treatment became fixed. certo. The to details of call for composers of these larger forms are so important as special statement. in which the emphasis fell either upon the bold enun ciation of a few chord-sequences or melodic figures without any orderly treatment of them. and partien or partite' in Germany.138 FORMS OF COMPOSITION 317 and was the one that finally ousted the old contrapuntal methods from their long-held position of supremacy. like the recitative or the arioso. 138. and (d) a lively and brilliant gigue either in triple rhythm or The name i ' lar ' 1 * 1 c i ' : { ' < ' at least with triplet divisions of the beats. Conspicuous among these were the lively * passepied and the stately minuet.' both in quadruple rhythm. The Suite. since they gratified the desire form consisting of several entirely separate movements. (b) a more lively and emphatic *courante' in triple rhythm. some 1 times in great profusion. each with a clear. Simi works had been called "lessons' in England. The above summary statement is evidently not exhaustive. 71) to the early association of 'pa vans and galliards. or the more ' i ' . In the next period it passed over into what is now known as 'sonataform/ Prior to 1 750 composers had not quite perceived the value of a second subject or of certain points of harmonic procedure.' both in triple rhythm. together with references to the who were prominent in determining them or in using some them with evident power and distinction. It does not include certain comparatively formless types. but more as helps to actual dancing or as capricious diversions than as a recognized form of pure Somewhat before 1700 and still more during composition. the energetic * * gavotte and the virile bourrde. ordres in France. sarabande other dances were often inserted according to fancy. not usually in dance-form.

But this rudimentary structure was generally much to retain expanded. and yet to achieve continuity. but with manifold decorations. Whether or not decided melodic themes were adopted was immaterial. erly of composite forms to reach maturity. though in that it The dance-form that dominates the suite is consists of definite The treatment might be homophonic. but often was handled with much contrapuntal intricacy. In the choice and order of the movements the primary purpose was The allemande was usually understood to be introductory (even variety. though in artistic examples such themes were sometimes con somewhat akin to song-form and balanced sections or strains. or under varying disguises of treat ment. each eight measures long and both repeated. stands apart from analogous forms in the comparative rigidity of the inner structure of its movements. the sa- rabande from Spain. the forms from France. Hence it cannot It The suite was the earliest tending always the sharp partition into brief strains. . ap pearances being separated by varying episodes or digressions. These are properly somewhat contrasted in style. or any mixture of the three. chaconne The and passacaglia. Somewhat analogous to the suite in structural plan was the double* or 'variation/ which also came to be prominent in the early i8th This was a series of movements de century. prop be called the direct ancestor of the modern sonata and symphony. In the simplest examples there are two such strains.3l8 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY i 135 complicated ground-bass. veloped out of a simple song or dance taken as a each 1 theme. when there was a prelude besides) the courante included matter re quiring more dose and technical attention the sarabande had greater and the gigue was originally the fullest of lyrical and emotional value life and humor. The added forms were chiefly French. change. though it undoubtedly influenced them. Another allied form was the ' rondo/ in which a melodic theme recurs at intervals without substantial the successive movement presenting the theme . the first often ending in the key of the dominant. AH were usually in the same key. . harmonic or contra spicuous.' both elaborations upon a original patterns of the principal dances came from * ' various countries courante in one of its the allemande probably from southern Germany. within the strict bounds of the strains and to maintain the characteris tic metric pattern. either intact. That which distinguished these dances from songs was the prominence throughout of the special rhythmic or metric pattern that belonged to the given dance. in the other from Italy. variety and positive interest. . Much ingenuity was needed to keep puntal. the gigue from England.

whole. was also a lead ing Parisian organist before 1700 and soon known as a clavecinist (books. 1733) came^of a family of organists and clavecinists celebrated from about 1650 till 1800. on the other hand. Born in 1668 and trained by the organist Thorn din. but had . composers tended to make merely picturesque or piquant series of sketches conceived in a half-dramatic spirit and strung together like the scenes in a pantomime. usually fancifully entitled and arranged in a half-theatric* program. he visited Dresden. and considerable chamber music. In Italy. Later he was allowed to re turn to Paris. but. and felt to be especially suitable for keyboard instru Their development was a symptom of the growing im portance of the clavichord and harpsichord. The formal unity of both these forms inheres in theidentity of the theme. he be came organist at the king's private chapel in 1693 and at St. and taught many pupils. where he ignominiously ran away from a contest in organ-playing with Bach. instead of developing the architectonic possibilities of the form as a tendencies.138 THE SUITE Both doubles and rondos were sometimes inserted among the extra movements of the suite. i He was notoriously conceited." In the hands of a few masters they attained dis hence were ments. Exiled in 1717. i development of keyboard graces' or embellishments that continued through the century. In the treatment of the suite different countries showed varying In France the essential dance-patterns were exalted for their own sake and their adaptation to the keyboard was prompt and able. and the violin was more employed as a vehicle than the keyboard. he is now counted one of the founders of harpsichord music. In Germany. yet their popularity served a use ful purpose. Louis Marchand (d. Besides an early set of pieces (probably before 1700). Gervais in Paris. Francis Couperin (d. he issued four notable collections (1713-30). . tinction and real power. Gervais in 1698. though with a true sympathy for the dance idea underlying it. an instruction-book (1717). ability as player and composer. His pieces are grouped in ordres 1 of very varied plan.' They are a link between the operatic ballet and the keyboard suite. All these were preeminently forms of chamber music. the strictness of the dance-patterns was notably neglected in favor of a free thematic treatment. all of them at some time players at St. While all of them had evident artistic limitations and tended always toward an extreme of formal precision. 1702-3). 1732). a close contemporary of Couperin. the suite was early seized by organ-composers as a field for the exercise of polyphonic skill. again. Their With them begins the exuberant style attracted wide notice and imitation. Hence both are merely analogous to the suite. Though most famous in his day as an organist.

became almost obsolete. (b) the development or free fantasia. 1735). which are justly J. since the artistic feeling of the period was still dominated by the old idea that polyphony was the noblest method of musical construction. Most of them are in the sets known to-day as the the 'English and the probably between 1720 and 1730. of Zittau (1697). of which it has remained the characteristic mas ter-form. Bach (d. though he.' ' comes. followed in a second voice-part by a restatement of it (f answer . 1 reached its highest point of significance Handel (d. But with it is very commonly associated a prelude of some kind. which. hut it was extended in Ae early i8th century to the cla vier and to oratorio choruses. Yet the completed fugue form included somewhat distinct sections. In Germany many organ-composers used the suite-form with originality. just of delicate and intricate its possibilities bringing out more and more Data fail for an exhaustive list. does not consist of sepa fugue' itself is not a composite form movements. The Fugue. Kellner of Grafenroda (1739-49). and among of pieces (1706. '24-41) which rank close to Couperin's in interest and impor tance. before and just after 1700 were those of Kuhnau of Leipsic (pieces. 127). while the first voicepart proceeds in counterpoint. followed by similar alternating propositions by the remaining voice-parts till all are in action . '22. P. Telemann of Hamburg suites for small orchestra. beJean Philippe Rameau (d. failed to develop the full capacities of the suite. in MS. as well as of French writers about 1700. '37) T Muffat of Vienna (c. the fugue became in the later i/th century easily the Its development was sought primarily chief (see sec. the two together making a work in two movements. Bohm of Liineburg (before 1700). and was not revived till 139. 1764). It is known that Bach made careful study of the suites of some of these. * risposta ) rate ' 1 7 1 The * literally or approximately in the key of the dominant. are yet interesting as typical than Bach's and much slighter illustrating the varied applications of which the form was capable. in which the thematic material thus presented is elaborately discussed by .320 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 139 sec. too. Fugal treatment tended to appear frequently in all kinds of writing.' dux. Graupner of Darmstadt (1718. but prominent names inner structure. German (orchestral partite). After about 1750 the suite well into the I9th century. S. These are < (a) the enunciation or exposition. 1689.' proposta ) is given out by some one voice-part in the tonic key. usually forming a subsidiary theme (' coun 1 ter-subject ). 103). (many and J.). all written In the second and third of these the suite and dignity. 1750) counted among his ablest. Buttstett of Erfurt (1716). i 1 1 * French. though less in essential value. upon the organ. the great opera-writer (see his works are several collections gan his career as a clavecinist. wrote over 20 works of the suite class. in which a theme (* subject. 1759) wrote four books of suites (1720-33). Among the many types of contrapuntal writing. Mat'95)? Jokann Krieger tfceson of Hamburg (1714).

often with many omissions. others or harmonic in ways that demand special notice. The best of them have hardly been surpassed since. 124). but chiefly than the vocal field. often of considerable whole section culminating in an extended passage on a sta c (V) the tionary bass. the latter had the greater subsequent in a minuet as a third movement and fluence. and some were were homopolyphonic and so fugues or at least f ugal. with much freedom of key and usually with the insertion of episodes. by the whole leading to a ing or overlapping of the entries ('stretto'). usually the dominant (* pedal-point or organ-point ') recapitulation. A 'fiigato' is a movement or passage treated with some selection of the above features. intended as the intro duction to a dramatic work. Clavier (1722-44) was a monumental demon fugue. especially for the organ. development the sonata. phonic The ' overture ' was properly an orchestral form. there were several other large composite forms and the fugue. it led to the plan of the modern sonata and symphony. pianoforte. and the concerto. Sonata and Concerto. The ideal method throughout is to keep to strictly polyphonic devices and to use many varieties of imitation. or more distinct movements. originally originally a part of dramatic composition. But the inner structure of the first and second movements often presented points of fresh importance.140 THE FUGUE 321 the several voice-parts in various contrapuntal ways. climax of intricacy and intensity. Both he and Handel Besides the suite The Overture. so as to unfold fully the striking possibilities of the theme. the French and the Italian (see sec. often in reverse order and usually with a crowd extent. Bach overtops all his contemporaries in the organfugue-writers. Every important composer of the period. with the insertion of with some modifications of the final movement. an increasing tendency to utilize principles in a different way. and the opera-writers. Of the two existing plans for it. laid out in three were that manifested of properly While some of these movements or passages in them were in dance-form and so like extracts from a suite. These were the overture. in which the theme as subject and answer is again presented all the voices in turn. and his Wohltemperirtes stration of the suitability of the form to the clavichord and hence to the wrote majestic fugues for voices also. would be entirely impossible to give any satisfactory re'sume' of the many Of course. was a fugue-writer number of fugues produced was enormous. 140. a chamber-work for solo instruments. the 1 . since. except some of the as a matter of course. origi All of these nally a similar work with orchestral collaboration. because . compressions and licenses. Thus the old art of counterpoint now It in the instrumental rather began a new life.

Yet experiments with the form were contributing to the establishment of the modern type. It was not until the next period that the concerto in precisely its modern sense was undertaken. though the importance of a second subject was not yet generally recognized. 146). if there were four. concertos were in strumental pieces in which different orchestral instruments or groups of such instruments were employed successively in combination or contrast Later. the type was used for the harpsichord as well. as perfected by Corelli and his contemporaries. the part of each element being elaborated. the name was also given to extended works for either the clavier or the organ alone. as in dance-forms. especially a violin. with an ac usually written for from one on a figured bass. plan controlling the process of development (see sec. and. alternately slow and quick. In the early i8th century. Originally. or.3 22 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 140 the former tended to employ distinctly harmonic methods in the building thematic detail. cases dance-forms or fugues or variations were used as out evident connection with the rest. or for all sorts of ensembles of orchestral instruments. with a constant tendency to escape from the comparative formality and that were homophonic or learning of polyphony and to utilize methods harmonic. the material distributed in four move companiment ments (sometimes three). the ma was generally presented either in two sections. the details of treatment differing considerably according to the ve The order of movements. movements with The l concerto ' was not sharply distinguishable from the sonata. nor the need of a comprehensive harmonic tion. sented by * the 'sonata da chiesa' was from the 'sonata da camera. quick. Just before 1700 1 ' The sonata had already passed through Of these that of the later iyth century. slow. but tended to be three or four. but with no such schematic regu The treatment was predominantly thematic. slow. violin. if three. alone. but larity as in the fugue. is specially important. movement was chief in intrinsic interest. In all this are to be seen premonitions of the method of the later and modern sonata. the term was (whence the name concerto^ a working together) . or in three stages of exposi terial development and recapitulation. limited to works in which a solo instrument. progressing from tonic to dominant and back again. when 1 several stages before 1700. appeared in successive contrasts with a concerted accompaniment. quick. The total unity was sometimes increased by having some relation between the sub But in many jects proposed for treatment in the different movements. was to three solo stringed instruments. so that in the early 1 8th a solo instrument. The number of move ments was variable. Both of these set or strict forms like the suite or the fugue. or for the clavier hicle adopted. and the lat up of strong chord-series without conspicuous ter often passed over into the homophonic presentation of a melody with methods offered opportunities not pre accompaniment. the first quick quick. This distinguished * church sonata. was slow. . especially the century sonatas were written either for or for a very small group of such instruments. as a rule. quick. In the plan and treat ment of these there was no constant distinction from the sonata. ex cept in the vehicles of expression used. Within the movements.

whose the foregoing. again. he stood His greatest preeminent for depth of intuition and freshness of invention. His genius as a clavecinist developed early. and from 1729 in court service at Madrid. and concertos in which solo instruments strength was put forth in the sonatas and the clavier were combined in a semi-orchestral manner. 1788). as in a many preludes.. where the balance of his life was spent. In practical advance the Germans and the Italians took the lead. thoroughly trained in music and Frankfort. He thus distinctly advanced the tendency toward the modern sonata. his extreme originality was widely known elsewhere. for the organ or the clavier alone. Back (d.. toccatas. But certain (d. the second surviving son of the great and the next in the Bach. Instrumental music was approaching a great culmination. S. was a diligent worker in this field. Karl PMlipp Emanuel Back (d. though his own works were usually dances in fantasia-form. repeated notes. the son of Alessandro the opera-writer. from 1721 court-cembalist at Lisbon. life covered almost exactly the same years as J. was the most important link between this period use of extended forms. etc.140 THE OVERTURE. etc. keyboard execution. Born at Weimar in 1714. In these. In it. the latter in suggestions derived from operatic and purely secular styles. In 1709 at Rome he and Handel Domenico Scarlatti Scarlatti. Of his many clavier works. from by his father and finally educated otherwise at Leipsic before 1740 he was clavecinist to Frederick the Great. though his prevailing idiom of expression was too intricate in texture for a permanent type. Here. Though not fully appreciated He contributed in Italy. and also to the emancipation of keyboard composition from its contrapuntal trammels in the direction of a free style that was essentially modern in its homophonic and harmonic point of view. the former being strongest in contra puntal methods. he himself published only two collections (probably between 1730 and 1745). From 1715 he was Baj's successor as choir master at St. to the success of which many minds con tributed and in which several lines of previous effort were united and fused. wide skips. were pitted against each other on the harpsichord and the organ. studied with him and with Gasparini at Rome. and were adjudged equal on the former. In 1767 he followed Telemann as cantor at Hamburg. SONATA AND CONCERTO 323 The fertility of the period in forms of this character was notable in itself and in its prefiguring of the completed sonataform that followed. 1750). all notably compact. All were feeling their way toward architectonic types of the greatest breadth. no exhaustive survey of workers : pioneers require special mention is possible. double runs. especially in the use of the crossed hands. as elsewhere. He . but his first known works were operas at Naples and Rome (from 1704). 1757). from 1719 opera-cembalist at London. he showed and the progress in keys that mark prescient sense of the contrast in subjects the later sonata. born at Naples in 1685. and are to the range of regularly cast in one movement only. Peter's in Rome.

instruments (over 200 clavier-solos and 50 concertos. As the middle of the century approached there was a notable increase of production in chamber music. chiefly for the development of technique. and formal that it is 141. 1774). an aD ^ e and the composer of many chamber works (from 1740). from 1731). which then assumed its modern form. a favorite pupil of Fux at Vienna and ' . concertos and i sym phonies (from 1 734) that are sometimes called prototypes of Haydn's and Georg Christoph Wagenseil (d. All these . like dictionaries. Many manuals of composition continued to be put forth in larger or smaller shape. a choirmaster and organist at Milan. tonality and chord-building which are the nucleus of all present theory. combining manners derived from Leo. and through his remarkable instruction-book (1753-62) exerted a profound influence upon He was also a facile composer. distinguishing feature of the literary treatment of musical subjects in the early i8th century was the persistent and fruitful attempt to reach a . etc. its though judicial principles were not yet systematized or its spirit made Significant advances were also made in the way of historical studies. To this movement many composers contributed. displayed in the domain of acoustics. Hasse and Rameau. who is said to have written almost 3000 works of all kinds. indicating a widespread interest in both the harpsichord and the small orchestra. among which are numerous sonatas. 2 oratorios and some church music.324 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 141 was the best keyboard performer of the middle of the century. Literature about Music. and since he turned to more homophonic means of expression. A sound theory of harmony on the basis of physical facts in The critical spirit of the age was actively ductively studied. as well His style differed greatly as many Passions and cantatas. and 2 oratorios. besides 10 operas. basis of music Out of the acute investigation of the physical came new conceptions of intervals.. and of valuable few essays in biography. with a encyclopaedic compendiums. His genius lay in the application of the rudimentary sonata-form that later was powerfully developed by Haydn. from his father's. Passing mention may be made of Giovanni Battista Sammartini (d. since it concerned itself far more with elegance of outward form than with strength of content. though generally in styles so perfunctory needless to specify further names. It was the study in 1749 of one set of his sonatas (1742) that gave Haydn his first strong impetus. more and more to these fresh ideas and tending the time to conforming push harmony into the place of supremacy formerly held by counterpoint Another significant feature of was the rise of criticism as a distinct line of effort. 1777). clavecinist court-composer and teacher to the royal family there from 1739.

methods. from 1722 court-organist at (d. 1768). examined the phenomena of vibrating bodies.141 MUSICAL LITERATURE 325 developments indicated the increase of that searching intel lectual handling of musical structure. his work on composition (1745-7) led about 1760 to a bitter debate with Marpurg. published a good general treatise (1749). joined the Academic. etc. 1 783). He fully established the vibrational character of all studies (1700-13). . Petersburg (d. Both the chief editors of the famous Encyclopidie ( 175 1-80). hearing never but a little and acquiring but a partial use of his voice. and from 1690 was employed by the government upon fortification-plans. Joseph. as his theoretical works (from 1754) show. a Brunswick surveyor. with rather grotesque results in part. 1778). professor of astronomy at Cambridge. since he was a deaf-mute from infancy. was an original investigator. from 1680 in the E)auphin\s household. Tartini (d. From about 1696. Romieu of Montpellier (1751) and Jean Adam Serre of Geneva (1753) claimed to be. 1770). the violinist. with essays on sound and instruments (1702-9). etc. 1747). 1784) and Jean le Rond d Alembert (d. instrument-making. Contempo raneous with him in the Academic was Louis CarrS {d. besides other Leonhardt Euler (d. intervals.. 1739) in several works (1706-34). but in an obscure style and a con tentious spirit. Petersburg. often with ability. sound. as also Sorge (above). 1727-74). suggesting 256 as a standard number for middle C. Sauveur (d. articles to the Encyclapidie. studied the range of audibility. Useful additions were made in 1732 by Johann Bernoulli of St. Denis Diderot (d. Robert Smith (d. a pupil of the metaphysician Malebranche. His work is astonishing. and published in its Transactions several epoch-making tics. including one on a mechanical organ. and in 1753 by his son Daniel Bernoulli Georg Andreas Sorge (d. though his studies of vibrations were valuable (about 25 works. products and workers which in the later i8th century and still more in the 1 9th was to become prominent. 1781). and the latter (from 1747) through many articles and an exposition of Rameau's theory of harmony (1752) both contributed musical essays. 1716) was the founder of the modern science of acous which he first called by that name. taught mathematics. Lobenstein. advocating the equal system (1717). from 1727 a prolific mathematical writer reexamined the general physics of sound. 1783). were acousticians. he became absorbed in acoustics. being the discoverer of combination-tones. The contending views of temperament were reviewed by Johann Georg Neidhardt of Konigsberg (d. that of 1724 containing the first use of logarithms in calculating intervals. followed by others. with the aid of musical assistants. and by Christoph Albert Sinn. 1711). at St. elaborated the theory of partial-tones and sought to base a system of consonance on them. Levens of Bordeaux sought (1743) to readjust scales by a theory of reciprocal overtones and undertones. he came to Paris in 1670. and sought to frame a fresh theory of harmony from numerical principles. Louis Bertrand Castel (d. 1 . wrote extensively (from 1741) upon sound. Early evincing mathematical genius. deter mined the vibration-numbers of tones of fixed pitch. the former known (from 1748) through essays. temperament. 1757) attempted the futile task of presenting musical effects to the eye by the use of colors (1725-35).

on figured bass (1732). useful valuable. and by its constant use by Other publications until 1745 or later were mostly text-books of varying de gree. a German. the construction and relations of chords as such. Antonio Calegari (d. system was finely elucidated though some points were still unsatisfactory. 1700-17. by Buttstett of Erfurt (d. French (1773) an ^ English (1791). his ideas novel. the most important being the last. writer. works (1730-62) were fashioned into a system. the value of which in its field is shown by its being translated from the original Latin into German (1742). The main points of his theory his historical importance cannot be gainsaid. which. the best students. after 1740) of Padua and Venice. 1778). the period was notable for several general writers of their discussions upon the new acoustics and seeking a originality. choirmaster at Prato. but in When first fully published (1722. they were not wrought some 20 later and. 1728). Some of these works dealt with musical acoustics. Rameau's Encyclopedic. 1734). . by Pepusch (d. one of the best in Italian till much later (MS. the versatile Hamburg critic and enlarged. and some of his positions forced but style was often difficult. a student and later lecturer at Leipsic Univer. 1764).. imply a 4 fundamental bass ' (which may not be the The brilliant perception of actual bass). by Francesco. much by Mattheson ^. '26).1764). a considerable treatise (1711. the distinguished composer and player (see sees. are to be built up in thirds. took an entirely dif Gradus ad Parnassum (1725). Rameau (d. Der vollkammene Capellmeister .326 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 141 In the field of theory. by David Kellner. 1727). composer. often appear as inversions without loss of identity. out. ferent course in his Fux'(d. the London ballad-operatext-book on old-fashioned lines (1731) . c. (d. . 1729). he presented a system of counterpoint as the centre of composition. basing the fundamental feasible system of true harmony rather than of counterpoint. from 1718 at Dresden. Italian (1761). 1741). His views were devel the chief of the new harmonists. some 12 essays on various subjects (from 1725). 1732) . 121). The by d' Alembert (1752) and extensively commented upon by others. lutist who was cantor at Stockholm. some were mere attempts to some treated of the musical defects of the popularize harmonic arguments.138). a larger work (3 parts. however presented. Holding still to the old modes and not catching the drift of the new acoustics. 1752). was the first and long oped through reading and reflection before he settled at Paris. though not with some a historical notes. including temperament. and some were of a general philosophic character. often treating of the practical use of the basso continuo. advocating the old hexachord solmization (1717) by Giovanni Francesco Beccatelli (d. by David Eeinic&en(d. Chordquestions' being as to inversions are now for the first time clearly recognized. a general treatise. mostly dealing with special points. were that all chords are deducible from the harmonic series (partial-tones). several practical manuals. largely on the same (1719-39). was often republished and translated by Lorenz Christoph Mizler one of Bach's pupils. the last edited by Mattheson) and a smaller one (1708) . by which they are to be classified. the truth about inversions and the new search after the roots of chords opened the way for later advance. 127. as by Friedrich Hrfcardt Hiedt (d. . 1717) of Jena and Copenhagen. the Viennese master (see sec.

from 1746 at Paris and from 1763 lottery-superintendent whose masterly treatises on the fugue (i753~4) and on general com with other works. partly on counterpoint. practical directions for modulation and accompaniment (1742-55) by Meinrad Spiess organist at . and by Charles Henri Blainville (d. and for the clavier (2 parts. 1775). and Tartini 1740). cantor at Berlin. but execrably written Tractatus (1746). 1762). and from a 1743 a teacher at Warsaw. with a translation of Fux' Gradus (i 742) by Johann Daniel Berlin (d. Tartini (d. 1762). 1762). a scholar with (d. writers in the succession will be noted under the next period (see sec. for the flute (I75 2 ) by Quantz of Berlin accounts of his improvements in the instrument . sity. after 1740). 1725). Augsburg and Vienna. prior treatise (1745-7) and several later works. with a redaction of Rameau's system (1759). 1761). analysis of chords. 1778). . '68) Further ist at the Paris Ope'ra. c. 1770)? the veteran violinist excellent style and forcible thought. Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (d. handbook on figured bass (1739) and some others. since Rameatfs system was becoming lines of controversy crossed and recrossed. with several text-books (from . 1769). . the violinist. by Martin Heinrich by Fuhrmann (d. Daube (d. by Kaspar Michel Pignolet de MontSclair (d. an able general . Bach (d. a double-bass two thoughtful works (1758. 1797). Baron (d. a plea for a third or and a so-called Histoire (1767). 1795). on church music (1702) . an instructionbook in Danish (1742). with two Schubarth). on sight-singing (1691) . with a notable compendium (1754) that strove to carry further the of at Berlin. 1760). rambling (d. mode (1751) The situation in theory from about 1745 onward is hard to put briefly.141 MUSICAL LITERATURE 327 the founder in 1738 of the Society of Musical Sciences there. including rules for guitarists . which is a ' historical source as well. by after 1717). at Erfurt. Padua. i795)> <> n singing (1763). cantor at Hall (Wurttemberg). Copenhagen from 1730 and at Drontheim from 1737. More or less connected with the above were the various manuals or methods Thus vocal music was treated by Michel L'Affilard (d. . of superior training. 1737) of the Paris Ope'ra (i 700) Calvor of Klausthal (d. 1770). 165). acute critiques (1753. a writings valuable the day (I73 2 ) D Y Joseph compendium of the various instruments of Friedrich Bernhardt Kaspar Majer. were widely influential because of their position (1755-8). from 1683 intheFrench Royal Chapel. a thoughtful.Methods for the violin 1725) were put forth by Monteclair (1711). several short books and other players. 1773). from Joseph usually polemic with a series of books (1752-86. " at Auxerre. a 'cellist and ' Hellenic' teacher at Paris. including on the lute (from 1727) by E. also of Berlin. Geminiani (d. which is mostly on theory. The chief contributors to the literature. Riepel (d. Jean Adam Serre of Geneva. for singers and players. 1765). 175? 6l ) bv Marpurg 2 aad later enlargements) treatise (i753~^ (d. and the epoch-making by K. E. besides Rameau himself. 1795). in i727Buttstett's successor andPietro Gianotti (d. P. 1782). the last edited by 1751 working at Ratisbon. with 1 75$) Jakob Adlung (d. two text-books (i7<A '15) . a brief text-book (1746). (from (d. many essays on Plain-Song (from Jean Le Beuf (d. '63) . 1788). brief posthumous essays . a widely traveled musician. abb< and by Marpurg (d. by Geminiani (d. i some other works Johann Friedrich. of the monastery at Irrsee. 1760). were Sorge of Lobenstein (d. G. with successively at Stuttgart. known and to it new features or new emphases were being added.

but his (1761). J. indicating cism. and other essays. his books on musical topics alone aggregating vibrated between the didactic. 1745). 1764). with an Essay on Musical Expression (1752). always too ready with his pen. of Hamburg (d. 1732) of and Fuhrmann (d. '21. an erudite Italian. 1778). which. after 1740) of Berlin (1728-30). 1737-40. 1764) was much the most prolific writer Jofcaim Hattneson about 8000 pages. and another short-lived venture (1739-40) . over 1700 pp. satirizing those who still clung to ally of music of inter the antiquated scales (especially Buttstett). professor at Oxford. 74^ pp. Colin de Blamont (d. organist at Newcastle. essays vals. containing much valuable matter. tributed through his Ekren-Pforte (1740. besides similar matter. Charles Avison (d. with an attack upon Lotti as a madrigalist (1705) and a satire on the Italian opera (1720 ?). Also intimately connected with theory were the rise of true criti often controversial. Das beschutzte. the polemic. from various sources. 1739). 1770). and Das rest. a similar publication. from 1736 at Hamburg. 1 749-50) was succeeded by the important Historisch-critische Beytrage (at intervals. Adolf Scheibe (d. His vigorous was not infallible and his method often spiteful. account of the Hamburg opera). 1795) was a much abler critic than Matthe His Der critischi Musicus an der Spree ( weekly. with an essay on French opera-texts (1754) . included notices of events e and persons. with good discussions of lyric poetry (1753) . Gottingen (1726-8) on Mattheson's side. superintendent at Versailles. Mmicus Wilhelm Marpurg (d. 1770). the first Qrchesttr (3 vols. a Berlin lawyer. was Das neu-eio/nete. of this class. tne sacred composer. and discussing problems part re Then came the Critica musica (1722-5. To the new interest in biography he con 39).328 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 141 various discursive writings. that now began to appear. work on theory (1707). the latter Mattheson's experiment with periodical publica (d. 1778). in his Bibliothek (monthly at intervals. niade up of superficial bitter original articles (as an attack on Bach's vocal writing. ). often and directed against Mattheson.. in his Der also by tions was imitated by Mizler of Leipsic and Warsaw Johann trtiischt and often aiming son. besides contributed and original discussions.) and his Life of Handel attacks on conventional notions did good.). in part to combat the growing use of acoustics in theory. while his pedantry Mattheson's advocacy of dramatic church cantatas stirred up a strenuous debate between Joachim Meyer (d. criticised (1753) Kratise (d. 171$ '*7. with some careful biographies. 1736-54). (weekly. also included extensive theoretical essays. issued periodically (including a printed or translated diatribe against Handel's first Passion). and Francesco Algarotti (d. 1754-62. 1777). issued weekly for a short time (including an 376pp. '78).475 pp. 1776). J. . with articles and pamphlets (1743-54). His Critische Brief (weekly. treating didactic forschende as a part of elegant culture. 1760).). the critical and the His purpose His works on theory or method extended through 20 years (1719historical. with a notable book on the opera (1755). Of the m _ judgment and prolixity are wearisome. Rousseau (d. 1737). which William Hayes Christian Gottfried (d. enlarged ed. and Der mu&caKsche Patriot (1728. Other critical writers of varying importance were Benedetto Marcello (d. Friedricfc 1759-63). besides a MS. from 1739 under the patronage of Frederick the Great at Rheinsberg and Berlin.

by J. 548 pp. 142. Gtt- till It 1795. and by Rousseau In the field of history only minor works are to be noted. professor at the Uni versity of Paris in many dissertations on Hebrew music by various authors. Clavis ad thesaurum terms only by Sebastian de Brossard (d. using material by Pierre Bourdelot (d. in essays (from 1705) by Pierre Jean Burette (d. 1777) as a general printing busi ness. 1768) introduced round-headed notes into music-type in 1756. taken as a whole. with bibliography. 1736) of Hamburg.)? containing musical priest. 1730). with a Dictionnaire (1768. 193) was started in 1719 by Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf (d.).. 1685). peoples (1754)- The famous firm of Breitkopf Hartel in Leipsic (see sec. increased and of Philippe Joseph Caffiaux (d. Nominally com prehensive. collected (1744-69) byBlasio Ugolini of Venice. 659 pp. type (1765). presents many of the contradictory features Even more than the i. 1761). 1778). 1810) on the same (1760) John Parry (d. 1721) .). The early i8th century. 300 pp. 1747). G. also of Paris to 4 vols. (1715. terms only. 1782). Saverio Quadrio (d. both of Paris. Bonnet on dancing (1723). with a Dietionnaire (1703. with notes. including biographies. made collec and Scheibe tions. 1748). . summary must try to take account of all of these. 1724).. (MS. 1774) contended for . G. was the meeting-point of tendencies old and new. Stossel of Chemnitz). it of a transitional epoch. '46) (d. and/. in an essay on the Greek and in one of the works (1759) f genera (1746) by Pepusch (d. Walther (d. a blind Welsh harper. . 430 pp-) names. history. D. 1827) did not enter the business may be noted that Pierre Simon Fournier of Paris (d. Andrea Adami da Bolsena (d. so that it was characterized by qualities that were intricately mixed. 324 pp. 1794).)? being his articles in the Encydoptdie revised and increased. which undertook music-printing also from 1 754 by the aid of new meth ods of making type invented by whose scholarship brought forth fricd Christian & his son. were those of Jacques Bonnet (d. Pierre Francois Godard de Beauchamps methods of the Papal Chapel (1711) Francesco two works on the French theatre and opera (1735.th century. etc. On ancient music there are valuable data in the bibliographical collections (1705-34) by Joliann Albert Fabricius (d. but really fragmentary. a Lexicon (1737. the Weimar a Lexicon (1728-32. later issuing a history of music- Hartel (d. 1752) Marpurg (d.142 MUSICAL LITERATURE several hands. A just On the whole. Summary of the Half-Century. . 1742) wrote on the . Immanuel Breitkopf (d. several books on printing (from 1779).. (d. as 329 by The making of dictionaries was now taken up by Thomas Balthasar Janowka. a (1701. . terms. from 1687 at Strassburg and from 1698 at Meaux. by an unknown editor (possibly the publishers C. Welsh and Scottish songs (1742-81) the origin of harmonized song among Northern (d. 1756) on poetry. terms and organist. organist at Prague. with his . the greatest feature of the age was the second . J. Jean Georges Noverre (d. c. 1777). including the opera and oratorio (1738-59). 1795). 1754). of British.

stimu lating the betterment of other solo instruments. and in stimulating vocal and orchestral technique. and of keyboard instruments. The vocal polyphony parallel in breadth that of both the organ and the facility displayed has remained a model and an it made to inspiration for all later periods. since and vigor of expression orchestra.330 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 142 culmination of the polyphonic idea of composition which begun in the Netherlands in the I4th and iSth centuries. for reasons to be noticed in a moment. thus supplying the counterpart to the earlier climax before 1700. This of com latest Side by side with these movements and influenced by both. kept to the fore questions about vocal melody. but it was useful in making the art of music a still' more extensive popular power. in forcing composers to study persistently the ways and means of tonal effect. rejoice type of the opera buff a and as it gave tokens of a it gave birth to the new vitality that Hanwas to many later generations. This majestic evolution now reached an unapproachable height Its influence in the comprehensive and unique genius of Bach. to its aid the improvements in the members type position had behind in this period was it no extensive traditions. Its applications were on the whole more instrumental than vocal. but the advance of the contrapuntal chorus under Bach. and had then gathered itself for a new had had the and German organ schools of the i/th century. bringing forth numerous works in strict style and affecting the treatment of all sorts of other works. but its progress notably rapid. Handel and others is vigorous growth in the significant. . calling of the violin group. The vigor of a few masters. The vogue of the opera in all countries was not at once productive of works of enduring value. the advance of chamber music went on. Meanwhile the expansion of dramatic music continued. about articu harmonic and rhythmic accompaniment and about instru mental color. told mightily upon most of the German composers of the period. As dramatic music came to include the more It lated elastic delian oratorio. especially of the wood-wind class. come to a first culmination in the Italian a cappella style of late 1 6th century. and differentiating the virtuoso as a new variety of musician. with its distinctly unpolyphonic methods and its appeal to the popular taste for enjoyment and excitement. especially the harpsichord and the immature piano.

In the domain of theory and criticism the period was signifi invention. ' ' ' 1 cant for the opening up of several new lines of thought. and any degree of personal imagina and ingenuity besides. This was apparent in its literature. and thus to take on the aspect of a true science. though without much system. whole type of music made it peculiarly attractive. But the mere fact that writers . exactest contrapuntal learning. with considerable oddity and partisan bias. its accomplishments presaged the later glory of the piano and the orchestra as vehicles for tistic spirit tion monumental expression. Hence the scornful epithets pigtail music and capellmeister music that are often given to much 18th-century composition. But the 1 8th century in all its activities drifted toward formal ism and mannerism. manneristic and mechanical.142 SUMMARY OF THE HALF-CENTURY easily chief. Thus there was a constant search for regular ways of writing instru mental music that could be applied without inspiration or real The greater geniuses. and so without producing works of permanent influence. sufficed to 331 push it toward ma forms and principles that needed but little The freedom of this to make them permanently satisfactory. as it had been in the time of Okeghem at the opening of the Thus even the opera became for too many writers 1 6th century. For the first time harmony begins to get down to basal physical It principles. a matter of rule and formula. And the whole literary side of musicianship now begins to be cultivated. its philosophy and its ethics. outlining for it whom Bach was and brilliance. By the middle of the century all musical art showed tendencies toward routine conventions of various sorts. was really not until this time that harmonic coherence and drift began to be controlling influences in the lay-out of extended works. the extreme of concerof turity. Into it might go the. who mostly escaped these tendencies. While the tendency of the age to formality held it back for a time. Thus much poly phonic writing became to a surprising degree a knack or trick. thus bringing actually to bear the innovations begun in the 1 6th century. were outnumbered and often hidden by the host of lesser workers who conceived of their art as mere artisans. and was bound to affect its art. It was the prevalence of this superficiality and heartlessness that constituted the call and the opportunity for the great mas ters of the next two periods.

gave employment and stimulus to the independent virtuoso. social status of music as an art left be desired.332 THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 143 were active in discussing questions of and of artistic value. unless attached to the church or employed in the opera. also They tended to musical art to a place of greater dignity in popu lar estimation. But the rise of instru mental music turned attention to the public concert as a Throughout the century the to much frequent social event. musicians. were forced to occupy a menial relation to some titled patron. As a rule. acoustics. of structure. lift . is significant. and ultimately led to the organization of fixed orchestras. To these results every extension of the literary and scientific discussion of musical subjects through publication was a distinct contribution. Gradually these changes wrought a change in the character of music as a calling or profession.


143. Operatic Progress in France. 151. His Style in General. CHAP. 164. General Survey. Mozart's Unique Position. 150. XXII. XXIII. XIX.' THE SONATA AND THE ORCHESTRA. 162. 161. 166. 157. Summary of the Half-Century. CHAP. Secular Music in England. XXI. Catholic Church Music. Later Neapolitans. THE RISE OF PIANISM. Protestant Church Music. CHAP. 145. The Clementi School. 152. 147. The Purpose of his Innovations. 146. THEORETICAL AND LITERARY PROGRESS. His Immediate Contemporaries. 334 . The Classical Sonata and Symphony. Haydn. 165. 154. 153. The Perfected Orchestra. 144. MOZART AND THE EXALTATION OF MELODY. 160. Singspiel and the Artistic Song. 158. 159. The Early Symphonists. The CHAP. 156. Instrumental Virtuosi. 155. 163. The Improved Piano. The The Operatic Situation. 148. SACRED Music. XX. 149. GLUCK AND THE DRAMATIC REFORM. Gluck as a Reformer. Literature about Music.PART VI THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY CHAP. His Works and Style. HAYDN. The Vienna Pianists.

of France (1715-74). General Survey. of England (1760-1820). the period was not one that might be supposed favorable for important artistic advance. as of the com plications connected with the achievement of American Independence (1761-83). Catharine II. throwing off restraints. or rather. to put it more exactly. Frederick the Great of Prussia (1740-86). The time was one of controversy and criticism in the world of thought. George III. breaking away from outgrown formulae. and Louis XVI. but with little effect upon musi cal art except to subject its exercise to local and temporary interruptions. Morals and man ners were artificial. were naturally not apparent until after 1800. 335 . The long reigns were those of Louis XV. of France (1774-92). as. and religion tended to lapse into deism or atheism. but his accession as emperor did not come till Seven Years (1789-95). The world of politics was full of turmoil. which was not the plane upon which vigorous and constructive geniuses were at work. and catching sight of far-off goals. and at Paris at the time of the Revolution of the latter upon art in general. Maria Theresa of Austria (1740-80). Yet. the chief movements of the period in music were these the establishment of the principles of what is now called classical form by a group of masters of whom Haydn and Mozart are typical examples the reformation of * ' . with a tendency to negations rather than construction. Briefly summarized. The latter were the agents that made the period memorable. it was precisely here that the truly modern spirit took its rise. simply because they rose so much above their fellows. The remarkable figure of Napo leon appeared in 1795. but we look in vain for much evident connection be tween its events and those of general history. in parts of Germany and Austria during the exhausting (1756-63). for example. Altogether. The average pessimism was relieved only by the display of ideality or of practical efficiency on the part of individuals. 7 War The effects 1804. the conditions of the time affected music most on its lower and commonplace level. proved to be in several ways extremely important in musichistory.CHAPTER XIX HAYDN. of Russia (1762-96). on the other hand. THE SONATA AND THE ORCHESTRA The half-century following 1750 143.

just discharged from the choir of St. so that what he did had an immediate effect upon standards of style. tra in .336 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY new and much nobler . to his orderly development and to the production of a noble list of works. It was still some years before the opening came. different from Bach's and his special contribution to prog ingly Yet between the two there ress at first sight utterly diverse. with the disappearance of most of the remnants of the old ideas and the complete su the period merges in the next premacy of modern tonality. Stephen's and searching eagerly for musical opportunity. in which Gluck was the pioneer est in the song as an art-form of importance. and of standard groups for chamber music and a steady progress in theory. To him belongs the honor of fixing a type of instrumental compo sition that not only became characteristic of the period. for which he is still held in affectionate regard. And Haydn had what Bach lacked. but. 144 the manneristic Italian opera upon lines a rising inter of development. he stepped into a place of singular influence. life By a curious coincidence. 144. with the con from mere regularity of out sequent tokens of a coming revolt ward form in favor of greater truth and variety of subjective ' expression. and the reappear ance of the singspiel. its modern form. a poor peasant boy. during the last months of Bach's he at Leipsic in 1750 a young musician at Vienna. This was Haydn. Haydn. was fitting him become the next great leader in the musical world. As are seen the beginnings of the famous contrast between the * classical' and the 'romantic spirits in composition. and the work of the later master was a real supplement to that of the earlier. as faced the problem of his future career and sought to lay it foundations for self to by methodical private study. which he occupied His genius was strik for the whole later half of the century. with advances in virtuosity upon it and in methods of instruction for it the definition of the orches . was a real bond of connection. when it did. a vital hold upon the admiration and follow ing of the rank and file of musicians in his own day. the recognition of the piano as the keyboard instrument par excellence. but is still decidedly influential He also was helpful in settling the form of the modern orchestra as the crowning implement of musical The circumstances of his mature life were favorable expression. .

In 1745 his brother Michael came into the choir and. he began to secure some means of self-support. He supple by much independent study. Among his early patrons were the amateur Von Furnberg. and Dittersdorf the young violinist. industrious. for which in 1759 he wrote his first symphony. 1809). the head of a family long At his country-seat at famous for wealth. and the process of tireless self-discipline went on. 1749. where for 9 years he had constant practice in singing.144 HAYDN 337 Joseph Haydn (d. the Viennese organist. He learned to know Metastasio the poet. Gluck the opera. whose furnishings and surroundings were so superb that it was called * the second Versailles. M. who became his pupil. St. upright and From his father he derived a taste for rustic music. J. and taken into the choir of severe master. came Eisenstadt the Prince maintained a small but choice musical establishment. the cultivated Countess Thun. born in 1732 at Rohrau. culture and musical enthusiasm. and in 1759 Count Morzin of Bohemia. Evincing early a passion for music. twelve children. whose extravagance and bad temper caused him infinite irritation for 40 years. Here he had a good orchestra. In 1751 he wrote his first mass.writer. and in 1755 his first quartet. a good but Here in 1740 he was discovered by Reutter. devout (Catholics). His powers as composer and conductor being now matured. with free support and instruction of a sort at the choir-school. Joseph was abruptly dismissed and literally turned out into Kept from starving by a few kind friends. both at the cathedral and often at the court. For the .' Here till the death of the Prince in 1790 Haydn lived and worked. Frankh. Some teaching and irregular work as a player brought money for music and theoretical books. in 1761 he be assistant choirmaster to Prince Paul Esterhazy. training mented the meagre school November. for whom he wrote 18 quartets. in 1752 a comic opera (music now lost). when the elder boy's voice broke. using at first a set of six sonatas by K. the second of His parents were simple folk. At this juncture (1760) he married a wig-maker's daughter. when 6 years old he was sent to the near-by town of Hainburg to study with a musical relative. was a wagon-maker's son. from his mother practical habits of order and thoroughness. In succeeded him as chief soloist. E. P. who made him his choirmaster. In 1762 Prince Nicholas ('the Magnificent 1 ) succeeded his brother and greatly improved the musical forces. Porpora the singing-master and composer (whom he served as valet in return for instruction). a village not far from Vienna on the Hungarian border. of which Haydn became director in 1766. Stephen's. Bach as models. He drilled himself assiduously in playing the clavichord and the violin and in composition. the city streets. Soon after this the Prince built a new palace at Esterhaz.

painstaking. Here -was incessant. independent and symmetrical.338 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 144 services in the palace chapel. He was overwhelmed with atten symphonies tions. by Oxford. including 6 new all with enormous success. his fame spread far and wide. His connection with the Esterfiazys continued and he served occasionally as composer at Eisenstadt. this was his first considerable journey. a devout Catholic. now the national hymn of Austria. professional and social. under extremely favorable conditions. and many others. indefatigably industrious. Numerous musicians sought him out. Yet his development was He was idolized by his ^musicians and happy. he returned to Vienna. and spent a year and a half. Though almost 60 years old. At his concerts and otherwise a long list of his works was given. generous and scholarly. and during the second he died of old age. Late in 1795 he was again in Vienna. divine gift. While the imperial court circle affected to disdain his style. Forster of London. as his strength failed and his productivity al most ceased. His own powers had been developed by exacting labor. In 1797 he wrote his Emperor's Hymn. France and Spain. he was now exalted. whence they have recently been removed again to Vienna. 1792. The reverence he inspired is shown by the sobriquet *Papa' generally given him during his later years. Prince Nicholas having died. This was followed by The Seasons (words by Thomson). brought him recognition from a distance. which for a time was almost equally successful. Haydn accepted an invitation from Salomon the violinist to visit London and give a series of concerts. was received by In July. Arriving in Eng land in January. 1791. where royalty. the lack of absence-leaves. The in the private theatre he had a first-rate orchestra and good singers. Early in 1794 he again journeyed to London. and generally lionized. even from Italy. and his demand for new music wrote most of his orchestral and chamber works. almost finically pre His music he regarded as a cise. Prince was cordial. the publication of many of his works by Artaria of Vienna. The drawbacks were the dis activity tance from musical centres. was made Mus. his songs and operettas. In London he had been deeply impressed by hear ing much of Handel's oratorio music. where his reception was as hearty as before. but none of these trips went beyond the limits of Hungary and Austria. honorable and manly. The occupation of Vienna by the French in 1805 and 1809 dis tressed him greatly. and the consequent monotony of stimulus to which he was subjected. He was much sought after by musicians and tenderly cared for by admirers. giving many concerts and adding 6 more symphonies to his English series. and performances daily routine of family concerts. which was first given at Vienna in 1798 and rapidly taken up elsewhere. He was simplehearted.D. He was buried at Vienna. In 1790. Haydn his clavier-pieces. he was welcomed with universal enthusiasm. his masses and other church music His many gifts were called into constant (excepting works mentioned below). . lessons to the Haydn's personality was singularly sunny and lovable. but in 1820 his remains were transferred to the Esterhazy estate at Eisenstadt. and finally undertook The Creation (words from the Bible and from Milton). generous. The last ten years were uneventful. and he demanded similar fidelity from his assistants. Occasionally the establishment was taken to Vienna and other cities for performances. among other things giving young Beethoven. and in particular his relations with the much younger Mozart were most cordial.

.145 HAYDN a considerable property. Among his nearly 700 instrumental works an orchestra vary ing in size from strings with 2 oboes and 2 horns up to the full band. having sympastrings like the viola these. in cluding masses. Without attempting an exhaustive sum mary. 175 solos for baryton (Prince Esterhazy's favorite in for various strument). 30 trios. kept him from feeling various strong influences that were at work elsewhere. . . did not enter was that of organ music. ^f Of thetic f FIG. d' amore many quartets. with the trios and most important. 87. thily to clavier literature. he compassed the whole range of musical effort. 339 many He left persons 145. the following statistics are useful. are the of the symphonies. with his isola tion until past middle life. accomplished writer of vocal music. Baryton or Viola bordone.< ' . Haydn was first of all an in strumental composer. as Bach's was in It is his achieve that of the organ. . 77 quartets. The total number of his works must be over 1000 (depending on how the count is made). clavier with other instruments. as will be seen. including clari nets). carefully bequeathed to relatives and the who had shown him kindness. oratorios. . his predilections led him away from certain customary methods in several of the fields he did cultivate. His Works and Style. ments here that have given him his Yet he was also an place in history. about 100 pieces are 125 symphonies (for chamber combinations. . and as many . primarily for the chamber or orchestral ensemble. So far as his experience and opportunities went. (A number of the symphonies are . 31 con certos for sundry solo instruments. for . about 50 sonatas and similar works for clavier alone. and. operas and In addition he contributed wor songs. but his position as an Austrian. His style was matured in this field. of which fully two-thirds are instrumen The one prominent field that he tal.

Here he followed Emanuel Bach instead of the elder Bach. isola disabitata (1779) and Orlando paladino including (1782). and the settling of instrumentation upon better principles than had hitherto obtained. chamber groups and orchestra. chestral work. as his choral works He partly and the interest details of many other works attest. every melodic outline. and a large number of songs. but his artistic lay in other directions.. several operettas. the largest of which is The Seven Words (1785). so conspicuous as to seem His works to-day almost excessive. his works marked an epoch in instrumental style. This was due partly to his nationality and early circumstances. animation and humor of his imagination. spirit of and mind was conspicuously a saturated with the forms and He was partAnd his clarity and precision of form are writing is developed. His harmony is not so much the consequent of voicepart texture as a dominating plan or scheme from which the folk-music. 3 oratorios. but of his personality. 146-147). at first as an or 1769). But his love of exactitude and perspicuity is kept from mechanicalness the by pervading healthiness. etc. because they became characteristic of the half-century as a whole (see sees. His method emphasized the objective side it Technically. and to his instinct as to the trend of musical was by progress. written for the Cathedral of Cadiz. 13 operas in Italian (from and L Haydn's entire style proceeds from the homophonic and har monic point of view rather than the contrapuntal. Each of these requires separate treatment. etc. but they never would have done so if they had not been the vehicle artistic nature through which a really of composition. chief of which are The Creation (1798) The Seasons ( 1 80 1 ). but a strong sense of the sweeping harmonic drifts and balanced form that underlie them. no means lacking in contrapuntal power. part-songs. have a crystalline sharpness. his melodist. and by his finesenseof large total effects and of thecolor-contrasts essential to them. every har monic mass or progression and every element of internal struc ture being presented with absolute distinctness.) over 30 motets and other church pieces.340 known by THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 145 His vocal works include 14 masses and special names. extended works for key . could not conceal the warmth and elevation expressed of * itself. several cantatas. His gifts on this side involved not only a keen appreciation of beautiful tone-figures. The conspicuous achievements sonata-form 1 of Haydn were two the full definition as the basis for a variety of board.

but for trios. 146. best. The treatment of the first and last movements had been approximating its final stage of develop ment. but henceforth In this advance.146 THE SONATA AND SYMPHONY As a vocal composer 341 not so striking. but essential points had usually been lacking that were now regularly supplied. In his songs he shows affinity with the movement toward lyric expression in small forms that at length became one of the valuable legacies of the i8th neither few nor without merit. This service of his concerned are still recognized as superior. though in his case the tendency to nicety of form overweighted his spontaneity. but not until now were these made unquestionably supreme. common for a full century. symphonies and even concertos. indeed. though his works were His operas were tuneful and entertaining. but to him belongs the honor of so combining various points in procedure and so exemplifying them in masterly works that they became norms for a considerable period and. so signifi this concerted use became typical. the broad out should he stated of the general plan and specific form. His personal influence was exercised more in chamber or orchestral works lines than in those for the keyboard. Beethoven and others of the Vien nese group. Haydn can hardly be called the inventor of anything absolutely new in musical usage. overflowing with naive and sincere feeling. The Classical Sonata and Symphony. . For all these the same general principles of structure became in Haydn's time standard. but as a rule they represent a view of sacred music too external and e\ren theatric to be typical. Without trying to trace the growth of practice in full. but his dramatic power was slight and his conception of the form (as he Of his oratorios The Creation was much the well knew) was limited. both the plan of movements in extended works and the par The use of movements had been ticular form of each of them. quartets. ' ' cant for modern style. This re mark applies in some degree even to his serious Seven Words. Composition had long been tending toward homophonic and harmonic ways of conceiving and handling materials. Haydn was century to the early igth. His masses are unequal. as ultimately established not only for the keyboard works known as sonatas proper. the influence of Haydn was immediately reinforced by that of Mozart. some showy. some being thoughtful. All through the I7th century the sonata had been properly a form for a solo instrument. and the transfer of such forms to the keyboard or to a concerted group had been becoming frequent since 1700. but the exaltation of one particular order as standard was a fresh step.

90. Modem FIG. Old Treble and Orchestral Oboes. the and fourth double or contra-bassoons .342 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 146 " English Horns ' tenor oboes FIG. first Bassoons. 89. .

. to polyphonic metric pattern or a chord-sequence than for their adaptation in In a word. The development movement. and passed from key to key. but. better understood. ' < Sonata-form as a type of structure within a movement involves the and both are brisk in i familiar three divisions of exposition. the part-writing and occasionally there are passages that recall the careful and The but in general there is some supreme polyphony of the organ style. Of The first these the first and the last were the longer and more essential. The second. first character. Often they are distinctly lyrical. in which both ^subjects are troducing with a final climax and often a coda. is * properly in sonata-form ' and the ' last either in that or in i rondo-form. or.'' But it is common in the last movement. they are decidedly homophonic or harmonic unfolding. torn apart. development and recapitulation (see ' < sec.' principle the one in the tonic. most always * are al materials taken for subjects' from Haydn's time onward treat different in character from those used for contrapuntal solid ment. of course.' tempo. as if from a song. are employed rather for their pithy decoration of a tinctly instrumental. tempo. must be or harmonic principles. since the need of defiover its and the ways of working were properly ends in the contrasting and emphatic return to the original key. is properly a sprightly or even humorous minuet. but those keys of the others may vary. or if more dis harmonic progressions. the form. com bined anew. In it the * ' materials presented in the subjects are freely handled. different subjects. brief introduction. The develop ment is naturally the test of originality and musicianship. Ultimately the second subject was usually of a flowing. and may occur even in the other movements. all the treatment given them is dominated by homophonic And essence. culminating in its key. often with a coda. was marked. in which is the second subject (also often reiterated). also form. In details. the other in the dominant or (if the tonic is minor) in the relative major. of course. then the < ' tends to subdivide into parts first sometimes a subject (often reiterated). it also involves the * that in the exposition there shall be either two distinct subjects. in key. they are felt to be exceptions. mixed with new material. The if there are four. or controlling harmonic progression that determines melody Where exceptions occur. For emphasis and clearness the whole exposition is regularly repeated. the last often a presto. Sonata-form is character restated. in slow and the third. significant. 137). interrupted by episodes or con Here the advance of the nective passages. as understood in the classical period. leading to a transition into the contrasting key. or the same subject presented in the two keys Haydn's practice was not consistent in requiring two successively. is either in song-form or at least eminently lyrical. contrasted with the more incisive and brilliant song-like The exposition subject. as if from a part-song or chorale. of the first and last movements are the same.146 SONATA-FORM The i ' 343 latter the classical plan of movements included either three or four number being the more common in quartets and symphonies. but with an immediate 1 ' ' the l recapitulation or reprise. * and hence is often called first-movementistic of the first niteness Haydn period predecessor and coherence was better felt.

over the player's FlG. 92. Treble and Bass Clarinets. 91. .344 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 146 FIG. Basset-Horns or Tenor Clarinets fit (one with a rest to knee). 91. FlG. Alto.

(d) the wood-wind. certainly not in differentiation . As now balanced three divisions (tenors) first : and and second flutes. though variety of tone was greatly in creased by the addition of clarinets (especially after 1775). may be given upon each division of the ensemble. It is to be noted that the pets. however. and two kettledrums violoncello was not yet commonly used. It would be interesting if the exact time could be given when particular instruments began to be used orchestrally. the bass clarinet. the basset-horn (tenor clarinet). The emphasis on expressive melody forced a new attention to elasticity and shading. two to three trombones. first and second trum a partial quartet. first and second clarinets. but that the piccolo (octave flute). the number of wood wind players reduced. In the Bach-Handel period the wood-wind rivaled the strings in number of players. and the massive effects desired were more indiscriminately vigorous than artfully calculated. including first and second horns. including first and second violins. The fol lowing summary remarks. Design in composition was far more valued than coloring. though the use of the baton had been known. The polyphonic ideal pressiveness of delivery. It should be remembered that till about 1800 the old custom persisted of using the harpsichord or piano with the orchestra both to fill in some of the harmony and to fix the tempo. though rarely employed. (a) The whole violin family came into view during the . including double-basses from the basses. the study of the tonal groups energetically begun. and even four kettledrums were occasionally introduced for special effects. and the principle perceived that sonority depends less upon complexity of scoring or loudness of playing than upon a judicious disposition of the tones and upon purity of quality in each instrument Color or timbre began to stand on a more equal footing with design as a means of expression and effect. more than two horns or two trumpets. for the first time. the deliberate antithesis of tone-colors in groups was comparatively rare.147 THE ORCHESTRA 345 The contrast between the or 147. the modern orchestra comprises (a) the strings. for at least a century. violas a quartet . But in the gave but slight spur to ex Haydn-Mozart period the string-quartet was made supreme in fact. and the interplay of parts more than refinement in treating them in dividually. a quartet with interchangeable upper parts first and second bassoons (c) the brass. The Perfected Orchestra. the cor anglais (tenor oboe). The conductor usually led from this instrument. the change being due both to the rapid advance of cham ber music and to the shift in methods of musical construction. first and second oboes. chestra of the early i8th century and that of the later is remark able. but the data are few.

as its name implies. the chalumeau. aeval medi prototypes are ob scure. Monteverdi in 1608. is a military instrument which came into orchestral use without much . persisted is the In use till the time of Gluck. which differs from the horn In mouthpiece and tube. Denner of Nuremberg before (d. is a big trumpet (trombtfy. (c) The horn descendant of the mediaeval hunting horn its or chestral use began early in the i8th century against some opposition on account of its alleged harsh ness ! The trumpet. till after 1700. but its mechanism in the I7th century. FIG. . Orchestral or 'French* Horns. was Invented by J. 1707) just its 1700. The double-bass alone retained Violins were used perhaps before 1600. especially the () The schalmey. but did not make way into the orches till tra after 1750 and till was FIG. 93. not common Its Viola da gamba. largely military. (The in vention of the bassoon is doubtfully attributed to Afranio of Ferrara 1 before inet. contour.) The clar with but one reed. seems not to have been recognized esteemed till towards 1800. change. The kettledrums or tim pani have an ancient pedigree. C.346 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 147 1 7th century. The cor anglais (possi a corruption of cor bly angtt) was improved early was similarly evolved from the tenor pommer of olden time. though one of them. The trombone. about 1775. 539. about 1720. 94. but were commonly The violoncello with the basses till about 1750. The oboe was the gradual derivative instruments that of several forms of double-reed were common in the Middle Ages. Its members being slowly perfected out of the earlier viols and gradually supplanting the old viol them. Tenors doubt certainly by less followed soon. not combined and specially transverse flute was used by Lully in but not brought into wide acceptance till 1677. and the bassoon from the bomhart.

indeed.147 THE ORCHESTRA 347 Although experiments with larger or smaller aggregations of instruments had been going on for two centuries. and the growing custom of public concerts. 154. sacred composer and teacher (see sees. being. Ignaz Eolzbauer (d. con certmaster from 1759. one of the potent factors in the unfolding of Mozart's genius. Besides winning fame as an opera-writer. idea of concert orchestration may be said to have ate taken its rise (see sec. His endeavors were more or less hampered by the absorption of the Parisian public in the opera rather than concerts. residing Elector of Bavaria from 1 778. etc. the true orchestra as a large ensemble for independent use. and Christian Cannabich (d. as to other arts and sciences. 1798). reorganized the FIG. 177).. A at striking instance was the Kapelle of Karl Theodor. choirmaster from 1 753. and Palatine from 1743. and his band became the best in Europe under the able leader ship of Johann Stamitz (d. and set a standard of artistic quality generally. 95. hardly began before 1750. and after 1790 the unfolding of all musical art in France was temporarily checked by the outbreak of the Revolution. 1783). Elector Mannheim. The influence of this establishment was felt far and wide. 148). founded the Concerts des amateurs in 1770. which brought out the capacities of particular instruments. excellence of particular orchestras became a powerful factor in musical progress. 1757). especially for accompaniment. who antedated Haydn as a symphonist. The e tone is partly de _ pitch of termined by sliding the lower ^ A Concerts spirituels in 1773. and a true theory of orchestration as a distinct branch of musicianship. These leaders developed a unanimity. . concertmaster in 1743-57. somewhat similar instance was the impulse given at Paris from 1751 by the original genius of Francois Joseph Gossec (d. as they offered adequate means for giving extended works. In it. the whole modern crook out or in upon itself. -Trombone. thus the length of the tube. 1829). stimulated virtuosity on various instruments. a balance of tone and a perfection of shading entirely unknown before. for which the orchestra became the favor In this period the ite artistic apparatus. for example. He was devoted to good residing at Munich. music. Two factors cooper the cultivation of ated in this advance chamber music.

The with some the use of two subjects in at least one of them. of composers engaged upon this form under the decidedly increased. P. wrote nearly 50 symphonies. THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY The Early Symphonists. though not details of handling. Among the composers in this field before 1750. E. in this 148 The largest forms of orches were the symphony and the con tral writing period the prominence given to a certo. was at Mannheim produce ambitious works of this class can employing these new so that the historic sequence cannot be satis be exactly dated. the latter being distinguished by No precise date can be named for the inven solo instrument. As in other cases. It has been common to call Gossec systematically maintained. though dying when only 40 years old. besides many works in related forms. with Emanuel Bach or his father fore and Haydn the pioneers. chestral expression were first series of composers was stimulated to that the refinements of or brought fully into view and that a Few works factorily upon modern lines began to multiply. especially touch of Mozart's genius. It now appears symphony. the Berlin and Hamburg com poser. as well as to the improvements in structure that made effective. Bach (d. all prefiguring later developments (see sec. since it ' also be placed upon the improvements of composers. with almost 20 symphonies (from 1741). The Mannheim violinists Johann Sttfmitz (d. Stamitz himself. enough to compete with the finer works of the next period. 1789) exerted a wide influence through their attention to contrasts and nuances in performance. 1757) and Franz Xaver Richter (d. in a style that supplies the these . worked out. from about 1750. We simply know that. besides other works. 1785) deserves mention for his overtures (from about 1740). It is true that among the symphonies more or that soon the less number are devoid symphonies written during the half-century many of a general movement that we now of interest except as tokens know had a grand destiny. resources. are traceable before 1750. the first efforts were largely directed toward the perfecting of tools and meth In only a few examples was the content of the form rich ods. and that from 1780. tion of the was gradually evolved from^the sinfonia '). 140). its name from the old term operatic overture (taking scheme of movements and the suite and the solo.sonata. 1788). the quality of the style became per hundreds of manently significant.34 8 148. the Venetian opera-writer Galuppi (d. More important was K. in technical style made by the and Mannheim group It under the lead of Stamitz others. that special emphasis should shadowing both.

Michael Haydn (d. over with More or less closely under the Mannheim influence were the following Francis Joseph Gossec (d. stands still higher. with 30 symphonies (from 1762) and other works. feel the impress 125 symphonies (from 1759). but in every other variety of ensemble instrumental music. 1760). Spain and Germany. the violinist Franz about 25. Another Belgian was Pierre van tion he wrote much popular patriotic music. The amount of production called forth under the Mannheim stimulus was enormous. often . 1805). 1820). the recognition of Haydn. who wrote over 25 symphonies (from 1754) and many quartets of real Besides raising the orchestral standard at Paris. in Paris from 1751 (see sec. : Maldere (d. making extended tours. wrote for the orchestra so cleverly as to delay with . with about 50 (see sea 154). with a multitude of works. with 70. with Christian Cannabich (d. 1782). he worked first at Lucca. Stamitz' successor nearly 40 symphonies. otherwise noted as an opera-writer (see sec. chiefly noted as a church composer (see sec. but sometimes carelessly. with 13. so that his influence was than his brother's. 1800). concertmaster at (d. 1799). from talented family. orchestral writer. and a quintet. Among the composers directly connected with Mannheim were the Bohemian ''cellist Anton Filtz (d. He wrote nearly 350 chamber works (from 1768) and about 20 symphonies. wrote in all about Joseph Haydn (d. 147). enced by Haydn. early noted as a virtuoso. and then lived mostly at Madrid. with quartets (from 1757) and nearly 20 symphonies (from 1769). tne Dest after he had begun to of Mozart (especially after 1790). 1809). was a Belgian violinist. the bassoonist Ernst Eichner Giovanni Battista Toeschi (d. writing oratorios and an opera. the youngest of the and great Bach's sons. from 1755 in service to Charles of Lorraine. besides much church music. including operas. embodied not only in symphonies. Karl Stamitz 1801). 1809). Johann's son. Paris from 1770. made tours into France. at Mannheim from 1747 and choirmaster at Strassburg from 1769. with 40 symphonies. as already stated (sec. with about 100 Ignaz Holzbauer (d. Stephen's and who. Here belong also Johann Christian Bach (d. A direct link between Mannheim and Vienna is furnished by Leopold Hoffmann (d. Trained as a virtuoso 'cellist. . 1829). securing honors at several courts. much less . with a large number of symphonies (see sec. as conductor in 1759. third member of a Beck (d.148 THE MANNHEIM GROUP 349 basis for the entire Viennese school. his younger was an able brother. 154). 1793). Richter. 163). His later style was influ distinction. 1798). c. Only Boccherini and Ditters are counted as equaling the first Mannheim masters. also at Paris from 1770. which had vogue prior to Haydn's popularity. 1783). and his brother Anton Stamitz (d. wrote about 65 symphonies and much other music in an almost equally original and suggestive manner. born at Lucca in 1743. 1777). with 1777 at Bordeaux. at the Revolu value. long attributed to Joseph. n 60. Luigi Boccherini (d. Those issued in 1785 best. 1806). 145). 1768). who from 1772 was choirmaster at St. the (d. are counted the For some reason he avoided publication. 151) Karl Dittersvon Dittersdorf (d.

Wagenseil (d. 157). the harmony and part-writing Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart many more variety and daring. at Vienna. courtcomposer at Milan in 1775-96 and then at Vienna. with over 20 symphonies and much chamber music that won Haydn^s respect. with some (from 1765). the producer of a prodigious amount of facile music. 1831). with 30 sym phonies and other works. The frequent tours of players from city to city. with clarinets and horns in a novel prominence. suggesting how much further he might have gone if his life had been prolonged. mation. the holder of good positions finally . who was in Haydn's orchestra and became court-conductor at Vienna. delighting. with over 30. and from 1788 at Schwerin. from 1776 serving Prince Esterhazy. 1808). Instrumental Virtuosi. and the articulation of the whole is more full of ani He had a sure grasp of instrumental effects. whose genius not only ex panded the range of technique and the impressiveness of performance. including over 25 symphonies that competed in popular favor with the colorless Ignaz Joseph Pleyel (d. in charming uses of the wind groups. (d. the Viennese organist and clavecinist. symphonies. C.350 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 149 as as a symphonist was not so prolific (d. 1805). but made worthy contributions to composition. in cluding descriptive pieces. Naturally the violin and its relatives aroused the greatest interest. Franz Anton Rossler (d. many piano-concertos and chamber pieces. with about 700 works. and Ernst Wilhelm Wolf with about 15 and leader at Weimar. in the later i8th century the centres of greatest activity were not in Italy. but at Paris and in Germany. still another including about 90 symphonies Bohemian. 1791) others (see sec. The period was notable for the steady increase in the number and importance of solo players on various orchestral instruments. Johann Baptist Wanhal (d. Strassburg and London. was becoming generally recognized power of expression. as many "as the sands of the seashore" (Eitner) Haydn. . are richer and stronger. from 1781 Prince Wallerstein. 1786). for example. voice for its The instrumental tonal value and its Although the earlier impetus to artistic violin-playing had been given by the Italians Corelli and Tartini. Paul Wranitsky (d. and its masterly use in concert ways was winning a place as a distinct branch of musical art. such as the 3 symphonies in 1788. works. 1792). and (1797) the founder at Paris of a famous piano-factory. also a Bohemian. with numerous 15 symphonies . and radiated from them through various lines of tradition. from 1761 violinist 149. a Bohemian at Vienna. at one time a pupil of Haydn's . but the materials and the elaboration of his best works. 1813). His best work was his latest. Rapid mention may be made of Friedrich Schwindl (d. but there was notable advance in the wood-wind group as well. G. The themes have more warmth and character. Wenzel Pichl (d. 1792). did much to extend and unify musical taste in different lands. and their consequent calls to service here and there. 1777).

style. was concertmaster at the Gewandhaus in Leipsic in 1797-1818. and he wrote copiously for his instrument and for the orchestra. among his pupils was Christian Cannabich (d. Then. He was in request as a teacher. touring extensively. and finally (1819-22) was director of the Paris technique. Baillot. and between them a warm friendship resulted. His style was broad and strong. especially good studies and a Method (1797). a pupil of Franz Benda. As an true sonata-form and the use of the full orchestra to the violin-concerto. offended at a fancied coolness in the Paris audiences. Peters Later he aroused intense enthusiasm at London and Paris. and from 1770 served at the Turin court and as a teacher. his symphonies. Revolution was forced to resume touring and appeared at London and Ham burg. (d. His works comprise sonatas. after some years at Livorno. where his superiority as a quartet-player and leader brought him long-continued success. ranging from solo sonatas up to quartets. and is In 1780. He was the first to apply quintets and nearly 30 concertos. works including many sonatas. Karl Stamitz (d. was concert(1758) master to Prince Heinrich of Prussia at Rheinsberg. after a short tour. He left some works. lived much at Lon don. in the orchestra from s renown was greatest as player and 1747 and Stamitz' successor in 1759. and from 1770 was court- director at Florence. was with his old teacher at Padua till the latter's death. 1798). then went into business for several years. who was a pupil both of Somis at Turin and of Tartini at Padua. Early (d. though without losing his consummate skill as a player. receiving honors at St.149 LEADING VIOLINISTS : 351 Following the Corelli tradition the greater names were these Gaetano Pugnani (d. began as a boy in the orchestra at Bonn. Giovanni Battista Viotti (d. He was quick to appreciate the works of Haydn and Mozart and to introduce them to the London public. but. and in 1813 he was the His composi first conductor of the newly founded Philharmonic Society. burg. tions were few and unimportant. son of Johann.' he toured in Germany. who came to Germany in 1776. the notable first Mannheim group Stamitz violin in the electoral orchestra ^ trainer. much chamber music and 13 Regarding his merits as a composer opinions differ. 1801). concertos. Good little critics testify to the purity and nobility of his though he cared for showy effects. he served as soloist at Stuttgart in 1763-7. at the cert-stage for a time. are still admired. with his teacher. His best pupil was Bartolomeo Campagnoli (d. 1827). quartets. His powers as a performer continued till his last years. 1757). from 1765. often called 'the father of modern violin-playing. The founder of. (see sec. his greatest pupils being Rode and : In the direct Tartini line were the following Pietro Nardini (d. 1793) was a constant pupil of Tartini till 1746. abruptly left the con In 1789 he began giving Italian opera at Paris. In 1790 he induced Haydn to visit England. and in 1781 moved to Johann Peter Salomon London. artist he excelled in every way. 1798). Poland and Russia. 148) was Johann from 1743. besides several operas. etc. after 8 years in the or- . 1815). He set forth as a virtuoso in 1754. in composition as well as in His abundant works. and finally choirmaster at Neustrelitz. Ope'ra. 1824) was Pugnani's greatest pupil.

. at Vienna. appearing at Paris in 1770 (numerous concertos). who was also known as a vocal composer (operas and cantatas) . 1841). The Mannheim traditions were also by Ignaz Franzl (d. well be mentioned Leopold Mozart (d. Etudes and (with wrote about 20 concertos. writing oratorios and church music. the French TartimV Antonio Lolli of Bergamo (d. director at Dessau . sonatas. . 1833). 1773) of Darmstadt Bombard Romberg (d. appeared at Paris in 1741. a and Michel Woldemar Frenchman From the many selected because of their influence or the orchestral literature: Friedricli other names that might be given the following may be number of their contributions to Wilhelm Rust (d. a pupil of Anton Stamitz. 1811). became a favorite player and teacher. 1816). 1802) first became famous from 1762 as leader at Stuttgart. . who was from 1788 associated with Salomon at London . 1806-19) Cliristoph Schetky (d. from 1790 produced many operas (see sec. 40 masterly Rode and Baillot) a standard Method. in 1806 succeeded Cannabich composers as well as significant players. 1787)? who remained son (see sec. 1800). by Christian Banner (d. Among rope. and was called by Viotti 1 He wrote concertos. cousin of Andreas above and (many works) his constant companion from 1774 as a virtuoso. then at Paris Federigo Ficrillo (d. 1823). but from 1774 moved from He had amazing technique. 177). THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY began touring in 1770. mostly self-instructed at Bordeaux. and by Ferdinand Franzl (d. soon entered the royal band. 1819). symphonies. 1807?). his brother and an abler player.352 chestra. order. Franz Krommer (d. from 1774 was concertmaster and remained at Mannheim when the orchestra went to Munich. 1796). 1831). 1818). were Giovanni Mane Giornoviclii [Jarnowic] (d. and a famous Violinschule (1756). 149 and was for many years in a ducal band at Paris. from 1796 taught at the Conservatoire. both of the showy (d. . Neubauer (d. who lived a wandering life. in the court orchestra at Berlin in 1805-19 (numerous and excellent works) Anton Kraft (d. Here may burg. 1790).. besides court service under Napoleon and Louis XVIII. 156). 1820). living longest at Hamburg. 1 795). from 1801 was soloist at the Opdra and from 1817 its director. who entered the He spread orchestra in 1747. Jena and St. Rodolphe Kreutzer made his ddbut at Paris at 13 (i779)> (d. highly honored by several Hungarian noblemen and finally by the Emperor at Vienna and Andreas Romberg (d. in the orchestra from 1770 and leader at Carlsruhe from 1787. etc. fa mous as a virtuoso at different places. . Franz Christoph. 1821). place to place throughout Eu his pupils. after about 15 years at Frankfort and on Russian all these being fruitful at Munich tours. appearing first at Paris in 1761 and from 1773 in royal service at Berlin Louis Duport (d. many chamber pieces and solos. Petersburg. sonatas and studies (from 1760). in 1743 entered the service of the Archbishop of tiil his death. 1804). devoting his whole energy to the brought up at Augs Salzburg and there development of his Pierre GaviniSs (d. who. working at Paris till the Revolution and again after 1812 (excellent Method. c. the first highly cultivated . later held office at Cassel. 1831). Among the numerous 'cellists that now began to be prominent as virtuosi and composers were Pierre Duport (d. He was a broadly trained composer. never long settled anywhere . . Niccold Mestrino (d.

an expert on wind instruments and a sacred music. introduced in Russia which each player in the band plays but a single tone (just as in old English change-ringing there was a ringer for each bell). Nikolaus Kraft (d.149 INSTRUMENTAL VIRTUOSI of 353 in the Esterhazy orchestra in 1778-90 and in that 1796. 1811). Method (1795). but widely known through tours. in the peculiar form of horn-music^ 1794). for which he prepared a Method (1802) tor of the sixth key . extraordinary double-bassist Domenico Dragonetti (d. from 1776 settled in Paris. and also issued a good flute at (d. 1846). Haydn. one of a large family of players. a Venetian. then facile works and a Method. Reference should also be made to the noted harpist Johann Baptist Krumpholtz (d. Johann Christian Fischer (d. Bach. Prague (numerous Stich and long his companion on Johann Andreas Amon (d. where he influenced firard in the improvement of his instrument (important works) . play Here may be added the ing several instruments and teaching singing. A distinguished flutist was Johann Georg Wunderlich (d. Jean Xayier Lefevre (d. S. was an abundant composer for ensembles that called for great ad vances in the technique of the wind instruments. and Georg Abra tours. his son and also in the Lobkowitz band. pupil of Lobkowitz from and . at Paris from 1783. 1853). from 1780 at London. public player inven the Conservatoire from 1795. 1823). from 1777 a favorite concert-player (many works) . returned to Vienna and Here may be mentioned the fact that about 1750 Johann Anton Mares (d. in the Mannheim and Munich orchestra from 1770. from 1760 Dresden. and especially Ludwig August Le Brun 1790). later also at the Berlin court instrument. were Johann Wenzel Stich [Italianized Punto ] (d. a noted Parisian player on both the flute and the bassoon. 1800). 1809). 1803). preserving for a full half-century his singular eminence. Fran9ois Devienne (d. hemian who appeared as a virtuoso about 1775. 1839). teacher in pupil of Yost. at Stuttgart from 1814 (important works) and Jakob Christian Michael Widerkehr (d. 1790). 1803). a Bohemian. from 1802 in court service at Berlin. ham Schneider (d. including operettas and prolific Famous among players on the horn. and Johann Eeinrich. 1825). composer of varied works. was in Paris in 1782-99. 1798) . from 1817 at Wallenstein. first appearing about 1789. 1786. Joseph Beer (d. fa mous at 13 (1776) for his unexampled skill. and from 1789 at the Berlin court. 32 years old). 1830). From the noted early clarinettists we select Franz Tausch (d. and composers for it and kindred in a Bo struments. pupil of from 1789 at Heilbronn. from 1771 in service the inventor of the fifth key on his in France. in Prince Henry's orchestra at Rheinsberg from 1790. pupil of Beer at Paris. from 1787. who appeared at Vienna in 1772. at the Opera in 1791-1817. 1819). a specialist on several instruments and from 1815 head of a factory of wind instruments at Darmstadt. 1817). from 1764 in the Mannheim and Munich orchestra. Backofen (d. when a boy a pupil of J. 1829). promi nent at Paris from 1779 as player. worked for a time with Haydn. 2 A . Michel Yost (d. from 1794 at London. Among the oboists maybe named Christian Samuel Earth (d. composer and teacher.

1838) Vogi advocacy of free reeds is supposed to have arisen from his seeing a Chinese 'cheng' (see sec.' ler's developed later in France. . 1835). improvements or novelties (book. or hearing of its principle. Georg Joseph Vogler (d. which. Since 1788 his day free-reed pipes have been sparingly used in pipe-organs. Petersburg in the idea having been used there by Kirschnigk and Rackwitz. grained Brazilian lancewood or snakewood. perhaps with the aid of the violinist Viotti. (d. 1793). an from 1776 in Lon don. the eccentric organist and teacher. and in 1800 at Vienna by Johann Nepomuk Malzel the last better known for his metronome 7 (1816. largely by the use many the ninth with the violin. Paris). Bows for Viols. 1800). The first five be long with savage or semi-civilized instruments. 1814). n). of free-reed pipes. (d. a Berlin instrument-maker. however. 1820). The * principle had notable application in the ^orgue expressif or harmonium. devised a number of curious Irish violinist. one of a family of a novel type of 1775-80. Charles Clagget (d. perfected The material is straightviolin-bow Vhich has not since been improved. met with no acceptance.354 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY in instruments 149 For convenience. delicately tapered and slightly bent inward (by heating). and also in vented a keyboard attachment for guitars. the sixth and seventh with double-basses. This invention imparted a new value to all violin-playing. FIG. the eighth with the 'cello.mann cellos and basses. sundry notes upon improvements be inserted : may here bow-makers at Paris. and it is fitted with about 100 white 1 horse-hairs. at St. in 1778 introduced the machine-head for 1 Anton Bach. such as the imitation of orchestral effects. about Francois Tourte (d. Similar instruments were made in 1796-8 at Prague by Thomas Anton Kunz.' a portable organ that included new ideas. the tension of which is i controlled by a screw at the nut. * in 1789 exhil ted at Amsterdim his orchestrion. 96.

of which many hundreds were produced. Except in the hands of a few writers. The principal with exception in the prevailing flatness was the opera buffa. pithy and animated action. so that the line between the two was growing fainter one of the signs of a new 355 era. The reaction of this upon the opera seria was beginning to be felt. and extended ensemble concerted effects. lacking both harmonic and contrapuntal life. a procession of conventional mality and showy heartlessness to exhibit the dexterity of vocalists and to feed arias designed the popular craving for sensation. . were beginning to appear as offshoots from these. not even the Ger man. At first Italian models were almost everywhere supreme. however. the musical structure was meagre and common and unsup place. was yet of much importance.trade. the Viennese (including some belated Venetians). least seventy-five The latter half of the i8th cen activity in operatic music. Opera-writing was largely a knack or a. The field may be roughly divided between three principal groups the Neapolitans. Other national groups.CHAPTER XX GLUCK AND THE DRAMATIC REFORM The Operatic Situation. whether working in Italy or abroad. practical popular demand that perhaps as many as 2500 operas of all sorts were written. ported by any broad sense of orchestral treatment. though in Paris they were in competition with styles of French The opera seria was at its extreme of structural for origin. real person its tendency to transgress traditions by developing or ification. and the French. though none of them. tury was a time of enormous 150. which many an aspirant felt he could acquire at short notice and then honorably exercise as long as public favor could be shrewdly cajoled. At composers might be named whose ability or So intense was the success gave them prominence.

working in 1758-65 at Parma. whose effective period immedi ately succeeded that of Gluck. his convictions The popularity of the concert151. and they were consciously Fore or unconsciously adopted by other composers after 1780. (1754. thus precipitating a violent discussion that extended over many years. . Petersburg and Venice. and Galuppi (d. One of the minor features of the period was the reversion in Germany to the old singspiel type. a true drama in music. In one case. 1774) at Stuttgart and Naples. with its freedom to use spoken dialogue and its predilection for simple songs. The Later Neapolitans. 1775) at Paris. to emancipate the opera from its long slavery to the mere concert ideal. and their works were in favor all over Europe. (d. '&>)> 35 operas may be mentioned Ezio Munich (1767) and London (1775-6). But the time was ripe for new views. and in 1768-75 at St. Petersburg (following Galuppi). then at Venice. Bernasconi (d. 1785) at St. 1783) at Dresden and Vienna. also. 1764). 127). by slow processes of study and reflection. came the revolution pro claimed and executed by Gluck.356 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURA 151 Between 1760 and 1780. began as a church composer. Ippolito As examples of his over ed Arida (1759. but from 1751 became noted as an opera-writer. most in this number was Mozart. representing the best of the native Tommaso Traetta (d. 1779). by the exigencies of a Parisian partisan debate type was brought into direct and disastrous competition with the stronger ideas of Gluck. At Paris. Hasse (d. Several of the composers mentioned in sees. its best representatives. opera in the sensuous melodic style of southern Italy was up held by a large number of prolific and often talented writers. becoming merged in new groups. and he advanced them by argument as well as by illustration. with visits to Vienna (1759. Rome). born in 1727 at Naples and trained for nine years under Durante. 125-126 continued at work after 1750 notably Jommelli (d. Duni (d. however. 1784) at Munich. but elsewhere it encountered little opposition until about the time of the French Revolution this After that time the Neapolitan school as such fol (1792-5). characterized by tendencies that belong rather to the 1 9th century. lowed the Venetian and the Bolognese into oblivion. like Cherubim. and to make it again what its early progen Gluck reached itors had meant it to be. that of Piccinni. which aimed to uproot established traditions. was the veteran Rameau French style (see sec.

was kept a prisoner greatness. though hasty in workmanship. born in 1728. a fisher-boy. Roland (1778. Rome). Paris). Versailles). In considerable sacred 1768 he succeeded Traetta at Venice as a teacher. that between the Gluckists and the PiccinIn all this Piccinni himself held aloof. of spirit and of simple. studied about twelve years under Leo and Durante. Nicola Piccinni (d. where the enemies of Gluck seized him and pushed him forward. et Evelina (1788. himself acknowledging his rival's Returning to royal music-school. Rome). 1786). of which La Didone (1769. Rome). republicanism. Antonio Maria Gasparo Sacchini (d.151 NEAPOLITAN OPERA-WRITERS 357 Parma). opera buffa. success at thither. was gifted musically and dramatically. Vienna). Paris). Venice). but better finished. was discovered by Durante. Vienna) and Armide (1761. except that he strove to execute nists. with the 1789. as and his power in ensemble-finali unique. by Mozart before 1781. After sojourns at Munich and Stuttgart. Paris.' His Parisian productions continued till worthily the commissions given him. From 1756 he wrote colloquial comic operas at Naples. against which he struggled by writing some music. ( 1762. . while those later were less spontaneous. since his gift of melody was operas. Atys (1780. however. and from 1762 undertook grand opera with rapid Among the most noted were Alessandro nelP Indie (1758. Naples). 1800). firom 1772 he was in London. when is not clear. as representing ' * * fiercest contest in music-history. Rome). some being well received. He also left some orchestral finished by Key). (1760. It is claimed that he began opera-writing as early 1739. serious and comic. Oedipe (1786. against his will. and then (1754) risked competition with Logroscino in favorite at Naples and Rome. Piccinni From 1784 he taught in the Naples in 1789. with whom he studied eight years. In 1781 he In all. displacing the latter as the popular and* becoming famous far and wide. Paris). he wrote about 60 once more ably with Piccinni. born in 1727. and lapsed into oratorios and church poverty. Before 1775 he produced at least 60 a rule with success. but others suffering by comparison of Gluck or the fresh popularity of Sacchini. Winning applause worked for in Italy by many works before 1762.Z# Cecchina Rome and other cities. varying in size and importance. Paris) and Didon It is probable that some of his works were carefully studied (1783. visited Paris and soon removed reproducing his earlier works. In 1776 he was induced to ample move to Paris. graceful melody. 1781) was distinctly unsuccessful. was another pupil of Durante. Rome). A Ussandro nelP Indie (1768. Munich). operas are said to have numbered over 130. His direct competition vigor with Gluck (Iphighiie en Tauride. Antigono (1771. The leading examples are Semiramide Armre (1770. writing music. which his broken health did not long allow him to enjoy. and clavier-pieces. Ifigenia in Aulide (1759. becoming a strong rival of Piccinni. His about 90 are still traceable. he fell under suspicion of in his house for four years. competing those of his youth being specially full operas. and has been credited with some He fore- gleams of Gluck's ideas. Hence developed the the true lyric ideal. Scipione though as Pietro Guglielmi (d. In 1798. he then a time at Dresden and Brunswick. he was called to Paris to receive a pension and other honors. Rinaldo (1783. UOlimpiade (1761. and in 1772-7 was in London. 1804).

Milan). Mozart. after his father's death in 1750 continued his studies with his brother Emanuel at Berlin-. etc O * n tne strict style. died very young (31 years at most). London). with several pasHe was ticcios and cantatas. and becoming music-master in the producing Orione and Zanaida (both 1763) royal family.358 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 151 The next 15 years he was in competing moderately with other favorites. from 1754 with Martini at Bologna. 1771). By 1762 his fame had spread so that he was invited to London. Cora and Gustav Vasa only Bach (Swedish texts.** e a ^ so wrote considerable promise secured him high place in the 20 and from 1760 was or *757 partly at Naples. born at Dresden in 1741. born of the great Bach. of which most have vanished. he held his place at Dresden. In all. Peter's in Paisiello and Cimarosa. where from 1776 he was choirmaster. securing by his facility and' refine ment much renown for the time. and from 1764 collaborated with Abel in a noted series of public concerts. lived a long life. he wrote 20 operas. Rome and devoted himself to oratorios and church music. He is said to have Chief among them were written 200 operas. 1801). Enea e Lmnnia (1785. 1759. probably a pupil of Martini. including several good masses and a noted Vater Unser. La bella pescatrice (1789. La dama (1793. etc. Berlin) . and he also wrote extensively for the church. He madelongstays at Stockholm (where he raised Italian opera to a high standard). '83). Naples). many symphonies. almost wholly at Naples. In 1764 he became electoral church composer at Dresden. He wrote 23 operas. secured lessons from Tartini and Martini and at Naples. much church 7 soldato (1791. Francesco di Majo (d. Naples). In 1772 and 74 ne gave operas at Mannheim and in 1779 at Paris (near the close of the Gluck-Piccinni contest). He became a Roman Catholic over operas. among which were Ampkion (1772. and a notable dramatic oratorio. being early taken to Italy. But his brilliant Royal Chapel operas (from in 1735. / due gemdli and La serva innamorata (1789. and while in Italy worked assiduously on church music (a fine Te Deum. studying under Cafaro and Sala. and from at Naples. He was ? In 1764-5 occurred his memorable intercourse with the boy in request as a clavier-teacher. but soon visited Italy again as a favorite opera-writer. which continued till his death. Stockholm). 1780. Naples) Debora e Sisara (1794) is noted as one (1790. Copenhagen and Berlin. Giacomo Tritto (d. It is noticeable that prominence at Dresden dates from Hasse s departure. wrote extensively for the clavier. in reasserting his strength even against Naples again. Gioas (1770). his many oratorios. His about 50 operas extended through a full half-century (1764Late in life (1821-3) he 1815). 1782). Johann Gottlieb Naumann (d. 1759). Venice). He was the who was fully identified with the new styles later in the century. but was much occupied first (1758). / viaggiatori ridicoli (1772. Naples). Dresden) and Protesilao music. of which Catone was the ganist at Milan. Pappamosca (1783? Milan). of the best examples from the whole period. published theoretical . Solimano (1773. born in 1733. Though invited elsewhere. Of his oratorios. a significant contributor to the evolution of the symphony and to chamber music. and succeeding them both as an influen tial teacher. La pastorella nobile (1785. and his fine dramatic power was shown in nearly church music. 1824). tne youngest surviving son Johann Christian Bach (d. bringing out his first opera at Venice (1763). where he succeeded In 1793 he became choirmaster at St.

and in 1782 returned to Italy. In 1772 popularity. until 1785. Nina (1789. a fertile instrumental composer But he chiefly excelled in opera. whence his activity continued opera field in 1768. 1798) began opera-writing in 1771 at Pisa. Ilmolinara Siviglia (1782. special success. St. Fenaroli and Piccinni. producing about 30 operas Nicola Antonio Zingarelli (d. of Giacomo Insangnine [or Monopoli.Giuseppe Gaz(J756-82) of Porpora and Piccinni. 1797). and much instrumental and some church music. Cotumacci and Abos. from the first to show his clever talent. not so much in gled the comic the conventional and stilted style. of the period. . Giuseppe in Giordani (d. besides giving operas. 163). Petersburg and Berlin. and worked at Turin. Pasquale Anfossi (d. La serva padrona (1769. Naples).// and Proserpina / Naples). a Passion (1782. Durante. produced and also fair church music. with about 30 operas.15 1 NEAPOLITAN OPERA-WRITERS 359 years Giovanni Paisiello (d. motets. a church music (see sec. Naples) (1788. London. etc. // barbiere di Naples). soon sought to rival his teacher pupil of Piccinni. i8i6). among at Fermo. in 1784 to royal Petersburg in the employ of the Empress Catherine. St.bornin 1741. Sacchini. especially in buffo forms or those that min with the serious. entered the sient value. St. 21 operas his birthplace] (d. till 181 1. Of his more than 100 operas and operettas many had such as L? idolo cinese (1767. masses. Petersburg). the last four years himself serving In 1765 began the long series of dramatic works that continued for almost 40 and made him famous throughout Europe. but not strikingly most famous being Romeo e Giulietta (1796. with a libretto 1768). Vienna). 1791 becoming choirmaster them // bacio (1774? London). pupil at Naples of Cotumacci. Rome) was operas number over 70. Prague and Florence and from 1791 was choirmaster at the Lateran in Rome. wrote about 45 operas (from zaniga (d. From 1776 he was at St. 1818). Paris). studied nine years at Naples under as a teacher. Naples). 1796). 1801) was born near Naples in 1749 and studied therefor eleven years under Manna. amongwhich which influenced that of Mozart's Don Giovanni (same year. in He produced about 35 operas. zingari (1789. concertos. 1798) and opera-writer (from 1767). 1803?) wrote about 35 and some mostly comic (from 1765). what elsewhere. as the jist Psalm (1775). Domenico Cimarosa (d. began as both clavierist of tran Paris. Petersburg). though his best talent lay in charming degree and piquant effects. including Circe ed Ulisse (i777>. 1837). His for Several lesser which Dincognita perseguitata (1773. // matrimonio inaspettato (1778. returning In 1802-3 he was in high favor with Napoleon at Paris. quartets. names follow. pupil was Ilcmwitato di pietra (1787. Berlin. bora in 1727 and in 1758. Warsaw) . Venice). re Teodoro (1784. Prague). the His official posts and his greater renown were in connection with Milan). He was strong as a melodist. given throughout Italy popular operas. From 1 772 he produced more or less after which he resumed his post at Naples. and his han was original and ingenious. from 1772 taught London and Dublin. He was much in competition with Piccinni and Cimarosa. (1803. London. and he was sacred music as well many symphonies. but in spontaneous lyricalness.Felice Alessandri (d. began writing operas in a busy search at Rome. born in 1752. Gennaro Astarita (d. visited Paris. Occasionally he rose to a dling of accompaniments of dramatic sublimity and force. sharing with them the highest popularity service at Naples.

Vienna) was counted the best. Naples). Vicenza). Piccinni and the rest. rising close to Mozart's level. Chronologically it fell partly within the period of Bach and partly within that of Haydn. In 1799. D Italiana in Londra (1779. the most brilliant illustration in music-history of a genius haps that completely outgrew its original ambitions. Peter's in Rome. 1822). and (d. especially in the expression of supported by began for proportion and balance. II fanatico pergliantichi Romani (1777. In 1788 he was invited to St. cantatas and solos. Going to Venice. 1827). however. abundant melodic inspiration. completed often with in This facility. where he was made imperial choirmaster at an enormous salary. 1837). Gluck is per while later it escaped into a wholly new class. in later Giuseppe operas (1791-1819). but was finally only banished. he suddenly died. Naples). imitated his Farinelli (d. The career of Gluck belongs to 152. by a sure instinct in the organization of ensemble passages. Until about 1781 he divided his time chiefly between Naples and Rome. Soon he was back in Italy. Turin and Lisbon. besides sacred music. La Dastmie femminili (1794. brought out over 75 comic fathers style in 40- some operas. 1836). by great ability sparkling humor. the best-known being Le cantatrici mllane (1803. sometimes several in a year. which is said to have been the first instance in which concerted numbers were used in the midst of the action. besides overtures. Naples). Valentino Fioravanti an opera-writer (from 1784) at Naples. composed about 55 operas (1773-1810). Rome). though in many cities on the way thither. so that it finally entered upon creation of which at the start it did not dream. by universal con Naples sent // matrimonio segrtto (1792. first from 1816 choirmaster at St. other instrumental pieces and numerous Rapid reference may be made to a few later writers. son of Pietro above. receiving princely honors in high favor among the Russian nobility. and by fine orchestral resourceful He almost immediately became a strong competitor of Paisiello. life choirmaster at Trieste. skillfully copying Cimarosa. then ness. In 1792. St. Petersburg).3 60 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 152 his phenomenal series of nearly 80 operas. Gluck as a Reformer. Naples). mostly for Naples. also wrote 5 oratorios and some church music. having displayed at still the object of prodigious enthusiasm. lay not so much in the new ideals that dawned upon him for these were not absent from . And in spirit and purpose it belonged at first to the conventional class of Jommelli. Cajo Mario (1780. irergine etc. His historic significance. Of his almost 80 operas. choirmaster at Perugia. He del sole (1788. Petersburg to succeed Paisiello. Hasse. wrote over 50 operas (1791-1819). mostly comic. but many other fine ones might be named. and ultimately surpassed him. he was imprisoned and sentenced to death. two periods in more than one sense. at the height of his popularity. Rome). he moved to Vienna. such as La finta parigina (1773. Pietro Carlo Guglielmi (d. while working on a fresh opera. his sympathy with republican ideas. was credible rapidity. however. Luigi Caruso (d. DQlimptadt (1784.

introduced to the musical circle at court. and Pergin. La Semiramide^ errand. After visiting with sides fulfilling other commissions. violin. that his ultimate triumph as a pioneer was probable. also. facilitated by his long experience in following the fashions of the age. larity. but he had written many slighter ones. partially supporting himself by giving lessons and making music for rustic gatherings. Here he remained four years. where his Teleniacco was well received a work showing married at Vienna the accomplished Marianne signs of new ideas. He was immediately summoned to ing which was very successful. As he caught sight of new he himself broke the way into them. in 1754 was officially attached to the Opera. however. and in 1761 filled an Several of his larger works hitherto had been on at librettos Bologna. French librettist of light essayed some texts by Favart. In 1732 he 'cello. In 1754. new tokens of growth. removed to Prague. and in prepare an opera at court.152 CLUCK'S OPERATIC REFORM but in his ability to bring them some other minds of his day to tangible embodiment in works so beautiful and powerful as He was much to arrest the attention of the musical world. but without much owing partly to Handel's popuHamburg and he made his home at Vienna. in 1756 he produced // re pastorv. . the distinguished While thus far skillfully adapting as La rencontre imprtoue (1764) opera . which led to commissions there and elsewhere. At 12 he was sent to a Jesuit school at Ko- motau. At 22 (1736) he was taken up by Prince Lobkowitz at Vienna. In 1750 he In 1751 he was made conductor to Prince Frederick at Vienna. engagement and now by Metastasio. he gave two works at Rome. and to such pur It is pose that the entrance could never again be closed. where he learnt singing. from 1748 the entre'e into the best society. Thence he went to 1749 was called to Copenhagen on a similar Rome and Naples. In 1745 he was invited to London. Be success. hav giving a hasty work at Dresden. more than a theoretical critic. the son of a forester or game-keeper who moved from estate to estate. though from one point of view the first half of his life seems almost wasted. being made by the Pope Chevalier of the Golden Spur. Christoph Willibald Gluck (d. paths. clavier and organ. 1787) was bora in 1714 near Nuremberg. who took him to Milan for lessons from Sammartini. especially regarding the overture. and thus thrown in the way of Count Melzi. In 1741 he brought out his first opera at Milan.

Gluck's version being soon ready. In 1762. however. thus bringing on the brief but famous war between the partisans of the old and new ideas. especially among the thoughtful. and led at once to the re casting of other works for the Parisian stage. Its re ception was not enthusiastic. some of which succeeded. secured for the composer munificent and a new court office at Vienna. In 1776 Gluck^s opponents undertook to overthrow him by im porting the veteran Piccinni as a rival. Piccinni vainly tried to collect funds to establish an annual concert in his rival's memory. The Purpose of his Innovations. After his death in 1787. Gluck were induced to write upon the same libretto. miserly with his wealth are defects not always absent from an artistic temperament. which. Paride ed Elena followed in 1770 (text by Calzabigi). for his remaining works were feeble. a work of much romantic In 1778 both Piccinni and beauty. The work made a hit. of which 7 belong to the epoch-making series. the fourth work in the new style and not one of the best. did not at once succeed. 1686). This involved many changes from the artificial procedures that had become and a traditional. The public was at first bewildered with this work. rewards at Paris Personally. with the help of the cultivated Calzabigi as librettist. are unimportant. though a tactful manager of men. he boldly new line with Orfeo ed Euridice* though his lack of full con evidenced by considerable admixture of conventional methods. while Piccinni's was delayed till This masterpiece crowned his success. at the end overcome only by the personal intervention of Marie Antoinette (who had been Gluck^s ther few nor small. Though not hesitating to continue his old style and to repeat old struck out on a viction is works. and was 1781. with a remarkable revelation of latent power in romantic lyricism. sacred or instrumental. Gluck wrote over 30 operas. really the last. he had also already become an independent student. after considerable diplomatic correspondence with the authorities of the Paris Ope'ra. The central purpose of Gluck's reaction was to restore to the opera its legitimate dramatic truth and power. His other works. Gluck appeared there with Iphigenie en Aulide (text adapted from Racine). His health began to break and his last years were spent quietly at Vienna. Iphighiie en Tauride (by Guillard). in 1767 Gluck took the second step in the new path with Alceste (text by Calzabigi). Gluck had now secured a considerable following at Vienna. though nei pupil at Vienna). It was produced only after incredible difficulties. by 153. In 1774. written for Lully. In 1777 Gluck produced Armide (text by Quinault. but his innovations were also sharply criticised. he was impetuous and strong-willed. In all. owing to the incompetence of the musical forces and the machinations of enemies. Intellectually. for the theme was gloomy. pro- .362 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 153 himself to the standards of the operatic world as he found them. he was and his ideas were matured careful gifted That he was vain of his talents and perhaps study. but finally accepted it with interest. the treatment austere and the climax poor (later made worse by a French alteration). and now used his fresh ideas with more confidence. while others foiled.

assigning to it a constant part in suggesting the progress of sentiment and in heightening the emotional effect Here again. for each a new method of performance must search for chances of personal display had no place. but must immerse himself in the of atmosphere of each new play and. The librettist must be both poet and dramatist. were studied individually. to raise the orchestra from its position as a mechanical support or an occasional by-play into a genuine constituent in the total action. in which the petty be imbued And even the attitude of the public required alteration. Thus the text was elevated to primary importance. he saw clearly that the opera called for more than merely vocal effects. Its subject and disposition were estimated first of all from a dramatic point of view. if demanded by the plot. It is clear that . The composer could no longer turn off work after work with clever versatility. Concerted passages of any form were made lawful. and each was conceived and interplay treated in its own proper were then elaborated from development of the The details of expression quality. and literary power in The personages in their contrast and it became indispensable. this characterization and from the At this point Gluck's instinct situations. All the old rules about the structure and collocation of recitatives and arias were abrogated as rules. especially in the building up of climaxes. The chorus was freely em ployed as a significant element in the vivid depiction of situations and as a setting for individual utterance. his instinct saved him from falling into the attempt to provide merely pic torial effects. Further more. the old detached overture or sinfonia in three movements was dropped in favor of a brief introduction suggest ing the leading topics and sentiments of the play itself and pass ing without break into the action. He sought.153 CLUCK'S OPERATIC REFORM 363 found alteration of the entire spirit in which both the composi tion and the performance of a work were approached. therefore. but a unified and dignified piece of dramatic art. For example. be ready to devise The entire personnel of expression. if necessary. with a new spirit. saved him from running to an extreme of declamation. Theories like these involved a revolution in the whole process making and giving operas. the employment of such formal methods being determined solely by the demands of the drama. so that the hearer should realize jthat the opera was no longer a variegated concert.

Gluck's reaction was primarily against the ideals of the Neapolitans. Hence his works have an enduring value. and made his operatic dbut in 1752 with such success that almost at once a place was made for him at Copenhagen. and his honor lies not so much in his theory as in his absolute success in bringing it to realization. but an organic union on equal terms of the drama and music. and genuine musical endowment. . have considerable evidence of Gluck's theoretic position about his prefaces or dedications which he had friends prepare for Akeste (1769) and for Paride ed Elena (1770). as it were.364 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 154 of strong in only an artist of experience and assured standing. whose essay on the opera was first published in 1755 and enlarged in 1763. in 1779 he was made choirmaster at Milan. Denmark. After teaching at Venice. each conceived with artistic freedom. and of indomitable tellectuality moral vigor. In particular. his musical instinct led him on to greater lyric exuberance and charm than his bare theory indicated. more notable because they had some share in the early attempts to create a Teutonic type of opera as over against the prevailing Italian type. Peters Of his over 50 operas. but it told equally against other groups. 1802). so that the result was not simply a slavish therefore. Some of these. Here is an appro to insert some account of several workers in the op priate place eratic field who were not closely identified either with Naples on 154. with the Austrians. In 1775 he became involved in a case of bribery and was banished. the best were those written after his return from burg. where he became court-con ductor and was honored for years. the one hand or with Paris on the other. He sought to reason out a definite system of We work in the His views were remarkably aesthetic thought as applied to dramatic music. showing that he was more of an artist than a philosopher. including those of his own Vienna and of Venice. and in his fairly numerous and extensive letters. born in 1729 at Faenza. Venice). Achitte in Sciro (1781. and which. could have hoped alone and by one stroke. to accomplish this radical departure from the established Yet such an artist traditions of the great Neapolitan school. Gluck was. whence in 1784 he went to a similar post at St. With these representatives of northern Italy and Austria may well be included the few Germans who came into operatic are the prominence at this time. similar to those of the Italian scholar Francesco Algarotti. Giuseppe Sarti (d. But Gluck's theory and practice -do not wholly correspond. subordination of music to the 18th-century conception of the drama. such as Le geksie villane (1776. Gluck's Immediate Contemporaries. studied under Martini at Bologna. he might have seen (whether he had actually done so is un known).

Ester (1773) and Giobbe (1786) are still extant. and the Emperor. He had a cordial friendship Joseph. Hieronymus Knicker. 156-157). was honored at in the current Naples. From 1795. born in 1739 and trained at Vienna under Trani and Bonno. though not without merit Haydn's him Knight of the Golden Spur. partly under Martini. Ditters. and made long sojourns in Italian cities. at and The more noted examples belong to 1786-8. poraneous. also a Bohemian. : first trained at Venice and from 1766 under Gassmann at Vienna. first opera was given. his patron having died. for a time a pupil of Martini and then in the service of a Venetian noble. His brilliant gifts as a composer might have been quartets and piano-pieces. St. writing mostly But he was also an early experimenter with German opera.DieLiebe im Narrenhaus. 1825) was more significant. and for instruments. and in 1764 wrote // Bdlerofonte. he was befriended by a Bohemian noble. (1785. made his first reputation as a violinist of the highest In 1765 he followed Michael Haydn at Pressburg. In 1770 the Pope made in 1773 he received knighthood from Just before his death he dictated an interesting autobiography. : Though courteously treated by Mozart. MHan) and He also wrote considerable sacred music. in 1762 became courtcomposer and conductor at Vienna. more telling if he had not come into immediate comparison with Haydn and Mozart. followed by several more in ian manner. as also at Berlin.Der Betrug dnrch Aberglauben. He wrote also for the church especially for Russian use. Das rote Kdppchen.154 CLUCK'S CONTEMPORARIES 365 Armide Florence). Mozart and Haydn were almost exactly contem sees. Born near Verona in 1750? (see sec. mostly in German. und Apptheker (which is still given) . Of his oratorios. and about 1770 entered the service of the pleasure- He became a court-favorite there Vienna. Giulio Sabino (1781. where he often appeared as an opera-writer. 1781). a Bohemian. In 1774 he took Gassmann's place as court-composer and in . From 1763 he turned to dramatic music under Pescetti at Venice. Being a favorite of Maria Theresa. He was an abundant writer in all forms. the fluent composer of about 25 operas (from Joseph at the court of 1770) and much other music. studied at Prague and in 1760 published his first symphonies. Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf (d. from 1772 was in high favor Dresden. He was trained in Italy. 145). Two others of the same period follow Schuster (d. Petersburg). and head of the Royal Library. In all. both of whom were his personal friends. where in 1767 his skill. 1812). with Mozart. which gave an important stimulus to the loving Bishop of Breslau at Johannisberg. Florian Leopold Gassmann (d. He also wrote over no symphonies. he wrote about 30 operas. he in dulged in an extraordinary attack upon the latter s quartets. succeed ing Reutter. Venice). his first the usual Ital opera was produced there in 1770. many concertos. including 12 on Ovid's Metamorphoses (1785). 1774). achieving instant popularity in the chief Italian cities. which were generally well received. specially famous for his comic operas and singspiele. Italian style. As opera-writers. Lenozze diDorina (1782. there producing the first of his 22 operas. such as Doktor national drama. Mozart must be separately considered (see efforts in this field were inconspicuous. Antonio Salieri (d. in 1771 he was made choirmaster. Misliweczek [Venatorini] (d. 1799).

Vienna) is on a text (by Schikaneder) which is a pendant to Mozart's Magic He disliked clavier-composers. Das Labyrinth (1794. and several sympho He nies. Peter von Winter (d. like Tigrane vigor liberata ( 1 802) His ablest work was a Missa solenne 1 ( 799) and Gerusalemme . link between the Haydn-Mozart period and that of Beethoven and Schubert. the chief were Una cosa rara (1786) and arbore di Diana (1787). a Spaniard who made a name in Flor ence and Turin as an opera-writer (from 1776). becoming the Polish (from 1775)first composer of opera in Vincenzo Righini (d. of which Das unterbrochine Opferfest (1796.366 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 155 and influence which 1788 Bonno's as choirmaster. and pupil of Bernacchi and Martini. settled early at Warsaw. From 1780 he was teaching and conducting at Vienna. The struggle over the Buffonists in the fifties was osten- ibly between Italian and French ideas of comic opera. Operatic Progress in France. Most of his 40 operas were very successful for a time. was born at Mannheim in I754and brought up there as a violinist. were not cordial. 1812). He was a prolific sacred and instrumental writer. Venice and many other cities. and brought out Les Danaides (1784. (1790).) Among named under - 155. Vienna) and Marie Montalban (1798. Petersburg.writ ing as early as 1776. born in Hungary in 1834 and educated at Vienna. Of his about 20 comic operas. Paris) under the shelter of Giuck's name. as Tarare (1787)? but after 1792 produced few new operas. Vienna. both of whom profited by his advice or instruction. but several of his 20 operas were popular. that he often expressed. in -von Vicente Martin y Solar (d. was noted first as a tenor and from 1 776 as an opera-writer at Prague. acquiring a unique prestige ne retained for a generation. he was in much request at Munich. from 1788 was choirmaster His originality and at Mayence. writing in all some 40 entertaining works. 1821). and from 1793 at Berlin on a large salary. D the further writers appearing before 1800. were slight. Just after 1750 the French musical drama entered upon a period of debate and contention that was extreme enough at one or two points to become noto rious. 1810). masses and motets. He was a pupil ofVogler and later of Salieri. Beginning opera. going with the orchestra to Munich in 1 778 and becoming in 1 788 its conductor. a Bolognese. and he is supposed to have stood in the way of altogether His long career made him an interesting the latter's due recognition at court. even Mozart himself. but lacked learning and inspiration. From the start he had attracted Giuck's interest. most of them originally German. went thence to Vienna. and the . including the Schlacht-Symphonie (1814) for chorus and orchestra. and early took a prejudice to Mozart Flute. Matthias Kainienski (d. From this time he wrote frequently for the Vienna stage and occasionally for that of Paris. 1825). Munich) were the most famous. since His relations with Mozart they were less strenuous and novel than Giuck's. and in 1788-1801 was in honor at St. had a certain gift for choral effects. several are the next period (see Chapter XXVI. became his pupil. where for a time he outshone all rivals. leaving many oratorios and cantatas.

He himself wrote a few operas (from 1755). excelling in harmony and instrumentation. Le. The elements involved were complex. but it came at a time when the reactions between the opera seria and the opera buffa had progressed far enough so that the dis tinctions between them were breaking down and that a general advance could affect them both. he suddenly stepped into notice as a composer. The Italians ran to an excess of extravagant lyricism. was a precocious chess-player of international renown. which was destined to affect both serious and comic styles. In this general improvement the work of Mozart had great influence. Pierre Montan Berton (d. the ablest of a famous family In (see sec. which was a real contribution to progress. Francois AndrS Danican-Philidor (d. 1795). and of the later period. when exten sive amalgamations of contrasted styles took place. f . matically. but its broad and rough hilarity lacked the intellectual wit and the dainty handling of situations that the French genius craved.155 THE FRENCH OPERA 367 Piccinni-Gluck quarrel in the seventies emphasized the contrast between the whole body of Italian and French conventions and a new dramatic ideal. But hardly had this begun its exhilarating course before Gluck ap peared with a total renovation of the operatic ideal. The total character and tendency of the Italian type of opera seria as represented by the Neapolitans was somewhat opposed by the specially French type as developed by Lully and more recently by Rameau. though not specially strong melodically or dra Of about 25 works. Against all this the rising Italian opera buffa was a healthy protest. at first of comic opera. different as these two conflicts were. yet in both the aim was to present subjects removed from the sphere of common life and with many artificialities of dramatic treatment. they were both symptomatic of large differences of opinion. Yet. the best were Letnarichal errant (1761). Hence one of the first products of discussion was the French op6ra comique. 133). 1759 Till about 1790 he was one of the most popular of French writers. The chief representatives of the native French op6ra comique were Monsigny and Gretry. The effect of Gluck's work was not felt in full force during the i8th century. is noteworthy because from 1759 f r over 20 years he was director of the Paris OpeYa and a useful agent in the renovation of the lyric drama in Gluck's time. Cherubini. Mehul and Le Sueur. an operatic singer at Paris as early as 1744 and from 1748 conductor at Bordeaux. 1780). while the French tended to too much mere declamation.

La caravane du Cairo (1784). He had a and great liking for musical declamation and a certain degree of melodic power. and was one of the few musicians of the Revolution (festal plays and songs. conduct the Concerts spirituels from 1773 and also as deputy at the Opdra in 1780-2. 1792-3). and in his own day was loaded with honors. including a noted Messe des Marts (1760). Except in his instrumental works. quartets. 148) as important After in Belgium in 1734. if not cast on too large a scale. Andr Ernest Modeste Grtry (d. in the 1 761 he entered the field of light opera. born violinist. THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY Tom and Perske (1780). He was vain of his successes and yet understood his limitations. for 30 years. Francois Joseph Gossec (d. He long held a business his power of further creation. he suddenly blossomed in 1759 into a writer about a In 18 years he produced. so that several of his works were later reorchestrated by other composers. and serving from 1795 as inspector founding the Ecole royale du chant in the later Conservatoire and also for many years as one of the judges of new works at the Ope*ra. was inspector and followed Gre'try as an Academician in 1813. in 1767. Antwerp training In Paris as a player. distrusting at the Conservatoire in 1800-2. in 1784. writing over 15 works excellent church music. founding the Concerts des amateurs in 1770. was more industrious than creative. mainly at the Com^die Italienne. operas. Italian operas. . He also wrote some oratorios. he is counted as the founder of the modern French comedy-opera. D&preiwe uillageoise (1784). setting up a new orchestral standard from results. was born as a choirboy and violinist. instrumentation thin. 1813) was the most conspicuous figure of the period. trios. septets. development of the symphony. entered upon a popularity of extraordinary magnitude that lasted. aroused by hearing Pergoof comic serva padrona. and soon undertook grand opera in rivalry with Gluck. During the rest of his life he wrote no more operas. Of his about 50 operas. both within France and elsewhere. which he used for wholesome He was an able organizer. 1817). though not inapt. In spite of his defects as a musician. in spite of many checks. But his harmony was feeble and his his dramatic sense was excellent. La belle Arsene (1773) and Fttix (1777)melodic invention and dramatic instinct. in youth a self-trained Pierre Alezandre Monsigny (d. much of various calibre. An of his was given at Rome in 1765. and his first French comic opera at Geneva He then went to Paris and. He was born in 1741 at Lige where ? as a boy he heard some He developed his evident talent there and from 1759 at Rome. those most valued were Le tableau parlant (1769). among the last His gi ft s were dlserteur (1769). Ernelinde. office under the Duke of Orleans. made such study of composition that. Jones (1765). intermezzo but his eagerness to compose interfered with his studiousness. also lesi's La and best being Le dozen operas with augmenting success. already mentioned (sec. (1783).3 68 sorcitr (1764). but little Philidor's the reverse of technical or structural skill. after producing Zemire et Azor (1771). 1829). had much success with ensemble numbers in 1729. and especially Richard Cceur' de Lion His forte was comedy. He wrote some church music and many instrumental pieces (6 symphonies as early as 1758). Damant jakux (\y]%). from 1751 he had success at at ing his first years in Paris. making a hit with Les pfcheurs (1766). Gossec but he secured a position of great influence. (1767) 155 He etc.

his operatic style was profoundly changed. to London. In 1795 he was made an inspector servatoire and also an Academician. so that for Returning to France. of the inspectors at the new Conservatoire. 163. though in his middle life (1780-1810) chiefly occupied with opera-writing. where the hearing of Gluck's his him to undertake opera. Hardly any of his operas rest upon good librettos. It is notable that in Les deuxjournies deserted. so that scenes are too much prolonged and in some cases the whole But many of the overtures are classic masterpieces. the type of his genius allied him more with the best of the Ger nally mans than with either Italy or France. is still more a link between the older French opera and that of the i9th century. leading 28 . since he was origi an Italian of the Italians. under Napoleon. He began organ-playing at 10 and sacred com soon after. with those of Gluck and Mozart. in (For reference to the essential renovation of the opera upon modern lines. he his first work was not given till 1791. In 1815 he paid From 1816 he was professor of composition at the Conservatoire. Lodoiska (1791. finally. Anacreon (1803) and Faniska less favor. but later for more than 50 years identified with musical progress at Paris. Cherubini must be con sidered one of the most potent influences. under the per sonal guidance of Gluck. bora in 1763 in northeastern France and receiving his direction as a musician there and at Paris. Luigi Cherubini (d. and from 1821 its director. Vienna). since he was most influential as a church composer. but later. he went to Paris. Turin). Aulide (1788. though masterpiece in 1779 and the latter's advice led In spite of the political disorders.155 THE FRENCH OPERA 369 besides an egotistic work on declamation (1789) and a feeble manual of harmony (1801-2). Midee (1797). see sec. Here. continuing in active service till the year before his Of his almost 30 dramatic works the more celebrated were Ifigenia in death. beginning some sacred writing. In 1778 he went to Paris. was in in among the London a brief time he betook himself to Vienna (1805-6). 1842) is a difficult figure to classify. he gradually resumed the writing of church music. so that he is commonly ranked After a sojourn Neapolitans. From his more than 30 operas. of the themes and the originality of the instrumentation are widely acknowl the Italian traditions are com edged. 1817). and since. though working in northern Italy. position work in sacred music. in that there are practically none but concerted or chorus pletely numbers throughout. a notable visit though not entirely retiring from the opera. who was cembalist at one of -fe: theatres. Les deuxjotirnees. Another blemish is that the wealth of musical ideas in them is often too abundant. called Der Wassertrager in Germany (1800). scored a series of successes and speedily became one of the most admired at the new Con composers of the time. Les deux jour nees. He was born at Florence in 1760. more dignified and more warmly dramatic. and this had much to do with their lack of permanent suc cess. where he was first trained by his father. under the influence especially (1784-5). becoming far richer. and the refinement work. except (1806. In spite of all qualifications. many operas in the prevalent Italian style. but in 1778 went to Sarti at Bologna and was carefully instructed in From 1780 he wrote contrapuntal traditions. Paris).) Etienne Nicholas M6hul (d. and he established him In 1795 he was made one self as one of the ablest leaders in French opera. of Gluck's innovations.

born in 1760. and a keen appreci Some of his large effects were broad and ation of whatever gives local color. He was one of the OpeYa judges in 1806-24. Till his thirtieth year he was busy with church music at Seez. Passing mention may be made of Louis Emmanuel Jadin (d. and Pierre Gayeaux such as Lc secret (1796) and Le chapitre second (1799) (d. whom he foreshadowed. had many distinguished . besides receiving other honors. Among his about 10 operas. he had no such imagination as Me'hul or such technical equipment as Cherubini and. But in opera he pointed the way for the best writers of the next period. and he handled the chorus and the orchestra with tragic . in spite of his date. 1853). Jean Francois Le Sueur (d. Tours and Paris (from 1786 at Notre Dame). Mans. and force. Mtlidore et Phrosine (1795). both In 1789 he retired for general composition and in 1793 vocal and orchestral. Jean Pierre SoK6 (d. a remarkable baritone. his recitatives were often nobly expressive. with finally the avowed intention of introducing freely into it dramatic and picturesque effects. and he also wrote a number of oratorios and much church music. continuing under the later regime till 1830. though he sought eagerly for novelty. Adrien (1799). such as Le petit matelot (1796) and the latter on the same story as Beethoven's Fidelio. a quick and versatile imagination. Uthal (1806). or passionate quality. with about 40 dramas (from 1788) and much instrumental music.3/0 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 155 examples are Stratonice (1792). He had an exquisite tastefulness. 1837). and from 1804 became private choirmaster to Napoleon. and from 1817 pro fessor at the Conservatoire. and he wrote often in their de fense (from 1787). produced his first opera with great applause. the most noted were La caverne (1793) and Les bardes (1804). being finally thrown out by a quarrel. he left nothing of special importance. with about 30 operettas (from 1790). His innovating ideas were much combatted. Dijon. He was inspector at the Con servatoire in 1795-1802. was first a choirboy at Amiens. But he could sustained not compete with Cherubini in technical learning or usually in capacity for Outside of his operas. also with about 30 (1792-1811). some of his arias excel in grand. belonged to the 1 8th cen His lectures were popular and he tury. Lionore (1798) . 1812). Joseph (1807) and Lajournee aux aventures (1816). effort. 1825). pupils. among them Berlioz. Some of his overtures surpassed those of all preceding and he introduced many unheard-of instrumental effects. originality writers. As an opera-writer.

Mozart was born almost a outrun Haydn and to force him to new efforts. But Mozart's genius was many-sided. and lived less than so that he died before Haydn had reached the acme of his Yet he developed so rapidly and phenomenally as power. Mozart's strongest period followed immediately upon Gluck's triumph. even from early years. in side by side. he had already had a wide cosmopolitan experience and was at home in all the was leading operatic styles. on both the Again. Thus. it included. He not specially a student or philosophical analyst. the two wrought as regards the establishment of the homophonic sonata and symphony. he was bound to half as long. in the new views and ambitions. the period is rightly known as that of Haydn and Mozart. Italian. spite of the difference in age.CHAPTER XXI MOZART AND THE EXALTATION OF MELODY 156. both at Vienna and at Paris. much more so than an Haydn's. as is further called regards the renovation of the opera. Hence it is not strange that from about 1780 he stepped into a real companionship with Gluck (more than forty years his senior) and that. Austrian and French. In particular. and. While the number of capacities of the developing pianoforte. Like Gluck. intense interest in the musical drama. it is only fair to recognize his kinship in a limited sense with the new 37 1 . the period is the more fitting* because This that of Gluck and Mozart. Mozart had been trained as a virtuoso He was quick to perceive the latent violin and the clavier. but he had keen intuition and quick versatility. since he was personally in touch with the whole to share controversy. his larger and abler works for the latter is not large. quarter-century after Haydn. and. Mozart's Unique Position. Mozart excelled Gluck in both the variety and the absolute musical value of his methods. with a ready sensitiveness to the most progressive tendencies of the age in this field.

who was his companion-artist throughout his early life. Mozart stands out as one of the most striking instances of the intuitive grasp and abounding inspiration of pure genius. Apart from home instruction. he went further than growth upon his contemporaries in indicating the great paths which the coming century was to set forth. the violinist and com poser (see sec. he needed but the call of an occasion to bring before him both the appropriate method of procedure and the musical ideas to be expressed. the sec ond of the two surviving children of Leopold Mozart. and to play the organ be tween 6 and 7. to play little 5. Mozart was away from Salzburg over ten times for periods vary- . at 10 similarly one act of an a musical comedy. the fact of that all he was cut off in early manhood.372 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 156 school of pianists of which the showing himself a leader. His marvelous natural gifts were broadly de veloped by the exacting discipline and the wide chances for In spite of travel provided by his wise and energetic father. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (d. at 12 oratorio. He was five years younger than Maria Anna Mozart (d. 149). Mozart's education was principally effected by a series of journeys planned by his father with the minutest care and carried out (until 1775) under his personal direction. Before he was 10 he was said to have been able to play at sight anything for either clavier. Even from his boyhood. during the 19 years be fore he was 25. coexisting with a perfect boyishness otherwise. at 9 for a test produced two Ital ian arias. to compose in to read violin-music in trio and perform in public before he was 6. besides demonstrating power in fugue-writing. It was his father. At 7 Ms first sonatas were published. organ or violin. 1829). guided with the utmost care and even some sternness who by early divined his son's true rank and devised the plans for his systematic development which were carried forward with infinite self-sacrifice until after 1780. at 8 he wrote his first sym phony. Both were precocious. This a grand amazing readiness was wholly natural. Wolfgang beginning to pick out intervals on the clavier at 3. at n his first full opera. Thus. 1791) was born in 1756 at Salzburg. young Beethoven was already In spite of the pathetic brevity of his life and the still more pathetic failure of suitable opportunity in it. form at at sight pieces at 4. and at 14 opera at Milan.

fond of bright and witty society. though there were a few good musicians. in the end. Paris (via Brussels). of the tenth (1777-9) Munich.156 MOZART 373 everywhere an incipient master. and. often intimately. From the bent was toward dramatic music. which alarmed his father. delayed ties his tour. as < mission liable to forget his aims to petty impulses. the Low Countries. of the eighth (1773) Vienna. London. Yet his peculiar relation to the Archbishop of Salzburg and the predilections of his of both composers . Stuttgart. But the expenses of these experiences were heavy and ultimately forced the father into And the son was volatile. of the years in all. like Michael Haydn. At Augsburg (1777) he first saw the possibili of the pianoforte. and the social interest he excited was phenomenal. though he did receive some lessons and much help ful suggestion. the Rhine from Heidelberg to Cologne. At Mannheim (1778) he was deeply impressed by the quality of the famous orchestra. to acquaint him with musicians of all schools and with all prevalent styles. Mannheim and The Paris. of the ninth (i774~5) Munich. and of the eleventh (1780-1) Munich. The youth was presented ing from a few weeks up to more than three years and aggregating about nine The chief objective of the first trip (1762) was Munich. like Cannabich. too. to secure money. though then he probably had no real sense of Gluck's innovating aim. but a few salient In Salzburg there was little stimulating or agreeable. to win for him some distinguished post commensurate with his abilities. began his romantic attach ment to the young soprano. fathers purpose was to make known his son's genius. and serious debt. second (1762-3) Vienna. especially on the third and fifth trips. Switzerland and Munich again. of the sixth (1771) and seventh (1772-3) Milan. from Milan to Naples. though he studied attentively the operas and disarranged start his strongest and many by Gre'try and other Frenchmen. Here. At London (1764-5) much close intimacy with Christian Bach seems to have given him a decided impetus. Lyons. players and composers whom he met. At Vienna (1768) he heard Gluck's Alceste just as he was writing his own first extended opera. to attract to him the indispensable attention of wealthy patrons. of the third (1763-6) Munich. as revealed in the instruments of Stein. and heard much to awaken his thought regarding German opera. Hence his eagerness to master the vocal and instrumental methods of the opera everywhere and the abandon with which he threw himself info every commission that offered. In Paris (i 778) he stood by during the thick of the Gluck-Piccinni quarrel. but aimed to keep out of it. At Bologna (i 770) he roused the enthusiasm of the veteran Martini and learned much from him. large ' especially to find opportunities for conspicuous and remunerative composition. Aloysia Weber. at the courts where music was emphasized. During the Italian tour generally he heard representative works of the Neapolitan order. Paris again. he was generally accepted as a competitor on equal terms with other artists. returning in reverse order. of the fifth (1769-71) all the chief Italian cities. of the fourth (1767-8) Vienna. The number of famous and talented singers. and ended only the next year in complete disap pointment. points may be named. found numerous congenial artistic friends. including some by Jommelli and Hasse. in the pleasures of the moment or to sacrifice No full summary is possible of the infinitely varied artistic influences to which Mozart was subjected during these formative years. was enormous. and.

as to young Hummel and the Englishman Attwood. of a Requiem which he himself believed to be for his own funeral and of which the true history was not known in full till about a century later. at Vienna. of droll humor. however. But the Weber family had become engaged to Constanze. A romantic feature of his last days was the writing. In spite of his father's fidelity. especially in the absence of copyright protection. where from patriotic motives he declined an offer to become royal choirmaster. In 1782 his second Sigismund. though in itself happy. Mozart hoped for work as Trusting to his <clat in high society teacher and composer and especially desired an operatic commission. he was dismissed with Thenceforward he was thrown on his own resources. died and was followed by Hieronymus. Mozart was exceedingly vivacious. but chiefly on its sacred side.374 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 156 whole father led also to fruitful attention to Catholic church music. great and small. gross in Vienna. He often appeared as a virtuoso and always with great applause. fatal illness. riage. as In 1771. He gave lessons considerably. In 1789 he visited Dresden. versatile and fascinating. a pig-headed. He had a lingering hope for some court a hope only partially met. indulged in deeper and deeper into debt. Measured by achievements. Die Entfuhrung. a living in Vienna and he many filled follies. but in 1781. upon a mysterious commission through an anonymous agent. the father had long leaves of absence and the son some recognition at court. but also with an equal maze of difficulties. but not all his incessant sociality was judicious or beneficial. virtually succeeding Gluck. and became infatuated with Freemasonry. his early period was almost equally significant in all three fields. had neither health nor skill in managing and the husband lacked steadiness of purpose and loved gayety overmuch. had great success. though at less than half the latter^s salary. when he was made concertmaster. de Under him the Mozarts tested by his subjects and disliked by his equals. late in 1787. in whose Leopold The earlier prelate. And^the of the time moved him to constant effort in the field of purely instrumen spirit tal music. During his regime was now younger Her circumstances at home led to a hasty mar sister of Aloysia. but he had no wit for economy. fond of all sorts of amusements. full Personally. His aggregate income was not small. In 1791 a conjunction of serious strains occasioned the brief. The circumstances of his death and burial were pathetic in the extreme. . He was drawn hither and thither by random impulses. as the Viennese stage was then probably the best in Enrope. and to many who were only half in earnest. of acute mental judgments and of noble sentiments. involved innumerable troubles. The last ten years were mature opera. under which at last his health gave way. the inter ment being in the common grave of the city paupers. In 1 778 Wolfgang was reluctantly reinstated as concertmaster. Leipsic and Berlin. The family fortunes were largely dependent Mozart had been since 1743service upon the Archbishop. but capable. often suggested by indiscreet or designing friends. by his appointment as private honor musician to the Emperor. were systematically snubbed and tantalized. was interested in music. Sigismund in 1770. mean-spirited man. as then counted. The sale of compositions was less remuner He had many friends ative. and fell with a maze of occupations. for the wife which. too. insults.

Wolfgang Amadeus (d. many motets and several cantatas. the stage or the church were extended and The total number was over a thousand.. and the chief of the operas. including 15 masses. Mozart was first of all a melodist. much greater flexibility and a more glowing beauty. greatest in the orchestral 157. including 42 many concertos for piano. the later of the symphonies (see sec. which involved the sale of her husband's manuscripts and the giving of various concerts. Mozart's creative power was first works in his seventh year (1763). much church music. and versatility were obvious traits of his musical mind. Karl (d. 26 quartets. beginning with Idomeneo in 1781 (see below). but his conception and a expression tended always toward more expansion of feeling. bassoon. divertimenti. a Danish official. horn. including 49 symphonies. and later worked at Vienna. in 1809 she was married to G. over 30 concert-arias. 10 quintets. and to this due the tragic contrast between his transcendent genius and his utter to win a place suitable to his powers. shown in published The standard edition of his works (1876-86) includes about 35 songs. After serious struggles against want. She died in 1842. His intuition as to style and method was phenomenal.. 148). and from 1766 he poured forth an incessant stream of works. 17 organ-sonatas. His Style in General. first en while gaged in business and later was in the Austrian civil service at Milan . violin. Albrechtsberger and others. works belong to every class of writing then cultivated. etc. 1826). appeared as a pianist in 1805. about 30 similar works. IV. etc. and the freshness of his invention continued unimpaired to the end. much chamber music. and the operatic fields. only a small part were published during his life. a consid erable amount of piano music. 5 for four hands. and many of those for orchestra. the younger only four months old. though somewhat trained in music. of which. 1859).. 20 vocal canons. His idioms. instead of resting upon the artlessness and nalvet6 of . Of the two sons. He resembled Haydn in the clarity and symmetry of his themes. and nearly 20 operas and His feme as an epoch-making genius rests mainly upon certain of the concertos. Spontaneity elaborate.157 his character lacked poise MOZART 375 lack is failure and firmness in all practical matters. including 17 sonatas for two hands. after study with Neukomm. etc.. and he adapted himself to so many forms that it is not easy to say which sup Historically his influence has been plied the norm of his style. At Mozart's death his widow was left with two sons. flute. He com posed with rapidity and usually with absolute certainty. manifold works for orchestra. from 1814 was conductor at Lemberg. 1844). several part-songs. von Nzssen (d. etc. violin-sonatas. how These ever.

his style is typical of the whole musical situation gree. with His its appeal to higher feeling by less sensational methods. This is one reason for the persistent charm of many of his maturer works and for the indebtedness to him that many As later masters have acknowledged. works. uniting with the solidity and soundness of the older traditions a striking brilliance and beauty of matters of always in unerring. and of the church service. Mozart's operas exhibit his genius more fully than his other eminence is due to his utilize all these at once. while Mozart's style was prevailingly homophonic harmonic. though his dominant national spirit was clearly German. as impression 'all his own. and Again. violinist. and of the very best in it. consummate power to appreciate and And. He had the singular advantage of uniting in his style what had been learned in both the vocal and the instrumental fields. he was also an accomplished contrapuntist. and pianist He was almost equally fascinated by the attrac and tions of the concert-stage. showed himself the inheritor of the best results of the long pe riod during which the art of song by generations of opera. therefore. his instinct was side he stands as the type of the whole total classical ideal of composition. credit to later workers was really present in germ and essence in him.6 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 157 the folk-song. organist separately. He was but much absolutely expert in all the procedures commonly used.writers. had been studiously advanced a harmonist. with its still greater field for intense and complicated effect. and of fusing together tendencies that had been developing He was himself a skillful singer. of the operatic arena. form and disposition. with its opportunities for both vocalist player. to extend them to new more ready than his contemporaries Many passages might be cited to show his pro applications. his experience in all parts of Europe had been so wide that he was in contact with all the diverse In a peculiar de tendencies at work in the South and the West. as it stood in his day. On this Here. amples of Italian art In this he. not generally recognized till the early phetic grasp of principles It is probably true that much that we usually igth century. have the fluency and amplitude of the finest ex much more than Haydn. Mozart marks a decided advance. according to the sue- .3 . Their general style varies jnuch.

which is a with the Italian exception patterns. flote (1791. and ending operetta Bastien und Bastienne (both with Lafinta giardiniera and // re pastore (both 1775. so that several of them stand out as monumental artistic creations. of dramatic values. Vienna). with were much the shaped upon current of Bastien und Bastienne. sometimes using absolutely preposterous conglomera But Mozart was singularly felicitous in his characteriza tions. the other at Salzburg) and those of his maturity. Vienna). And his capacity for sustaining interest and building it up into fine climaxes by sheer musical skill was unique. certainly of Gluck first becomes noticeable in Idomeneo. then being Gluck's later masterpieces. however senseless in themselves. while Mozart was notoriously reckless about his librettos. but the The influence until the 'climax reached in Don Giovanni. such as he found in tragedies upon Greek themes. and finally distinctly influenced by catching a fresh flavor from the newly-revived German singspiel. and preferred the light and of cessors. which (including seve Of these last Idomeneo (1781. In the later works the underlying type is more or less true singspiel. especially after 1781. Vienna) his oratorio La Betulia liberata (1771). the one at Munich. Vienna). Prague) All the earlier works. Of wealth of musical tions of these the most conspicuous is the overflowing charm lovely melodies. are features of powerful originality. Freemasonry play a part in the striking romanticism . delicious combina movement. form and color. while Gluck strove after severely ideal total effects with a seriousness that verged upon austerity. vocal and instrumental. ral only sketched) numbered at least ten. at first conforming without much revolt to the conventions of the Neapolitans. portance of plot those of his Mozart's operas fall naturally into two distinct periods and the German youth.157 MOZART 377 cessive influences that affected him. Don Giovanni (1787. and masterly construction. But in them all. Gluck's theory centred upon the intellectual im and text. strongest. definitely Italian. . Yet. are clearly and Die ZauberFigaro (1786. The opera for Mozart was first both Herein he of all a musical opportunity of the highest order. Salzburg) written in 1768. single humorous. treatment is increasingly original and free. beginning with Lafinta semplice (1769. tion of personages. Le nozze di Munich). Mozart's mind fastened rather upon the finish and effectiveness scenes and passages. Ideas connected with of The Magic Flute. showed his kinship with the strongest of his Italian prede though he far surpassed them in abundance and rich But he also resembled Gluck in his keen sense ness of ideas. Die Entfiihrung aus dem Serail (1782.

duets and solfeggi. from 1747 the extraordinary coloratura with a range to c (d. . century the German the English ballad-opera. who was known only in Germany. its it knew how to appeal taken up by original and to the popular sentiment of northern of the Italian opera. . Its revival was one of unity and effectiveness. the composer of songs. who Eu exerted a large and healthy influence. though presently individuality was lost in the rise of the romantic opera. 1818). and. from 1782-3 Elizabeth (Weichsel) Billingwho was famous in England and Italy and from 1791 Margarete (Hamel) Schick (d. 1 825) and from 1783 the tenor Luigi Bassi (d. the last celebrated artificial soprano. but from singspiel lay about 1 760 it began to reappear in Germany and Austria as a popular type of much influence. wn wa& probably the greatest of all. Todi gave rise to a great partisan dispute in Paris. The singspiel is properly a play made up of spoken dialogue with interspersed solos. Its cultivation proceeded from two centres. 1783)? in aUissimOj from 1768 the Portuguese Luiza Rosa de Aguiar Todi (d. artist Catterina Gabrielli 1807) . 1825). the one in Saxony and Prussia. from 1782 Amelie Julie Candeille (Simons) (d. 1833). 1796). from ? 1777 Antoinette Ce"cile (Clavel) Saint-Huberty (d. and a good teacher. such as the French comic operetta and 158. . it was capable of artistic Its power lay in its simple tunefulness ready adaptation to comic characters and scenes. who sang by ear only. Although in nature not a consistent musical type. its and symptom the reaction against the artificiality being rope. Other male singers were from 1762 the tenor Valentin Adamberger (d. who was more actress than musician. 1806). resourceful writers. who sang only in France. In both cases it was obviously stimulated by the success of anal ogous forms elsewhere. 1821) . 1833) from about 1770 Gertrud Elisabeth (Schmeling) Mara (d.378 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY the celebrated operatic singers of the age. from 1764 Lucrezia Agujari (Colla) (d. from about 1769 and Gasparo Pacchiarotti (d. but very ably. In the early i8th almost dormant. 1812). were the following The sopranos included from about 1740 Regina (Valentin!) Mingotti (d. 1795) . The Singspiel and tlie Artistic Song. from 1779 Brigitta (Giorgi) Banti (d. Mara and 1834). the other at Vienna. from 1773 Luigi Marches! (d. 1829) from 1783 Girolamo Crescentini. . Its topics were nearly always taken from common life and it's treat ment filled with local color. 1816) . 1804) from 1 780 the tenor Matteo from 1 772 the great bass Ludwig Fischer (d. Prominent among the evirati from 1763 was Giuseppe Aprile (d. from 1774 Francesca Gabrielli (d. 1809). Babbini (d. l ' ton (d. 1814). duets and part-songs in a style not far away from the folk-song or its near relatives. most of : 158 Among less them more or connected with Mozart. .

text by Goethe) and Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail (1781. Born in 1728. He was perhaps the first to expand ' durchkomponierte ballade (as Lenore. with . In 1784 he left it to his brother and became conductor at returned to Offenbach and built up a music-publishing house that issued about the 1200 works before 1800 and is still famous. In this way it helped to prepare the way for one of the most significant movements of the early iQth ' century (see sees. in 1771 founded a singing-school. musical success upon the abundant use of its progress was closely associated with the a distinct recognition and development of the artistic song as and beautiful branch of composition. which was imitated in the form known as the volksthiimliches lied. He wrote many songs. In the North German group were the following: Johann izer. Adam teacher and Hiller (d. was named in 1789 His singspiele num deputy cantor at the Thomasschule and in 1797 canton bered nearly 15. settled in Leipsic. Lottchen am Hofe (1767)* Die Uebe auf (1769). a Passion songs. Dres den and Leipsic. an oratorio.158 THE SINGSPIEL AND THE SONG its 379 Depending for simple vocal melody. 1804) was not only a composer. From 1774 he took up music-selling at Offenbach. he was finely educated at Gorlitz. but a useful organ author. with choral concerts after 1775. and. but not same text. as Mozart's opera in 1782). 1775)* the brother of the violinist Franz Benda. c still the song to the some chamber music. pedagogical. moved to Gotha in 1748. such as Der Topfer (1773)? Elmire (1776?. From before 1760. He edited useful col cantata. popular.' and then extended by natural steps of unfolding to the longer and richer forms of the kunstlied/ including the dramatic ballade. in 1776 initiated Concerts spirituels (name at the afterwards famous copied from Paris). 1799). The basal type was the true ' folk-song. secular and sacred. dtm Lande still Der Dorfbarbier (1771) and Die Jagd (1771) the last given. literature and music. and was a striking author (see sec. he composed detached secular cantatas. brought up about 1770. a few was like Killer's. becoming ducal choirplaying in a Berlin orchestra. These owed true songs (lieder). as distinguished their popularity to his substantial gifts as a writer of from the pretentious aria. was the first conductor (1781-5) Gewandhaus. edited the earliest musical weekly (1766-70). 174. after Georg Benda (d. with unjustifiable changes of text). 222). turned to music Joflann AndrS (d. His method but more exclusively lyrical. same subject. although in 1786 he moved to Breslau. also. historical and republished important sacred works (often lections. though in discarded the simple strophe-plan and even applying them dramatically he often used some ensemble numbers. He was a good pianist and Erwin und fecile composer of over 25 singspiele. 1795). in the silk business. beginning with additions (n songs and 2 smfonie) to Standand his fuss* DerTeufelistlos (1765 original work about 10 years earlier) own Lisuart und Darioktte (1766). but in 1777 a Berlin theatre. 165). with several church music and some instrumental pieces. and In 1763 he was conductor of the revived public concerts. dividing his attention between law.

Freude. THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 158 sensation. at first teaching and collaborating upon Sulzer's 'Theorie. and had a good general education. 1813). dramatically conceived and often finely set. solo cantatas and odes. etc. Johann Rudolph Zumsteeg (d. a Passion (1784). with two for Paris (not given) . etc. with Die B'ussende. Passions. wrote several singspiele (from about 1784). chamber As a critic he was fertile and music. were many and popular. Schiller's Ode an die Maria Stuart (one scene). including singspiele (from 1772) singer and playwright. etc. (from about 1768) long associated with Hiller at Leipsic and from 1781 organist at Bonn. Goethe's Colma. succeeding Agricola. etc. chiefly in France and England. Des Pfarrers Tochttr. secular cantatas. Johannetfs Lebewohl. He wrote over 20 stage-works. with over 10 singspiele (from 1773). From 1807 for a time In 1794 he lost his place because he was choirmaster to Jerome Bonaparte at Cassel. sacred cantatas. His sacred songs. Less important were Franz Andreas Holly (d. and several operas. the fellow-student of Schiller at Stuttgart. text by Goethe). clavier-sonatas and concertos. with about 15 singspiele Christian Gottlob Neefe (d. Johann Abraham Peter Schulz (d. He was interested in new ideas. cantatas. symphonies. while music was supplied by the orchestra.. from 1780 was director for Prince Heinrich at Rheinsberg. Elbondokani and Zalaor. . psalms. over 20 sacred cantatas. 1826). 1802). His first and best reputation came from his beautiful Lieder im Volkston (1782-90).. also very many fine songs. including singspiele like Hanschen und Gretchen (i773)>/<?>7 und Bately (1789. but spoken. in 1773 settled in Berlin. but he also wrote about 10 successful singspiele and operas (from 1775). Karl David Stegmann (d. at first destined to be a sculptor. including the (1776). His melodrama or * duodrama' Ariadne auf Naxos (1774) made a and was followed by nearly 15 other stage-works. the opera Romeo und Julia 'monodrama' Pygmalion (1780). and from 1787 choirmaster at Copenhagen. Benda moved from place to place. keen (see sec. and had decided musical gifts. Te Deums.380 master. At 23 (1775) he became royal choirmaster at Berlin. 1814) was early taught the lute. but was too progessive to be wholly popular and was often away. such as Aline (1789). In 1783 he established Concerts of his radical politics. Johann Friedrich Reichardt (d. like Die Geisterinsel. several symphonies. with many melodious . was formed by the choirmaster into a fine 'cellist and song-writer. the violin and theory. by lesser poets. The melodrama Medea (1777"?) and the text of these melodramas was not From 1 778 sung. 165). mostly for Berlin. including 60 by Goethe. etc. after travel as tutor. concertos for piano and for violin. 1798). Ritter Toggenbitrg. including the Schlachtsymphonie (on the battle of Leipsic. resigning in 1795 because of illhealth. In these he was the precursor of Schubert and Lowe. including Poll He Burger's Lenore and Die Entfuhrung. Erwin und Elmire (1793). Peters Bryttup(iii). 1800). Hoest-Gildet (1790). 1783). though not always happy in their use. many songs and important ballades. chiefly at Hamburg. as in Gluck's innova tions. a works. succeeding his teacher in 1792. a pupil and later the assistant of Kirnberger. . writing many church works.' From 1776 he conducted at the French Theatre. Das Pfauenfest. spirituels at Berlin. several of them to Danish texts and produced at Copen hagen.

the composer of a great number of songs and piano. besides 10 symphonies. from 1778 elec toral chaplain and from 1793 choirmaster at Mayence. like Der Spiegel von Arkadien (1794) and Soliman works. worked as at and leader there and Prague till about 1790. contributing less to the development of the song as such . etc. was from 1778 leader at the National Theatre at Vienna. Johann Schenk composer in the strict contrapuntal style. achieving such success that he forsook his earlier ambition. 145). especially as regards his Bastien und Bastienne (1768) and Die Joseph Haydn (d. even when his works were drawing large audiences. (d. singer Ignaz Walter (d. he took up dramatic writing in folk-style. of which Das Donauvueibchen was the best. He was extremely prolific in composition about 200 singspiele and operas. As a pianist he was admired by Beethoven in 1791. many masses and other church music. His Die Bergknappen Die schone (1778) opened a popular series of which Die Apotheke Schusterin (1780).158 THE SINGSPIEL AND THE SONG 381 songs and instrumental pieces. 1791) is elsewhere stated (see sec. II. Wenzel Miiller (d. Similarly. assisting him on Titus and completing the score of the Requiem. on the other hand. their efforts were ultimately valuable in helping forward the advent of true German opera. such as Die Weinlese (1785). at first anonymously. 1796). though not an important one. (1799). a Bohemian. Ferdinand Kauer (d. Die Weihnacht auf dem Lande (1786). Several of his dozen singspiele long held the stage. of singspiel-writers was at first more limited in influ ence. (d. besides composing for the German Theatre. came to Vienna about 1790 and studied with Mozart. when he went to Ger- . The Vienna group marionette-plays (1762) belonged to the singspiel class (see sec. trained at Vienna. a pupil of Ditters. Das (1778). with about a score of singspiele (from 1773). etc.works. Here may be added Johann Franz Xaver Sterkel (d. In 1830 most of his MSS. 1831). Franz Xaver Siissmayr (d 1803). besides other 1822). But from 1785. 1787). and an indefinite number of instrumental works. such as Der Fagottist (1792). from 1795 was employed in Vienna theatres as leader or 'cellist. at first a viola-player. and Anton Schweitzer (d. Das Neusonntagskind (1793). 1799) are certainly Ignaz Umlauf (d. 155). lack of continued success. 1836) secured notice by his boy-voice who sought to form him as a sacred and became a counterpoint for Haydn. but. 1809) was a pioneer. 153). 1835). and from 1789 Salierfs assistant at the Imperial Chapel. and His later years were embittered by the especially Der Dorfbarbier (1796). the works of their contemporary Ditters important in this connection (see sec. A fine mass (1778) was specially admired and for a time he pressed on in church music. had a similar career. The relation of the operas of Mozart (d. In 1793 he acted as Beethoven's secret helper with the latter's exercises in pupil of Wagenseil. born in Moravia. and is also said to have written over 200 singspiele and similar works (from 1783). His Der nem krumme Teufel (1751?) and the at Esterhz Entfilhrung (1782). 1817). were lost in an inundation. Irrlicht and others were examples. From 1792 he was leader at different theatres and produced singspiele. always poorly paid. Benda's successor at Gotha in 1780. also a Moravian.

who at 23 (1763) began as composer at . including The Lord of the Manor (1780). having a vogue like that of analogous forms in France and Germany.the first of which was Electra (1787).382 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 159 and Der Spiegelritter Dr. 159. Kunzen of Liibeck. writing in all over 40 works. who also undertook song-plays and 1802). being mostly undertaken by writers not broadly trained in composition and surrounded by an atmosphere not artistically musical. George After the accession of Secular Music in England. He issued a collection of Danish songs but made him noted elsewhere. such as besides a coronation-cantata (179)(1798). Covent Garden. Comic song-plays or comedies with incidental songs were exceedingly popular in London. : (1816). His advancement was due to three operas in the style of Gluck. but he later became specially interested in collecting and editing Swedish national songs and chorales (from 1819). and now produced a series of Danish operas and much other music. and Johann Christian Friedrich Haffner (d. but notable as the first native music-drama since Purcell WiUiam Jackson of Exeter (d. and won applause by his Das Fest der Winzer (1795? Prague). Writing of this sort attracted many church musicians. (1760) there was a notable outburst of secular music * form of light operas/ part-songs. writing several singspiele (from about 1793). had little intrinsic value or beneficial in fluence. glees and 'catches/ detached songs or ballads. which not only placed him at the head of Danish musicians. Frankfort and Prague. went to Stockholm in 1780 as organist becoming in 1794 royal choirmaster. 1803). . who. but. which was forgery a pasticcio. Some of these. taking the songs. with a few stage-pieces (1767-83). but removed in 1808 to Upsala as director and organist at the cathedral. mostly comic. III. Among the able church composers operas were Samuel Arnold (d. 1833). the first being The Maid of the Mitt (1765). w ^ studied at Schmalkalden and assistant at the opera. 1817). was characteristic and brilliant. was a cultivated pianist. somewhat recalling the madrigal period of a century and a half before. son of K. . Faust (1797) many. These plays stimulated the writing of detached in England. however. Holger Danske (1789). also. were producers of admirable solo songs. Here for convenience may be inserted two composers who were influential upon music in Scandanavia Friedrich ludwig Aemilius Ktmzen (d. The development of the glee or unaccompanied part-song. after traveling as a virtuoso and short residences at Berlin (collaborating with Reichardt). in He had already written 1795 succeeded Schulz as choirmaster at Copenhagen. Leipsic. who brought to it disciplined talent and often delicate and original sentiment. one Danish opera. A.

at first a singing-teacher at Bath and from 1774 concert-conductor at London. came to London in 1772. with over 20 operettas (1792-1807) and many fine glees and songs. James Hook (d. followed with about 40 (1791-1811). 1778 at 22). He was an accomplished writer of songs and madrigals. 1795). at his death many songs. Thomas Carter (d. arid all at some time won prizes somewhat similar organization was the in its annual competitions. He engaged that he followed in several speculations. 1817). At 22-3 (1785-6) he brought out two operas at he quickly produced Vienna. 1829). 1815). after becoming noted for his songs at Dublin. Thomas Linley. who. can tatas. and knew Mozart well. 1814). besides 30 musical the latter containing most of his famous sea-songs. catches and the like. From 1817 he had a court position. and His originality as a song-writer is specially noted. Returning to England. his companion in study (1792) and travel. first famous as a singer in Italy and at Vienna. two of which were adapted from Gretry. a viola-player. was long connected with prominent theatres. beginning The best of his 9 plays was Garrick's Cymon latter jointly with Battishill. and William Reeve (d. early showed talent for with The Fairy Tale (1763) and Almena (1764). was sent as Stephen Storace (d. a Winchester choirboy. at Westminster. [The term catch originally A mem . and on the stage Michael Arne (d. Jr. Sri (d. Charles Dibdin (d. Glee Club. composer and actor-singer. Paul's. after success in Italy and at Vienna. but including and others. 1844).159 several odes ENGLISH SONG-PLAYS AND GLEES 383 and many songs . In this many ' 4 bers of the Catch Club were also enrolled. several of them adapted from European his own The Haunted Tower (1789). The Pirates singspiele. 1804). His gifted son. founded in 1787 and disbanded in 1857. The Shepherd?s Artifice (1762). etc. a flourishing by the found Most of the famous glee-writers were enrolled in this. produced a number of song-plays at London (1775-92) . was so successful monologues it up with about 70 others (till 1798). many odes. produced over 60 song-plays (from 1789) . The artistic cultivation of part-songs was still much stimulated institution. Thomas Linley. sang in opera in England for many years. much later. Thomas Attwood (d. the stage-writing. which he figured as author. (1767). the son of T. ing in 1761 of the Catch Club. 1796 at 32) was a precocious violinist and a boy to Naples for study. (d. including about 25 plays (1771-1809). an oratorio (1776). was Mozart's boyhood friend. wrote at length on his experiences (1788-1803). Ann Storace (d. 1838). technical difficulty.. some beautiful in simplicity. partly Joseph Mazzinghi (d. William Shield (d. produced over 10 song-plays (1768-88). and produced nearly 40 plays of various degree (1778-1807). an actor and in conjunction with singer. the eminent organist at St. and. at 15 (1760) went to in London and sought dramatic employment. was a famous 'soprano. Arne. His sister. 1786). almost 15 stage-works (1788-96). some full of and was buried part-songs. 1827) showed enormous fertility in some 2000 songs. A. Michael Kelly (d* 1 826). edited a periodical and published novels.

and Reginald Spofforth (d. where he was professor (1764- whose glees were edited by Bishop (1846). From 1789 he served as organist. 1814). 1821) was the most fertile of the list. music for the English Chapel. winning 27 trials medals in the Catch Club 95). it should be for a variety of whimsical and comical forms. His son. whether gay or serious. at 12 (1746) was deputy organist at Westminster Abbey. organist at the Spanish Chapel. some masses. many of them winning medals from the Catch Club (from 1785). where they were organists and professors. a leading gleeand Hawkins' helper on his History. His church were excellent. 95). (d. Stephen Paxton (d. Richard John Samuel Stevens (d. was the most active of the circle. His son. with more than one collection (from 1775 ?) and an oratorio (1773). 1816). Samuel Webbe. John Wall Callcott (d. but includ of the same members and indirectly conducive to the same purposes. William Hayes (d. devoted to a different form of music. in 1757 choirmaster and in 1762 organist. The list Samuel Webbe. (d. with 4 collections (1785-98) and some Catholic music. 1793). 1777) and his son Philip Hayes (d. Another club was the Madrigal to a part-song. was always sung at He also wrote masses. and his glees are famous (2 col compositions 7 lections. with one collection. His glees. pupil of Boyce and Nares. Luffman Atterbury (d. 1781). and about 1780-89.384 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 1 159 used meant a round or canon written out as a single melody. unaccompanied. 1797). 1796) of the Chapel Royal. mainly at an Orphan Asylum. entered the Chapel Royal in 1784 and succeeded Arnold as organist in 1802. His Glorious Apollo. but skillful the Earl of Mornington [G. and some solfeggi. 1775. Robert Cooke (d. 1801). 1 . these rank high. many founded in 1741. In 1791 he had lessons from Haydn. both as sociated with Oxford. 1843). In 1807. He was highly esteemed as a theorist. for the Portuguese service. Benjamin Cooke (d. pupil of Pepusch and in 1752 his successor. 1798). 1827). 1837).. but not many. 1787). where from 1776 he was organist. with 3 collections and a fine edition of old all church music. but came to be 'Glee. with 2 John Stafford writer from 1773 . by Philip) Battishill (d. under the strain of ten years effort to compile a musical dictionary and of an appointment to lecture at the Royal Institution. He published 5 collections of his own and 2 of a valuable historical character (1779. 1812).' the opening of its meetings. collections of glees. writing glees. 1826). 4 1 Smith (d. 2 secular cantatas (1766-94) and publishing 9 collections (1774written for the Glee Club. were collected by Horsley (1824). etc. Jr. canons and catches literally by hundreds. was less notable along the same lines. means simply a song. John Danby (d. followed in his steps. publishing Jonathan glees of value (1757? by William. amateur at Dublin. variously published during his life. from 1786 organist at the Temple Church and from 1801 professor at Gresham College.] usage ing Society. but is restricted by noted. C. he became insane. the well-known organist and anthem-writer. with 2 collections and 74). a self-trained. Wellesley] (d. * of favorite glee-writers prior to 1800 includes the following:Sr.

The Improved Piano. with various forms of action. is commonly have made the first f square pianos. 1779). and by supplying the check hammer.CHAPTER XXII THE RISE OF PIANISM.' later developed by the Stodarts and the Broadwoods. It is impossible here to give any sufficient account of the gradual process of improvement in the piano. new interest in piano-making in Austria and Bavaria. the movement being to catch the recoil of the regulated by a screw. c. began a movement for better Somewhat later came a devices that had important sequels. He was taught by Silbermann. SACRED MUSIC 160. apparently stimulated by the influence of Christian Bach. the political disorders in central Europe about 1760 sent many workmen to England and these. These had a simple and fairly effective action in which the hammer was thrown. Americus Backers (d. but some notes upon pioneers will be useful. perhaps before 1760. Johann Zumpe. said to Christian Ernst Friederici (d. 1781). and before 1800 the supremacy of the harpsi ' chord ceased. became well known in England about 1765 for the excellence of his small pianos. but no ' example remains. This action was the germ of the so-called l English action. The inevitable connection be tween the improvement of mechanical implements and the advance of artistic styles is finely illustrated by the reaction of the experiments in piano-making from about 1760 upon the Until that date the piano entire character of keyboard music. soon Between 1780 and 1790 competent paralleled also in France. Inventors had not seri ously attacked its mechanical problems and players found it less But useful than the powerful harpsichords that were common. a German workman. a Saxon organ-builder. ' so 3*5 . soon after 1770 developed the Cristofori action by using a jack that engages a shoulder on the hammer-butt and escapes past it. fairly plentiful. was not much more than a curiosity. without escapement. began to become instruments. In 1786 Joan Geib invented i ' the i ' hopper' or underhammer in place of the fixed jack. by a c leather-headed wire jack (popularly called the old man's head ) and the 1 damper lifted by another (<the mopstick'). a Dutchman in Tschudi's employ at London.

FlG. Diagram of Perfected English (Broadwood) Action (1880). of Perfected Viennese Action (c. FIG. 1802). FlG. Glass Harmonica. FIG.386 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 160 FIG. 99. 97. 99. 97. loo. . Diagram of Perfected Diagram Cristofori Action (1720). 98. FIG. 98. FIG.

the hammers and the soundboard. their instruments developed a fine capacity for a sustained singing tone. with improvements in the stringing. Nanette Streicher (d. She (d. was an intimate friend of Beethoven. His action was novel in that the hammer is reversed. and the firm. but in 1785 received a From 1786 Erard lived in royal permit to make pianos independently* London. introduced the English grand action there. and is of pianists. Andreas Stein in carried bodily by the key-tail. 1773). tending stiff. He and his brother were opposed for a time by the luthiers' guild. 1833) was Stein's daughter. and their son." She and her brother greatly improved the Stein action and became the founders of the Viennese type of construction. than the other. partly with her brother Matthaus and later with her husband. Johann Andreas Streicher. and a firm. with its adaptation to the concert-stage and to use with the orchestra. when Mozart first tried his pianos. The latter succeeded to the business. which she moved to Vienna and "managed with energy for over 40 years. following foreign models. Ultimately. . in which for the first time the tuning-pins were placed on the left. a young harpsichord-maker from Strassburg. French piano in 1777. from about 1728 a harpsichord-maker in London. who in 1769 became his son-in-law and in 1770 his partner. 1812). returning to Paris. action. after the admission of two sons in 1795 an<^ I ^7? became John Broadwood & Sons. She inherited the business. 1831).160 PIANO-MAKING IN ENGLAND AND AUSTRIA 387 Burkhardt Tschudi (d. His own important improvements in both the piano and the harp Sgbastien Erard first made the belong to the next period (see sec. progress began. which title still persists. The effects here were suggested rather by the clavichord. He was a leading builder of organs and harpsichords. The practical success of his instruments led Mozart to turn to the piano. He was the first to apply the damper-pedal and the soft pedal substantially as now. The dampers could be raised by a knee-lever and the ' keys shifted by a pedal for una corda effects. The tendency more delicate tone. Their standard of effect was the harpsichord. sonorous tone. with its fitness for private use and for the cham This type proved less valuable and influential ber ensemble. 1792) seems to have been the restorer of piano-making Germany. but served to differentiate a significant school (d. while the hammer-tail < escapes from a notch in a fixed hopper behind. John Broadwood (d. s * ' of the English makers was toward a somewhat but positive. the head toward the front. From 1773 Broadwood used Zumpe^s method of making square pianos and from 1 780 a model of his own. 183). in Austria another line of toward a lighter action and a sweeter. Meanwhile. and in 1796. had from 1761 a Scotch employee. at work at Augsburg before 1777. a precocious player at 8 (1777) and a capable and cultivated woman. besides from 1788 stretching the heavy strings over a separate bridge.

The piano. ' (1810). Hohlfeld (1754). Essential structure was emphasized. was to be handled with caution and restraint. were played by means of the moistened London in 1746). Somewhat re lated instruments were Chladni's 'euphon (1790) and clavicylinder panmelodion (1810) and Buschmann's 'uranion' (1799). C. Garbrecht (1790). by some writers cultivated to excess. The most prominent of these was the i harmonica. clarity and smoothness than sonority. and the concerto three movements. and considerable special music written (as by Hasse. etc. If combined with other instruments. Miiller (1788). Beethoven. composers not gifted in invention the style of In the hands of Mozart's day . but without 161. In playing.). Mayer (1795). though sensitive. finger (as by Gluck at 1790). a ' ' . showy rapidity or compli cation of effects. he evidently felt. 1785-6 by Hessel and Rollig. quality or for supplementing them by independent attachments of various kinds. Mozart. Kunze (1799) and Rollig (iSoo). as by interposed leather strips above the hammers. significance. The century was also somewhat prolific of experiments with peculiar keyboard instruments of a different type. Mozart sought for an unobtrusive and strictly controlled style. but Benjamin Franklin (d. method was issued by J.388 In THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY many 161 early pianos mechanical devices were added for modifying the of the tones. he selected his thematic material with instinctive care and developed it with exquisite skill. as for the clavichord. the chamber trio. The Vienna Pianists. having strings sounded by friction. Leppich's 1 improved the contrivance by and mounting them on a A keyboard was added in Several noted players appeared. while in London in 1763. Associated with the Viennese pianos. sets of bowls. Le Voirs (1740). as by Gleichmann (1709).' the tones of which were produced by friction upon glass bowls. Various efforts were made to perfect a satisfactory keyboard viol. greatly size of the bowls fixing the tune wholly by the rotating axis with the lower edges in water. and subsidiary or decorative material rigorously held in check. tone. more solicitous about precision. all usually developed in quartet or quintet. Before 1750. shallow touch and their rather small. it was to be merged in the ensemble rather than forced into extreme promi nence. with their easy. The variation was especially popular at this period. tuned by placing water in them. The forms most used were the sonata. Mechanism of execution was simply the means for bringing out structural values in the composition. In writing for the piano. was a school of composers and players of which Mozart was the type.

the practice of insipid. though not lacking in geniality and vivacity. in addition to some already named. were typically those of the classical period generally.' at Johann Wepomuk Hummel (d. c. In his 25 concertos (mostly from his mature period) he attained one of his highest successes. for many years organist at Celle. sonatas. and welding it and the orchestra into a beautiful unity. 7-9 years old (1785-7). this sort every device of development was often utilized. The characteristics of the instruments at lar style in his sonatas (from 1769) Mozart (d. of Albrechtsberger . may doubt. attracted the notice of Gluck and Mozart. As handed on to the igth century. 1807). order and finish in their elaboration. 1760?). later chamber musi cian to Count Bruhl at Dresden. about 1740 a pupil of Friedemann Bach and his father. and to-day it seems But. Franz Duschek (d. . which he learned to appreciate at Augsburg. were Johann Gottlieb Goldberg (d. who was an amazing improvisator and the concertos. His works (from 1792) were numerous and elaborate. 1837) as a boy. after tours in northwestern Europe. His sonatas were generally less significant. therefore.161 THE VIENNA PIANISTS 389 somewhat tended toward formality and mannerism. but chose a popu composer of difficult Friedrich Gottlieb Beckmann and single or double concertos (from 1779. who also excelled in extemporization and contrapuntal work. No attempt will here be made to enumerate the line of able clavier-players through the middle of the i8th century. happily hand combined with emphasizing the capacity of the piano for melody. Anton Eberl (d. 1799). from the set variation to the elaborate polyphonic fantasia or fugue. and Johann (d. fugues. whether extant works fully represent the accomplishments of the time. they blended beneficially with the new tendencies then arising. then.) 1791) secured his youthful triumphs (from 1762) upon the harpsichord (see sees. where he and his talented wife became leaders. preludes. from 1763 was a teacher at Prague. 1792). etc. We The traditions of this school of composing and playing. St. cluding Mozart's. his predilections to keep his style smooth and objective. extemporization was fairly universal and was carried to a pitch In performances of of learning and dexterity that is now rare. was a pupil of Mozart. the latter of whom he imitated so well that his works were passed off by publishers as In 1796 he toured with Mozart's widow and then spent some years in Petersburg. he wrote (from 1773) several concertos and sonatas (mostly in MS. Besides being a fine player. 156-157).). many concertos and chamber pieces. a public player from youth and an opera-writer at Vienna at 16 (1782). Somewhat famous examples. since they kept in view the need of substantial thematic ideas and of symmetry. The Duscheks were ardent admirers of Mozart (from 1777) and helped to his successes at Prague in 1786-7. it is to be remembered. and. a pupil of Wagenseil. From 1777 he turned to the piano.

his style allied ful dramatic music. about 1807 assisted in the Esterhazy establishment. from 1811 taught in Vienna. passage-work and varied figuration. Other important members of the Vienna circle. Contemporaneous with the fore was another that took its impetus from the Italian going group dementi and found its favorite implement in the English type of piano. original methods of interpretation and improvisa tion occasioned. including not only pianofrequent absences. 1809). 1813) and Pleyel (d. though without the latter's richness of material. Though most active him with the earlier period. but also evinced a growing sense of how the study of the keyboard might react upon the whole theory of composition. His playing was care and exact in form. with its deep and somewhat stiff action. and its general capacity for brilliant and massive effects. but lacked success in slow movements. Op. bringing in novel materials and idioms of expres sion that were peculiarly germane to the piano. he followed Mozart.390 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 162 and Salieri (from 1793).^ thus in in seeking after means for dramatic. sonatas. It was into this atmosphere that Beethoven (d. these players went much further in uncovering the latent possibilities of the instru ment. sake. Emphasis also fell upon the studied development of octaves and chords. Yet he was one of the ablest of improvisators. its large and vigorous tone. were Joseph Haydn (d. From that time he ing a profound immediate influence the next century (see next sec. only 22 It is easy to understand years old. from 1816 was court-choirmaster at Stuttgart and from 1819 at Weimar. As a com poser. exert and beginning the first pianistic epoch of The Clement! School. was wholly identified with Vienna. but already an accomplished virtuoso. In short. and became the teacher and inspirer of many great players. concertos and ensemble music (notably the Septet. and The . 1831). Great emphasis was put upon a 'singing tone/ con ceived in a sense more masculine and eminent than with the Viennese. 1827) came in 1792.) . and 162. this group displayed a strong instinct for executive doubtless often in dulged for its own virtuosity. He was intimate with Beethoven. every sort of embellishment peculiar to the keyboard upon everything by which the individuality and power of the new instrument could be exhibited. a tone that could even dominate in the orchestral ensemble. but also several masses and other church music (still used). intense effect making their playing more of a self-expression. but with His works numbered about 125. 74). and an elaborate piano-method (1828). Starting from about the same point as the other school. already mentioned. 4 operas and other after 1800. what a sensation his virile. Wanhal (d.

From this time. and the critical demands that it was obliged to meet were usually severe. the court-organist.. nearly half of them for the piano wholly for the piano with other instruments. (later Collard & Collard). his style acquired more feeling and a higher musicianship. Beckford. studying under Neefe. composer and business man continued unabated to the end. whose deputy he was at n. Insensibly. who took him to London for further education. chief of but also some good symphonies. . probably owing to his contact with Mozart. Muzio Clement! (d. His historic position was strategic. as time went on. It must be conceded that the general style here in view was open to abuse by foolish or dishonest artists. Except for a trip to Paris in 1785. etc. which in 1798 led to the founding of the firm. in this direction there was no clear demarcation between the two centuries. born in 1752 at Rome. was first trained there by church musicians. and by the corner-stone for his own. In 1781 he toured as a virtuoso to France and Austria. and most of the leading early masters worked both before and after 1 800. including two to Russia. and in 1820-1 was in Leipsic. engrossed in many activities. check upon empty pretension. In 1791 he made a short tour up the Rhine. at Vienna competing brilliantly with Mozart (who criticized his mechanicalness). in 1773 published important sonatas. Upon the minute studies which this school made of every aspect of executive equipment was based the splendid virtuosity of the i gth century. meeting Mozart and giving signs of future power. of Clement! & Co. but the treatment was less academic and restrained. and from 1777 was conductor of the Italian opera. demands upon the executant which are felt to be taxing even yet. among them a connection with instru ment-making. His which was the famous Gradits (1817) He made style was strictly classical. many minor pieces. resourceful and full of nervous energy. since he lived from the death of Bach till after that of Beethoven. he remained in England for 20 years. born and brought up at Bonn. fact that his by the number of distinguished pupils work was used by Beethoven as a Ludwig van Beethoven (d. so that charlatanry was quickly The custom of extemporization was a wholesome detected. 1832). His activity as teacher. Between 1802 and '10 he made several tours. was a phenomenal player from early years. 1827). In 1787 he visited Vienna. But. He wrote almost about 100 sonatas. its early evolution was mainly directed by intelligent and earnest leaders. In 1770 he captured the public by his phenomenal playing. and his power is indicated whom he trained. the old patterns were transformed into those of the post-classical and romantic schools.162 THE CLEMEN Tl SCHOOL 39! forms used were nominally the same. Indeed. on the other hand. an Englishman. several pedagogic works. early becoming an organist and a composer in the contra In 1766 his remarkable talent attracted notice from Peter puntal style.

168). sent by the Elector to Vienna and the first striking period of his life began The points to be here observed are that his youthful reputa (see sec. having two years of lessons with Clementi. was brought up in London. and from 1810 court-choir master at Weimar. meeting Haydn and Beethoven. Johann Baptist Cramer (d.' had an overflowing gift of melodic inven He is often noted as the first tion. where he was intimate with dementi. he lived at Paris and ten years at London. many shorter pieces. He wrote about 15 concertos. but that the force of his which ultimately began genius early led to a highly original line of expression. In 1828 he founded the publishing firm of Cramer & Co. famous Bohemian musician. sonatas and smaller works. from 1794 Thomasschule. the son of the Wilhelm Cramer. 1858). bringing him into contact with Liszt. after Prince Louis death (1806). 6r. a large quantity of minor pieces. and was original in harmony and in form. but in originality did not match Clementi and Dussek. much music for the flute and for church use. over 100 sonatas.392 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 162 Late in 1792 he was especially winning notice as a wonderful improvisator. born at Mannheim in 1771. was organist (1781). organ or flute. the last being Talleyrand. He was one of the * promoters of the true singing tone. August Eberhard Miiller (d. Resuming a The Hague. was another and the organ at 9 under Jesuit prodigy. a pupil of the Biickeburg Bach. he belonged to the early age of pianism. and prepared a piano-method (about 1800). 44. After wide tours. at Munich and Paris. and several other works. including rondos and variations. 1817). besides editing a favorite piano-method (1804. ligie^ op.. He wrote 7 fine concertos. He wrote concertos. From 183-5 to '45 ne ^ ve ^ abroad. excelled in the delivery of slow movements. Johann Ladislaus Dussek (d. several sets of studies and a famous method (5 parts. The latter was greatly im pressed with his ability always. He laid stress upon the equal development of the two hands. etc. began roving 1 touring tra. 1846). taking up the piano at 5 youthful teachers at Iglau. the Farewell. with consider His able church music. in 1804 succeeding him as cantor. he was connected with Prince Louis Ferdinand (1803-6) and then dependent on a series of patrons. with a short. Though his life reached beyond 1850. his style being formed upon the theory and practice of the 1 8th century. composer and teacher at Amsterdam and In 1783 he studied with Emanuel Bach at Hamburg and ap For a time he was a leading virtuoso upon HessePs har at Berlin. he was taken to the Low Countries and was organist at several places. revised from Lohlein) and preparing a guide to Mozart ^s concertos and original cadenzas therefor. several trios. that his style was formed largely upon the lines of dementi's. born in Bohemia in 1761. and was a facile and learned im provisator. He made his dbut in 1781 and from 1788 toured on the Continent. but brilliant career as player. are still well-known. violinist . a new epoch. tion and his first impression at Vienna were made as a pianist. 1812). With an Austrian officer as patron. Kuttenberg and Prague. playing either piano. dedicated to Clementi. From 1789 he first flute in the Leipsic concert-orches as well as organist at the Nikolaikirche and Killer's assistant at the when 14 at Magdeburg. some songs and a singspiel. peared monica as well as the piano. at London. (1790-1800) life. over 50 solo sonatas and 80 with violin. op.

1823). where he lived 1801-5. born in 1772. Friedricli Heinrich Himmel (d. in 1771 appeared as a player at London and. Among his concertos. after a sojourn in Italy. a pupil of who was first engaged at Munich. Late in his short life he was His few works were mostly for intimate with Dussek and the young Spohr. including much many songs. op. largely for the harpsichord. 1806). and Franz Lauska (d. in the Bach traditions. and wrote a number of sonatas (from 1780). about 50 Etudes. Prince Louis Ferdinand (d. Berlin and Paris. His promising career was cut off at the battle against Napoleon at Saalfeld. who wrote operas for different places (from 1792). His 5 or more operas included Der Hollenberg that he could execute passages for others impossible. appearing as a violinist at 7 (1779). who was a fine organist and wonderfully facile at the clavier. nearly 40 sonatas. 1790 and 1795-8 was at Vienna. Louis Adam (d. an Alsatian. in 1790 appeared at London. recognized as a keyboard tion as a player. Plus ultra. visator. and from 1792 settled in Russia. toured as a popular pianist. and for the church and Albrechtsberger. was taught there by Leopold Mozart and Michael Haydn. pursued music assiduously along with his military life. being chamber combinations considered the best. from 1795 he took up light opera and chamber music. so some trivial. since he was born at Salzburg in 1772. 6. many preludes and shorter pieces. in 1776 settled at Paris as a teacher. He knew how to make piano music popular in high society. with about 15 polished sonatas (from 1795) and other works. a prote'ge' of King Friedrich Wilhelm and a pupil of Naumann. remaining . Less significant names are Johann Wilhelm Hassler (d. 1822). Associated with Paris more or less closely were the following : Nikolaus Joseph Hiillmandel (d. producing two operas and making a sensa From 1805 he was in London. with a number of works (from 1776). active at Erfurt from 1780. and in with the other. In 1798 he began a grand tour to Prague. Leipsic. and in 1797 became professor in the Conservatoire. thoroughly equipped technically and had power as contrapuntist and impro With his enormous hands he could strike an octave and a sixth. He wrote 7 concertos. the Militaire and The Calm (1806). then at Copenhagen and from 1798 at Berlin. His playing aroused Beethoven's enthusiasm. Der Kopf ohne Mann (1798) and amour romanesque (1804). returning to London in 1790. being recognized as a fine virtuoso and teacher. 1848). in 1775 came to Paris as a teacher and composer. 2 symphonies and a great quantity of chamber music. born at Erfurt and trained there by his uncle. 1812) may be inserted here. the most gifted of the Prussian royal family. ( I 795)j D the quartet for piano and strings. left a large amount of excellent music. and among his sonatas the Non plus ultra and Le diable a quatre were specially successful. Hamburg. Kittel. born at Strassburg and a pupil of Emanuel Bach at Hamburg. He was artist of the first rank. 1825). 1814). In one sense he represents the Viennese group. first at St. His works varied greatly in quality.162 THE CLEMENTI SCHOOL 393 Joseph Wolfl (d. To the Won plus ultra Dussek^ Le retour a Paris was set forth by the publishers as an answer. later at Moscow as a teacher. Petersburg in court service. But his developed style connects him Besides becoming a pianist able to compete with Beethoven and to win his high regard.

He wrote several sonatas and a method (1802). though in later years indulging in cheap His works were numerous. Petersburg. So in the later i8th century it proceeded steadily in all the principal countries side by side with the new styles of the background of general interest. like Kalkbrenner and Harold. several operas and operettas. often industriously and ably. The cultivation of music in its ecclesiastical applications necessarily goes on in every period. Italy naturally presented this cleavage most conspicuously. his in et Juliette (1793) was successful. From this time proceeded tendencies that have persisted ever since. a precocious pupil of Kirnberger.preserve purity and dignity. where writer which lasted about 30 years. but the conditions of popular thought were not favorable to any great enthusiasm over it or even to eminent period. in the harmonica as an instrument. but usually far in the it To many success in it The distinctive qualities of sacred writing were widely obscured by the impulse to treat it after the fashion of the opera or the concert-hall Against this general drift there were some conservatives who set themselves to . about 1780 began extended wanderings as a virtuoso and operaHe was several times in Paris. those against which the authorities of the church have recently put forth protest . In the Catholic Church the cleavage became wide between the small circle of enthusiasts who sought dither to keep alive a cappella traditions or at least to employ solid contrapuntal methods with instrumental support and with the admixture of pure harmonic material. and in His ways were un 1811 became director of the opera at St.394 TH LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 153 His taste and ability kept him fully abreast of his age. Yet he had remarkable technique. opera Romto much bearably vain and rough. and he is often called a charlatan. but Austria and France illustrated it as well. all the usual forms. For a time he was much interested Daniel Steibelt (d. in show-pieces. competed disastrously with Beethoven at Vienna. active for 45 years. 1823). But these were not numerous enough to give character to the time. born in 1765 at Berlin. and taught many players of high rank. including 163. lived for a time at London popularity. Catholic Church Music. though lacking in fine expressiveness. and was not altogether unworthy as a composer. and the many opera-writers whose idea of church music was simply to import into it all the sensuous and florid ways of the stage. leading composers contributed.

He wrote many motets (from 1743). Salzburg and Prague.writers already named (sec. 1813) was from 1752 first organist at and after a few years elsewhere (1778-84) returned there as choirmaster. succeeding Galuppi. 1806). from 1792 choirmaster at Milan. the popular operawriter (see sec. Stanislao Mattel (d. Giuseppe Jannaconi (d. 1825). he is now chiefly represented by organ-preludes. also an organist and choirmaster at Prague. from 1773 choir (1788 and later editions). where from about 1750 he was an organist and teacher of wide renown : even likened to Bach himself. An 8-part fugue is noted as one of the best ever written. including a cycle of motets for the whole year. Mark's. mingled the composition of his 12 operas (from 1767) with that of almost 50 masses and other sacred music. with several oratorios and fugues. in some of which he showed his versatility by adopting the old a cappella methods. besides over 40 operas (from 1745). Other Roman composers were Giovanni Battista Casali (d. from 1759 choir master at St. some polychoric. achieved a fine reputation through about 75 masses and other sacred music. 1771). In Austria. Bernardino Ottani (d. a Bohemian. Venice. another pupil of Martini at Bologna and in 1770 his suc cessor at S. pupil of Czernohorsky at Prague. 1827). Giuseppe Sarti (d. several giving special attention to the organ Joseph Seegr (d. still another of Martini's pupils. written for Lisbon. 151). the following may be added : Ferdinando Giuseppe Bertoni (d. writing many motets and organ-pieces. were the following. Francesco. from 1762 choirmaster at Salzburg. chiefly at Vienna. David pcenitens (1775) and // Giuseppe riconosciuto (1787). He made a superb collection of Palestrina's works (transmitted to his pupil Baini). 16 years younger. from 1752 a bass singer in the Papal Chapel. as and from 1779 at Turin.. 1802). 151). Though he wrote much vocal sacred music. To the many opera. who. with extraordinary canons. Peter's (1811). St. with a few masses. one oratorio and a work on theory Bernardo Bittoni (d. Paisiello and others. Michael Haydn (d. His friend. Peter's and from 1813 at Naples. was a remarkable violinist and organist. John Lateran. including a cycle of masses for every day in the year. though living less than 40 years. such as Traetta. of real contrapuntal excellence. from 1804 at St. 1778). was one of the strongest and most abundant church composers of the age. master at Rieti and from -1781 at Fabriano. besides Haydn and Mozart. 1837). wrote prolifically for the church. etc. He composed masses and Misereres. and Zingarelli (d. 1816). and left a prodigious amount of fine a cappella works. Pasguale Pisari (d. fugues and toccatas. ulti mately succeeded Zingarelli as choirmaster at St. 1782). from 1757 choirmaster there several oratorios. his works . 1792). pupil of Martini at Bologna. including over 30 masses and many motets. besides becoming a favorite teacher.163 CATHOLIC CHURCH MUSIC 395 In Italy there were a few special students of Palestrina who were worthy perpetuators of his style. was a fertile writer of noble masses and motets. a Te Deum (1803). Tritto. returned to Italy from Denmark in 1775 and was choirmaster at Milan in 1779-84. 1829). Franz Brixi (d. Guglielmi. some for 8-1 6 voices. though not a con sistent cultivator of the pure style. etc. from 1802 at Loreto. produced a great quantity of church music of every kind.

and in 1774 was sent to Bologna to study with Martini. some masses and other church works (mostly after 1790). 3 Requiems. at least 80 psalms. From 1780 he visited Paris and London. he was educated both in theology and in music at the Jesuit In 1770 he entered the college there. 1823). from 1788 court-choir master at Vienna. He also traveled through Italy as a virtuoso. Georg Joseph Vogler (d. from 1794 organist at Bozen (Tyrol) and from 1801 choirmaster at Augsburg. In 1778 he removed with the court to Munich. but. etc. etc. Stephen's. the powerful opera-writer. whose .396 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 163 numbering almost 400 of every description. Johann Georg Albrechtsberger Pilgrimme auf Golgotha. Born in 1749 at Wiirzburg. many motets and 2 in all over 600 works. In Germany should be added a few names : Johann Georg Schiirer (d. including a Passion (1778). some of which are still used. his works including over 25 masses. the distinguished theorist and teacher of Vienna. twas an other fertile writer of masses. besides 4 Italian operas and a singspiel Associated with him at Dresden were J. receiving many honors. 1779. 151. 165). as many psalms. left some 40 masses. where from 1772 he was court-organist and from 1792 choirmaster at St. from 1780 choirmaster at St. becoming an accomplished organist. 1786). brother's reputation. pupil of Albrechtsberger. became assistant choirmaster and started a music-school. con tinuing in honor with his patron. fine Lamentations. 1833). 1824). and Joseph Preindl (d. G. oratorios. Among his pupils was Max Keller (d. 3 oratorios (from 1774). 140 psalms. at 'least 80 motets. 1825). including some masses. trained at Donauworth as a Benedictine. and he was repeatedly sought as assistant choir His excellence was overshadowed by his master by Prince Esterhazy. Stephen's. service of the Elector Palatine at Mannheim. where his theoretical ideas and his . Antonio Salieri (d. hymns. several operas (as the singspiel Arsene.. songs and piano-sonatas. 1812). much other sacred music. He was an admirer of Haydn and Mozart. besides a great quantity of chamber and orchestral music (see sec. wrote many oratorios. produced many masses. 1806). besides an oratorio. though unpopular with the musicians. Vienna. disliking the latter's emphasis on counterpoint. Franz Biihler (d. an^ // capricdo corretto^ 1783). betook himself to Padua both to continue theology and to study with Vallotti. Die Befreyungvonjemsalent) (d. His style superior to his compositions were voluminous. from 1772 court-composer and from 1787 choirmaster. Naumann (d. 1855). Most of his life was spent at Vienna or near by. Peter's. a Jesuit priest and abbot. 153) (d. was an expert organist and composer. but not of Beethoven. was another industrious church composer. organ-preludes. 1814) was a unique genius. Late in 1775 he returned to Mannheim. remains include about 35 masses. etc. from 1748 court-composer for sacred music at Dresden. already noted (sees. 6 oratorios (as Die and fugues for organ and piano. 1801) and Schuster and also Franz Seydelmann (d. organist at AI totting and a strong writer of masses. Maximilian Stadler (d. and many organ-preludes and fugues. and from 1809 at St. His brother reckoned his church own. though his comparative obscurity was partly due to his reticence and unobtrusiveness. a Te Deum. many motets and cantatas. 1809). 1781).

His ideas about theory and instrument-making were original and ahead of his time. to be sure. school. Te Deums. His arrogance and oddity turned most musicians against him. attention to thoughtful organ music continued to some extent. In both cases the prevalent secular styles influenced those of the church. becoming in 1786 court-choirmaster at Stockholm and establishing a Having devised many improvements in organ-building (< simplifica tions ') and a portable 'orchestrion' embodying some of them. 1819). and several of them became famous (as Weber and Meyer His listed works number over 300. was a pupil of Vogler and. In France the most striking sacred composers were Le Sueur and Cherubut their work representing the free and the strict styles respectively . 1821). organ-pieces of every description. etc. small In England interest in the noble organ style extremely hardly existed. like him. working in various Paris churches from 1760 for more than 50 years. but in 1785 set out again for a tour in northwestern Ger many. made choirmaster. with over 10 operas (from 1780) in various styles.164 PROTESTANT CHURCH MUSIC 397 In 1784 he was recalled to Munich and technical facility attracted attention. the opera-writer (see sec. and the average cantor was expected to be something of a con But the incentives to originality and genius were trapuntist. Peter von Winter (d. He was a singular mixture of ability and charlatanry. 164. He had the title of Abb and He attracted numerous pupils. In Germany. he was clever in choral and instrumental ensembles. 1809). who were generally affected extreme piety. a prote'ge' of the Elector at Mannheim and Munich. of which the best are choral and beer). Protestant Church Music. as in Austria. a few orato many sacred cantatas and smaller sacred works. Among the famous organists was Nicolas Sejan (d. in this field belongs chiefly to the next period. in 1790 to England and then to various Continental countries. Misereres. and only in the cathedrals was choir music carefully considered. from 1756 choirmaster at Saragossa. where he was ultimately choirmaster. As a critic and theorist he was fertile and enterprising. bini. In Spain should be named Francisco Saverio Garcia (d. some of them for the Protestant service. He wrote over 25 masses. Neither the Lutheran nor the Anglican Church offers anything of decided musical in terest at this period. awakening a desire for something less . Though not a strong contrapuntist or apt at emotional expression. From 1807 he was playing. including many masses. choirmaster at San Sebastiano. arguing and seeking orders for his specialties. but he was adept in cajoling the favor of princes and astonishing the public.. and Pedro Albeniz (d. rios. and his pedagogical influence was considerable (see sec. as is evidenced by the lack of well-equipped in struments. in 1788 he went to Prussia. 153). where he founded still another school. hymns. court-choirmaster at Darmstadt. 165). attached to him. 1825).

1811). became the famous Singakademie. who. Before his death he destroyed many uel Bach in works as unworthy. Hence. but some survive etc. 1809). motets. Bach's fourth surviving son. In 1800-1. several masses. but also wrote many sacred cantatas. harpsichordist. would seem to warrant. since operatic styles in both Germany and England the Italian opera was exotic. besides many clavier-pieces. however. who as a law-student at Leipsic came under Hiller's influence. played the violin and the piano at the Gewandhaus. 1817). was not as great as in Catholic countries. many edited a noted Choralbuch (1819). there begins to appear a mod ern church style which avoids technical elaboration and is yet a compromise that has not without dignity and solemnity of religious expression and often proved valuable as a means of the more sterling English impression. won wide renown by his masterly playing and attracted many scholars. was another. 1795). Justin Heinrich Knecht later organist at from 1771 director and Biberach and in 1807-9 . chorale-elaborations. fugettas German church musician of the time. His ability was only moderate. though almost 70 years old.398 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 164 Yet the reaction toward strict polyphony. from : 1 756 associated with Eman- the royal band at Berlin and 1774-6 in charge of the operaIn 1790 he began a choral society which orchestra. S. including pre and a collection (1801-8). Johann Christian Kittel (d. a mass for 1 6 voices. was a good contrapuntist. is cited as a typical ludes. motets. He wrote 3 oratorios (from 1785). The parallel development of the till the next period. The popular influence for instance. Contemporary with these was Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (d. portance than their technical quality because for many communities they were almost the only simply forms of artistic music known. some motets. chose music for his J. he was forced to undertake public concerts at Hamburg and Altona. More conspicuous was Johann Gottfried Schicht (d. 1823). and (d. and in 1785 succeeded Hiller as conductor there. from 1755 f r 53 vears cantor at Hohenstein (Saxony). which were artistically unsuccessful. especially in England.. when simple motet in Germany was delayed it was stimulated by the liturgical awakening in the Lutheran strenuous than churches under the lead of Schleiermacher. from 1756 in the old style organist at Erfurt. S. methodical and prolific. plodding. has. from 1798 was organist at the New Church and from 1810 cantor at the Thomasschule. Bach. after studying law. In Germany a few names may be selected Karl Friedrich Christian Fasch (d. Christian Gotthilf Tag (d. His works were chiefly for the organ. an opera. Georg Michael Telemann (d. from about 1773 cantor at Riga. psalms. Die Amerikanerin (1776) and much chamber and clavier music. 1831). 1800). had more historical im services and anthems. the last pupil of J. He excelled as a career and from 1756 was chamber musician at Biickeburg. an oratorio (1773).

containing a brief his tory of chanting. besides a collection of chants (1808). S. Cornelius von Konigslow (d. John [Christmas] Beckwith. as by William Billings ead (d. 1791) pioneers. in 1783 Nares' successor at the Chapel Royal. . Johann Gottfried Vierling (d. and in 1793 Cookers at Westminster. from 1786) and of a standard collection of Cathedral Music (4 vols. from 1753 organist at Exeter. 186). some organ-preludes (1780). both composing as early as tions of sacred music containing more or less England. was an accomplished player and contrapuntist. from 1773 organist at Liibeck. original matter appeared in New (d.. from 1767 organist at Leipsic and from 1780 at Dresden. from 1778 at Bristol and from 1782 at Armagh. an rather striking Nature symphony. 1836). were of the slenderest abso lute value. Bach. from 1789 organist at various London churches and from 1801 pianist at Co vent Garden. mostly hymn-tunes and anthems. the writer of several ora torios (from 1767). . etc. writer of about 15 anthems. 1802). In England active workers included Richard Langdon (d. 1833). Orgelschule (1795-98). a Choral buch (1789) and a work on preluding (1794). William Russell (d. 1803).. Francis Eopkinson (d. with 2 oratorios. Christian Ehregott Weinlig (d. but far from adopting his methods. The and James Lyon. pupil of Gates and Nares. also a fluent writer of vocal and organ-pieces. glees (1804). though their fruits. was a popular teacher and good theorist. William Jackson (d. from 1764 in the Chapel Royal and from 1780 Samuel choirmaster. 1797). a tenor singer at Windsor and London. Wesley and Crotch (see sec. 1813). and from 1777 organist at the cathedral. pupil of P. who from 1744 was cantor at Freiberg (Saxony) and from 1756 in the Thomasschule at Leipsic. and many theoretical books. 6 ' choirmaster at Stuttgart. 1809). writing oratorios (from 1781) and imitating his predecessor Buxte- hude 7 s Abendmusiken. 1813). 1821). with 4 services and 10 anthems Arnold (d. who made its . 1800). It is in this period that the earliest stirrings of independent musical composition appeared in America. from 1755 a teacher at Exeter and popular for his songs and Edmund Ayrton (d. with several odes and Joan Page (d. good collections of anthems (1800). as has lately been shown. Clarke-Whitfeld. Andrew Law (d. 1803). succeeding Nares. and over 20 anthems. from 1754 organist at Southwell. 1808). a few anthems and preludes. glees. 2 services. Hayes ? from 1780 1790) organist at Norwich. and the editor of a not entirely successful edition of Handel's works (about 40 vols. pupil of Arnold. and others. were From 1770 many collec 1759. from about 1780 organist at Schmalkalden. glees and songs. 1812).164 PROTESTANT CHURCH MUSIC He 399 was and a He edited a Choralbuch (1799-1816). where in 1785 he succeeded his teacher Homilius as cantor of the Kreuzschule . such as Attwood. 1813). besides clavier music a pupil of J. Several of the stronger writers of the next period began active work before 1800. Examples of the more popular style were Johann Friedrich Doles (d. Daniel . publishing sacred cantatas and organ-pieces. (d. including The Prodigal Son (1777).

the most notable feature was the beginning of a systematic treatment of keyboard technique. Gerbert and Forkel are still matters of ad tion of historic materials torical miration. was freer and more progressive. It more conservative than practical now began Criticism. though it must be said that the usual type of aesthetics was strongly a priori rather than inductive. While the his works actually produced are now as a rule superseded by later ones. the impetus and example of students like Martini. stimulated by the It was not yet rapid advance of the piano and its public use. theory remained composition. of the iQth century was now clearly the great productiveness foreshadowed. periodicals and pamphlets. XXIII THEORETICAL AND LITERARY PROGRESS Nothing better marks the ad musical intellectuality than the gain in the amount and In this respect quality of the writing about musical questions. vance in . The changes that were going on in practical methods began to be accompanied in the field of theory by at tempts to rationalize the facts and to rearrange the principles of composition from the harmonic rather than the contrapuntal centre but on the whole. of which repeated editions were often demanded. and in many quarters reached out after some sort of objective aesthetic system. In the field of pedagogics. to be less intensely personal and subjective in character than earlier in the century. 400 . how great an influence this was to have upon the perceived detail of all composition. More important than these movements was the awakening of a true sense of historical investigation and presentation. Burney. Hawkins. however. ing minds. The increasing thoughtf ulness of the musical public is evi denced by the quantity and variety of books. shown both in the publication of histories proper and in the accumula by patient research.CHAPTER 165. owing to the influence of certain lead Literature about Music.

on implements of re . c. lecturer strations 1 t works.) . as shown in his welcome (1770) to the boy Mozart. from 1766 choirmaster at Rome and from 1786 at Padua. from 1787 he devoted himself wholly to the phenomena of sound. mostly of the Roman school. unfinished) that helped to show that the old con trapuntal theories and the new harmony were not essentially antagonistic. as in the case of Fux. some acoustical discussions. the great organist of Padua. 2D . followed (1774). long a teacher at the court of Vienna. 1775) on tonometry by logarithms (1767) by Giordano Riccatti (d. 1809). He wasted energy in perfecting the 'euphon and clavicylinder. sought after from all quarters. issued a striking treatise (1779. pupil of Martini and Vallotti. but did not get beyond ancient times. He was foil of kindness for musicians. i774-6)> valuable both for copious examples from early masters. Giambattista Mancini (d. young and old. Martini's pupil. His best demon were regarding partial-tones and the vibrations of rods and plates.. law and physics. as by Napoleon in 1808. 1827) led the age in musical physics. 1800). The ablest were Italians or and was highly honored. Ernst Chladni (d. an Italian nobleman of Treviso (works from 1767) by Marpurg of Berlin (d. 1777). 1814) Halle (d. 4th unfinished). His published works did not begin till 1757. came his famous Germans. especially from those in search of harmonic foundations. Francesco Antonio Vallotti (d. was that of advanced mediaeval theory. 1795) on temperament (17/9). by Vallotti (d. by Many (2 vols. '69). For years Martini also labored treatise upon a History (3 vols. Riccieri and others. He traveled widely as a by Berlin of Drontheim (d. anticipated his method by a notable treatise (1765-72).000 vols. ranging from elaborate treatises to popular handbooks. (1763-75) . and his acquaintance was almost as wide as his fame. Giuseppe Paolucci (d. To these may be added writings (1800-07) by Vogler and Turk of 5 search. a Prussian civil official.* instruments whose tones were produced by friction upon glass rods or tubes. followed with several important works (17891802). Giambattista Martini (d. 1777). medicine. flute-tones. and for profound annotations and discussions. As examples we may cite works by Kirnberger of Berlin (d. besides being a strong was the most learned theorist of the old school' and a teacher composer.. 1783) on temperament (1760) by Johann Heinricn Lambert (d. 1813). a dictionary of terms.165 MUSICAL LITERATURE 401 Acoustical questions continued to command attention. choirmaster at Venice. surpassing Sauveur in the reach and exactitude of his Born in 1756 and extraor investigations. The number of works on composition was considerable. 1800). After two smaller works (1757. The standpoint. dinarily educated in geography. when he was over 50. of them were marred by needless polemics. 1780). He left much material in MS. His style was clear and his reasoning generally cogent. including polemical essays against Eximeno. another pupil. a general treatise (1784). Luigi Antonio Sabbatini (d.. but held without severity. Die Akusttk (1802). 1784) of Bologna. and by the Englishman Matthew Young (d. the Paduan organist (1779). Sinigaglia and Assisi. 1780). . made up out of his extraordinary library ( 1 7. Besides his classic treatise. 1757-81. etc. he published many lesser < ' (d. 1790). and valuable catalogues of musicians and books.

a useful teacher at Biberach (works. c. 1809) his greatest pupil being Beethoven. 1815) attempted (1776) Tartini though by theories of his own. of J. 1791). To these may be added special studies on questions of metrics by Giovenale and the remarkable Sacchi (d. 1808). of the bombastic 1817). . wrote many ancient mathematical speculations. Connected with the theorists were the critics. o ften translated. 1785-1803) Among the many handbooks of (d. though many of them ap proached music purely from the literary or the speculative side. (1800-12). 1773-82)* o N of Nordhausen (d. the well-known teacher at Halle (17911800). In the Gluck controversy at Paris the protagonists against him were Jean Claude Marmontel (d. of less significance were those Johann of Johann 1773). 1782) was the author of a Christoph Gottlieb Scnroter 1814) was as independent work on harmony (1772). 1813). has been years old. Samuel Petri (d. and of Callcott (d. J63111 Fran 5ois de I^harpe 1803)7 (d. Knecht (d. from 1766 at Darmstadt (1785-98) . 1826). the English glee-writer (1806). trained at Naples. a Silesian cantor (1767. relaxation of the strictness of Rome. enharmonic melodic and harmonic standpoint (1782-93. Nicola Sala (d. 1829). of Ernst Wilhelm Wolf (d. '82) . from 1772 became the chief Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (d. 1800). 1821). Bach and the ad Tohann Philipp Kirnberger (d. of Honor6 Francis Marie Langl (d. with views of his own. of Daniel Gottlob Tiirk (d. a follower of Rameau. 1776-1802. E. the old school. 1819). wrote ably from the new 1816). Lorenz Albrecht . including studies upon to replace both Rameau and Baptiste Mercadier (d. but Johann Gottlieb Portmann (d. besides other He put forth a monumental treatise (179). court-choirmaster at Weimar (1788) . on the fugue). organist at Miihlhausen (1761) . 1792). forth a treatise (1794) which. Heinricli Cnristoph Koch (d. works Pierre Joseph Roussier (d. 1808). and posthumously a little-known musician at Rudolstadt. works (complete edition by Seyfried. 1783). from 1758 worked at Berlin. a pupil of J. theoretical master in the Viennese circle. 1798). besides a brochure on modulation. choirmaster at Borgo Taro (1796-1806). In general. 1812). c. and was criticized by the veteran teacher and composer of Naples. often in advance of his day (works. born in Spain. . S. He strongly advocated (1774) the conservatives like Martini. La musica (1779). 163). 1799). was an able theorist. though not always judicious when over 90 . however. He disputing with Marpurg or temperate (chief work. Vallotti. and Emanuel. which treats of a variety of theoretical and critical points. mirer of his sons Friedemann and others the leadership of German thought. he followed his teacher in theory as elsewhere (see sec. workecf Antonio Eximeno (d. . Jean (from 1755).402 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 165 at after training as a Jesuit. 1807). 1789). by the Spaniard Tomas de Yriarte (d. 1771-9. put severely attacked (Fe'tis). of from 1764 at Paris and after 1791 in the Conservatoire (1793-1805) August Friedrich Karl Kollmann (d. others. 1790). a teacher and organist in London of Carlo Gervasoni (d. a Barnabite monk at Milan (1770-8) didactic poem. Georg Joseph Vogler (d.

. and in . A. 1803-5) by Christian Friedrich Michaelis (d. especially his Brief (from 1774) e and the autobiogra phy of Karl Spazier (d. 1810). Thus. 1817) and the dates of their writing being Caspar Michel Leblond (d. 1817. 1824) issued various instruction-books for the piano. Some of Reichardt's observations were attacked by . . regarding flute-playing several (1786-1800) by Johann Georg Tromlitz (d. Other students of Gluck's music were Friedrich Just Riedel (d. pro fessor at Berlin (works from 1757). 1779). and. a Berlin publisher. Johann Karl A articles Kunste (1772-4. Arnaud (1789) Friedrich. the other in 1795. and a 4th treatise of Francois Bedos de Celles (d. professor at Halle (1783. Treatises upon particular instruments or instruction-books were frequent. much extended after 1792 by other editors) the musical were mainly supplied by J. for over 50 years at Gouda (Holland) in 1795-8 by Knecht of Biberach (d. 1797) on music in general (1777. a widely-known blind flutist. 1810). 1826). 1813). 1766) in 1763. C. 1817). . 1814). 1834). 1793) the notable (3 vols. 1805) of Leipsic. edited by his son).165 MUSICAL LITERATURE and Pierre Louis Giuguene" 403 (d. a teacher at Berlin. at first with the help Somewhat similar works were undertaken by Johann August of Kiraberger. regarding organ-building. Among general critiques rather notable are those of Reichardt (d. 1809). teacher at Leipsic (1795-1800. as well as the autobiography (1807) of Friedrich Ludwig Dulon and regarding trumpet and drum (d. and later) 5 and by the erratic Daniel Schubart (d. Musical aesthetics now begins to take shape as a branch of a general theory of the fine arts. Still further writers were Karl Ludwig Junker (d. and (1791-6) by Francesco Galeazzi of Rome (d. in his Philibert CocruSau (d. those pertaining to the organ and the piano being the most conspicuous. Maur. John Gunn (d. prominent writer was Johann Georg Sulzer (d. 1801). and by Michel Paul Gui de Chabanon (d. the one in 1775. . 1809). and Karl Spazier (d. who also wrote on church music. 1785). c. 1809) 1777-83. The relations of poetry and music were variously discussed by John Brown (d. c. 1779)? a Benedictine of St. 1812) on depiction in music (1780) a variety of subjects (from 1787). . Rellstab (d. in whose encyclopaedic Theorie derschonen the great song-writer. 1792) in 1779 all these works being translated more or less. professor at Giessen (1792-6). not all of which secured acceptance. 1811) and in 1806 by Vogler (d. 1800). 'cello (1793) and flute. c. Regarding violin-playing there were noted works (1756) by Leopold Mozart (d. 1791) of Stuttgart (1806. 1819) . Among organ instruction-books may be noted those in 1766-1810 by Joachim Hess (d. 1805). . P. 1794) favor. Schulz (d. by the Marquis de Chastellux (d. 1802) on dramatic and the brothers Von Dalberg (d. 1805). appeared in 1766-78 added in German by J. . 1788) in 1765. music (1795) by Johann Ernst Altenburg of Weissenfels and Bitterfeld (d. Vollbeding. (d. besides an important history of Scottish harpers (1807). in 1801 by Georg Christian Friedrich Schlimbach of Berlin (d. with others in 1779 b 7 Johann Samuel Halle (d. after 1-806) in 1804 by Johann Heinrich Zang of Schweinfurt (d. Eberhard (d. 1787). 1814) the latter proposing simplifications and improvements. 1801-8 by Kittel of Erfurt (d. 1784). Francois Jean Baptiste Antoine Suard (d. '86) Johann Jakob Engel (d. Vogler's special rival. 1816).

Musical* matters friend of Samuel Johnson. poraneous with him were two Englishmen who accomplished was trained in mathematics and the John Hawkins (d. E. a Leipsic composer and publisher. as by J. Back of such as the famous example many devised for the clavichord or harpsichord. All to formal publication only after period contributed. but secured quick popularity for its readableness and freshness. . enjoying opportunities to visit libraries and with several piano. The earliest was Martini (d. republished 1853 account of the Academy of Ancient Music (1770). This period witnessed the advent of the genuine historical investigator. the Netherlands. He also wrote an great History (5 vols. who was in court service at Berlin. chorusmaster at the Paris Ope'ra More or less useful Almanachs and other annals were prepared in 1778 and 1792-8 by Christian Gottfried Thomas (d. etc. including Emanuel and Christian Bach. born in 1719. 1788) and that by Georg Simon Lohlein (d. . 1773). Examples in 1798by Dussek (d. and. 1789). 1846). though usually coming are those by dementi (d.. E. 1858). born in 1726. organist in London and from 1751 at consult with musicians. B. Charles Burney (d. He was interested in law. and had a prodigious circle of famous friends. literary studies and was a special attracted him early. becoming wealthy through marriage. 1776. where the project of his History was formed. later and in 1793 by Richard Eastcott (d. and A. 1804). reaching only to the middle of the i6th century. because not so brilliantly written. 1796). in 1782-4 and . continuing to practise the latter through his life.4. 1812) . 1781) of Leipsic and Danzig (1765-81. by J. He published accounts of these tours (France and His History (4 vols. 1832). He also wrote accounts of the youthful prodigy Crotch (1770) and of the Handel Commemoration (1785). 1814). K.. but later with increasing appreciation of its accuracy. He was an exceedingly affable and cultivated man. collected a superb library and devoted himself to preparing his and 1875). Bach (d. (1753-87) by with many later editions. 1806). and Pollini (d. Ditters. Wolfl (d. Cramer (d..or violin-sonatas and concertos. 1828). P. in 1782-4 by Karl Ludwig Junker (d. etc. 1784). the great virtuosi of the Wetthauer. 1776-89) came out slowly. 1848) for the Paris Conservatoire. Less important histories were published in 1788 by Johann Nikolaus Forkel (d. His History came into immediate competition with the first volume of Burney. MuIIer. in 1792 by Christian Kalkbrenner (d. he retired to Twickenham. who also put forth (1776) studies of some 20 composers. whose best years of teaching. Gre'try and Haydn (poorly done) . for a time being a pupil of Arne. Germany. 1812) pedagogical work was his Gradus (1817) and about 1810 1804 by Louis Adam (d... (3 vols. Contem much more. G. 1806). 1818). besides a life of the poet Metastasio 1771. Italy. Boccherini. Returning to London in 1760. 1791. 1797). while continuing musical In 1770 and 1772 he made production. whose Storia has been mentioned above. He composed much dramatic music (1745-66). at first unsuccessfully. extensive tours on the Continent. was brought up as a musician.04 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 165 list of methods and studies Regarding piano-playing now begins the long those meant for the piano lay upon which modern technique rests. he began collecting materials. From 1749 he was Lynn Regis. whose conclusions rest upon documents and personal research.

(1807). . Hiller (1784-6) on Picon Metastasio by Burney (1796) on Marcello by Sacchi (1789) on Naumann by on Fasch by Zelter (1801) cinni by Ginguen6 (1800) the last and on J. a Jesuit missionary. though with what accuracy is dis Hindu puted. Ditters (i799>> Reichardt (1805) and Dulon may be . 1793-1841). (burnt in 1768). 1799). Martin Gerbert (d. musical director at Gottingen. 1838). a judge at Calcutta. such as those on Vallotti by Sabbatini (1780) on various composers and on Martini by Guglielmo della Valle (1784-5) on Handel by Reichardt (1785) Metastasio by J. drafted a volume on Chinese music (1780). . A. provided with modern accompaniments. with a life of Raoul de Coucy.165 MUSICAL LITERATURE . . whose book was the basis of the later works of Lichtenthal An Nuremberg and Becker. a close friend of Martini. . Duchesne and others (48 vols. and long a favorite at court (5 vols. Irish and Welsh melodies (17 vols. a Spanish Jesuit who worked at both Bologna and Paris. . 1824) made remarkable collections of old Welsh music (1784-1802). Blaise. 1793). 405 and. 1810) and from 1796 by upon the history of the harp. with many sidelights 1789 by Forkel upon the opera. of Greek and Oriental airs (1804) and other national music. Special studies were made on ancient music in 1770-81 by Pierre Joseph Roussier (d. and in 1778 by Giovenale Sacchi (d. had access thereto valuable MSS. William Jones (d. a series continued after his death by N. . . prepared a valuable work on Italian opera (1783). trained as a Benedictine and from 1764 abbot at St. the latter writing also (d. Spazier (1792). 1780-1. Germany and Italy) he compiled invaluable collections of mediaeval writings about music (1774. Irish music was collected in 1786 by Joseph Cooper Walker Edward Bunting (d. whose method was confused and untrustworthy. concerning the French theatre. 1794). G. 1789) and on mediaeval music by Jean Benjamin de Laborde (d. . George Thomson (d. B. from which (and from researches in many other libraries in France. Edward Jones (d. to draft a comprehensive sketch of the literature about music. c. 1794). 1843). Stefano Arteaga (d. in MS. Bach by Forkel (1803). 1781). Out of the many musical biographies that now began to accumulate a few on instanced. destroyed by fire in 1871). attempt was made in 1783 by Johann Sigmund Gruber (d.. to 1815) and by Louis Francis Beffara (d.. ' 84) and of German liturgies (1776-9). which was translated into German by Forkel (1789) and into French (1802). largely from native sources. Meissner (1803-4) being a work of decided scholarship. In 1792 appeared the better work of Johann Nikolaus Forkel (d. one of the first diligent students of historical sources. .. 1851) was indefatigable in gathering Scotch. Autobiographies were given out by Schubart (1791). wrote ably of music (1784). S. which remained unique sources until improved and supplemented by 19th-century investigators. a lawyer. 1818). . Pere Amiot (d. 1779). 1790). 1794). 1805). from 1750 by Joseph de Laporte (d. A. a police-commissioner at Paris (35 vols. a pupil of Rameau . c.

1799) an ^ greatly advanced by his son Johann Anton Andre* (d. and. the important Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung. etc. and pub Several of the lished by Breitkopf Hartel. 1809) a pioneer work in Dutch. by Joos Verschuere-Reynvaan (d. Gluck and Mozart presents most interesting contrasts with both that which preceded and that which followed. by Johann Gottfried Geisler on instruments (1792-1800). In passing out of the Bach-Handel period music went through a sort of revolution. almost 20 in Most of these lived but a short time. Throughout the different sorts half-century. 1827) . 1842) . and that of Simrock this period date several at From in 1798 by Aloys Senewas immediately applied to the printing of music. founded at Leipsic in 1798. such as that of Schott at Mayence. that of Artaria at Vienna. after 1815). that of Andrg at Offenbach. others. Johann Wilhelm Hertel (d. though not permanent. by Heinrich Christoph. founded in 1778 . by on the same (1790-5. famous publishing houses. and again in entering upon the igth century it experienced another revolution. 1812-4) (d. 1819). ideas coming to consummation that had long been germinating. 166. besides many articles (from 1794). a volume of additions (1752-60) to Walther's Lexicon^ besides editing a collection of Italian and French works about music (1757-8). The organic interdependence of And there melody and form was more clearly apprehended. 1816) on terms (1802) and on musicians (1807). but in a different direction. 1789) left in MS. The process of lithography having been invented Munich. founded about 1770 . which continued till 1848. 1820) on living art-workers (1778-1803) by G.406 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 166 Works of a dictionary character also began to be important. a novel type of musical structure composers now swung with melodiousness or to a harmony that explicit was melodically controlled. probably by Friedrich Rochlitz. Summary of the Half-Century. presented itself. F. two invaluable works on musicians (1790. but the three stages differ in the ideas chosen for expression. founded in 1782 . experiments continued with periodicals of all. (1787). Koch (d. . were interesting expressions of literary enter The conspicuous exception was & prise and often contained articles of value. Beginning with Haydn's work. But these con trasts differ in nature and in At each stage we see intensity. continued by Blankenburg) by Jolxann Georg Meusel (d. largely through the efforts of Franz Gleissner (d. by Knecht on terms (1795). whose own first sym phony was lithographed in 1798. founded in 1790. most scholarly of all. The age of Haydn. Wolf on terms. only to *M') Ernst Ludwig Gerber (d. The attention of emphasis either to . 92. founded in 1774 by Johann Andrd (d. Andre* and Breitkopf & Hartel were prompt felder of Bonn and Cologne (now Berlin). it to take up this improvement. such as those by Sulzeron the fine arts generally (1772-99. that of Letickart at Breslau (now Leipsic).

There was a consequent emphasis upon every device in the nature of the materials or in their detailed handling that should make the total result clear. now took possession of the whole range of composition. monophony now fully That this principle. with its classification of chords by relative tion their relation to a definite major or minor key. nothing earlier had more than a fraction of the importance of what was now teresting done. The vague and shifting of the earlier periods was at last given up with some tonality loss of peculiar effects. The outlines of these ideas had long been visible. Here there were two But the vocal field was not neglected. the reclamation of the opera to events of capital significance dramatic sanity by Gluck. came the rapid rise of the piano as a con certed instrument of unsuspected possibilities. ceived in part fully two centuries before. Hence the profound difference of manner between most music before 1750 and that afterward. Following close upon this exaltation of the ensemble of solo instruments. as the controlling factor in musical conception. into which modula definite processes. steadily developing in Italian opera and in German writing of various kinds.166 SUMMARY OF THE HALF-CENTURY 407 was a new insight into the nature of chords and the philoso phy of arranging them in sequence. first per replaces mediaeval polyphony. We now for the time attain their modern eminence. Thustheinterestsof 'absolute music' may received an attention wholly new. with the infusion into it of a more . Although some of these steps had been previously foreshadowed. apart from all ideas that be conveyed by words. Closely associated with this was the general acceptance of the modern notion of tonality. at least in degree and signifi cance. Now we encounter rather the instinct of the pure solo song or of a song-like harmony. In short. is a most significant fact. now notice a great advance in the valuation of certain in The chamber strumental methods as compared with vocal. and its system of keys radiating in several directions. but they hardly became regnant until the Austrian melodists made them conspicuous. in quartet (or other small group) and the orchestra first and telling for its own sake. but with an evident gain in unity and can occur by consistency. The older composers had worked with the instinct of true counterpoint or of a half-con trapuntal harmony.

but in research and criticism it made great gains. thus providing invaluable ways and means to the period following. especially by Mozart. tention ' . except that of the conservative Martini.408 THE LATER EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 166 varied and vital musical content. In pure theory the period lacked the guidance of any one first order of constructive genius. although this stage in a great mass of works that now development naturally produced seem manneristic and hollow. and the inevitable drift toward formalism in expression. not only served as the basis or model for all work in the next period. The essential importance of the period is shown by the fact that the styles now known as classical/ as they were exemplified by the greater masters. namely. but have held their place to some degree ever since. Yet. the exaltation of conventional regularity over sincere personal conviction or feeling. but were still more akin to the new itself after 1800. it served a purpose in fastening at upon the purely external charm of tonal patterns and qualities. and the of serious recognition of the detached song as an object worthy artistic attention. like Haydn and Mozart. In these two quarters spirit that was to display we observe the subjective and romantic impulses of the future already bestirring themselves. These movements had some connection with those mentioned above. though the literary aspect of the art was still far But it is noteworthy that among from mature or adequate. leader of the thinkers of a broad philosophic scope 'the serious consideration of topics relating to music begins to have a more secure and honorable place. The great defects of the period were those of the age as a whole.



His Works and Style. 179. Music CHAP. CHURCH AND ORGAN Music. XXIV. XXVII. XXV. Salient Features of his Style. CHAP. GROWTH OF MUSICAL LITERATURE. SONG. 172. Schubert's Brief Career. ITALIAN AND FRENCH OPERA. THE ROMANTIC OPERA AND THE The Genius of Weber. Problems in Instrument-Making. The Romantic Opera. 86. XXVIII. 183. 184. 1 The Revival of Protestant Organ Music. General Survey. INSTRUMENTAL VIRTUOSITY. Summary of the Period. 167. 410 . 178. 175. The Historical Opera. Beethoven's Historic Place.PART VII THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY CHAP. i So. Pianism and Pianists. The French Ope'ra Comique. 169. 173. 170. XXIX. 188. 177. Violinism and Violinists. THE ADVENT OF BEETHOVEN. Musical Publications. Confused Tendencies in Catholic Music. in England. Rossini. 168. CHAP. 187. XXVI. Donizetti and Bellini. 1 81 . Other Instrumental Music. 182. 185. 174. 171.