Bonophool Banerjee ( for 4th Semester

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ASPIC AND CHAUD-FROID AND COLEES
Aspic jelly,or gelée (zhuh lay),is clarified stock that contains enough gelatin that it solidifies when cold. The gelatine may be naturally extracted from bones or added from a package. Good stock naturally contains a certain amount of gelatine but, in most cases, it must be supplemented with additional unflavoured packaged gelatine. Aspic jelly may be nearly colourless (white aspic) or various shades of amber. Most often, however, it must be crystal clear. This is achieved by clarifying it like a consommé. White or light-coloured aspic is used when the natural colours of the foods and decorations must show through. Amber or golden aspic enhances the brown colour of foods such as roasted meats and poultry. Aspic is used as a coating for foods and as a binding ingredient. When it is used as a coating, it has three main purposes: 1. To protect foods from the air, which would dry them out and discolour them. 2. To improve appearance and give shine. 3. To add flavour. This last purpose is, of course, best accomplished if the stock is of high quality. As a binding ingredient, aspic is used in mousses, terrines, and aspic moulds. It is also the binding agent in chaud-froid sauce. Note: When aspic is used as a binding agent, it need not be perfectly clarified. In addition, when congealed and chopped or cut into various shapes, aspic jelly is used as a garnish for platters or servings of pâtés, terrines, and other cold items.

PREPARING ASPIC JELLY
The best aspic is a well-made, naturally gelatinous stock. It has a superior texture and flavour, but it is time-consuming to make because a separate batch of stock must be made in addition to the normal stock production. Consequently, most aspics are made by reinforcing regular stock with gelatin. Aspic powders and mixes are available, but the flavour of aspic made from them does not compare with that made from stock. They can be useful in an emergency, however, or for pieces used purely for display or decoration.

Classic Aspic Jelly

Prepare classic aspic jelly as you would white or brown veal stock,but with the addition of products that release a good deal of gelatin,such as split calves’feet or pigs’feet,pork skin, and veal knuckle bones. If enough of these items are used, the stock will contain enough natural gelatin to be used as an aspic jelly. Follow basic stock-making procedures, except do not brown the added feet and pork skin when making brown stock.When the stock is made, use the following procedure to convert it to aspic jelly.

Procedure for Preparing Classic Aspic Jelly
1. Test the stock for gelatin content. Ladle a small amount of cooled stock onto a small plate or saucer and refrigerate. • If the stock becomes firm, no additional gelatin is needed. • If it sets but is not firm enough, add about 1⁄2 oz or 2 tbsp (15 g) powdered gelatin per quart (liter) of stock, or 2 oz (60 g) per gallon (4 liters). • If it does not set at all (which is unlikely if the stock is properly made) but merely becomes thicker, add about 1 oz or 4 tbsp (30 g) powdered gelatin per quart (liter), or 4 oz (125 g) per gallon (4 liters). In this case, you will actually be making regular aspic jelly (see next section) rather than classic aspic jelly. Add the gelatin by first stirring it gradually into a little cold water, avoiding making lumps, and letting it soften. Then add the softened gelatin to the stock. 2. Clarify the stock as for consommé. For white aspic (made with white stock), omit the carrots in the mirepoix. 3. After the stock is clarified, remove all traces of fat. The aspic jelly is now ready to use.

Regular Aspic Jelly
This is normal meat, poultry, or fish stock reinforced with gelatin and clarified.Regular stock rarely has enough natural gelatin to enable it to be used as a jelly, so extra gelatin must be added. To test the stock for gelatine content and to convert it to aspic jelly,follow the same procedure as for classic aspic jelly, described above. However, note that if the stock contains very little gelatin and stays watery when chilled, more than 4 oz (125 g) gelatin may be needed per gallon (4 liters).

Aspic Powder
Aspic powder is unflavoured gelatine mixed with a powdered stock base.To prepare it, follow the instructions on the container. Additional unflavoured gelatine may be needed for some purposes. Procedures for

using aspic jelly are discussed following a brief consideration of a related topic,chaud-froid sauce. The Addition of Wine: A lot of chefs recommend the addition of wines to aspic jelly to enhance the flavor and the taste of the product. If used, the wine should be added when the aspic jelly is still liquid. This will ensure that the full aroma of the wine is preserved. The recommended wines are port, madeira, sherry, marsala and crisp white wines.

Characteristics of Good Aspic Jelly:
Aspic Jelly can be graded on the following parameters Flavour, Tooth, Clarity ,Colour The flavour of an aspic jelly should be intense enough to make the mouth water. Yet, it should not be so strong so as to over power the flavor of the main ingredient of the product. There are three aspects to the flavour of the aspic jelly. The first is the depth of character. This comes from the proper preparation of the stock. The flavour should not be watery and weak. It should be full bodied and robust. Seasoning is another area. The aspic jelly needs to be properly seasoned, and here we are primarily talking salt. The flavours of the ingredients need to be released. And lastly, there is the matter of acidity. Slightly elevating the level of acidity will serve to accent and enliven the flavours already present. This can be done by adding wine, lemon juice or a flavoured vinegar. However, adding acid must be done with care. Remember, acid can interfere with the gelling of the aspic jelly and alter the strength of the gel. Tooth is the density or the elasticity of the jelly. The jelly should be firm enough to hold the desired shape, yet, once it is in the mouth, it should dissolve immediately. The jelly should not be rubbery or chewy. There are two factors which determine the mouth feel of aspic jelly. First is the ratio of gelatin in the jelly. The other is the service temperature of the jelly. Aspic jelly must be strong enough to allow clean slicing, yet delicate enough to offer a good tooth. The best way to achieve this is to slice the product as soon as it comes out of the refrigerator and then allowing the slices to warm up slightly, softening the gel, before service .Aspic jelly should be absolutely crystal clear. The range of colors in aspic jelly lie between the rich amber almost brown color that can be used for game, to a nearly colorless one for fish.

Additional tomes of red can be obtained and achieved depending on the wine used in the preparation.

Handling and Storing Aspic Jelly:
Aspic Jelly is a potentially hazardous food, an ideal environment for the growth of bacteria. It is high in moisture content, high in protein and comes from an animal source. In order to prolong its shelf life and to ensure its wholesomeness, car must be taken in storing prepared aspic jelly. Use only clean sanitized containers for storage. Once the jelly has set, handle it as little as possible. This will help minimize the growth of bacteria. Allow the jelly to set without stirring. When it sets as a single block, it seals itself exposing only the top surface to contamination. Once set, the gel should be covered. Cooling of the aspic jelly should be achieved rapidly.

Procedure for Cooling Aspic Jelly
The following procedure is used for chaud-froid as well as aspic jelly. 1. If the jelly is congealed, it must first be melted. Set the pan or container of jelly in a hot-water bath. Stir it gently from time to time until it is completely melted. 2. Place the warm aspic jelly in a stainless-steel bowl. 3. At all times, be careful not to make any bubbles. Bubbles in the jelly may get transferred to the surface of your food item and mar its appearance. 4. Select a ladle that fits the curve of the bowl. Set the bowl in crushed ice, pushing it in so that it sits in a well of ice. With the edge of the ladle against the inside of the bowl, rotate the bowl so the ladle continually scrapes the inside of the bowl. This method prevents the formation of lumps that occur when jelly touching the cold bowl solidifies too quickly. 5. Continue to rotate the bowl until the jelly is thick and syrupy but not yet set. The jelly is now ready for use. Remove from the ice bath and work quickly, because it will set very fast. 6. Re melt and re cool the jelly as necessary.

Procedure for Coating Foods with Aspic Jelly

1. Chill the food to be coated. For best results, the surface of the item should be as smooth and as free of fat as possible. 2. Place the item on a wire rack over a tray or sheet pan. Excess aspic that falls onto the tray can be remelted and reused. 3. Cool the aspic jelly according to the procedure above. 4. Use the aspic as soon as it is ready. Various methods can be used to coat foods with aspic, depending on the size and shape of the item. • For smooth, regularly shaped items, use a large ladle and nap them with a single smooth stroke, as illustrated in Figure 27.1. Working too slowly may produce an uneven, bumpy coat. • Large items and items with steep sides or irregular shapes are harder to coat. Using a ladle, coat the sides first and then the top for best results. • For small items, it may be more convenient to use a kitchen spoon than a ladle. • A pastry brush can be used to coat small items. A brush is often used for small portions, such as canapés, that need only a light glaze rather than a perfectly smooth coating of aspic. 5. Chill the items until the jelly is thoroughly set. 6. Repeat with additional coats, if necessary, until the aspic is of the desired thickness. 7. To decorate, dip pieces of decoration in liquid aspic and place on the product in the desired pattern. Some items appropriate to use for decorating aspic are Leek leaves Black olives Tomato peels ,Fresh herbs, especially flat-leaf Truffles, real or artificial Carrots parsley and tarragon ,As appropriate, cut the items for decoration into very thin slices and then into desired shapes. For most vegetable decorations, such as carrots and leek leaves, blanch to make them more limber and to intensify the color. 8. If decorations have been used, cover the decorated item with a final layer of aspic jelly to protect the design.

Uses of Aspic Jelly:
To coat showpieces such as whole turkeys and hams. 1. For Aspic sheets, Aspic mirrors and Aspic cut outs. Decorative center pieces can be made using colored aspic. 2. To fill cavities in Pates. 3. To line moulds for cold buffet presentation.

4. To glaze whole terrines and galantines and items coated with chaud froid. 5. To prepare aspic croutons which can be used to garnish cold platters or even added into salads 6. Chopped aspic, which can be used as a base to present a variety of cold meats on the buffet. 7. To glaze canapes, zakuski and other hors d’oeuvres. Gelee also has its uses in the kitchen. As explained earlier, gelee is stock that has been reduced and cooled down to a gelatinous consistency. It can be used to enrich soups, sauces and gravies. It can also enhance the taste of stews an sauces. Gelee can be used to glaze cold meat products to prevent them from drying out during the long presentation times on the buffet counter.

CHAUD-FROID
Described in simplest terms, chaud-froid sauce is a white sauce containing enough gelatin that it sets like an aspic.The name chaud-froid is French for “hot-cold.”The sauce is so called because the classic version is made hot but eaten cold. Today,chaud-froid sauce is rarely used except for display pieces on buffets.Its main purpose there is to provide a smooth,uniformly white background for colored decorations. Because it is not eaten in these cases,it does not have to have a good flavor,and it may be made out of a simple béchamel sauce thickened with a roux made with white shortening. Nevertheless,chaud-froid sauce finds occasional use in cold dishes—for example, as a component of some aspic moulds and terrines. A brief discussion is warranted without going into the kind of detail found in books on garde manger. Many kinds of white sauce may be used as a base for chaudfroid,including cream sauces, white stocks enriched with cream or cream and egg yolks, veloutés, and mayonnaise. There are also colored chaudfroid sauces, but they are not often used. Red sauce can be made with the

addition of tomato paste and, sometimes, paprika. Green sauce is colored with spinach and watercress, puréed with some of the hot sauce,and strained. Brown chaud-froid can be made by combining glace de viande, tomato sauce, and aspic jelly in equal proportions.

Preparing Chaud-Froid Sauce
Two basic types of chaud-froid sauce are considered here, one based on white stock and cream,the other on mayonnaise. Both of these are of good eating quality and can be used for first-class cold foods. Heavier types based on roux-thickened sauces may be economical to make but are more appropriate for inedible display pieces. Two recipes for chaud-froid are given here. Classic chaud-froid is essentially an aspic jelly with the addition of cream or a cream and egg yolk liaison. In fact, it can be made by combining aspic jelly and cream,but this mixture would have to be reinforced with extra gelatin because of the quantity of cream. Mayonnaise chaud-froid, also called mayonnaise collée,which means something like “glued mayonnaise,” is simply a mixture of aspic jelly and mayonnaise. It is easy to make and,if the two ingredients are of good quality, is a tasty and useful chaudfroid. The basic proportion is equal parts aspic jelly and mayonnaise.The proportion canbe varied to taste,however, from 1 part aspic and 2 parts mayonnaise to 1 part mayonnaise and 2 parts aspic jelly. Using a commercially made mayonnaise is recommended. If you are using a homemade mayonnaise, it is best to prepare the chaud-froid at the last minute and use it at once.Reheating it to melt it could cause the mayonnaise to break. Commercial mayonnaise, on the other hand, can generally be melted without damage, but it is still best to use the sauce as soon it is made. Galantines, timbales, terrines, whole or smaller joints of poultry and ham are some of the products that can be coated with a chaud – froid. The purpose of coating items with a chaud – froid are : a. protection of the item from the air while it sits on the buffet. b. the sauce acts as a background or a canvas on which to decorate. c. the chaud – froid is an adornment itself. the sauce can complement the flavor of the coated item

TYPES OF CHAUD - FROID
The two primary methods of preparing Chaud – froid are the classical and the contemporary methods. THE CLASSICAL METHOD: The classical method calls for the use of Béchamel or Veloute. This is reduced with a stock, suitable for the product that needs to be coated. This reduction is then fortified with a suitable aspic jelly and cream. THE CONTEMPORY METHOD:

A modern variation of the sauce is prepared without a base of the roux. The result is a sauce, which has a less starchy mouth feel. The method is also faster to prepare. VARIATIONS: Chaud – froid can be made in a variety of colors. Only natural ingredients must be used to obtain the colors using the basic colors. For a brown chaud – froid, replace the cream with a reduced jus. A green chaud – froid can be made by using spinach puree. Red chaud – froid needs paprika plus tomato puree. Carrots, red peppers and even saffron are used to create a variety of colors.

USING CHAUD-FROID SAUCE
As discussed earlier, aspic and chaud-froid are used to enhance both the appearance and the flavour of cold foods. For best results, the aspic and chaud-froid, as well as the foods to be coated, should be prepared and handled in specific ways. The following sections offer general procedures for handling these products. Specific applications, such as recipes for aspic-based terrine moulds, are included later in the chapter. Aspic jelly must be cooled to just above congealing temperature before it is used to coat foods. If it is too warm, it will not have enough body to coat and will just run off.

Coating with Chaud-Froid
Apply chaud-froid sauce according to the same procedure as for aspic. Because most chaud-froid is thicker than aspic, it is usually kept a little warmer when poured. If the first layer of chaud-froid is too transparent or not thick enough ,apply one or two additional layers. After the chaud-froid has chilled and set,apply decorations if desired. Finish with a layer of aspic for best appearance. APPLYING THE CHAUD – FROID There are a series of steps involved in the application of chaud – froid. a. Preparing the item for coating - Items to be coated should be well chilled. This helps to adhere the sauce to the surface. Chaud – froid will run off the surface of a warm item before it can set. - The surface of the food to be coated should be smooth and trimmed of any rough edges. It is not possible to create a smooth finish to a product if the under surface is rough and jagged. - Surface grease must be removed before the coating of chaud – froid is applied. The coating will not stick to a greasy surface. If there is a skin attached to the product, it should be removed. This will ensure that the fat and the grease are also removed. - The item to be covered should be blotted/dabbed dry. This will allow better adhesion of the sauce. b. Tempering the Chaud – Froid Chaud – froid sauce should be tempered before applying. Once the item has been properly prepped, the sauce may be tempered. This involves bringing the temperature of the sauce, either by heating or cooling, to a point that will allow the best and easiest coating. Gelling

takes place at around 85°F. Normally, the closer you can maintain the sauce to this temperature without it getting too thick, the more evenly it will coat. In the ideal situation, it should take only 2 or 3 coats for a smooth and glistening finish. If the sauce is too warm, it tends to wash over the item leaving only a thin layer of the sauce. If extremely warm, it might even melt the previous layers that have already been applied. If the Chaud – froid is too cold and thick, it will not form an even layer. The sauce will form lumps and might even leave air bubbles on the surface. The sauce will not coat the item smoothly, because it sets too quickly in runs. A sauce that is tempered properly will be easily controled, it will give a smooth and even coating and it will make the application of the coating easier and more efficient. c. Ladle Method or Dipping Method? There are two ways to apply a Chaud – froid sauce. It can either be ladled onto the product r the item to be coated can be dipped into it. The ladling method is suitable for large joints or pieces of meat. Smaller items are more evenly coated by dipping. Also, unevenly shaped items are more easily coated by the dipping method. In each case, it is advisable to apply more than one coat of the sauce to give an even appearance and a smooth complete finish. Whichever method of coating is used, it is essential to refrigerate them between each coat and before the final trim.

d. Trimming Trimming is the final step in preparing the item for decoration. Carefully remove the item from the pan in which it was coated taking care not to rip the product away. The item should be cut away with the help of a palette knife being run around the base of the product. Preferably, dip the knife in hot water first. Line up the trimmed chaud – froid on a clean and fresh tray. At this point, they are no longer items or products….they are now Chaud – froids. They now need only to be decorated before they can be set out on display. e. Decorating the Chaud – froids The Chaud – froids can now be decorated tastefully with a variety of food items. There are many choices available. Aspic cutters can be used to punch out a variety of shapes out of vegetables. These may be applied in pleasing patterns such as geometric shapes, floral or abstract. A more natural, pleasing effect comes from using foods in their natural shapes. Capers, caviar, chives and slices of olives are a few examples. Each component must be dipped into warm aspic jelly and placed onto the surface of the chaud – froid. Avoid dripping excess aspic jelly onto the surface. These droplets of aspic are difficult and almost impossible to remove and can make the most beautiful designs look sloppy. After the decorated chaud – froids have been chilled; they are glazed with a single coat of well-tempered aspic jelly. This will protect the surface of the chaud – froid that could become dull and dry looking. The final glaze of aspic will keep the chaud – froid looking sparkling and fresh.

QUALITY INDICATORS FOR CHAUD – FROID The quality of a chaud – froid coating has a major effect on the overall quality of the finished product. The quality of a chaud – froid is judged according to flavor, tooth, color and appearance. 1. Flavor – The flavor should complement the dish. 2. Tooth – The chaud – froid should have a very delicate tooth. As it melts in the mouth, it should have a silky smooth texture, similar o that of well made veloute or béchamel sauce. 3. Color – Chaud – froid can be made in various colors. However the colors should originate from natural ingredients. Avoid using artificial colors, instead, pastel shades are the best. 4. Appearance – The appearance should be neat and clear-cut, smooth and shiny and free of air bubbles. The thickness of the coating should not be more than 3/16-inch and the thickness of the glaze 1/8-inch thick.

Handling & Storage
Chaud – froid sauces can be cooled and stored. Reheat gelled chaud – froid sauce over a hot water bath to avoid scorching. COLLEES Collees are chaud froid sauces using mayonnaise, sour cream, heavy cream or a combination of these as their base. Collees are often used with fish and other light items. Combine 3 parts of mayonnaise, sour cream or heavy cream with one part of strong aspic jelly. Use and treat like normal chaud – froid..

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