Certificate of Training issued by Industry/firm/company

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ABSTRACT
Indian Oil Corporation Limited (Indian Oil) is the largest commercial enterprise in India with a sales turnover of Rs.150, 677 crores and profit of Rs. 4, 891 crores for the fiscal year 2004. Indian Oil is India’s number one company in Fortune’s prestigious listing of the world’s 500 largest corporations, ranked 170 based on fiscal 2004 performance. It is also the 18th largest petroleum company in the world and adjudged number one in petroleum trading among the 15 national oil companies in the Asia-Pacific region. Indian Oil alone accounts for 56 % petroleum product market share among PSU companies, 42% National refining capacity and 68% downstream pipeline throughput capacity. Indian Oil group owns and operates 10 of India’s 18 refineries with a current combined rated capacity of 54.2 Million metric tons (MMTPA). These include subsidiaries viz. Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd and Bongaigaon Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd. It owns and operates the country’s largest network of cross-country crude and product pipelines, with a combined length of 7,730 km with a combined capacity of 56.85 MMTPA. For the year 2004-05, Indian Oil sold 50.1 million tones of petroleum products, including exports of 1.96 million tones. Indian Oil’s countrywide network of over 23,000 sales points is backed for supplies by its extensive, well spread out marketing infrastructure comprising 165 bulk storage terminals, installations and depots, 95 aviation fuelling stations and 87 LPG bottling plants. Its subsidiary, IBP Co. Ltd, is a stand-alone marketing company with a nationwide network of over 3,000 retail sales points.

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S.No.
1 2 3

NAME OF PROCESSING UNITS
Atmospheric & vacuum distillation unit Vis-breaker unit Fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU)

CAPACITY (MMTPA)
8.0 1.0 1.48

4

Continuous catalytic reforming unit (CCRU)

0.466

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Once through Hydrocracker unit (OHCU) Hydrogen generation unit (HGU -I) Hydrogen generation unit (HGU - II) Diesel hydrodesulphurization unit (DHDS) Bitumen blowing unit (BBU) MEROX ATF VBN Amine recovery unit

1.2 0.034 0.074 1.1 0.576

1.5 0.058 1.5

Mathura Refinery was commissioned in the year 1982. At present it has the capacity of processing 8.0 MMTPA of crude oil. The refinery meets the demand of Northwest region of India including Delhi. The crude oil with low sulphur from Bombay High, imported crude with low sulphur from Nigeria, and crude with high sulphur from Middle East Countries are processed at this refinery. The original refinery configuration had one primary Atmospheric Vacuum unit and the secondary units were the Vis-breaker Unit, Bitumen Unit, Sulphur Recovery unit and Fluidized Catalytic cracking Unit. Gradually Mathura Refinery in Uttar Pradesh made certain changes to follow the strict product specification that aroused due to environmental considerations. The secondary units such as Once Through Hydro-cracker unit (OHCU), iii

Catalytic Reforming Unit (CRU), MS quality up gradation, Diesel hydro de-sulphurisation Unit, (DHDS), new Sulphur Recovery unit (SRU), DHDT etc were integrated in the refinery configuration. These changes in the configuration of the Refinery were made so that there is minimal impact on the environment. Mathura Refinery has taken a number of initiatives to save the environment, public health and also to preserve the national monuments in and around the city of Mathura. A lot of research has been done to produce more and more clean fuels that would have minimal negative effect on the environment. Mathura refinery has been producing highly eco-friendly petrol and diesel for the NCT, NCR and Agra region. The Refinery enjoys the distinction of being the first refinery in India capable of producing 100% auto fuels that meets Euro - III norms. Products from this refinery are dispatched through rail, road and Mathura-Delhi – Ambala - Jalandhar pipeline. The LPG bottling plant situated within Mathura refinery premises bottles nearly seven million cylinder per annum for catering domestic market. Major fertilizer industries at Kanpur, Panipat, Nangal, Bhatinda, and Kota are supplied with Naphtha or furnace oil. Also thermal power plants of Nangal, Obra, and Badarpur get fuel oil supply from this refinery. Mathura refinery was the first in Asia and third refinery in the world to have been honored with the coveted ISO- 14001, certification on July 22- 1996. It was also awarded the Golden peacock national quality award 1996. It bagged first prize in national energy conservation award in 1996 in public sector in ministry of power. Jawaharlal Nehru Cenetery award for achieving the best improved method of energy conservation compared to its past best performance of 1994 & 1996. Highest ever ATF (AVIATION TURBINE FUEL) and bitumen production of 617.6 & 430.2 TMT achieved surpassing the previous best of 613.4 TMT in 1993/94 & 425.2 TMT iv

adopting and assimilating state of the art technology for competitive advantage.in 1993-94 respectively.78% on crude in 1987-88. value and satisfaction for the stakeholders. MISSION:  To achieve international standards of excellence in all aspects of energy and diversified business with focus on customer delight through value of products and services and cost reduction. translational. VISION: A major diversified.  To help enrich the quality of life of the community and preserve ecological balance and heritage through a strong environment conscience.  To cultivate high standards of business ethics and total quality management for a strong corporate identity and brand equity.  To maximize creation of wealth. v .  To provide technology and services through sustained research and development.14% on crude achieved surpassing of previous best of 72. integrated energy company. Highest ever distillated yield of 73. with national leadership and a strong environment conscience.  To attain leadership in developing. playing a national role in oil security and public distribution.

S. guidance & co-operation.Sharma. I am thankful to Mr.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is great that Indian Oil Corporation Limited provides training to a large number of students like us for practical assimilation of knowledge pertaining to our respective disciplines. I am heartily thankful to all unit heads and all technical & Non-technical staff of MATHURA REFINERY for their great efforts to enhance my practical knowledge. Senior Manager (MS & training) for his hospitality. vi . C.

.................................................................................7 VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT ............................. 1......3 FEED SUPPLY..........................1................................. FLUID CATALYTIC CRAKING UNIT (FCCU) ...... INTRODUCTION ......................12 V..............9 THEORY OF VIS-BREAKING ...........................8........................4......................................................... FRACTIONATOR ....................... 1......................... 1........................................7.......................14 PROCESS VARIABLES ............1............................ 2.6... 2................................................ 2.......2..............4.................................2......6 1.......CONTENTS 1...15 FEED RATE ...........13 STABILIZER ..................................5 VDU FIRED HEATER ........................................................................................................... 2.......16 STABILISER TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE ...........7.5..................................7...... 2............16 VB TAR QUENCH TO VB TAR STRIPPER BOTTOM ...............3...................16 FRACTIONATOR TOP TEMPERATURE ....................... 1.......................... INTRODUCTION .6 STABILIZER .............5.......7......7...................................... 1.. 1................................................... 1...............................7........................................................................................... 2............................................2..................................... 1...7...........3...........................................4 CDU FIRED HEATER .............19 vii ...............1................2...............7 VIS-BREAKING UNIT ...1 PRODUCTS FROM CDU/VDU MAIN COLUMNS...1 TYPES OF CRUDE .....................6.....................................1....... 1..9 2.....................1.........6...................................4...................................................B.........9 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION...... CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT .........................................7.................................2...........................7............ 2............1.......11 VIS-BREAKER FURNACES ................. 2...............................................7...............................15 SOAKER OUTLET TRANSFER LINE TEMPERATURE . 2........................................... 2.................6...................6....15 FRACTIONATOR PRESSURE ............................................ 3.........................18 CRACKING SECTION......................... 1......................6...........3 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION.............................4 FURNACE OPERATION ........................... 3............. 2..............6.............18 3....2..........3.........2 STEPS OF OPERATION IN AVU PROCESS ..........5...........1..........1 1.............. 2..........................................................6.............................4............6..... 2..................................... INTRODUCTION . 2...................................1..........3............16 VB TAR QUENCH TOP FRACTIONATOR BOTTOM ............................. ATMOSPHERIC AND VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT (AVU) ..............................................17 2........15 VB TAR QUENCH TO THE COLUMN OUTLET ................

3.3.

CATALYTIC SECTION .........................................................................................21 TYPE OF CATALYSTS ..................................................................................23

3.3.1. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 4.

FRACTIONATION SECTION ..............................................................................23 GAS CONCENTRATION SECTION....................................................................24 CO BOILER .............................................................................................................24

MEROX UNIT (MERCAPTAN OXIDATION) ..........................................................24 4.1. 4.2. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................24 MEROX PROCESS DESCRIPTION ....................................................................26 PRETREATMENT ...........................................................................................27 EXTRACTION SECTION ..............................................................................27 SWEETENING .................................................................................................29 POST TREATMENT .......................................................................................30 MEROX CATALYSTS ....................................................................................30

4.2.1. 4.2.2. 4.2.3. 4.2.4. 4.2.5. 5.

CONTINUOUS CATALYTIC REFORMING UNIT (CCRU) ..................................31 5.1. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................31 NAPHTHA SPLITTING UNIT .......................................................................32 NAPHTHA HYDROTREATER UNIT ..........................................................32 REFORMING UNIT ........................................................................................33

5.1.1. 5.1.2. 5.1.3. 5.2. 6.

REACTORS..............................................................................................................34

ONCE THROUGH HYDROCRACKER UNIT (OHCU) ..........................................34 6.1. 6.2. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................34 PROCESS DESCRIPTION.....................................................................................35 REACTOR FEED SYSTEM ...........................................................................35 FRACTIONTATION SECTION ....................................................................37 DE-ETHANISER .............................................................................................. 37

6.2.1. 6.2.2. 6.2.3. 7.

DIESEL HYDRO DESULFURIZATION UNIT (DHDS) ..........................................37 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................37 CATALYSTS ............................................................................................................38 PROCESS DESCRIPTION.....................................................................................39 PROCESS VARIABLES .........................................................................................40 HYDROGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE ............................................................40 TEMPERATURE .............................................................................................40

7.4.1. 7.4.2. 8.

HYDROGEN GENERATION UNIT (HGU) - I ..........................................................41 8.1. 8.2. FEED .........................................................................................................................41 DESULPHURIZATION ..........................................................................................41 viii

8.3.

REFORMING SECTION .......................................................................................42 PRE-REFORMER ............................................................................................42 TUBULAR REFORMER.................................................................................42

8.3.1. 8.3.2. 9.

BITUMEN BLOWING UNIT (BBU) ...........................................................................43 9.1. 9.2. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................43 PROCESS DESCRIPTION.....................................................................................44 FEED SUPPLY SYSTEM ................................................................................44 COLD FEED PUMPS AND FEED PREHEATING .....................................44 REACTORS ......................................................................................................45 FINISHED BITUMEN CIRCUIT ...................................................................45 REACTOR OVERHEAD SYSTEM ............................................................... 46 OXIDATION GAS SEPARATORS ................................................................ 46

9.2.1. 9.2.2. 9.2.3. 9.2.4. 9.2.5. 9.2.6.

10. AMINE RECOVERY UNIT (ARU) .............................................................................47 10.1. INRODUCTION ......................................................................................................47 10.2. PROCESS DESCRIPTION.....................................................................................47 10.2.1. AMINE FLASH DRUM ...................................................................................47

11. SULFUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU) ............................................................................49 11.1. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................49 11.2. PROCESS DESCRIPTION.....................................................................................49 12. OIL MOVEMENT AND STORAGE I .........................................................................51 12.1. STORAGE SECTION .............................................................................................51 12.1.1. 12.1.2. 12.1.3. FIXED ROOF TANKS .................................................................................51 FLOATING ROOF TANK ..........................................................................51 FLOATING CUM FIXED ROOF TANKS ................................................52

12.2. DISPATCH SECTION ............................................................................................52 12.2.1. 12.2.2. PRODUCT DISPATCH BY RAIL .............................................................. 53 PRODUCT DISPATCH BY PIPELINE .....................................................53

13. OIL MOVEMENT AND STORAGE II .......................................................................54 13.1. BITUMEN DRUM FILLING SECTION .............................................................. 54 13.2. LPG SECTION.........................................................................................................55 13.2.1. 13.2.2. LPG BOTTLING PLANT ............................................................................55 BULK LOADING .........................................................................................55

13.2.2.1. BULK LOADING BY ROAD ..................................................................55 13.2.2.2. BULK LOADING BY RAIL ....................................................................56 13.2.3. CHARACTERISTICS OF LPG ..................................................................56 ix

13.3. EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT (ETP) ..........................................................56 13.3.1. TREATMENT PRINCIPLE ........................................................................57

13.3.1.1. PHYSICAL TREATMENT .....................................................................58 13.3.1.2. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT ................................................................ 58 13.3.1.3. CHEMICAL TREATMENT....................................................................59 14. QUALITY CONTROL LABORATORY .....................................................................61 14.1. PROCESS CONTROL LABORATORY .............................................................. 61 14.2. FINISHED PRODUCT LABORATORY .............................................................. 62 14.3. ANALYTICAL AND DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY .................................62 14.4. ATF LABORATORY .............................................................................................. 62 14.5. POLLUTION CONTROL LABORATORY .........................................................62 14.6. DESCRIPTION OF TESTS ....................................................................................63 14.6.1. 14.6.2. 14.6.3. 14.6.4. 14.6.5. 14.6.6. 14.6.7. CLOUD POINT .............................................................................................63 COLD TEST (FREEZING POINT) ............................................................64 CETANE NUMBER .....................................................................................64 DISTILLATION ...........................................................................................65 DUCTILITY ..................................................................................................67 FLASH POINT .............................................................................................. 67 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS ...............................................68

14.6.8. OCTANE NUMBER (RESEARCH METHOD AND MOTOR METHOD) .......................................................................................................................68 14.6.9. 14.6.10. 14.6.11. 14.6.12. PENETRATION OF BITUMEN .................................................................69 POUR POINT TEST.....................................................................................70 SMOKE POINT ............................................................................................70 REID VAPOUR PRESSURE OF HYDROCARBON LIQUID ...............71

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................72

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1. ATMOSPHERIC AND VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT (AVU)

1.1. INTRODUCTION
The ADU (Atmospheric Distillation Unit) separates most of the lighter end products such as gas, gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil from the crude oil. The bottoms of the ADU are then sent to the VDU (Vacuum Distillation Unit).

Crude oil is preheated by the bottoms feed exchanger, further preheated and partially vapourized in the feed furnace and then passed into the atmospheric tower where it is separated into off gas, gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, gas oil and bottoms.

Atmospheric and Vacuum unit (AVU) of Mathura Refinery is designed to process 100% Bombay High Crude and 100% Arab Mix crude (consisting of Light and Heavy crude in 50:50 proportion by weight) in blocked out operation @ 11.0 MMTPA.

AVU consists of following sections:  Crude Desalting section  Atmospheric Distillation section  Stabilizer section  Vacuum Distillation section

1.2. TYPES OF CRUDE
 Low Sulphur
Indian: Bombay High Nigerian: Girasol, Farcados, Bonny light

 High Sulphur
Imported: Arab Mix, Kuwait, Dubai, Ratawi, Basra etc 1

3. PRODUCTS FROM CDU/VDU MAIN COLUMNS SHORT LONG NAME NAME C1 –C2 C3-C4 C5-120 120-140 140-270 140-240 240/270-340 320-370 370+ CUT RANGE ºC USAGE Gas LPG NAP HN KERO ATF LGO HGO VD Fuel gas Liquefied Petroleum Gas Naphtha Heavy Naphtha Kerosene Aviation Turbine Fuel Light Gas Oil Heavy Gas Oil Vacuum Diesel Internal Fuel Domestic Fuel MS Component HSD component Domestic Fuel Aero planes fuel HSD Component HSD Component HSD Component Feed to LVGO Light Vacuum Gas Oil 370-380 OHCU/RFCCU LDO Light Diesel Oil 380-425 Fuel Feed to HVGO Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil 425-550 OHCU/RFCCU V. SLOP VR Vacuum slop Vacuum Residue 550-560 560 + IFO Component Bitumen /HPS 2 .1.

Booster pumps located in the off-sites are used to deliver crude to the unit feed pumps. STEPS OF OPERATION IN AVU PROCESS CDU  CRUDE RECEIVING  CRUDE PREHEATING (FIRST STAGE)  DESALTING OF CRUDE  CRUDE PREHEATING (SECOND STAGE)  PREFRACTIONATOR DISTILLATION  CRUDE PREHEATING (THIRD STAGE)  RAISING TEMPERATURE WITH FIRED HEATERS  ATOMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION  NAPHTHA STABILISATION  PRODUCT ROUTING AFTER HEAT RECOVERY VDU  FEED TEMPERATURE INCREASE WITH FIRED HEATER  VACUUM DISTILLATION  PRODUCT ROUTING AFTER HEAT RECOVERY 1.000 m3 nominal capacity). which regulate the quantity of slop into the 3 .1.000 m3 whereas remaining other 2 tanks are of 65.4. FEED SUPPLY Crude oil is stored in eight storage tanks (six tanks each having a nominal capacity of 50. Filters are installed on the suction manifold of crude pumps to trap foreign matter. pumps are located in the off-site area. For processing slop.5.

Desalting temperature as required can be maintained manually by operating the bypass valve of heat exchangers. 1. The preheated crude is further heated and partially vapourized in Atmospheric Furnace (four furnaces with four pass each). these heaters are also having two distinct heating sections: (i) A radiant section. A two-stage desalter has been designed for 99% salt removal. 1. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Crude Oil is heated up to 136 -141 ºC in the first train of heat exchangers operating in two parallel sections up to the desalter which is connected in series. Provision to inject proportionate quantity of demulsifier into the unit crude pumps suction header with the help of dosing pump is available.1. 7 nos.6. The crude after leaving the desalter is preheated to 250 to 265 ºC. Heater is a box type vertical furnace with up-firing burners. The electric field in the desalter breaks the emulsion and the outlet brine from the 1st stage desalter is sent to ETP on level control. Each crude furnace has fourteen burners.6. FURNACE OPERATION  CDU Fired Heater  VDU Fired Heater Like any conventional process heater. Provision to use DM water/ services water is also provided. It is designed to use stripped sour water for desalting which is being taken from the stripped sour water unit.crude header after filters. in each section are provided on the floor with FG and FO firing facilities. which houses the burners and forms the combustion chamber or fire box and 4 .

tubes are arranged horizontally along the height of the two sidewalls. The floor of furnace is elevated above grade and the hot air duct (supplying combustion air to burners) runs across the length of the furnace below the furnace floor. Crude oil to be heated enters the convection section in four passes. The rest six rows are of extended surface type having cylindrical studs. 5 . The tubes are of 152mm x 8mm dimension and 5 Cr 1/2 Mo material of construction.1. From outlets of the convection bank. 4 no’s studded tubes are for the service of superheating MP steam for strippers. All the convection bank tubes are of 152mm X 8mm dimension and 5Cr 1/2 Mo material of construction. 1. i. There are 21 tubes in each pass and the pass flows are up the radiant section to the heater outlet from top of radiant box to join the 900mm dia.1. and the rest 60 nos. Heater tubes rest on wall-supported hangers and are arranged in such a fashion as to facilitate free expansion.super heating coils of furnaces to atmosphere through silencers. CDU FIRED HEATER The convection section has 8 rows of tubes with 8 nos.(ii) A convection section which receives heat from the hot flue gases leaving the radiant section and is therefore placed above the radiant section. In the radiant box. it passes through crossovers provided inside the furnace into bottom coils of the radiant section.6. Provision exists to vent out MP steam ex. 84 nos. the two rows just above the radiant section are plain tubes without studs. tubes are for crude oil service. tubes in each.e. The skin temperature of tubes is limited to 550 0C. Of these 64 tubes in the convection section. Steam flow is of single pass to superheating coils. Transfer line going to crude fractionator. The two rows of shock tubes.

The skin temperature of tubes is limited to 542 0C. tubes in each.2. The floor of furnace is elevated above grade and the hot air duct (supplying combustion air to burners) runs across the length of the furnace below the furnace floor. Heated and partly vapourized crude feed coming from fired heater enters the flash zone of the column at tray no.1.2.super heating coils of furnaces to atmosphere through silencers. There are 5 rows of tubes in arch zone and 9 rows of tubes in radiation zone for each pass for heating the RCO.6. the three rows just above the radiant section are plain tubes without studs. Non-flashed liquid moves down which is largely bottom product. called RCO. VDU FIRED HEATER The convection section has 13 rows of tubes with 8 nos. 46 at approximately 3. MP steam having some degree of superheat is introduced in the column below tray no. Hydrocarbon vapours flash in this zone and get liberated.1.6. i. Provision exists to vent out MP steam ex.e. The top three rows are for the service of superheating LP steam for vacuum column and the rest 10 rows are for RCO service. 1. The next seven rows are of extended surface type having cylindrical studs. The tubes material of construction is 9Cr 1Mo. The furnaces are of balanced draft type with forced draft (FD) fans to supply combustion air and induced draft (ID) fan to take suction of the flue gases through air-preheating system and discharge the same to stack. CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT The column is provided with 56 trays of which 8 are baffle trays in the stripping section.5 kg/cm2 (g) and 290 ºC for stripping of RCO. The three rows of shock tubes. 46 at 355 ºC/365 ºC. Steam stripping 6 .

1. Each cell is provided with 10 burners fired vertically upshot from furnace floor along the centerline of the cell. The hydrocarbon vapours are condensed in the 7 . LPG is pumped to MEROX for treatment. This condensed overhead product is separated as hydrocarbon and water in the reflux drum. Steam (MP) is injected into individual passes and regulated manually. The flash zone pressure is maintained at 115-120 mm of Hg.4. 1. This is to maintain required velocities in the heater. Three injection points have been provided on each pass. The vapourized portions entering the flash zone of the column along with stripped light ends from the bottoms rise up in the vacuum column and are fractionated into four side stream products in 5 packed sections.3. STABILIZER Unstable Naphtha containing Fuel Gas.6. Fuel Gas generated during BH/AM operation is routed to Fuel Gas Amine treatment Unit to remove H2S before being routed to the plant Fuel Gas Distribution Header. which is Fuel Gas. Fuel Oil or combination fuel fired. heated and partially vapourized in 8-pass vacuum furnace and introduced to the flash zone of the vacuum column.6. LPG and Naphtha is sent to stabilizer under cascaded flow control. Hydrocarbon vapours liberated by flashing move up along with the steam in the column for further mass transfer at trays in the upper section. VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT Hot RCO from the atmospheric column bottom at 355 ºC is mixed with slop recycle from vacuum column. Water is drawn out under inter-phase level control and sent to sour water drums. Reduced crude oil product is collected at the bottom of the column and the overhead vapours are totally condensed in overhead air condenser and train condenser.helps to remove lighter constituents from the bottom product (RCO).

LDO and LVGO sections by circulating refluxes to yield the side draw products. Oil carried over along with the steam condensate is pumped to the vacuum diesel rundown line by overhead oil pumps.Vac Slop. The condensed portion from the condensers are routed to the hot well from where the noncondensable are sent to the vacuum furnace low-pressure burners or vented to the atmosphere. Vacuum is maintained by a two-stage ejector system with surface condensers. HVGO. 8 .

The effluent from the furnace is routed to the soaker drum for completion of vis-breaking reaction. All other refineries use the carbon rejection process. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The feed passes through the furnace. The quenched effluent then enters the VB fractionator.000 TPA. The design capacity of the plant is 1000. designed for processing a mixture of atmospheric and vacuum residue from 1:1 mixture of Light Arabian and North Rumila crudes. VB Gas Oil and VisBreaker fuel oil (a mixture of VB gas oil and VB tar).B. of which only IOC's Koyali uses both the Hydro cracking and the Catalytic cracking method. The vacuum residue needs further processing either through vis-breaking to produce FO of acceptable quality or can be hardened to be sold as Bitumen. VIS-BREAKING UNIT 2. The Vis-Breaking unit is a thermal cracking unit. The unit produces Gas.2. In the bottom of the fractionator. tar (fuel oil).B. A provision is also made by a small modification to route V. gas oil to HSD pool over and above its original routing provision to V. In India. steam is introduced to remove lighter fractions. It reduces the viscosity and pour point of heavy petroleum fractions so that product can be sold as fuel oil. Heavy Naphtha. where cracking reaction takes place and the conversion in the coil is about 50 to 60 %. Naphtha. The soaker effluent is quenched before entering fractionator by injecting column bottom product (VB Tar). INTRODUCTION Vis-breaking (Viscosity Breaking or VB) is an important application of thermal cracking used to produce Fuel Oil (FO) of lower viscosity while increasing the proportion of light products. 2.2.1. 9 . secondary processing facilities are available in 7 refineries.

is received in the surge drum. Feed ex furnace outlet enters soaker drum bottom. A residence time of 1/2 hr is given in the soaker. Uncondensed gas goes to FCC for recovery of LPG. Stabilized gasoline is sent to storage tank after sulfur removal in Naphtha MEROX Unit. Pump takes suction from heat exchanger and discharges through a set of preheat exchangers and boosters into two furnaces operating in parallel. It is cooled in part of air cooler and routed to HSD pool. Feed comes out from the top after getting cracked under controlled conditions. The tar after cooling is partly sent to the bottom of flash fractionator. The overhead fraction is unstable naphtha and gas.B. tar leaving the unit or can be routed to HSD pool. 10 . The naphtha is stabilized and sent to MEROX unit for sweetening. a mixture of atmospheric and vacuum residue. The VB tar from the main column bottom flows into tar stripper where gas oil fractions are evapourated as a result of pressure reduction. soaker transfer line as quench and the rest goes to storage tank after further cooling by either mixing with gas oil or alone. It is cooled in air cooler and mixed with V. Soaker effluent is quenched by injecting cooled vis-breaker tar to arrest further cracking. gas oil as side stream and the V. There is also provision of processing slop in the unit.VB Tar is removed as the bottom product. A part of gasoline is pumped to fractionator as reflux while the balance goes to stabilizer. tar stripper. Each furnace has two passes and provides heat required for preheating. tar as bottoms. The gas oil is drawn from the pan of the tower and is steam stripped in the stripper to meet flash point specification. The quenched effluent enters the main fractionator where gas and gasoline are withdrawn as overhead.B. The Heavy Naphtha (HN) is drawn from the 10th tray and stripped in HN stripper to meet the flash point specification. The overheads from the fractionator are condenser and water cooler respectively. The feed stock.

the viscosity of product is lowered and simultaneously coke deposits in the furnace tubes & 11 . In the thermal cracking reaction. These products are characterized as "Cracked" products and contain a certain percentage of olefin compounds. When transfer temperature reaches 460 C. heavy oil is kept at a high temperature of a certain amount of time and this causes the larger molecules to break up. The cracked naphtha has higher octane number than straight run gasoline. During the cracking operation.2. Severity of over-all reaction is determined by residence time and temperature of cracking. When above reaction gets repeated several times. Temperature can be varied as per requirement. the end product is coke. The cracking reaction usually does not become evident until transfer temperature crosses 400 C. The resulting product has a random distribution of molecular sizes resulting in products ranging from light gas to heavy gas oil. This results in reduction of viscosity of bottom product. Gas and Naphtha are produced. Residence time in the unit can be varied by varying charge rate and steam injection rate of DMW injection into furnace coils. some coke is usually formed. This is usually found inside the walls of furnace tubes and other spots where oil may remain at high temperature and soak heat for some time. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3  CH3-CH2-CH=CH2 + CH3-CH2-CH3 Cracked products are unstable and form gum.3. Coke is the end product of polymerization reaction in which two large olefin molecules combine to form an even larger olefin molecule. sufficient cracking of oil takes place. Whenever a molecule breaks one of the resulting molecules is an olefin. THEORY OF VIS-BREAKING The Vis-Breaking unit is essentially a Thermal cracking unit designed to operate at mild conditions and to retain all the cracked light oils in the bottom product.

VIS-BREAKER FURNACES Vis-breaker unit is provided with two identical natural draft furnaces. steam generating tubes and oil tubes each of these numbering 6. 2. The purpose of the water injection is to maintain suitable velocity in the furnace tubes and to minimize coking. 10 and 14 respectively. Residence time of the order of half an hour is given in soaker. Effluent from these passes is gathered and sent to soaker drum. Convection section is at the top of the radiation section and above convection section is the stack. Thermocouples are also provided inside furnace tubes for measuring liquid temperatures at different points.soaker. Each of the furnaces is independent with radiation section at the bottom. VBU furnace tubes skin temperature is measured by skin thermocouples provided on tubes in radiation zone. In this section heat is transferred primarily by radiation by flame and hot combustible gases. It enters from the bottom and leaves from the top. Increased severity results in shorter run lengths and unstable fuel oil with sediments in it. There is a provision for on-stream analyzer of SO2 emission from both the stacks. and flue gas to stack temperatures.4. gets completed in soaker drum. It is having steam super heater tubes. Furnaces are provided with thermocouple in radiation and convection zones for measuring tube skin temperatures. The convection section is provided to increase thermal efficiency of the furnace by removing further heat from the flue gases leaving the radiation section. 12 . The maximum allowed tubes skin and box temperature in the heaters is 650 C and 750 C respectively. box temperatures before and after steam coils. which is initiated in the furnace. Thermal cracking of the feed. The radiation section houses the radiation tubes numbering 30 in each pass. They are up-right steel structures with outer steel casing lined with refractory material.

Vapour from stripper top returns back to column just above the blind accumulator tray. A part of gas oil from air cooler is used for washing VB tar filters. Feed enters flash zone below the 26th Valve tray. From the column. which is cascaded with flow controller. The liquid vapour mixture is separated in the reflux drum. It is steam stripped in the stripper to maintain its flash point. The heavy naphtha at a temperature of about 170 C is withdrawn from tray no.5. Temperature in the flash zone is around 420 C. To increase turbulence and to prevent coke deposit in the coils. Gas oil at a temperature of about 260 C is withdrawn from the blind accumulator tray under tray level controller. gas oil as side stream and the VB tar as bottoms. The sour water is drained from the drum boot under interface level controller and routed to sour water stripper. gas & gasoline are separated as overhead.5 kg/cm2 (g). Main reflux drum and its water boot are having level glasses. 2. The heavy naphtha is routed to HSD. Column overhead line is provided with working and controlled safety valves. V.To arrest cracking reactions. 10 under level controller. FRACTIONATOR Soaker effluent after quenching enters fractionator. Gasoline from flash fractionator is picked up by reflux pumps and partly pumped to column top as reflux. 13 . Uncondensed gas from Gas oil stripper goes to FCC/AVU furnaces / Flare. materials from each pass of the two furnaces are individually quenched by the injection of cooled VB tar at 223oC. It is stripped in the stripper to maintain its flash point.B. The remaining gasoline is routed to stabiliser under reflux drum level controller. The overhead vapours from the column are condensed and cooled in heat exchangers. there is provision to inject steam in each pass. Column top pressure is around 4. The purpose of the water injection is to maintain suitable velocity in the furnace tubes and to minimize coking. Blind accumulator tray and stripper are provided with level glasses. The fractionator has 26 valve trays and one blind tray.

Fractionator column bottom. a portion of gas oil from blind tray is taken and pumped in two streams. Temperature of the combined effluent entering main fractionator is maintained at 427 C. It is further cooled to 90C and sent to storage with gas oil. Gas oil stripper bottom should be protected against coking. To protect column bottom against coking. One stream is used as heating media in steam generator where it is cooled from 260 C to 214 C. 2.6. Transfer lines of the two furnaces. Only one filter is kept in service while the other remains as spare. 14 . Cooled VB tar is partly used as quench to 1. 3. 2. feed is heated from 43 C to 120 C while stabilized gasoline is cooled from 180 C to 120C. STABILIZER Un-stabilized gasoline from reflux drum is picked up by reflux pump and then it is pumped to stabilizer through stabilized gasoline exchanger. Bottom temperature is maintained at 351C. Bottom temperature is maintained at 355C. VB tar is then cooled in boiler feed water exchanger from 232C to 210C. In heat exchanger. cooled VB tar at 225 C is injected into bottom as quench. Tar is cooled from 351 C to 225 C in feed exchangers and further cooling to 214 C is done. Safety valve is provided to release gas and protect the vessel from over pressure. Pumps are having two filters in the suction line with gas oil flushing facilities. The second stream supplies re-boiling heat to stabilizer re-boiler and gets cooled from 260 C to 215 C. Gas oil vapours from top of stripper get condensed in air cooler and go to reflux drum.To remove extra heat and to maintain desired temperature profile in column. The column has 30 trays and the feed enters on the 19th.

which release gas.7. Uncondensed gas from the drum goes to FCC/unit fuel gas header.4 kg/cm2 (g).The overhead product at 60 C goes to water condensers. residence time in furnace coil and column reduces causing reduction in severity of cracking reaction resulting in raising the viscosity and pour point of VB tar and in turn reduction of coke lay down in furnace coils & the column.3. if transfer temperature is raised the amount of cracking increases. 15 .2.7. 2. VB TAR QUENCH TO THE COLUMN OUTLET The VB tar quench reduces the temperature at the column outlet and stops further cracking. This quench helps in reducing the tendency to lay down coke in the transfer lines and columns. The condensed liquid is collected in the reflux drum. Column overhead has working and controlled safety valves.1.7. 2. PROCESS VARIABLES 2. FEED RATE When feed rate is increased. In case FCC is shutdown. Pressure at the drum is maintained around 8. 2. gas is burnt in furnaces via gas knock out drum.7. SOAKER OUTLET TRANSFER LINE TEMPERATURE At constant feed rate.

VB TAR QUENCH TO VB TAR STRIPPER BOTTOM To minimise coke formation in tar stripper. Naphtha production will also reduce.7.7.7. VB tar viscosity also goes down.7. Higher pressure makes naphtha and gas oil lighter. The yield of naphtha comes down. cooled VB tar at 225 C is given as quench to its bottom. FRACTIONATOR PRESSURE A lower pressure causes more vapourisation resulting in heavier naphtha and gas oil. Raising the top temperature will increase the FBP of gas oil will come down. VB TAR QUENCH TOP FRACTIONATOR BOTTOM In order to reduce coke formation in the fractionator bottom. 2. cooled VB tar at 225 oC is returned as quench to its bottom.4.2.6. 2. 2.7. 16 .5. FRACTIONATOR TOP TEMPERATURE Lowering the top temperature reduces initial boiling point and flash point of gas oil.

17 .2. STABILISER TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE The stabiliser removes most of butanes and lower hydrocarbons from unstable Naphtha. These are removed as gas from the stabiliser overhead.7. On the other hand. Lower column pressure causes higher amount of hydrocarbons to be carried into the fuel gas system. Higher top temperature makes overhead gas heavies. lower top temperature gives lighter gas.8.

The catalyst-free hydrocarbons are routed to a main fractionator for separation into fuel gas. LPG.3. The catalyst-hydrocarbon mixture flows upward through the riser for just a few seconds and then the mixture is separated via cyclones.1. Pre-heated feed is sprayed into the base of the riser via feed nozzles where it contacts extremely hot fluidized catalyst at 1230 to 1400 °F (665 to 760 °C). gasoline. repeating the cycle. cracking being an endothermic reaction. During the trip up the riser. The "spent" catalyst then flows into a fluidized-bed regenerator where air (or in some cases air plus oxygen) is used to burn off the coke to restore catalyst activity and also provide the necessary heat for the next reaction cycle. cracking takes place using a very active zeolite-based catalyst in a short-contact time vertical or upward sloped pipe called the "riser". and heavy fuel oil. The "spent" catalyst is disengaged from the cracked hydrocarbon vapours and sent to a stripper where it is contacted with steam to remove hydrocarbons remaining in the catalyst pores. FLUID CATALYTIC CRAKING UNIT (FCCU) 3. light cycle oils used in diesel and jet fuel. gasoline. The gasoline produced in the FCC unit has an elevated octane rating but is less chemically stable compared to other gasoline components due to its olefin profile. the cracking catalyst is "spent" by reactions which deposit coke on the catalyst and greatly reduce activity and selectivity. The "regenerated" catalyst then flows to the base of the riser. Olefins in gasoline are responsible for the formation of polymeric deposits in storage tanks. fuel 18 . INTRODUCTION In the newer designs for Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit. The hot catalyst vapourizes the feed and catalyzes the cracking reactions that break down the high molecular weight oil into lighter components including LPG. and diesel.

 Fractionation section and  Gas concentration section.2. This can be accomplished either thermally or catalytically. In this process Heavy Gas Oil cut (Raw Oil) from Vacuum Distillation Section of AVU is catalytically cracked to obtain more valuable light and middle distillates. The present processing capacity of the unit is about 1.  CO boiler The unit is designed to process two different types of feed i. the process produces a higher octane gasoline. which behaves like a fluid when aerated with a vapour. CRACKING SECTION Cracking process uses high temperature to convert heavy hydrocarbons into more valuable lighter products. gas oil operations producing high yields of cycle oils or to LPG operations producing yields of C3-C4 fraction. At the same time. more stable cracked gas and less of the undesirable heavy residual product. The process is also flexible in that it can be tailored to fuel oil. 3. The catalytic process has completely superseded thermal cracking as the catalyst helps the reactions to take place at lower pressures and temperatures. Arab Mix HVGO and Bombay High HVGO. It consists of the following sections:  Cracking section  Catalytic section.ducts and injectors. The fluid Catalytic Cracking process employs a catalyst in the form of minute spherical particles.48 MMT/Yr.e. The FCC LPG is an important source of C3-C4 olefins and isobutane that are essential feeds for the alkylation process and the production of polymers such as polypropylene. This fluidized 19 .

The reactor is a container for cyclone separators at the end of vertical riser.5% by wt. This separation is required to prevent secondary reactions. The catalyst also transfers heat carried with it from one zone to the other viz. Recycle is introduced by 2 HCO and 2 Slurry feed nozzles to the riser. Oil vapours containing a small quantity of catalyst pass overhead through the vapour line into the fractionator. Feed to the FCC Unit is gas oils obtained by vacuum distillation of long residue from the crude distillation unit. Entrained catalyst and hydrocarbon vapours. down through the stripper to the regenerator across to the regenerator standpipe and back to the riser.catalyst is continuously circulated from the reaction zone to the regeneration zone. which will result in higher gas production. Catalyst section consists of the reactor and regenerator together with the standpipes and riser form the catalyst circulation circuit. flow upwards and pass through two cyclone separators attached to top of the reactor. Carbon content in the feedstock should be limited to 0. maximum. In our unit the vacuum cut boiling in the range 380-530 C will be used as feedstock to the FCC Unit. The reaction and regeneration zones form the heart of the 20 . catalytic cracking unit. Cracking reactions start immediately as the gas oil comes into contact with the hot catalyst. These cyclones remove most of the entrained catalyst. The vertical riser is in fact the reactor in which the entire reaction takes place. after cracking. The catalyst circulates up the riser to the reactor. T head separators mounted on top of the riser separate the catalyst from the oil vapours. Fresh feed after heat exchange and heating up to 340-360 C in a feed pre-heater enters through 4 fresh feed nozzles to the riser. This carbon content increases with heavier charge stock. The feed is vapourized and raised to the reactor temperature by the hot catalyst flowing upward through the riser. These reactions continue till the oil vapours are separated from the catalyst in the reactor. in the vessels reactor and regenerator.

drop across slide valve. Most of the heat in the catalyst is given to the feed in the reactor riser to raise it to the reaction temperature and to provide the heat of reaction. which behaves like a fluid when aerated with a vapour. The flue gas 'is passed through' the orifice chamber & regenerator. Orifice chamber holds backpressure downstream of double-disc slide valve. The sensible and chemical heat in flue gas is utilized to generate steam in CO Boiler. Catalyst particles in the flue gas leaving the regenerator are separated at the top of regenerator by three sets of two-stage cyclones.Coke is deposited on the catalyst in the reaction zone. This fluidized catalyst is continuously circulated from the reaction zone to the regeneration zone.3. Pressure is controlled by double disc slide valve. The heat of combustion raises the catalyst temperature to more than 600 C. After steam stripping to remove oil vapours from it the catalyst flows from the reactor standpipe to the regenerator through a slide valve in the regenerator. The flue gas contains both CO and CO2 as carbon is burnt off partly to CO and partly to CO2 in the regenerator. oxygen for burning being supplied by an air blower. bearing flue gas stream. Feed to the FCC Unit is gas oils obtained by vacuum distillation of long residue from the crude distillation unit. Air from the blower is uniformly given to the regenerator through a pipe grid at its bottom. Conradson carbon content in the feedstock should be 21 . The spent catalyst flows downwards into the stripping section of the reactor. The regenerated catalyst from the standpipe flows into the riser through a slide valve to complete the catalyst circulation cycle. In our unit the vacuum cut boiling in the range 380-530°C is used as feedstock to the FCC Unit. 3. By reducing the pr. operating life of slide valve is greatly extended by avoiding sudden accelerations of catalyst. the coke is burnt off. CATALYTIC SECTION The Fluid Catalytic Cracking process employs a catalyst in the form of minute spherical particles.

Entrained catalyst and hydrocarbon vapours. maximum. down through the stripper to the regenerator across to the regenerator standpipe and back to the riser.limited to 0.5 maximum. The regenerated catalyst from the standpipe flows into the riser through a slide valve to complete the catalyst circulation 22 . Oil vapours containing a small quantity of catalyst pass overhead through the vapour line into the fractionator. Metal contaminants of the feedstock are also to be limited to a metal factor of 2. After steam stripping to remove oil vapours from it the catalyst flows from the reactor standpipe to the regenerator through a slide valve in the regenerator. Most of the heat in the catalyst is given to the feed in the reactor riser to raise it to the reaction temperature and to provide the heat of reaction. In the riser the combined feed is vapourized and raised to the reactor temperature by the hot catalyst flowing upward through the riser. The catalyst circulates up the riser to the reactor. Cracking reactions start immediately as the gas oil comes into contact with the hot catalyst. Coke is deposited on the catalyst in the reaction zone. oxygen for burning being supplied by an air blower. flow upwards and pass through two cyclone separators attached to top of the reactor. The reactor is a container for cyclone separators at the end of vertical riser.5% by wt. the coke is burnt off. Metal Factor = Fe + V + (Ni + Cu) Catalyst section consists of the reactor and regenerator together with the standpipes and riser form the catalyst circulation circuit. The vertical riser is in fact the reactor in which the entire reaction takes place. Fresh feed after heating up to 350 C in a feed pre-heater along with recycle streams enters the base of the riser. These cyclones remove most of the entrained catalyst. after cracking. The heat of combustion raises the catalyst temperature to more than 600 C. The spent catalyst flows downwards into the stripping section of the reactor.

the vapours coming out of the reactor top at very high temperature are fractionated into wet gas and un-stabilized gasoline overhead products. Heavy cycle oil drawn from the column is totally recycled along with the feed after providing for the recycle stream to the column. The sensible and chemical heat in flue gas is utilized to generate steam in CO Boiler. From the settler bottom. The flue gas contains both CO and CO2 as carbon is burnt off partly to CO and partly to CO2 in the regenerator.cycle. 3. The column bottom slurry containing a small quantity of catalyst is sent to a slurry settler. FRACTIONATION SECTION In this section. clarified oil product is taken out after cooling. From the top of slurry settler. TYPE OF CATALYSTS The unit requires two types of catalysts.3. which is microspheriadical in shape. the thickened slurry is recycled back to the riser for recovering catalyst and further cracking. 23 . Catalyst particles in the flue gas leaving the regenerator are separated at the top of regenerator by three sets of two-stage cyclones. (i) Fresh catalyst (ii) Equilibrium catalyst The unit is designed for use of high ZEOLITE catalyst. viz. which goes for blending in Fuel Oil. 3.1. heavy naphtha.4. and light cycle oil as side products. as fresh catalyst.

3. thus releasing the heat of combustion of CO in the boiler. This process can be used to treat liquids such as liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). 4. Gas from the HP receiver is sent to the Primary Absorber for recovery of C3's and heavier components by absorption with stabilized gasoline taken from the debutanizer column bottom and un-stabilized gasoline from main column overhead receiver. natural-gas liquids (NGL). gasoline. naphtha.3. In the CO Boiler. the rest being inert like nitrogen. CO BOILER The flue gas leaving the regenerator via orifice chamber contains 8-13% carbon monoxide. INTRODUCTION The MEROX process efficiently and economically treats petroleum fractions to remove mercaptan sulfur (MEROX extraction) or to convert mercaptan sulfur to lessobjectionable disulfides (MEROX sweetening).5. carbon dioxide. Both LPG and gasoline are MEROX treated before routing to storage. flue gas is burnt with air converting carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.6. Rich gasoline from absorber bottom is recycled back to the HP receiver. etc. steam.1. This heat as well as the sensible heat in flue gas available at a high temperature is utilized for raising medium pressure steam. MEROX UNIT (MERCAPTAN OXIDATION) 4. GAS CONCENTRATION SECTION The wet gas from the fractionator overhead receiver is compressed in a two-stage centrifugal compressor and sent to a high-pressure (HP) receiver after cooling. The stripped gasoline is further stabilized in the debutanizer removing C3 and C4 components from it as cracked LPG and bottom product as stabilized FCC gasoline. 24 .

Both investment and operating costs are higher in case of hydro desulphurization. Similar products from secondary processes such as FCC also contain hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans to a greater degree compared to straight-run products. Mercaptans are substances with obnoxious odor and. in order to handle and store them. the extent of which mainly depends upon the type of crude processed. The specifications of above products include 'Doctor Test' which must be negative and is generally related to the extent of mercaptan present. Straight-run LPG. 25 . refinery gas. Hydrogensulfide can be easily removed by washing with dilute caustic solution. and heating oil.kerosene. jet fuels. Hydrogen sulfide is corrosive and should be removed in order to meet specifications on corrosion rate. and synthetic gas in conjunction with conventional pre-treatment and posttreatment processes. However. gasoline and kerosene fractions obtained from atmospheric distillation may contain hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans. The specification for LPG. Kerosene and ATF include copper strip corrosion test which is a measure of rate of corrosion on copper containing materials. Hydro desulphurization is normally employed only if reduction of total sulphur level is also required. gasoline. therefore. It can also be used to treat gases such as natural gas. mercaptan level will have to be brought down to an acceptable odor level. for reducing the mercaptan level many processes are available like:  Strong alkali-wash  Copper sweetening  Doctor sweetening  MEROX process  Hydro desulphurization Alkali-wash is effective only if low molecular weight mercaptans are involved.

they are soluble in caustic. the process can be used to extract mercaptan to the extent. In the treatment of heavier boiling fractions such as heavy naphtha and kerosene only sweetening is possible. 26 . gasoline and distillates to remove mercaptans into disulfides. Low molecular weight mercaptans are soluble in caustic solution and therefore when treating LPG and light gasoline fractions. USA..2. MEROX PROCESS DESCRIPTION  MEROX process equipment  Pretreatment  Extraction section  Sweetening  Post treatment  MEROX catalysts The MEROX process licensed by M/S Universal Oil Products Co. is for the chemical treatment of LPG. The overall reaction is as follows: 2RSH + 1/2O2 RSSR + H2O The oxidation is carried out in the presence of an aqueous alkaline solution such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. Extraction of mercaptan reduces the sulphur content of the treated product. The removal of mercaptans may be either partial or full. The reaction proceeds at an economical rate at normal rundown temperature of refinery streams. The chemical treatment is based on the ability of MEROX catalysts to promote the oxidation of mercaptan to disulfide using air as the source of oxygen. (UOP).4. Alternatively mercaptans can be converted to disulfides without removing any sulphur from the treated stock in which case the operation is referred to as sweetening.

Improved extraction is favored by: (i) Low temperature (ii) High concentration of caustic 27 .2. which coat the catalyst and block the pores. Dilute caustic is used so as to avoid formation of emulsions.2. Hence. the procedure used is to wash with dilute caustic.1. where carry-over of water from distillation units can be expected must be passed through a coalescer for removal of suspended water prior to caustic wash. 4. Feedstock. which would otherwise dilute the caustic used for pretreatment. Further it blocks some of the catalyst activity sites slowing down the normal reaction and also consumes part of the oxygen available. PRETREATMENT Petroleum fractions may contain hydrogen sulfide and stocks boiling higher than 180°C may also contain naphthenic acids. Hydrogen sulfide is not a catalyst poison as such. For removal of naphthenic acids. Naphthenic acids also interfere with treating operations and must be removed prior to treatment. it is recommended that hydrogen sulfide is removed by washing with dilute alkali solution before the distillate is sent to reactor for treatment. they form sodium naphthenates. The reactor contains caustic and if naphthenic acids are not removed.4. low molecular weight mercaptans are caustic soluble and can easily be removed by washing with caustic in a counter current tower. EXTRACTION SECTION As previously stated. however. The haze can easily be removed by coalescing through a sand filter.2. be some carry-over of haze depending on the acidity of stock treated. but will dilute the caustic containing MEROX catalyst by reacting with caustic. There could.

which is formed. The mercaptan enters the caustic solution and reacts as follows: RSH + NaOH  NaSR + H2O This being a reversible reaction the degree of completion of reaction is governed by normal equilibrium laws.(iii)Lower molecular wt. viz. The presence of MEROX catalyst in extraction caustic does not however. as it is insoluble in caustic. 28 . of mercaptans Type of mercaptans. affect the amount of mercaptans extracted and extraction is dependent only on parameters explained earlier. tertiary mercaptans least extractable and secondary being in between. The disulfides oil. normal mercaptans are easily extractable. Caustic can be reused for extraction. separates out from caustic. The sodium mercaptide is readily oxidized to disulfide in the presence of MEROX catalyst as shown: 2NaSR + l/2O2 + H2O  2NaOH + RSSR This is not a reversible reaction and the reaction rate is sped up by: (i) Raising the temperature (ii) Use of excess air (iii)Increasing the intimacy of contact (iv) Increasing the catalyst concentration The oxidation of mercaptides is carried out in oxidizer in the presence of MEROX catalyst.

The reactor is followed by a settler. the oxidation is carried out only in the presence of alkali solution. The reaction is as follows: RSH + NaOH  NaSR + H2O 2NaSR + l/2O2 + H2O  2NaOH + RSSR As can be seen from reactions. Caustic is intermittently circulated from the settler over the catalyst bed to wet the charcoal. fitted with a series of plates with orifices. Impregnation of catalyst on bed is achieved by dissolving the catalyst with ammonia solution and pumping ammonia solution over charcoal. air and caustic containing MEROX catalyst are simultaneously controlled in a mixer. The sweetening process is based on the ability of MEROX catalyst to promote the oxidation of mercaptans to disulfide using air as the source of oxygen. which is a vessel. For liquid-liquid sweetening. The Sweetening can be accomplished either as solid bed sweetening.3. which serves as reservoir of caustic. Air is injected ahead of reactor and in the presence of MEROX catalyst the mercaptans are oxidized to disulfide. where the hydrocarbons and caustic are simultaneously controlled over a solid support impregnated with MEROX catalyst or as liquid-liquid sweetening. which contains a bed of activated charcoal impregnated with MEROX catalyst and kept wet with caustic solution.2. where hydrocarbon. Solid bed sweetening consists of a reactor.4. SWEETENING Sweetening can be defined as conversion of mercaptan sulphur present in a hydrocarbon stream to disulfide sulphur without actually reducing sulphur content of treated stock. the most common type of mixer used is the orifice plate mixer. The vessel provides adequate residence time and the orifice plates create enough turbulence to bring 29 .

Water wash is followed by a salt filter to remove entrained water and part of the dissolved water. Hence heavy gasoline and Kerosene may have to be treated using fixed bed reactor. 4. each one being used for specific service.about the intimate contact between hydrocarbons. This is a caustic dispersible catalyst. Post treatment is required if the product is to go to storage. clear and bright. This is also used for oxidation of extraction caustic in oxidizers. if present in feed. the more difficult it is to accomplish necessary mixing. However. Catalyst FB is to be used on units equipped with solid bed sweetening reactors.5. MEROX CATALYSTS There are two types of MEROX catalyst. 4.2. POST TREATMENT The product from the MEROX reactor will at times contain caustic haze. Catalyst WS is used for liquid-liquid sweetening in mixers. for treatment of ATF. This may be followed by clay filter to remove copper and water insoluble surfactants.2. which has to meet stringent specifications caustic must be removed by water wash after caustic settling. The higher the molecular weight or the more highly branched the mercaptan is. caustic.4. In most cases provision of caustic settler and sand filter is adequate to remove caustic haze. 30 . catalyst and air. Water wash removes entrained caustic as well as water soluble surfactants.

segregated via a complex system of valves.1. coke burning. the catalyst passes a heat exchanger in which it is heated up against hot feed. In the reduction zone. catalyst is lifted by hydrogen to the top of the reactor stack. the reactors are cleverly stacked. oxychlorination and drying are done in different sections. From the bottom of the regenerator stack. which performs a reduction of the catalyst surface. cyclic type and the continuous regenerative type. in a special area called the reduction zone. the 'spent' catalyst is 'lifted' by nitrogen to the top of the regenerator stack. thereby restoring its activity. The different types of reformers are classified as a fixed-bed type.5. During the regeneration process. In the regenerator. a constant catalyst activity can be maintained without unit shut down for a typical run length of 3 . From the bottom of the reactor stack. CONTINUOUS CATALYTIC REFORMING UNIT (CCRU) 5. Catalytic reforming is normally facilitated by a bi-functional catalyst that is capable of rearranging and breaking long-chain hydrocarbons as well as removing hydrogen from naphthenes to produce aromatics. the refinery will suffer production loss. In such a continuous regeneration process. The product stream of the reformer is generally referred to as reformate. Under hot conditions it is brought in contact with hydrogen. Reformate produced by this process has a very high octane rating. INTRODUCTION A catalytic reforming process converts a feed stream containing paraffins. In the Continuous Catalytic Reforming unit. Olefins and naphthene to aromatics. the above mentioned different steps. purge-flows and screens. semi-regenerative type. This classification is based on the ability of the unit to operate without bringing down the catalyst for Regeneration.6 years. so that the catalyst can flow under gravity. The 31 . The idea of a Catalytic Reforming Unit is to have RON (Research Octane Number) as high as possible at the same time keeping the Olefins. Significant quantities of hydrogen are also produced as a by-product. Benzene & Aromatics under the specified limits.

32 . is 87. NAPHTHA SPLITTING UNIT This unit has been designed to split SR naphtha (144 MT/hr for BH and 95 MT/hr for AM) to C5-80 oC and 80-115 oC cut.2. which is called naphtha splitter. Due to the restriction on Benzene content in the final product (motor spirit). the gasoline from storage tanks and CDU is sent to a column. di-olefins. olefins. The octane no. oxygen.1.purpose of the CCR unit is to produce a high octane no.1. The bottom product of naphtha splitter is sent to the NHU. the IBP of the heavier cut is raised to approximately 105 oC. In this unit. NAPHTHA HYDROTREATER UNIT The purpose of Naphtha hydrotreater is to eliminate the impurities (such as sulphur. The whole CRU can be divided into three subunits as:  Naphtha Splitting Unit (NSU)  Naphtha Hydro-treater Unit (NHU)  Catalytic Reforming Unit 5. whereas the required value of the octane no. This is achieved by the use of selected catalyst (nickel. nitrogen. 88 and 93. NSU can be operated with naphtha directly from AVU (hot feed) and from OM&S (Cold feed). 5. of the gasoline coming from the AVU is around 66. This mixture is heated to 340 OC in the furnace and then passed to the hydrotreater reactor at a pressure of 22 kg/cm2. which is eliminated in stripper.1. water. it can also be operated using both the feed simultaneously. reformate. containing 40 valve trays. halogens. molybdenum) and optimum operating conditions except for water. For removal of benzene. the naphtha coming from the NSU is mixed with H2 which comes from the reforming unit. arsenic and metals) from the feed that would otherwise affect the performance and lifetime of reformer catalyst.

The effluent of the reactor is sent to stripper section to eliminate the light end. The bottom product of the stripper is either sent to storage or the reforming unit.In the reactor. Feed is filtered to remove any foreign particles.3. R-2 & R-3) each provided with reaction heater. Due to the endothermic nature of the reforming reactions. The light gases from the top of stripper are sent to amine wash unit. the overall reforming is achieved in stages with inter stage heater provided to raise the temperature. S. which maintains the heat requirement. chloriding agent and water injection are done. there are two beds of catalyst. and O are converted to NH3. 5. Water injection (not on regular basis) is done to maintain Cl-OH equilibrium on the catalyst when regenerator is out of service.1. At the D/S of the feed filter. mainly the H2S and moisture from the reformate feed. H2S and H2O respectively. The filters must be provided for the protection of the welded plate exchanger. Dosing @ 1 ppm wt CCl4 in feed is done when continuous regeneration unit is down. REFORMING UNIT Feed for the Reforming unit (94 m3/hr at 14 kg/cm2 and 110 oC) is received directly from hydrotreater stripper after heat exchanger. the unsaturated hydrocarbons are converted to saturated hydrocarbons and in the second bed impurities like N. CCl4 solution of 1% in reformate is dosed by pump. Feed mixed with recycle H2 stream gets preheated in PACKINOX exchanger from 91C to 451C by the effluent from 3rd Reactor which gets cooled down from 497 C to 98C. 33 . There is a reboiler attached to the bottom of the stripper. There are three Reactors (15R-1. In one bed.

the regenerated catalyst returns to the first reactor. from one reactor bottom to the top of the next one. of 3" pipes.2 MMT/year (165. in the space between the external grid and the central pipe from the top to the bottom. REACTORS In the reactors. the feed contacts the reforming catalyst which is divided approximately in the ratio 15: 30: 55. The objective of the Hydro Cracking Unit is to produce middle distillate fuel of superior 34 . Catalyst enters the reactor through 12 nos. The remaining gas is routed to a re-contacting section to improve hydrogen purity and recover liquid yield.6 m³/hr.000 BPSD). flows through the space between external grid and the central pipe from top to bottom and exits through 12 nos. Reactor effluent after passing through PACKINOX exchanger is cooled in air cooler to 65 C and then by trim cooler to 45C before entering the separator. In the CCR process. It is equipped with one inlet & one outlet nozzle for feed & effluent respectively. the catalyst circulates continuously in reactors. 25. of 2"pipes. Gas tight baffle is provided on the outlet pipe to avoid shortcircuiting of the feed to outlet pipe at the entrance.5. ONCE THROUGH HYDROCRACKER UNIT (OHCU) 6. 6.1. INTRODUCTION Hydro Cracking Unit is designed for 1. The radial flow of feed is achieved by directing the flow through external grid to catalyst bed & exit is made to central outlet collector pipe. from the last reactor to the regeneration unit for regeneration. From the regeneration unit.2. slow moving bed of bimetallic catalyst and exits through the outlet nozzle at the bottom. The separated gas is compressed in the recycle gas compressor and a part is recycled to the reactors. Each reactor is a vertical cylindrical vessel with spherical heads.

0 kg/cm2 (g)] steam. The lead and main reactors contain hydro treating and hydro cracking catalyst (Si/Al with Ni-Co-Fe) for denitrification. All the H2S will be removed by absorbing in DEA. The reactor effluent is initially cooled by heat exchange with the VGO feed and then by heat exchange with recycle gas and with the product fractionator feed.e. PROCESS DESCRIPTION The Hydrocracker Unit consists of four principle sections:  Make-Up Hydrogen Compression  Reaction Section  Fractionation Section  Light Ends Recovery Section 6. The combined oil and gas streams are heated in the feed/effluent exchangers and then further heated to the desired reactor inlet temperature in the reactor feed furnace. Arab Mix HVGO. 6.1.quality. Bombay High HVGO.2. desulphurization. 35 . The preheated and filtered oil feed is combined with a preheated mixture of make-up hydrogen from the make-up hydrogen compression section and hydrogen-rich recycle gas from the recycle gas compressor in a gas-to-oil ratio of 845 Nm3/m3. The feed control system allows the operator to control the ratio of Arab Mix and Bombay High VGOs in order to set the relative rates of each. The unit is designed to process two different types of feed i. The effluent is then used to generate medium pressure [12.2. The reactor system contains one reaction stage consisting of two reactors in series in a single high-pressure loop. REACTOR FEED SYSTEM Fresh feed to the Hydrocracker consists of a blend of Arab Mix and Bombay High VGO. and conversion of the raw feed to products.

condensed light hydrocarbons. NH3. H2S. 36 .After the effluent stream is cooled. Subsequently it enters the effluent vapour air cooler. Hydrogen-rich recycle gas is sent to a High Pressure H2S absorber. The H2S is removed from the recycle gas by being absorbed by an amine solution (25 wt % Di-ethanol amine) flowing countercurrent to the recycle gas. Part of the compressed recycled gas is used as quench gas and the remaining recycle gas combined with make-up hydrogen to form the reactor feed gas. exits the CHPS. and sour water enter the CHPS at 65C. the lean amine is sent to a surge drum before being pumped up to system pressure. After heating. and enters the recycle gas loop. The hydrogen-rich vapour from the knockout drum flows to the recycle compressor (Centrifugal Compressor) that restores the pressure losses accumulated as the gas flows through the high-pressure loop. where it is let down in pressure before entering the hot low-pressure separator (HLPS). Hydrogen-rich recycle gas separates from the oil and water phases. and light hydrocarbon gases. Liquid from the HHPS flows to the power recovery turbine (PRT). The H2S absorber vapour flows to Porta Separator and then to the recycle compressor knockout drum. Cooled reactor effluent vapour. where it exchanges heat with the reactor feed gas. containing about 7 wt % ammonium bisulfide. The H2S-rich amine stream from the bottom of the absorber is let down in pressure and sent to a flash drum and amine regeneration unit. Liquid hydrocarbon is drawn off and is sent to the CLPS. The lean amine is heated by heat exchange with diesel product and then by steam. is drawn from the separator bottom and sent to sour water stripping. it is sent to the HHPS at 210°C to separate the reactor products from the excess hydrogen and gases formed in the reactors. where any entrained liquid is removed. The effluent vapour separated in the HHPS contains most of the H2. The effluent vapour is cooled by heat exchange with the CLPS liquid. The sour water.

1999. 6. The feed to the de-ethaniser comes from the combined liquid stream leaving the de-ethaniser reflux drum and is pumped to the top of the deethaniser.e. directive w.6.2. and heat exchange equipment is designed to separate conversion products from unconverted feed. The reaction products recovered from the column are Sour Gas (Off gas). HGO. The fractionator off-gas and unstable light naphtha are sent to the light ends recovery section for recovery of LPG and light naphtha product. DE-ETHANISER The de-ethaniser remove light ends (C2).25 w/w %) as per govt. side cut strippers. 5% SR LVGO 37 .3. Feed consists of different proportion of straight run LGO.1. H2S. Heavy Naphtha.2. Unstable Light Naphtha. Kerosene. Feed enters the top of the column. INTRODUCTION DHDS (Diesel hydro desulphurization unit) is set up for the following purposes:  A step towards pollution control  To produce low sulphur diesel (0. DIESEL HYDRO DESULFURIZATION UNIT (DHDS) 7. 7. Oct. LVGO and TCO.f. FRACTIONTATION SECTION The fractionation section consisting of the fractionator. Mainly two proportions are used:  74% SR LGO. 21% SR HGO. and water from the light naphtha and LPG. Diesel and FCC Feed.2.

DEA solution. olefins). 38 . The feed is a mixture of products containing unsaturated components (diolefins. Different catalysts based on Nickel and Molybdenum Oxide are used to enhance the rate of reactions. Rich Amine containing absorbed H2S is sent to ARU for amine regeneration. Lean amine for absorption operation is available from Amine Regeneration Unit (ARU). Sulfur and nitrogen contents are dependent upon the crude. Denitrification improves the product stability. Nickel has been selected because it boosts the hydrogenating activity. In addition to the desulphurization. 20% TCO The DHDS unit treats different gas oils from various origins. Its fine granulometry and large surface area allow a deep desulphurization rate. 7. 48% SR LGO. it consists of cobalt and molybdenum oxides dispersed on an active alumna. straight run or cracked products. The purpose of DHDS Unit is to hydro-treat a blend of straight run gas oil and cracked gas oil (TCO) for production of HSD of sulfur content less than 500 ppm wt. The hydrogen is supplied from the hydrogen unit. The Hydrodesulphurization reaction releases H2S in gaseous hydrocarbon effluents. the diolefins and olefins will be saturated and a denitrification will occur. 24% SR HGO. The HR-348 and HR-448 are desulphurization catalysts. Sulfur compounds and Nitrogen compounds. CATALYSTS Catalysts used for this process are HR-945 and HR-348/448. Aromatics.2. This H2S removal is achieved by means of a continuous absorption process using a 25% wt.The HR-945 is a mixture of nickel and molybdenum oxides on a special support. 8% SR LVGO.

Recycle gas quench is given in between reactor catalyst beds to control inlet temperature of lower bed. Reactor effluent from reactor bottom is utilized for preheating of feed in exchangers. This gas is treated with lean DEA solution in highpressure amine absorber. The other part of reactor effluent is utilized to preheat the stripper feed in exchangers.3. The treated gas goes to recycle gas compressor through recycle gas compressor knockout drum. PROCESS DESCRIPTION Feed can be received from three sources:  From feed tanks  Directly from AVU  TCO from FCC Feed from above sources pass through feed filter and is received in feed surge drum. Water if any shall be collected in the water boot of surge drum and its discharge passes through pre-heat exchangers. Water from CHPS boot is sent partially to water drum and balance to sour water stripper unit. Feed then enters heater in four passes and then to reactor. The liquid hydrocarbon under level control from CHPS is sent as feed to stripper after preheating heat exchanger. Sweet diesel from bottom of stripper exchanges heat with stripper feed in exchangers and is pumped to storage under stripper bottom level control before routing to 39 . The reactor has two catalyst beds. Hydrogen recycle joins the feed before heat exchangers. The level of feed surge drum is controlled by controller. All the effluent join and enter to reactor effluent cooler and condenser and finally to cold high pressure separator (CHPS).7. which can be cascaded with feed from storage or feed from AVU. The vapour phase from CHPS is sent to high-pressure amine absorber through high-pressure amine knockout drum.

7. HYDROGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE The hydrogen partial pressure has to be kept as high as possible. Water if any is separated in coalescer. Diesel is cooled in air cooler and water cooler.  Hydrodesulphurization  Hydrogenation of nitrogen and oxygen compounds 40 . then passed through coalescer preheater.4.4. in order to favour the desirable reactions:  Hydrodesulphurization  Hydrogenation of nitrogen and oxygen compounds High hydrogen partial pressure decreases the undesirable reactions of:  Hydro cracking  Coking 7. PROCESS VARIABLES 7.storage tank.4. TEMPERATURE The reaction temperature must be kept as low as possible because the most desirable reactions do not need high temperature to remain at desirable rates.1.2.

Process licensor for HGU is HTAS.000 MTPY of Hydrogen.1. The first catalyst in the desulphurization system is a cobalt-molybdenum hydrogenation catalyst.8.  Desulphurization  Reforming  CO-Conversion 8. The liquid naphtha is evapourated to one of the naphtha feed vapourizers. The plant is divided into 3 sections. 8. R1 – S – R2 + 2H2 → R1 – H + R2 – H + H2S 41 . FEED The hydrogen generation unit can be fed either by naphtha or natural gas. DESULPHURIZATION The desulphurization takes place in two steps. The hydrocarbon feed is heated to 380°-400 OC by heat exchange with superheated steam in the naphtha feed pre-heater.I The Hydrogen plant is designed for production of 34.2. The naphtha feed is pressurized to about 35 Kg/cm2g by one of the naphtha feed pumps and sent to the desulphurization section. The pressurized feed is mixed with recycle hydrogen from the hydrogen header. Denmark. HYDROGEN GENERATION UNIT (HGU) .

3. where all higher hydrocarbons are converted into methane.3. 8. 42 . TUBULAR REFORMER The pre-converted process gas is further preheated to approximately 650°C in the reformer feed preheat coil before it is sent to the tubular reformer containing 126 catalyst tubes maintained at desired temperature.Having passed the hydrogenation catalyst in the first reactor the hydrogenated process feed is sent to the sulphur absorbers. carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. PRE-REFORMER The mixture of gas and steam (the process gas) is heated to approximately 490 OC. ZnO + H2S → ZnS + H2O The concentration of sulphur leaving the absorbers shall be lower than 50 ppm. The preheated process gas passes the pre-converter.3. REFORMING SECTION 8. 8.2. hydrogen. Here the H2S formed is absorbed by the ZnO absorption catalyst.1. The reformer effluent leaves the tubes at a temperature of approximately 930 ° C.

43 . so that air low in oxygen meets the fresh feed first. the harder the residual bitumen. This makes it possible to set the air-to-feed ratio (and thus the product quality) by controlling both air supply and feed supply rate. The grade of the bitumen depends on the amount of volatile material that remains in the product: the smaller the amount of volatiles. The blown bitumen is withdrawn continuously from the surge vessel under level control and pumped to storage through feed/product heat exchangers. The liquid level in the blowing column is kept constant by means of an internal draw-off pipe. This. local overheating and cracking of bituminous material. The blowing process for bitumen preparation is carried out continuously in a blowing column. enters the column just below the liquid level and flows downward in the column and then upward through the draw-off pipe. normally called "bitumen" is obtained by vacuum distillation or vacuum flashing of an atmospheric residue. Air is blown through the molten mass (280-300 0C) via an air distributor in the bottom of the column. INTRODUCTION Asphaltic bitumen.1. This is “straight run" bitumen. will minimise the temperature effects of the exothermic oxidation reactions. The feed to the blowing unit (at approximately 210 0C). An alternative method of bitumen production is by precipitation from residual fractions by propane or butane. The bitumen and air flow are countercurrent.solvent de-asphalting. together with the mixing effect of the air bubbles jetting through the molten mass. BITUMEN BLOWING UNIT (BBU) 9.9. The bitumen thus obtained has properties which are derived from the type of crude oil processed and from the mode of operation in the vacuum unit or in the solvent deasphalting unit.

FEED SUPPLY SYSTEM The feed to the unit consists of hot SR taken directly from the vacuum unit or cold residue from tanks. The higher the asphaltene content. As refinery would be processing both Imported and Bombay high crude in blocked out cyclic operation. PROCESS DESCRIPTION 9. The tanks can be used both for storing feed as well as finished bitumen. Bitumen is a colloidal solution of asphaltenes and associated high molecular gums in the medium formed by oils and low molecular gums.2.2. Flow control valves control feed flow to individual reactors.1. 44 . 9.2. the unit will not get hot feed during the period AVU processes indigenous crude. 9.Air residue having boiling point 530oC (TBP) is obtained from North Rumaila crude.2. The pumps take feed from the tanks and discharge it through unit heater for heating to the reaction temperature. the more solid is the bitumen. Asphaltene content in the bitumen influences its solidity and softening point. To avoid shut down of BBU under such circumstances or when VDU is down the unit will be supplied cold feed from the tanks. COLD FEED PUMPS AND FEED PREHEATING The unit receives cold feed from storage tanks. Gums increase bitumen binding properties and elasticity. Air blowing of vacuum residue at high temperature considerably increases the contents of gums and asphaltenes at the expense of conversion of a portion of hydrocarbon into condensed oil. The hot feed goes to reactors at 200-210oC in two parallel streams.

Pumps supply cold feed to furnace at temperature of 150-180oC. 9. Oxygen content in the reactor overhead gas is not allowed to exceed 5%. Feed enters through convection zone at the top and control valves control flow of each stream.BITUMEN FURNACE It is a natural draft furnace with convection and radiation sections.4.3. 9. The feed first picks up heat from the flue gases in the convection section and then it is heated in the radiation zone coils. FINISHED BITUMEN CIRCUIT Finished bitumen from the reactors at 240-260oC is pumped in parallel streams and cooled in two groups of air-coolers up to 170-200oC.2. In the vapour space there is steam injection facility to avoid after burning of gases coming from the reactor. Cooled bitumen is routed to storage tanks through two separate rundown lines. The furnace is provided with one oil-cum-gas burner at its base. The two sections are having horizontal and vertical feed coils respectively. Provision also exists to operate the furnace as a simple coil pass while operating at low turndown ratio. 45 . The feed is heated up to 230oC. Oxidation of the residue is carried out at a temperature of about 240-260oC. The two passes join together at the outlet of furnace and are routed to reactors in two parallel streams. REACTORS Compressed air at 80oC is supplied through spargers provided at the reactor bottom. Furnace has two coil passes. The convection section forms rectangular box while radiation zone is cylindrical in shape.2.

The uncondensed gas at 170oC passes through demister pads in the overhead lines. 9. REACTOR OVERHEAD SYSTEM From the top of the reactors the hydrocarbon vapours. Liquid separated is drained to OWS. INCINERATOR Overhead gases from separator enter the incinerator from the top where they are burnt at a temperature of 700-1000oC.2.6. The combined vapour-liquid mixture from the cooler goes to oxidation gas separators. OXIDATION GAS SEPARATORS The vapour-liquid mixture from air coolers separate here.9. 46 .2. steam and unreacted air at about 220-240oC go to air coolers where they are cooled to 170oC. Separator bottom at around 170oC is periodically pumped through another cooler. The two gas streams join a common header and go to the incinerator for final combustion. Oil is cooled to 80oC and sent to FFS tanks/IFO tanks. which operate in parallel.5.

OHCU unit is processed in unit ARU to separate out H2S and amine solution (lean amine). 47 . INRODUCTION Diethanol amine almost saturated with H2S (rich amine) and received at battery limit from DHDS. 10. The liberated hydrocarbons from the top of the column enter the flare header through a pressure control valve. which spoils the catalyst. and dia. AMINE RECOVERY UNIT (ARU) 10. hydrocarbons in the amine get liberated. which is obtained as bottom product from ARU.8 kg/cm2. Top section is packed with raschig rings. The column top pressure is maintained at 2. AMINE FLASH DRUM The rich amine containing absorbed H2S and CO2 from amine absorber and LPG MEROX units enter the amine flash column at a pressure of about 5 kg/cm2 and temperature of 55oC. Rich amine at 5 kg/cm2 is flashed into the column to a pressure of 2.8 kg/cm2.4 in.1. When column pressure rises. thereby reducing the quantity of hydrocarbons going with sour gas to sulphur unit.10. Because of flashing. H2S and other light components present in the rich amine are separated out as overhead product. = 500 mm at the top and 1600 mm at the bottom of section. FCC. The bottom section contains four single pass valve trays. a valve opens and lets off the liberated hydrocarbons to flare and when pressure drops pressure valve opens for fuel gas (FG) to enter the column.2.1. PROCESS DESCRIPTION 10. Height of flash column is approximately 11.2.

Sour gas from the reflux drum top goes to the sulphur recovery plant by the production of Sulphur. antifoaming agent dosing is needed. Amine reboiler is heated by LP steam. A portion of cold lean amine is passed through charcoal filter to remove iron impurities due to corrosion and to a sand filter to absorb charcoal and sent to suction line of lean amine pump.5 kg/cm2. 48 . Foaming is caused due to contamination of amine solution by condensed light hydrocarbons.A slipstream reflux of lean amine solution is fed into the top of column above the packing to reabsorb any H2S liberated during flashing from the bottom of the flash column. So regenerated amine can be reused in absorber. The excess pressure drop is due to foaming of amine inside the column. The liberated sour gases leave the regenerator from the top and enter the overhead condenser where gases are cooled and steam is condensed to 45oC. Reactions involved are: R2NH3S  R2NH + H2S where R = CH3CH2OH The top temperature of regenerator is about 105oC and middle temperature is about 115oC. By heating the compartment DEA overflow above the baffles to the other compartments from where it flows to regenerator by gravity. So. REGENERATION In amine regeneration the rich DEA is stripped of its absorbed sour gases H2S and CO2 using steam. fine suspended solids or surface-active agents. Reboiler has two compartments separated by a baffle. Pressure is nearly 0. Steam strips off the absorbed H2S and CO2 present in the DEA solution.

B and C. SULFUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU) 11. One of them is kept standby. PROCESS DESCRIPTION The sulfur recovery process applied in the present design. INTRODUCTION The unit consists of three identical units A. H2S + 3/2 O2  SO2 + H2O + Heat The major percentage of the residual H2S combines with the SO2 to form Sulphur. Each unit consists of a thermal stage. 11. which is known as the Clause process. 49 .2. according to the following equilibrium reaction 2 H2S + SO2  3S + 2H2O + Heat Sulphur is formed in vapour phase in the main combustion chamber. followed by two catalytic stages. The process design is in accordance with common practice to recover elemental sulfur known as the Clause process. is based upon the combustion of H2S with a ratio controlled flow of air which is maintained automatically in sufficient quantity to evolve the complete oxidation of all hydrocarbons and ammonia present in the sour gas feed and to burn one third of the hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide and water. which is further improved by Super Clause process. A catalytic incinerator for incineration of all gases has been incorporated in order to prevent pollution of the atmosphere. in which H2S is partially burnt with air.1.11.

The effluent gas from the first reactor passes to the first sulphur condenser where at this stage approximately 29% of the sulphur present in the sour gas feed is condensed and drained to the sulphur pit. The process gas flow is once again subjected to preheating by means of a second line burner then passed to a second reactor and the sulphur condensed in a second condenser accomplish a total sulphur recovery of 94%. A sulphur coalescer is installed downstream the last sulphur condenser to separate entrained sulphur mist. The secondary function of waste heat boiler is to condense the sulphur. In order to achieve a figure of 94% sulphur recovery the sour gas is subjected to one more stage. 50 . with mixing chamber. At this stage 60% of the sulphur present in the sour gas feed is removed. in order to achieve a high conversion. Before entering the first reactor. The process gas leaving the waste heat boiler still contains a considerable part of H2S and SO2. Conversion to sulphur is reached by a catalytic process in two subsequent reactors containing a special synthetic alumina catalyst. which is drained to a sulphur pit. The third function of the waste heat boiler is to utilize the heat liberated there to produce LP steam (4 kg/cm2). In the first reactor the reaction between the H2S and SO2 recommences until equilibrium is reached. The total sulphur recovery after the first reactor stage is 89% of the sulphur present in the sour gas feed. Therefore. the process gas flow is heated to an optimum temperature by means of a line burner. the essential function of the following equipment is to shift the equilibrium by adopting a low reactor temperature thus removing the sulphur as soon as it is formed. In the line burner mixing chamber the process gas is mixed with the hot flue gas obtained by burning fuel gas with air.The primary function of the waste heat boiler is to remove the major portion of heat involved in the combustion chamber.

and minimum evapouration loss.1. by a number of tubular legs. These tanks are vessels made of vertical cylinder plates with cone roofs fixed over plates – supported by internal truss. FIXED ROOF TANKS Fixed roof tanks are used for storing products of low volatility. The rim is supported. when it is not afloat. The floating roof is provided with annular pontoon around the periphery.1. OIL MOVEMENT AND STORAGE I 12.The heat released by the subsequent cooling of gas and condensation of sulphur in waste heat boiler and. Products like SK. Foam type seal is used to seal off the clearance between the ring of the roof and tank shell.1. FLOATING ROOF TANK Floating roof tanks are used for storing products with high vapour pressure.2. 12. HSD.1. 12. Each 51 . sulphur condensers results in the production of low-pressure steam. There are three main types of tanks: (i) Fixed roof (ii) Floating roof (iii)Floating cum fixed roof 12. STORAGE SECTION The tank farm accommodates tanks for intermediate and finished products in addition to crude oil. The roof resting on liquid contributes to the minimization of vapour space between liquid and roof bringing are increased operational safety. Depending upon the service the tanks are provided with accessories. LDO and RCO are stored in fixed roof tanks.

Pipeline. FLOATING CUM FIXED ROOF TANKS Theses tanks have advantages of both floating and fixed roof and are very much suited to volatile products in which entry of rainwater is not allowed. 12. Central Excise and other agencies is essential. DISPATCH SECTION Dispatch of products is of most important functions of OM&S section. the principal mode of dispatch of finished product is: (i) By Rail (ii) By Pipeline (iii)By Road (OM&S-II) 52 .leg can freely move within a sleeve attached to the roof. These tanks are having pan type floating roof with drainage system. the leg being fixed at one of the two points by a securing pin. One fixing point corresponds to the minimum height of the tank in the lowest working position. the other supports the roof giving sufficient clearance between the tank roof and floor for maintenance work to be carried out. Railway. They have a fixed roof having opening to permit venting of seals in the floating deck. Reformer Naphtha etc. Bleeder vents in the roof allow air to escape when an empty or near empty tank is being filled and before the roof is afloat.1.2. These tanks are used for storing ATF. 12. In Mathura Refinery.3. For efficient performance of different modes of dispatch a close co-ordination between Refinery. Marketing. Any petroleum product is ready for dispatch only after the laboratory certifies its quality. These tanks are provided with inverted cone type bottom so that accumulated water can be taken out from the tanks.

12. These are three gantries for railway dispatch purposes. products are also dispatched by Mathura – Jalandhar Pipeline (MJPL). ATF d. Bitumen The facilities for loading LPG and Bitumen wagons are provided in OM&S-II area. HSD e. Motor Spirit b.2. LPG j.2. LDO f. Naptha h. PRODUCT DISPATCH BY RAIL In Mathura Refinery following products are dispatched by railway tank wagons: a. the following four products are dispatched through pipeline: (a) Motor Spirit (Gasoline) (b) Superior Kerosene (c) High Speed Diesel (d) Aviation Turbine Fuel 53 .1. Kerosene c. Different types of tank wagons are supplied by railway for different products. Heavy petroleum stock i. 12. PRODUCT DISPATCH BY PIPELINE In Mathura Refinery.2. In this section. Furnace oil g.

The four products are supplied to MJPL section from products storage tanks through pumps. the tankers dispatch bitumen by road. In this section MS/SK/HSD are filtered in one filter and ATF is filtered in another filter. 54 . steam supply facility. The empty drums and filled drums are transferred to the filling device and other place in section by the rollerconveyer. OIL MOVEMENT AND STORAGE II The oil movement and storage – II unit consists of the following:  Bitumen Drum Filling  LPG Section  Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) 13. There are filling devices having the capacity of filling 2000 drums a day. The plant is semi-automatic. approximately. The hot molten bitumen at temperature of about 1050 C is filled in the drums. Here products are dispatched at a pressure of about 60 kg/cm2. On the other. The filling devices have many facilities like filling weight indicator valve. BITUMEN DRUM FILLING SECTION In this section pumps from storage tanks to the supply line to heat exchangers pump the bitumen. The drums are kept at yards for 48 hrs for cooling the hot bitumen. Loading the railway wagons dispatches these filled drums. After filtration the products are pumped to the pipeline to Delhi Station and to other stations further. 13.1. This is an automatic device. The capacity of each drum is 160 kg of bitumen.

1. The belts carry the cylinders through a set of pneumatic and steam cleaner. Methyl Mercaptans are mixed in LPG for safety to make it full of order. 13.2.2.1. LPG BOTTLING PLANT It is semi-automatic bottling plant for bottling LPG. BULK LOADING BY ROAD There are four filling points. are unloaded and mounted over horizontally moving conveyor belt. The cylinders are then immersed into the water bath to check against any kind of leakage of LPG from the cylinders. 13.000 MTPA of LPG by road and rail transport. LPG SECTION Six Horton spheres each with a capacity of 750 m3 are provided for LPG storage. Inter connections exists between all the six Horton’s spheres to maintain pressure and to enable storage of CR-LPG in SP-LPG spheres and vice-versa. BULK LOADING This facility is provided for dispatching 97. Of these three spheres are for storing SR-LPG and other three are for CR-LPG storage. The cylinders are then mounted automatically on a rotating where LPG (calculated amount per cylinder) is pumped into cylinders. 13.2.2. Empty cylinders come via trucks.2. A flow meter is provided on the main filling head.2. each having a weight bridge of 30 MT capacity with dial type seal flexible basis are connected with filling and vapour return lines. After the normal cylinders are fitted with plastic cap and seal the operator has to perform the job of checking the cylinders.13. 55 .

similar to that described for bulk dispatch by road. 13. EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT (ETP) The main objectives of ETP are:  Recovery of Oil  Reduction of BOD  Removal/recovery of suspended solids and other chemical constituents like phenol. i.5 times) but 0. the liquid level raises leading to compression and consequently condensation of vapour to liquid.13. LPG is dispatched by following two methods:  Bulk dispatch by road  Bulk dispatch by railway 13. As more LPG is added to the cylinder.54-0. Product has typical vapour pressure of 7-8 kg/cm2 at 38C and density 0..55 g/ml. lighter than water (0.2.5 to 2 times heavier than air.2. This condensation generates the heat resulting in increased pressure.3. If there is no vapour space the liquid expands and excess pressure is exerted on containers. CHARACTERISTICS OF LPG Constituentsare mainly butane. sulphides.2.3. 56 . propane and unsaturated compounds such as propylene and butylenes. BULK LOADING BY RAIL There are five loading points with weight bridge of 50 MT capacity each per simultaneous loading six rail tankers each filling points per arrangement. LPG containers must not be completely filled with liquid and adequate vapour space must be left. etc.e.2.

. loading gantries. VBU and FCC units come.Wastewater collection system of Mathura Refinery consists of:  Industrial Sewer (IS): In this sewer. sample points. 13. the sewer rain water from tank farm dyed area comes.  Storm Water Sewer (SS): In this. etc.  Salty Waste Water Sewer (CS): In this sewer water from crude tanks and crude booster pump house drain comes. comes. TREATMENT PRINCIPLE Wastewater includes three steps:  Physical treatment  Biological treatment  Chemical treatment The wastewater streams emanating from different places in the refinery are different in their characteristics and need different types of treatment. equipments.1. pump house drains. during rainy season as well as caustic bearing wastes and blow down from cooling towers also contributes to contaminated effluents arising from refinery. The 57 . Rainwater drained from tank farms. the sanitary sewage from toilets and laboratories provided in the refinery comes. Wastewater from petroleum refinery complex mainly emanates from process units where crude is distilled by direct steam. tank drains. processed oily water from units. electric desalter drains.  Caustic bearing water: Caustic bearing wastewaters from MEROX.3.  Domestic Sewer (DS): In this. offside areas etc. Steam condenses along with petroleum products in coolers and condensers and forms contaminated water from process unit areas.

Oil skimming facility is provided here to remove free float oil.1. Bacteria grow on stone surface as film. slop oil will be pumped to tanks in IFO. These are washed out periodically after decaying and fresh bacteria grow again. at inlet.1. water soluble organics (phenol) etc.pollutant characteristics of waste water from refinery are basically those of oil content. In the equalizer basin. suspended solids. After the filter is put in operation.1. Here both hydraulic as well as organic loads of both streams are absorbed and equalized. PHYSICAL TREATMENT In this treatment. phenols. Biological treatment takes place in two steps: Trickling Filters: Water is sprayed on a stone bed using as trickle jet. After removing supernatant. At such low velocities solids settles at the bottom and free oil floats on the water surface. The film of zoogles 58 . the surface of media becomes coated with zoogles (a viscous jelly like substance) and other biots. 13. sludge will be removed manually and disposed off. sulfides.3. Aeration is from bottom of stone upwards due to temp difference of water and ambient air. The excess and dead bacterium is periodically removed from the system. physical process in AVI separators separate suspended solids and free oils. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT Naturally occurring bacteria eat away or oxidize impurities causing reduction of sulphides. where from it will be processed in units with crude. treated water from chemical treatment section also comes and joins with water from API outlet. spent caustic.3. The oil is then skimmed off by scrapper and sent to slop tanks. After drain of water from tank and heating to 700 C.2. 13. Oily sludge from oil separators will be pumped to oily lagoons. Here the velocity of water is slowed down considerably. BOD/COD and oil using proper aerator. Wastewater from here goes to single stage high rate trickling filter.

The settled/thickened chemical sludge is withdrawn at frequent interval in a sump and pumped to sludge drying beds. This is called sloughing.1. Spent caustic from caustic storage tank is first sent to PH tank and then it is further sent to the reactor tank where H2O2 dose is given by using dosing pump at the rate of 60-70 lit/day. Whole reaction mixture is sent to flocculation tank.3. CHEMICAL TREATMENT Chemical treatment is required for caustic as it has high concentration of sulphides that cannot be removed by biological or physical treatment plant. 59 . the liquid washes off the media and a new lime layer will start to grow. The mixed liquor is then sent to the final clarifier where bacteria mass is separated from water and bio-sludge is recycled. The metabolic reactions are: Food + Microbes + Nutrients + O2  New cells + CO2 + H2O + NO2 + Energy.absorbs and utilities suspended colloidal and dissolve organic matter from waste water. After the film grows to a limit.3. Chemical sludge after drying beds will be disposed off manually. Here decomposition takes place. Functions of Individual Equipment for Waste Water Treatment API Separators: Physically separate free oil. Then floe formed out of chemical reaction is settled at clarifier cum thickener (CCT). 13. Activated Sludge Treatment (Aeration Tanks): The process basically consists of continuously mixing of waste water and activation by motor operated aerators. where from the clear water goes to equalizer basin inlet. sludge and solids.

Guard Basin: Storage during peak flow situation. sulphides. clarifier. Drying Beds: Drying of biological and chemical sludge. Final Clarifier: Retaining biological sludge from recycle. IS and guard basin slop for pumping to slop oil tanks. phenols and oils in contact with algae grown on stone media. Sludge Sumps: Receiving sludge from API Separator bottom and pumping to oily sludge lagoon.Equalization Ponds: Helps in supplying consistent quality and quantity of wastewater to biological section. Slop Sumps: Receiving API. Trickling filters: Helps in reducing BOD/COD. 60 . Polishing Ponds: provide resistance time for finishing touch with natural aeration. Aeration tanks: Helps in further reduction of above mentioned pollutants in contact with bacteria and continuous aeration.

the laboratory also handles investigation problems. Finished Product Laboratory. Pollution Control Laboratory. analysis of process chemicals and water analysis. Thus this section assists the production department in maintaining the desirable quality of the petroleum products at different stages of refining and smooth running of different plants. ATF Laboratory. Samples from production units. finished and intermediate products. assisting the Refinery’s Production Units by providing them with quality control data on the product streams at regular intervals. 3. It is responsible for certification of the finished products produced and dispatched by Mathura Refinery. Apart from routine tests. PROCESS CONTROL LABORATORY In this laboratory routine testing is carried out round the clock in shift. 14. cooling water and boiler water from Thermal Power Station are collected at regular intervals. 4. Analytical and Development Laboratory. Mathura Refinery QC Laboratory has five main sections: 1.1. 2.14. QUALITY CONTROL LABORATORY Quality control is the primary function of the laboratory. 61 . Process Control Laboratory. 5. tested and reported to the concerned departments through SAP.

CFR Research Octane Number. POLLUTION CONTROL LABORATORY The rapid growth of industry in our country in recent years has created awareness in the mind of public regarding environmental pollution and ecological balance.4. samples from ETP. The laboratory is equipped with modern test equipments like JFTOT. ANALYTICAL AND DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY In this laboratory both intermediate and finished product samples are tested using modern equipments like Gas Chromatograph. Sewage Treatment Plant. NCS Apparatus etc.2.14. a pollution control cell has been set up in Mathura Refinery. 14. FINISHED PRODUCT LABORATORY In Finished Product Laboratory. This laboratory works in General Shift only. ATF LABORATORY Tests related to Aviation Turbine Fuel are carried out in this laboratory in General Shift. Spectrophotometer.5. if the test results meet the specifications. On the basis of these test results a certificate is issued before dispatch of the material. BOCLE etc. MSEP. Some important tests of intermediate products are also carried out in this section. samples from finished product tanks are tested as per specified methods and certified.3. 14. Guard Ponds. In Pollution Control Laboratory. Drinking Water Treatment Plant etc are tested on regular 62 . It works in General Shift. In order to monitor pollutants and to advice the remedial measures. Motor Octane Number and Cetane Number tests are also performed in this section. 14. TBP Distillation of crude oil samples are also carried out in this section.

if necessary.1. DESCRIPTION OF TESTS 14.  Phenol content of effluent water  COD/BOD of effluent water  Oil content of effluent water  Sulphur content of effluent water  Turbidity of effluent water 14.6. SIGNIFICANCE The cloud point of a petroleum product is an index of the lowest temperature of its utility for certain application. OUTLINE OF METHOD The sample is cooled at a specified rate and examined periodically. 63 . CLOUD POINT Cloud point is the temperature at which a cloud or haze of wax crystals appears at the bottom of the test jar when the oil is cooled under prescribed conditions.basis and reported to the concerned department for remedial action. Levels of Air Pollution inside Refinery at different locations are also monitor regularly. The temperature at which haziness is first observed at the bottom of the test jar is noted and recorded as the cloud point of the material. expressed as a multiple of 1°C.6.

altitude and flight duration. The sample is allowed to warm up and the temperature at which the crystals disappear is noted. through filters in an aircraft fuel system. 64 . variable compression ratio. The freezing point of the fuel must always be lower than the minimum operational tank temperature.6. The temperature of the fuel in the aircraft tank normally falls during flight depending on speed. 14.3. CETANE NUMBER This test method determines the rating of diesel fuel oil in terms of an arbitrary scale of cetane number using a standard single cylinder. OUTLINE OF THE METHOD The sample is cooled with stirring until crystals of hydrocarbon appear. It is a key safety parameter in the specification and use of fuels. which may restrict the flow of fuel. four stroke cycle.6. if present. COLD TEST (FREEZING POINT) This method describes a procedure for the detection of separated solids in aviation turbine fuels at any temperature likely to be encountered during flight or on the ground.2.14. indirect injected diesel engine. Cetane number is a measure of the ignition performance of a diesel fuel oil obtained by comparing it to reference fuels in a standardized engine test. SIGNIFICANCE It is the lowest temperature at which aviation fuels remain free of solid hydrocarbon crystals.

SIGNIFICANCE Cetane number of a diesel fuel provides a measure of the ignition quality of the fuel in compression ignition engine.4. Naphthas. This is accomplished using the bracketing hand-wheel procedure which varies the compression ratio for the sample and each of two bracketing reference fuels to obtain a specific ignition delay permitting interpolation of cetane number in terms of hand-wheel reading. (i) DISTILLATION AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE This test is applicable for determination of distillation characteristics of motor gasoline. systematic observation of temperature against volume of 65 . ATF. OUTLINE OF THE METHOD 100 ml of sample is distilled in a specified distillation flask under prescribed conditions and observation of temperature at the instant the first drop of condensate falls from the lower end of the condensate tube. Kerosene. The test method covers both manual and automatic instruments. 14.6. OUTLINE OF THE METHOD The cetane number of a diesel fuel oil is determined by comparing its combustion characteristics in a test engine with those for blends of reference fuels of known cetane number under standard operating conditions. Gas Oils and similar petroleum products. DISTILLATION This test is intended for the determination of distillation characteristics of crude oil and petroleum products.

(ii) DISTILLATION AT REDUCED PRESSURE The test method covers the determination the boiling range of the petroleum products at reduced pressure that can be partially or completely vapourized at a maximum liquid temperature of 400°C. 66 . SIGNIFICANCE Atmospheric distillation provides an idea about the boiling range of the petroleum product. The boiling range is directly related to viscosity. heating value. the final boiling point and a distillation curve relating volume percent distilled and atmospheric equivalent boiling point temperature can be prepared. average molecular weight and many other physical and chemical properties. Data are obtained from which the initial boiling point. mmHg. vapour pressure. Observed thermometer readings are to be corrected to normal atmospheric pressure by the Sydney Young equation as given below: Cc = 0. OUTLINE OF THE METHOD The sample is distilled at an accurately controlled pressure between 1.condensate recovered at specified intervals and the maximum temperature observed during the test are recorded. Distillation at reduced pressure is used for the determination of the distillation characteristics of the petroleum products and fractions that may decompose if distilled at atmospheric pressure. Cc = Correction to be added algebraically to the observed thermometer reading tc.00012 (760 – P) x (273+tc) Where. P= Prevailing Baromatric Pressure at the time of the test.0 and 50.0 mmHg. It can be done both manually and by an automatic instrument.

these vapour when mixed with air. designing of a petroleum refinery and day to day plant operations. 14.TBP distillation provides an estimate of the yields of fractions of various boiling ranges of a crude oil. FLASH POINT It is the lowest temperature at which a material gives so much vapour that. OUTLINE OF THE METHOD The sample is heated in a test cup at a specified rate with continuous stirring.6.6. forms an ignitable mixture and gives a momentary flash on application of a small pilot flame. The flash point is taken as the lowest temperature at which the application of the test flame causes the vapour above the sample to ignite momentarily. These information are required for evaluation of a crude. DUCTILITY Ductility of bituminous material is measured as distance in centimeters to which it will elongate before breaking. SIGNIFICANCE It is one of a number of properties that must be considered in accessing the overall flammability hazard of a material. 14. when a briquette specimen of the material are pulled apart at a specified speed and at a specified temperature. A small test flame is directed in to the cup at regular intervals with simultaneous interruption of stirring.5.6. 67 . Flash point and fire point have importance in connection with legal requirements and safety precautions involved in fuel handling and storage.

The different components of the sample are separated in the column as they travel through the column depending upon various properties of the material and the column. ECD. The choice of column and detector are based upon the nature of the sample.6. mixed with carrier gas and travels through the column to the detector. The separated components are detected and subsequently quantified with a variety of detectors like FID.6. detection and quantitative estimation of components present in a complex mixture of volatile and thermally stable samples. The research octane number is determined by knock testing unit (CFR Engine) 68 .7. This is an analytical technique of separation based on the solubility or adsorption/desorption of components between a liquid stationary phase and mobile gaseous phase. TCD. OCTANE NUMBER (RESEARCH METHOD AND MOTOR METHOD) Octane number of the spark ignition engine fuels is volume percent of iso-octane in a blend with n-heptane that matches the knock intensity of the fuel when compared under specified conditions. 14. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS GC is one of the most efficient and convenient tools for separation. OUTLINE OF THE METHOD The sample to be tested is injected through a heated injection system and brought to vapour form instantaneously. FPD etc. SIGNIFICANCE The technique can be used for detection and accurate estimation of components in different refinery gas and liquid samples.14.8.

Whereas motor octane number is determined using the standard operating conditions given in ASTM D 2700. The antiknock index of a fuel approximates the road octane ratings for many vehicles. SIGNIFICANCE Research octane number in conjunction with motor octane number defines the Antiknock Index of Automatic Spark Ignition Engine fuels in accordance with specification ASTM D 4812. OUTLINE OF METHOD The sample is melted at a temperature not more than 90°C above its softening point. load and time. poured into a container. and then air cooled under controlled conditions.6. Penetration is measured with a penetrometer using a standard needle under specified conditions. 69 .9. PENETRATION OF BITUMEN Bitumen samples are normally classified into different grades by their penetration test. Penetration of bituminous material is distance in 1/10th of a millimeter that a standard needle will penetrate vertically into a sample of the material under standard conditions of temperature. RON + MON Antiknock Index (AKI) = ---------------2 14. The sample then is conditioned at test temperature (25°C) in a water bath.using the standard operating conditions given in ASTM D 2699.

OUTLINE OF METHOD After preliminary heating the sample is cooled at a specified rate and examined at intervals of 3°C for flow characteristics. POUR POINT TEST Pour point is the lowest temperature expressed as a multiple of 3°C at which the oil is observed to flow when cooled and examined under prescribed conditions.6. SMOKE POINT The maximum flame height in millimeters at which kerosene or other volatile liquid fuels including aviation turbine fuels will burn without smoking.6. SIGNIFICANCE The pour point of a petroleum product is an index of the lowest temperature of its utility for certain applications.11. The smoke point is measured by 70 . 14. 14.SIGNIFICANCE Needle penetration is a measurement of hardness of bitumen. The lowest temperature at which movement of the sample is observed is recorded as the pour point. OUTLINE OF THE METHOD The sample is burned in a standard lamp in which it is possible to adjust the flame height against a background of a graduated millimeter scale. Hardness may have a significant effect upon other physical properties.10. when determined in the apparatus and under specified conditions.

The apparatus is then kept at a temperature of 38°C and shaken periodically until a constant reading is obtained on the pressure gauge. where the smoky tail just disappears. and tendency to vapour lock with high operating temperatures or high altitudes. 14.6. SIGNIFICANCE Vapour pressure is critically important for both automotive and aviation gasolines. The smoke point is related to the hydrocarbon type composition of the fuel. The flame height. 71 . A high smoke point indicates low aromatic content of the fuel. Necessary corrections are applied to this reading to get the corrected Reid Vapour Pressure of the sample.12. measured to the nearest millimeter. OUTLINE OF THE METHOD The sample chamber filled with the cold sample is connected to the air chamber of the apparatus fitted with a pressure gauge. REID VAPOUR PRESSURE OF HYDROCARBON LIQUID This method is for the determination of vapour pressure of volatile non-viscous liquid. Vapour pressure of crude oil is important for its safe transportation. affecting starting. is the smoke point of the sample. storage and initial refinery treatments.raising the wick until a smoky flame is produced and then lowering to the point. warm up. SIGNIFICANCE The test method provides an indication of the relative smoke producing properties of kerosene and ATF in a diffusion flame.

J.kbr.com www. Ramprasad. (1984). G.).wikipedia.E. Petroleum Refining Technology and Economics (2nd Edition ed.com Guide to Refining from Chevron Oil's website Behind high gas prices: The refinery crunch Gary. and Handwerk.iocl.britannica. 72 .H.com www.org www.REFERENCES Dr. Petroleum Refining Technology en.

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