2_bit_Full_Adder | Integrated Circuit | Transistor


Sanchit Karve born2c0de born2c0de@hotmail.com



.INTRODUCTION If you look at the history of computer technology. Vacuum tubes replaced relays. however. Transistors. These gates were slow and bulky. integrated circuits (ICs) were invented." This discovery gave rise to SSI (small scale integration) ICs. The very first electronic gates were created using relays. low power consumption and small size compared to tubes or relays. resistors and diodes could be manufactured together on silicon "chips. Once transistors were perfected (transistors were invented in 1947). the Boolean Gate has remained a constant component of the computer. have changed dramatically over the years. Tubes were much faster but they were just as bulky. computers started using gates made from discrete transistors. An SSI IC typically consists of a 3-mm-square chip of silicon on which perhaps 20 transistors and various other components have been etched. In the early 1960s. meaning that each transistor was a separate device. It might take three or four transistors and several resistors and diodes to create a gate. These chips shrank the size of computers by a factor of about 100 and made them much easier to build. A typical chip might contain four or six individual gates. Each one came in a little metal can about the size of a pea with three wires attached to it. Transistors had many advantages: high reliability. The technologies used to implement those gates. These transistors were discrete devices. and they were also plagued by the problem that tubes burn out (like light bulbs).

The two states can also be designated as TRUE or FALSE. It can also be represented as HIGH and LOW or 1 and 0 respectively. Since a digital system can have only one of the two states 1 and 0. OR and NOT. Irrespective of the complexities of a digital system. A gate has one or more than one input and produces an output that is a function of the current input value(s). GATES are the most basic digital devices. Adder circuits are essential inside microprocessors as part of the ALU. where the processing and manipulation of binary numbers takes place. . The Adder is a digital circuit which forms the sum and carry of two or more numbers. It uses three gates XOR. George Boole introduced the concept of binary system in the study of mathematical theory of logic and developed what is now known as Boolean Algebra.The devices used in digital circuits operate in ON and OFF state. only a few basic operations can be performed which are AND. the binary system is used to design them. AND and OR to perform addition. or arithmetic logic unit.

Q is 0. If A is 1 AND B is 1. then Q should be 1. If A is 0 AND B is 1. Its basic idea is. "If A AND B are both 1. A and B: AND Gate A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Q 0 0 0 1 The idea behind an AND gate is. Q is 1." OR Gate A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Q 0 1 1 1 . then Q is 1.AND Gate The AND gate performs a logical "and" operation on two inputs. OR Gate The next gate is an OR gate. Q is 0. You read this table row by row." You can see that behavior in the logic table for the gate. "If A is 1 OR B is 1 (or both are 1). If A is 1 AND B is 0. Q is 0. like this: AND Gate A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Q 0 0 0 1 If A is 0 AND B is 0.

you will find that Q behaves like an XOR gate. "If either A OR B is 1." The reason why XOR might not be included in a list of gates is because you can implement it easily using the original three gates listed. XOR Gate A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Q 0 1 1 0 The idea behind an XOR gate is. . Since there is a well-understood symbol for XOR gates.XOR Gate The XOR gate is also known as "exclusive or". Q is 1. it is generally easier to think of XOR as a "standard gate" and use it in the same way as AND and OR in circuit diagrams. Here is one implementation: If you try all four different patterns for A and B and trace them through the circuit. but NOT both.

Large IC’s with millions of transistors may be half an inch or more on a side while small IC’s may be less than one-tenth of an inch on a side.AND and OR gates which are required for construction of the 2 bit Full Adder.INTEGRATED CIRCUITS An integrated circuit (IC) is a semiconductor silicon wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors. A pin diagram shows the assignment of device signals to package pins. and transistors are fabricated. Shown below are the pin diagrams of the XOR. capacitors. .

and the resulting sums. or get a little fancier and perform multiplication and division. and see where we can go from there. 0 or 1. then. . if we can add two binary numbers. These four possibilities. The basis of this is addition. Since each bit has only two possible values. How. are: 0 + 0 = 0 + 1 = 1 + 0 = 0 1 1 1 + 1 = 10 The fourth line indicates that we have to account for two output bits when we add two input bits: the sum and a possible carry. there are only four possible combinations of inputs. Let's set this up as a truth table with two inputs and two outputs. do we add two binary numbers? Let's start by adding two binary bits.ADDING BINARY NUMBERS A key requirement of digital computers is the ability to use logical functions to perform arithmetic operations. we can just as easily subtract them.

But we have to add multi-bit numbers together.if you have a carry from one column to the next. As a result. This is the same requirement as adding decimal numbers -. Hence we need a circuit that will do the entire job. and the Sum is a XOR. the next column has to include that carry. we can use two gates to add these two bits together. the circuit to the left is known as a "half adder". The resulting circuit is shown below. We have to do the same thing with binary numbers. Thus. If each pair of bits can produce an output carry. it must also be able to recognise and include a carry from the next lower order of magnitude.INPUTS A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 OUTPUTS CARRY SUM 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 The Carry output is a simple AND function. for the same reason. . because it only does half of the job.

however. . the output carry will be true if any two or all three inputs are logic 1. and S is either an XOR or an XNOR. depending on the value of A.To construct a full adder circuit. Looking a little more closely. again depending on the value of A. Since we'll have both an input carry and an output carry. we'll need three inputs and two outputs. The resulting truth table is shown to the right. we can note that the S output is actually an XOR between the A input and the half-adder SUM output with B and CIN inputs. INPUTS A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 OUTPUTS CIN COUT S 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 It looks as if COUT may be either an AND or an OR function. we'll designate them as CIN and COUT. At the same time. we'll use S to designate the final Sum output. Also.

is used to represent a one-bit full adder. after all. Thus. not the exact method of performing that function. it is common practice in logic diagrams to represent any complex function as a "black box" with input and output signals designated. shown below. The resulting full adder circuit is shown below. It is. The circuit above ( 1 bit full adder ) is really too complicated to be used in larger logic diagrams. . there will be an output carry. If either half-adder produces a carry.What this suggests is also intuitively logical: we can use two half-adder circuits. COUT will be an OR function of the half-adder Carry outputs. The first will add A and B to produce a partial Sum. so a separate symbol. In fact. the logical function that is important. while the second will add CIN to that Sum to produce the final S output.

B1 B0 A1 A0 Cout Cin S1 S0 The only difference between a 1 bit and a 2 bit full adder is that the 2 bit full adder receives 4 bits as INPUT including a CARRY IN bit and outputs 2 SUM Bits and a CARRY OUT bit.Similarly. . B 2 B 1 A1 A0 Cin 2 BIT ADDER Cout S1 S0 which represents the actual circuit diagram as shown below. a two bit Full Adder can be represented as follows.

AND and OR gate. .AIM To construct a 2-bit Binary Adder using the XOR.

APPARATUS • Bread Board ( x 2 ) • Connecting Wires • Light Emitting Diodes (LED) ( x 3 ) • 9V Battery ( x 1 ) • 74LS86 (XOR) Circuit ( x 1 ) • 74LS08 (AND) Circuit ( x 1 ) • 74LS32 (OR) Circuit ( x 1 ) .

and 74LS08 AND chip into the bread board in order (left to right): XOR. and OR gate make up the full adder circuit for each of the two bits. AND. AND. • Inputs A1-A2 (number 1) and B1-B2 (number 2) should be connected to four of the data switches.PROCEDURE • Plug the 74LS86 XOR chip. 74LS32 OR chip. • Note that the XOR. • A fifth data switch should be connected to Carry In. • Note that A1 and B1 are the LSBs of the numbers. and A2 and B2 the MSBs. . • The Sum 1-2 and Carry Out should go to three adjacent LED inputs. • The gates should be connected as shown in the circuit diagram. and OR. Make sure that all switches are in the low (0) position.

• Check all connections and then turn on the power. carry+3+3. Then complete the following additions. carry +3+1. 1+1+carry. 0+2 . This means that the carry (Carry 1) has propagated to the Bit 2 sum and made the output of the adder binary 2. and our adder is only a 2-bit adder). and whether the Carry Out light is on: 1+2.2+2+carry. • Tabulate the results. Turn on A1 and note Sum 1 light up. . • Experiment with the adder. noting what sum lights are on. 1+2+carry. Turn on the A2 and B2 switches and note that Carry Out now turns on (since the two twos being added make a sum of 4. Now turn on B1 and note that Sum 1 goes off but Sum 2 goes on.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM The gates should be connected as follows: .

TRUTH TABLE A 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 B 00 00 01 01 10 10 11 11 00 00 01 01 10 10 11 11 00 00 01 01 10 10 11 11 00 00 01 01 10 10 11 11 Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Sum 00 01 01 10 10 11 11 00 01 10 10 11 11 00 00 01 10 11 11 00 00 01 01 10 11 00 00 01 01 10 10 11 Cout 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Final Sum 000 001 001 010 010 011 011 100 001 010 010 011 011 100 100 101 010 011 011 100 100 101 101 110 011 100 100 101 101 110 110 111 .

Adders can be used to add numbers. subtract numbers (negative addition). The limitation of this project is that it can only compute sums up to a maximum value of 7. [Digital Signal Processing] . multiply (repetitive addition) as well as divide numbers (repetitive subtraction). Adders form an integral part of ALU’s [Arithmetic Logic Unit] and are widely used in high-performance DSP Applications.CONCLUSION Adders are widely used in many electronic devices.

com • www.REFERENCES • www.doctronics.co.howstuffworks.uk .com • “Introduction to Digital Systems” – University of Texas at Dallas • www.play-hookey.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful