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BASED ON SUMMER TRAINING UNDERTAKEN IN
NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION LIMITED VINDHYACHAL
A. B. M. Omar Maruf Electrical Engineering 6th Semester National Institute of Technology, Silchar
DURATION: MAY 29TH to JUNE 25TH, 2010
At the outset I would like to convey my regards towards training department of NTPC, Vindhyachal for giving me such a great opportunity to observe and learn operation of this Superthermal Plant. My heartfelt thanks goes to Mr. ANIL SHRIVASTAVA, DGM (EMD), NTPC VINDHYACHAL who led the entire team of VSTPS for proper functioning of each department in a modernized and techno-commercial atmosphere to make the project touch such peaking performance. I also express my gratitude towards Mr. S.D.P. PANDEY (Senior Engineer, FES), without his assistance I would not be here. He has provided me the best moral support which I was in need for. I would give my special thanks to Mr SANJAY SHARMA (HR-EDC), for giving his very kind permission to undergo the training programme under the able guidance of NTPC engineers. I would like to appreciate Mr Pankaj Kumar (Sr. Engineer., EMD DEPT), Mr .Vikas Gupta (Engineer, EMD.) & Mr. Ajit Singh( Engineer, EMD) under whose able guidance I completed the training. All these people were of immense importance regarding the knowledge and supports for the well furnished equipments. At last I would like to convey my appreciation to all the members of the Electrical and Maintenance Dept. and members of various stages whose valuable guidance and suggestions helped me accomplishing this report.
NTPC (National thermal power corporation) is India’s largest power generation company. It was set up in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in India. It has an installed capacity of 37,104 MW and planned to grow up to 75000 MW till year 2017.There are 15 coals based and 7 gas based plant in India located across the country. NTPC is the sixth largest thermal power generator in the world and the second most efficient utility in terms of capacity utilization based on data of 1998.
Sl no 1 2 3 4 5 6 Headquarter NCRHQ ER-1,HQ ER-2,HQ NER SR,HQ WR,HQ City Noida Patna Bhubaneshwar Lucknow Hyderabad Mumbai
Coal based: Sl no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 City Singrauli Korba Ramagundam Farakka Vindhyachal Rihand Kahalgaon NCTPP,Dadri Talcher,Kaniha Unchahar Talcher Thermal Simhadri Tanda Badarpur Sipat-II Total State U.P. Chattisgarh Andhra Pradesh W.B. M.P. U.P. Bihar U.P. Orissa U.P. Orissa Andhra Pradesh U.P. Delhi Chattisgarh Capacity (MW) 2000 2100 2600 1600 3260 2000 2340 1330 3000 1050 2460 1000 440 705 1000 24885
Gas based: Sl no 1 2 3 4 5 6 City Anta Kawas Dadri Jhanor Rajiv Gandhi Faridabad Total State Rajasthan Gujarat UP Gujarat Kerala Haryana Capacity(MW) 413.2 645.4 817.5 648.6 350.7 430 3955
it was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned enterprise of the Government of India. Government of India holds 89. The station is located in Singrauli district in Madhya Pradesh in the north western side of the country. The total land area acquired is 5378 acres of land. It has secured ISO 14001 and ISO 9002 certificate in the field of environment and power generation but also in various other fields. it adds 1000 MW more to its capacity (i. 4260 MW). having a latitude and longitude of 24⁰6’ N and 82⁰40’ E respectively.Hydel based: The company has also stepped up its hydel projects implementation. with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country. By next few months. In which three are being made by NTPC limited.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10. NTPC-VINDHYACHAL SUPER THERMAL POWER PROJECT is one of the most prestigious flagships of NTPC striving ahead to bridge the country generation gap especially in the western region. A proposal has also been made to add another 500 MW in Stage V for which field study is going on. NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company. Within a span of 31 years. public and others. Vindhyachal super thermal power station was conceived as a pit head coal based super thermal plantfor which land was acquired during stage I of the project. Domestic Banks.P.O. It is the largest power station in India. Lohariang Pala Hydro Power project(600 MW) 2. Currently the company is mainly interested in Northeast India wherein the ministry of power in India has projected a hydel power feasibility of 3000 MW. it made glorious achievement by ensuring production up to 3260 MW. Vindhyanagar 486 885. As a public sector company.3260 MW Stages:Stage1—6×210 =1260 MW Stage2---2×500=1000 MW Stage3---2×500=1000MW Stage4---2×500=1000MW (Under construction) . TapovanVishnugad Hydro power project 3. There are few run of the river hydro projects are under construction on tributary of Ganga. Madhyapradesh Approved Capacity.5% is owned by FIIs. IMPORTANT DATA Address.e. On November 2009. LataTapovan Hydro Power Project 4. . SIdhi. These are: 1. At present.
500 MW July 2006 March 2007 March 1999 February 2000 October 1987 July 1988 February 1989 December 1989 March 1990` February 1991 .500 MW Unit 10.210 MW Stage2 Unit 7. Units Commissioned Stage1 Unit 1.Madhya Pradesh. Chattisgarh.Stage5---1×500=1000MW (Proposed) Coal source. Gujarat.Nigahi Hills Water source.210 MW Unit 2.210 MW Unit 5.Discharge canal of Singrauli (Shaktinagar) Super Thermal Power Station Beneficiary States.210 MW Unit 6.210 MW Unit 4. Maharashtra. Goa. Daman & Diu and Dadar Nagar Haveli.500 MW Unit 8-500 MW Stage3 Unit 9.210 MW Unit 3.
makes the turbine rotate. b given CHP OF ELECTRICITY: Boiler Turbines & Generat ors Switch Gear & Switch Yard Electrostati c Precipitato r. As the coal has been grounded so finely the resultant ash is also a fine powder. Meanwhile the heat released from the coal has been absorbed by the many kilometres of tubing which line the boiler walls. Just the energy of the wind turns the sail of the wind-mill. with additional amount of air called secondary air supplied by Forced Draft Fan. Inside the tubes is the boiler feed water which is transformed by the heat into the steam at high pressure and temperature. so that when the turbine rotates the rotor turns with it. The dust is th en conveyed by water to disposal areas or to bunkers for sale while the cleaned flue gases pass on through ID Fan to be discharged up the chimney. striking the blades. Coupled to the end of the turbine is the rotor of the generator – a large cylindrical magnet. where it is trapped by electrodes charged with high voltage electricity.Coal PRODUCTION Handlin g Plant. Most of ash. brought to the station by train or other means. The steam super-heated in further tubes (Super Heater) passes to the turbine where it is discharged through the nozzles on the turbine blades. The finely powdered coal mixed with pre-heated air is then blown into the boiler by fan called Primary Air Fan. ESP Transmissio n chimney Coal to Electricity The means and steps involved in the production of electricity in a coal-fired power station are described below. The coal. The water quenched ash from the bottom of the furnace is conveyed to pits for subsequent disposal or sale. from where it is fed to the pulverizing mills which grinds it as fine as face powder. Some of this ash binds together to form lumps which fall into the ash pits at the bottom of the furnace. so the energy of the steam. The electricity passes . The rotor is housed inside the stator having heavy coils of copper bars in which electricity is produced through the movement of the magnetic field created by the rotor. still in fine particles form is carried out of the boiler to the precipitators as dust. travels from the coal handling plant by conveyer belt to the coal bunkers.
so as not to damage the boiler tubes. surrounds the pulverized coal and helps in combustion. NTPC has its own MGR system which results in an annual profit of 45 crores. The steam passing around the tubes looses the heat and is rapidly changed back to water.6 m/s 1. Coal in the track hopper is then send to crusher house for crushing it to size no less than 20mm. The steam which has given up its heat energy is changed back into water in the condenser so that it is ready for re-use. But the two lots of water (i. This are described below – 1. Coals are unloaded by track hoppers. Capacity of each crusher Maximum coal inlet size Maximum coal outlet size Motor Rating Motor Speed 600MT/Hour 200mm 20mm 375KW 740 Rpm Capacity of conveyer belt Belt Speed Belt width Belt Type 1200 T/Hour 2. The condenser contains many kilometres of tubing through which the colder is constantly pumped. As the coal from mines contain particles of different sizes. Merry-Go-Round rail system of transport is adopted for transportation of coal from the mines to plant site. The cooling water is drawn from the river.Coal handling PlantCHP is the first stage of any Thermal Power Plant . .e. but the boiler feed water must be absolutely pure. huge and continuous volume of cooling water is essential. Afterwards according to requirement coals are taken into mills through gravimetric feeder to pulverize it to a size of 200 mesh. To condense the large quantities of steam. Chemistry at the power station is largely the chemistry of water. So the heat which the water extracts from the steam in the condenser is removed by pumping the water out to the cooling towers and then the cooled water is recirculated again through the condenser.from the stator winding to the step-up transformer which increases its voltage so that it can be transmitted efficiently over the power lines of the grid. boiler feed water & cooling water) must never mix.The coal from the mines is brought to the plant by use of Coal wagons. In most of the power stations the same water is to be used over and over again. Pre heated secondary air enters boiler. Primary air mixed with pulverized coal is fed to the centre of boiler burning zone. so water is sprinkled on the coal so as to stop flow of coal with air and to stop the loss.4 m Nylon-Nylon Caracus . Steps Involved In Power Generation In VSTPS The conversion of coal into electricity consists of various intermediate stages. Crushed coal is sent to bunkers through conveyer belt system.
Air Draft System: Primary air system: Ambient air is drawn into the primary air ducting by two 50% duty. motor driven axial reaction fans. Air discharging from each fan passes first through a air preheater then through a isolating damper into the secondary air bust duct.2. The mix of both is used to carry the pulverized coal to the boiler.A bus duct. At the sides of the furnace. The second goes to the cold air duct. Air discharging from each fan is divided into two parts. The cross over duct extends around to each side of the boiler furnace to form two secondary air to burner ducts. motor driven axial reaction forced draft fans with variable pitch control. Then split again to supply air to each of nineteen burner/air nozzle elevations in the burner box - - - Primary and Secondary air System in the Boiler: . one passes first through a air pre-heater then through a gate into the P. - Secondary air system: Ambient air is drawn into the secondary air system by two 50% duty. the ducts split to supply air to two corners.
Precipitators function by electrostatically charging the dust particles in the gas stream. The flue gas path is shown below H / S L A T N O Z I R O H H / S L A T N O Z I R O H H / S L A T N O Z I R O H H / S L A T N O Z I R O H H / S L A T N O Z I R O H H / S L A T N O Z I R O H R E S I M O N O C E R E S I M O N O C E R E S I M O N O C E R E S I M O N O C E R E S I M O N O C E N E T A L P N E T A L P N E T A L P H / S H / S H / S H / S N E T A L P H / S N E T A L P H / S N E T A L P H / S N E T A L P H / S N E T A L P H / S N E T A L P R E T A E H E R R E T A E H E R R E T A E H E R R E T A E H E R R E T A E H E R R E T A E H E R R E T A E H E R R E T A E H E R Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP): It is a device which captures the dust particles from the flue gas thereby reducing the chimney emission. deposited in ESP hoppers and SO x. The flue gas contains fly ash particles. NOx etc.Hot primary air for drying coal AIR PREHEATER HOT SA FD FAN WIND BOX SA SECTION FLUE GAS SECTION PA SECTION PA FAN HOT PA MILLS Induced draft system: It sucks flue gas from boiler and releases it to atmosphere through chimney.Air Preheater: Air preheater is heat transfer surface where temperature of air is raised by flue gas.Improved combustion . It gives: -Improved boiler efficiency . The charged particles are then attracted to and deposited on plates or E C A N R U F E C A N R U F E C A N R U F E C A N R U F E C A N R U F E C A N R U F E C A N R U F E C A N R U F E C A N R U F I F I F I F H / S L A N H / S L A N H / S L A N H / S L A N I F H / S L A N I F H / S L A N I F H / S L A N I F S N A F D I P S E P S E P S E H P A H P A H P A H P A 1126˚C 1008˚C 744˚C 656˚C 476˚C 362˚C 146˚C .
Major Fans in Boiler Draft System: • • • PA Fans FD Fans ID Fans PRIMARY AIR FAN: It serves two main purposes: a) Transportation of coal from mill to furnace b) Coal moisture removal • • • • • NO OF FANS PER BOILER : TWO TYPE : RADIAL INDUCTION MOTOR RATING : 1480 KW SPEED : 1480 RPM CONTROL: INLET VANE CONTROL FORCED DRAFT FAN: It provides air for combustion.Neutralizing the charged particles on the collecting surfaces.Conveying the particles from the hopper to a disposal point governed by fly ash disposal system. Migration . Ionization .Removing the particles from the collecting surface to the hopper by rapping mechanism. When enough dust has accumulated. • • NO : TWO TYPE : AXIAL REACTION . Charge Dissipation . Particle Removal . Theory of Precipitation: Here six activities typically takes place.Charging of particles.Precipitation of the charged particles onto the collecting surfaces. Collection .other collection devices.Transporting the charged particles to the collecting surfaces. The dust is then removed by a conveyor system for disposal or recycling. Particle Dislodging . causing it to fall with the force of gravity to hoppers below. the collectors are shaken to dislodge the dust.
In the water-tube boiler. In Deaerator. Natural circulation is the ability of water to circulate continuously. . The boiler feed pump is used to pump water to boiler drum through economizer.heat is transferred from steam (coming from turbine) to water which increases the temperature of the water. Deaerator is used to remove the air of feed water to prevent corrosion of boiler tubes and turbine blades. The direct mixing of steam with water is not allowed. passes through various intermediate stages. The boiler drum serves two purposes:1. It houses all the equipments for purification of steam.• • • MOTOR RATING : 800 KW SPEED :1480 RPM CONTROL: BLADE PITCH CONTROL INDUCED DRAFT FAN: It maintains furnace draft. Boiler Economizer are feed-water heaters in which the heat from waste gases is recovered to raise the temperature of feed-water supplied to the boiler. In LP heater and HP heater . In stage I natural circulation takes place. Separating steam from mixture of water and steam 2. In the midst of HPH and Economizer. which is used to produce steam. Here the heat source is outside the tubes and the water to be heated is inside. These water-filled tubes are in turn connected to boiler drums. Gland Steam Cooler(GSC). • • • • • NO OF FANS PER BOILER : TWO TYPE : AXIAL IMPULSE MOTOR RATING : 1300 KW SPEED : 740 RPM CONTROL: INLET VANE CONTROL Steam cycle:The demineralised water. Most high-pressure and large boilers are of this type. The DM water passes through a series of water heaters namely LP heaters. a three element feed flow regulating system has been incorporated which regulates the steam flow from the boiler.HP heaters and afterwards passes through Deaerator. steam comes in direct contact of water. Boiler feed pump. In VSTPS the boiler used is water tube boiler. The presence of air also reduces the efficiency of cycle. economizer and then goes to boiler drum. gases flow over water-filled tubes. the feed water flow to the boiler and the water level in the boiler drum. with gravity and changes in temperature being the only driving force known as "thermal head“.
convective super heater. The steam from boiler drum passes through a series of super heaters like LTSH (Low temperature Super Heater). then from IPT to LPT(Low pressure turbine). circulation is to be assisted with mechanical pumps. The steam is sent back to reheater to gain back the temperature. whereas the riser tube contain steam water mixture . the distance between the Bottom ring header and the steam drum must be increased. The steam at super heater outlet gains a temperature of 5400C. or some means of forced circulation must be introduced. The condensate is then move to hot well. the difference between the densities of the water and saturated steam falls. The cycle continues which is termed as steam cycle. The water coming from boiler drum on its passage through down comer and riser tube is converted into a mixture of water and steam and goes back to boiler drum. Natural circulation is limited to boiler with drum operating pressure around 175 Kg/cm2. to overcome frictional losses. The reheated steam is sent to IPT (Intermediate Pressure Turbine).this density difference is the driving force .Circulation takes place at such a high rate that the driving force and frictional resistance in water wall are balanced.whose density is comparatively less . Platen super heater. (thermo-siphon principle). Beyond 180 Kg/cm2 of pressure. IP. consequently less circulation occurs.The down comer contain relatively cold water. Then from hot well the condensate is pumped by CEP (condensate extraction pump) to LP heater. . As the high pressurized steam drives the turbine blades. Steam turbines extract heat from steam and convert it into mechanical work by expanding the steam from high pressure to low pressure. The HP. when the pressure in the water-tube boiler is increased.However. This is known as forced circulation which is employed in stage II and stage III. Steam Turbine: The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam. High pressure steam flows through the turbine blades and turns the turbine shaft.for the mixture. so rotor of the generator also rotates. The steam after losing its pressure begins to condense in condenser by exchanging heat with circulating cooling water. It is then passed to HPT (High Pressure turbine) and the temperature of the steam goes down. Super heater heats the high-pressure steam from its saturation temperature to a higher specified temperature. LP turbines and the rotor of the turbo generator are connected on the same shaft. To keep the same level of steam output at higher design pressures. Steam turbine shaft is connected to a synchronous generator for producing electricity.
anion-exchanger and mixed . For condenser cooling. A clarified pump is present which pumps the clarified water to the DM plant. The water is sprayed out at the top of towers and as it falls into the pond beneath it is cooled by the upward draught of air. This water after circulation through various bearings and heat exchangers leads to the CW discharge pipe from the condenser for cooling through the cooling tower.0 cusecs/MW of installation. For drinking purpose also filtered & post-chlorinated water is provided. The cold water in the pond is then circulated by pumps to the condensers. 2) Auxiliary Cooling Water Pumps for supplying cooling water to various auxiliary equipment for their cooling . Inevitably. The cooling towers are simply concrete shells acting as huge chimneys creating a draught (natural/mechanically assisted by fans) of air. The outlets from the cooling water tower basins are connected to the common tunnel which takes the water back to the power house. cation-exchanger. Clarified water is pumped from the clarified water storage pit which passes through pressure filter. The clarified water from these clariflocculators flows to the cooling water basin by gravity. Water Treatment plant: Different water qualities are in use in VSTPS. a) Cooling water Management: In the pre-treatment process.Circulating Water System: Bulk requirement of water is used in thermal plants for the purpose of cooling the steam in condensers. degasser. . Then it is pumped through clariflocculators. condenser and discharging the same to the op of the respective cooling towers. however. The heat which the water extracts from the steam in the condenser is removed by pumping the water out to the cooling towers. The requirement of water for this purpose is of the order of 1. ash handling plant and other auxiliaries cooling raw water (clarified and post-chlorinated) is used. b) Demineralised water Plant: A demineralising plant is provided for supplying feed water for the heat cycle. Again conditioned Demineralised water is used for boiler feed water and H2 generation plant. From this tunnel water is drawn through the following pumps to the various equipments as follows: 1) CW Pumps for circulating cooling water through turbine. some of the water is drawn upwards as vapours by the draught and it is this which forms the familiar white clouds which emerge from the towers seen sometimes. 3) Ash water pumps for supplying water for ash handling.5to2. activated carbon filter. In VSTPS closed loop cooling system with cooling towers is used for this purpose. chemicals are added in raw water for bacteria removal and for sedimentation of suspended particles.
Gas production is directly proportional to Direct Current passing through the solution of caustic potash and D.M. O2 separation to regulate gas pressure to vaporise moisture Receiver Tank(20 M3 ) (Pressure Hydrogen Bottling Plant: Drier( Silica Gel.M. H2 generated Separator Pressurize r Steam heater Cooler (a) (b) Cooling of H2 H2. The electrolyte used is KOH (30%)+H2O in presence of K2Cr2O7 (1%)catalyst. supply is applied to the electrolyte solution. ACF: Activated Carbon Filter WAC: Weak Acid Cation SAC: Strong Acid Cation WBA: Weak Base Anion SBA: Strong Base Anion MB: Mixed Bed CST: Condensate Storage Tank Hydrogen Generation Plant: This process involves electrolysis of water in an electrochemical cell. The layout of operation is shown below. 60 volts D.to absorb moisture) . The hydrogen generated is processed in the following way. Adequate facilities are provided for unloading. handling and storage of chemicals. water. The water used is D. water with temperature kept very low.C.bed exchanger.
ii)BA gate. A typical 2000 MW station produces around 9000T to 12000T of ash per day. (b) Fly Ash: 80 % of the ash is carried away with flue gas known as Fly Ash. 3 compressors are used to create the required pressure. Bottom ash handling system: Bottom ash can be collected at furnace bottom as Wet or Dry form. iii)Hopper. Dry ash is disposed through road transport to a dry ash disposal system. Series pumping carries the ash slurry to FA pond. viii)BA pump. Water jet in flushing apparatus carries away the ash to FA trench.vi)BA trench. iii)Hopper. (a) Bottom Ash: 20 % Of the ash falls at the bottom of the furnace known as Bottom Ash (BA). Water jet ejectors are used for creating vacuum.In hydrogen bottling plant the bottle pressure is maintained at 135 kg/cm2. Ash Handling Plant: Ash is the residue remaining after the coal has been incinerated to constant weight under standard conditions. Ash content of Indian coal used in power station is about 30 to 40 %. High pressure jets further carries it to FA sump. Dry ash thus collected is sent to silo through belt conveyor. Overburden Coal Seam Surge Pile Pulverize (-150) Electrostatic Precipitator Flue Gas Fly Ash Boiler Flue Gas Fly Ash Bottom Ash Fly Ash Smoke Stack Bottom Ash . Al2O3. Dry bottom ash system consists of i)Trough seal. iv)Scrapper Conveyer.9% pure. Typical ash composition: SiO2. Fly ash handling system: Fly ash is collected from Air heater hopper. v)Clinker grinder. CaO. Bottom ash is disposed of through bottom ash disposal system. ix)BA pond. vii)BA tank. Fly ash is collected through ESP and disposed through fly ash disposal system. In Flushing apparatus system ash is allowed to fall in flushing apparatus under gravitation. Hydrobacter is a vacuum device to collect ash from the hopper. ii)BA gate. Bottled H2 is 99. Wet bottom ash system consists of i)Trough seal. It is oxidized form of the mineral matters present in coal. vi)Silo. v)Clinker grinder. Fe2O3. This huge amount of ash needs to be disposed off continuously for avoiding pollution. BA can form slag and clinker depending on the temperature of the combustion zone and environment inside. Part of it is sold for commercial purpose. iv)Scrapper Conveyer. Economiser hopper and ESP hopper either through flushing apparatus or hydrobacter system. MgO etc.
Ash Utilization: Major usages of ash are: • • • • • • • • • • Fly ash bricks / blocks Concrete and mortar In manufacture of cement In manufacture of asbestos products Road construction Embankment/back fills/land development In agriculture Mine filling Manufacture of fertilizer Manufacture of distemper .
The objective is to get filtered oil at correct pressure and temperature. filters and steam tracing lines.5 atmosphere above the casing hydrogen gas pressure. which is regulated in relation to the hydrogen pressure and provide a positive maintenance of the oil film thickness. A continuous film between the rotor collar and the seal liner is maintained by means of oil at a pressure which is about 0. 2) To support the furnace flame during low load operation. The thrust pad is held against the collar of rotor by means of thrust oil pressure. SPECIFICATION OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS: . Fuel oil system consists of fuel oil pumps. Types of fuel oil: a) Light diesel oil (LDO) b) High speed diesel oil (HSD) c) Heavy furnace oil (HFO) d) Low sulphur heavy stock (LSHS) Atomization procedure is used to break the fuel into fine particles that readily mixes with the air for combustion.• • • • • • Floor and wall tiles Refractory bricks Manufacture of ceramics Manufacture of alum Domestic cleaning powder In synthetic wood Fuel oil System: The purpose of fuel oil is: 1) To establish initial boiler light up. Seal and Lube Oil system: Seals are employed to prevent leakage of hydrogen from the stator at the point of rotor exit. Lube oil system is provided for bearings upon which the generator shaft is mounted. oil heaters.
9 kg/cm2 5400C 590 T/hr 2480C 7) Feed water temperature at Economiser Inlet For stage II and stage III (each 2×500 MW): 1) Main steam flow at superheater outlet 2) Pressure at superheater outlet 3) Temperature at SH outlet 4) RH steam flow 1590 T/hr 179 kg/cm2 5400C 1353 T/hr 5680C 255+-50C 5) Steam temperature at reheater outlet 6) Feed water temperature at Economiser Inlet The steam generator is a natural circulation pulverized coal fired. The drum supplies water wall system through adequate sized six (6) down comers so as to permit unrestricted circulation. radiant furnace.5-27.5% for collecting fly ash. Each steam generators equipped with three (two working and one standby) of axial type ID fans and two. The parameters of the steam generator at 100% MCR will be as follows: For stage I (6×210 MW): 1) Maximum continuous rating 2) Superheater outlet temperature 3) Superheater outlet pressure 4) Cold reheat pressure at boiler inlet 5) Hot reheat outlet temperature 6) Reheat steam flow 670 T/hr 5400C 140 kg/cm2 27. . Six PA fans on the hot air side of air heaters is provided to supply hot air to the mills. balanced draft type using direct firing system. There are electrostatic precipitators having an efficiency of 99. dry bottom. There is two regenerative rotary air heaters. of centrifuge type FD fans. radiant furnace.Steam Generator: The steam generator is a natural circulation pulverized coal fired. balanced draft type using direct firing system. dry bottom. The boiler furnace is with a steam drum. Each steam generator is provided with six medium speed of direct firing type with provision of one standby.
tie transformer. From the main pump the ash slurry is continuously transported to the disposal area by means of ash slurry pumps and disposal pipes. Coal for the thermal power station is transported from Nigahi open cast mines. There is an ash handling system of continuous hydro sluicing type. For fire protection H. emergency governor. each of nominal capacity of 10 m3/hr for meeting the makeup requirements of the plant. oil cooler and seal oil system.W. speed changer. travelling water screen. ash handling etc. butterfly valve and actuator and cooling towers. MerryGo-Round rail system of transport is adopted for transportation of coal from the mines to plant site. degasser system and weak and strong base anion exchangers followed by mixed bed polishing unit. The governing control system includes speed governor. For the circulating water scheme a closed circuit cooling system using cooling towers is used. Removal of suspended colloidal matter in the raw water is removed in the pretreatment plant. Very high purity for hydrogen (99.P. transformer. There is a bottom ash handling system to extract and handle bottom ash. The demineralising plant consists of four streams of 110 m 3/hr capacity each comprises of active carbon filter. station transformer. The C. system has C. load limiting device. Hot reheat steam from boiler will be supplied to IP turbine through four pipes. (i) DM water for boiler make up (ii) Portable water for colony and plant (iii)Clarified water for CW system and auxiliary cooling make up along with other requirements such as coal dust suppression. water services.W. Six numbers induced draft type cooling towers is provided for stage I of the power plant. The hydrogen generating plant is provided with two electrolysers. spray system is provided to generating transformer.W. handling. The chemical dosing system is there for unloading. The turbine is provided with an automatic governing system and protection devices which ensure turbine operation and tripping under emergency conditions. weak and strong acidic cation exchanger. The fly ash system employs flushing equipments to remove the ash from electrostatic precipitator hoppers and gas ducts low points after regenerative air heater on continuous basis. solution preparation and dosing of alum. unit aux. There is a water treatment plant which meets up the following requirements.Main steam from the boiler is supplied to HP turbine (HPT) through two pipes. and initial pressure regulator.9%) is achieved by the electrolysis process. Cold reheat (HPT exhaust) will be returned to the boiler reheater through two numbers of pipes. . pumps. turbine oil storage tanks. lime and coagulant aid solution.
50% Rated Hydrogen Pressure: 4 kg/cm2 Cooling System: The generator cooling system is of hydrogen water type. Rotor Cooling: The rotor is cooled by means of gap pick up cooling.75KV Rated Power Factor: 0.85 Rated Frequency: 50 Hz Stator current: 9060A Short Circuit Ratio: 0. Demineralized water is used for cooling purpose. a positive suction and discharge . Hydrogen is provided for cooling rotor winding and active steel of the stator.ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS: Turbo Generator: Each turbo generator unit is a 3 phases. A closed loop water system is provided for the cooling of the stator winding and thyristor converters of the excitation system. 2 pole. The hydrogen gas in the air gap is sucked through the scoops on the rotor wedges and is directed to flow along the ventilating canals milled on the other side of the rotor.48 Rated Efficiency: 98. Generator Parameters: Rated Output: 247 MVA Rated Voltage: 15. and cylindrical rotor type machine directly connected to the steam turbine rotating at 3000rpm.
Stator Cooling System: The stator winding is cooled by distillate. Hydrogen cooling system mainly comprises of: a) Gas control stand b) Drier c) Liquid level indicator d) Hydrogen control panel e) Gas purity measuring f) Indicating instruments and valves The system is capable of performing the following functions: a) Filling in and purging of hydrogen safely without bringing in with air contact. purity etc d) Circulation of gas through a drier in order to remove any water vapor. DM water of specific resistance is selected for cooling purpose. purging as it forms explosive mixture if mixed in certain quantities with oxygen. which is fed from one end of the machine by Teflon tube and flows through the upper bar and returns back through the lower bar of another slot. Hydrogen Cooling System: Hydrogen is used as a cooling medium in large capacity generators for its high heat carrying capacity and low density.is created due to which a certain quantity of the gas flows and cools the rotor. pressure. The system is designed to maintain a constant rate of cooling water flow to stator winding at a nominal inlet water temperature of 40⁰C . temperature. Proper arrangements are made for filling. c) Provide indication about gas condition i. This method of cooling gives uniform distribution of temperature. In order to prevent escaping of hydrogen shaft sealing system and generator casing is done. e) Indication of liquid in the generator. The stator winding is cooled in the system by circulating demineralized water through hollow conductors.e. b) Maintaining gas pressure inside the machine.
This ac is given to stator of main exciter after rectification. The rotor of the pilot exciter is permanent magnet type.As it is a closed loop working. To ensure protection of the turbo generator field winding and thyristor converters against possible voltage surges. Excitation System: The purpose of excitation system is to provide necessary current in the field coil to produce magnetic flux. In all cases where there is no excitation. the multiple action arrestors and resistors are used. an output from generator is taken and step down to required voltage and is given as input to the generator field winding b) Semi-static Excitation: Here first DC supply is given to the exciter from battery which produces ac. Excitation System of Stage I: Brushless Excitation System Figure: The turbo generator excitation is provided by a separate excitation system of thyristor type. It produces ac in stator winding. As diode rectification is also mounted on shaft so no slip ring brush configuration is required and hence called brushless excitation system. c) Brushless Excitation: In brushless excitation there is a pilot exciter and a main exciter. the automatic voltage regulator responds to deviations and derivatives of the turbo generator stator terminal voltage and frequency. All these are mounted on same shaft. and also to the rotor current derivative. The excitation current control is affected by changing the firing angle of the thyristor of the converters.The excitation may be of three types: a) Static Excitation: In static excitation power supply is given through battery at first. The secondary DM cooling water is in turn cooled by clarifies water taken from clarified water header. thus changing the average value of the rectified voltage applied to the turbo generator field winding. The turbo generator field winding is fed through the thyristor converters from AC generator exciter mounted on the turbo generator shaft. When voltage build up to 70% of generator output voltage then voltage supply is given to generator field winding after rectification process. When controlling the turbo generator excitation. the turbo generator field winding is shunted by a . After proper voltage build up. Under all operating conditions of the turbo generator the voltage across the exciter terminals is maintained automatically at the level corresponding to the turbo generator ceiling excitation voltage. Then using thyristor DC is fed back to exciter. The auxiliary generator field winding is supplied from the generator stator terminals through rectifier transformer and thyristor convertors. Rotor of Mechanic The automatic control of the turbo generator excitation is provided by the automatic voltage regulator acting on the firing control circuits of the thyristor converters. the cooling water is again cooled.
The excitation system makes it possible to connect the turbo generator to the power system both at precise synchronizing and self synchronizing.resistor. After rectification the controlled DC output is supplied to stationary field of main exciter. This enables the control of field current of the main exciter which eventually governs the alternator output voltage. Pilot exciter is a permanent magnet alternator with permanent magnet poles on the rotor and three phase armature winding on the stator. Excitation system of Stage II & Stage III The excitation system employed in Stage II and Stage III is brushless excitation system. A signal. picked from alternator terminals through CT and PT controls the firing angle of the thyristor bridge.107 V SpeedInsulation ClassF 300 RPM Excitation ampere. Three phase power from pilot exciter is fed to thyristor controlled bridge placed on the floor. Silicon diode rectifiers are also mounted on the main shaft. to the main alternating field without brushes and slip rings. main exciter and main alternator. Here the main shaft of prime mover drives pilot exciter. The three phase power developed in the rotor of the main exciter is fed through hollow shaft to the rotating silicon diode rectifier mounted on the hollow shaft. Ratings: Excitation voltage. The system provides for the possibility of change over to a standby exciter without interrupting power supply to the turbo generator field winding.142 A DC CoolantVoltAmpAIR 500 3780 VINDHYACHAL SWITCHYARD- .
10 generator unit bays 2. one carrying current and the other one isolated. There are water pipes to fight in case of fire condition. The equipments used in VSTPS power plant are given below-Generator transformers: The generator is connected to the Generating Transformer by means of isolated bus ducts. The connection is delta on LV side and star with neutral grounded on HV side. Bus coupler-It is used to couple two bus bars at the same voltage level. 10 transmission lines-(400 KV lines) 4 Jabalpur 4 Satna 2 Korba 3.This Transformer has elaborate cooling system consisting of number of oil pumps and cooling fans apart from various accessories. The switchyard employs strung bus layout. 3 TBC(Transfer bus coupler) 4.The main purpose of Switchyard is to protect the system and transmit power to the consumer premises. There are 38 spare bays in switchyard which consists of1. 2 HVDC feeders to Vindhyachal-Singrauli Back to Back station Two 132 KV feeders are also sent to Waidhan. The switchyard in VSTPS is of 400/132 KV switchyard and it consists of following equipments. Bus sectionalizer-It is used to divide a bus into two parts. 4 BS (Bus sectionaliser) 6.75 KV to bus voltage 4ooKV. The 400 kV switchyard at VSTPS employs double main and transfer bus switching scheme. This coupling is required when units of one main bus is to be transferred to the other one. The 132 kV switchyard shall employ sectionalized main and transfer bus scheme. 3 BC(Bus Coupler) 5. This transformer is used to step up the generating voltage of 15. . 3 ICT(Inter connecting Transformer) 7.
b) Battery Charger-This charger is used to charge the DC battery.Salient features of the generator transformers are as given below: (i) Power Rating (ii) Voltage ratio (iii)Type of cooling (iv)Tap changer (v) Type of connection 250 MVA 15. DC system is there for 400kV switchyard also. ash handling systems etc DC system comprises of: a) Storage battery-This unit contains 115cells each of 2V potenetial. These cells are connected in series resulting in a total voltage of 220 V .The rating of UAT is 40 MVA. .. It consists of a rectifying unit which converts AC to DC. emergency lighting b) Provide power during total AC supply failure c) Feed common DC loads like coal handling.3 phase.3 windings system(all delta connected). The Cooling type is: ONAN/ONAF Each unit auxiliary transformers would be provided with following protections (i) Transformer differential protection (ii) Back up over current protection (iii)Back up earth fault protection In addition each transformer would have a Bucholz relay and winding temperature indication with alarm and trip contacts.6kV for supplying power to the unit auxiliary loads of the power station. DC System: Each unit has its own dc system.75/400 kV OFAF On load type with ± 10% variation in steps of 1.25% yd11 Unit Auxiliary Transformer The bus-duct leading from the generator to the GT is tapped off conveniently for connection to high voltage side of Unit Auxiliary Transformer used for stepping down the voltage to 6. DC system is required due to: a) Meet DC power requirement of unit loads like DC motors.
Float cum Boost Float= Boost= Float= Boost= 240 V dc 198-300V 50 A 50A c) Distribution Board Emergency Power Supply Scheme: Diesel Generator Set: It is provided for meeting the power requirements of essential auxiliaries during total failure of AC supply in the power stations.They are being utilized for stepping down the 400 kV bus voltage to .Ratings: Input ACPhase= Cycles415V±10% 3 50 HZ Specification. quick starting type Rated Output Voltage: 415 Volts Frequency: 50 Hz Various essential auxiliaries are: a) AC Lube Oil Pump b) Hydrogen Seal Oil Pump c) Float Charger for DC battery d) Emergency Lighting e) Barring Gear Interconnecting Bus Transformer(IBT) IBT/ICT’s stands for interconnecting BUS/COUPLING transformer. Automatic starting facility is provided for generator set.3 phase. Ratings: Power Output: 600 KVA.They are autotransformer.
This transformer is used to intake power from 132 KV bus for running the auxiliary equipments of an unit when the unit is being tripped.132/11.6 KV.6 KV voltage.132 KV bus voltage for the purpose of supplying the station loads. They are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. Current Transformer (CT): A current transformer is a type of instrument transformer designed to provide a current in its secondary winding proportional to the alternating current flowing in its primary.25% Station TransformerThis transformer is a step down transformer which transforms 132 KV to 6. The specifications of IBT. They are single phase oil immersed type. The specification of this transformer is 80 MVA. often in the presence of high voltages.400/132KV ONAF/ONAF/OFAF with 2×50% radiator banks On load type with ± 10% variation in steps of 1.5/6. Current transformers provide satisfactory performance for burdens ranging from 25% to 100% of rated burden over a range of 10% to 100% of rated current in case of metering CTs and up to accuracy limit factor/knee point voltage in case of relaying CTs .In current transformers different ratios are achieved by secondary taps. The station transformer is a tertiary winding transformer with each winding star connected with neutral grounded. Current transformers with five secondary’s (4 for protection and one for metering) are employed. .s are (i) Rating (ii) Type of cooling (iii)Tap changers 200 MVA.
Circuit Breaker (CB): A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. There are two mediums used in CB. a high-voltage terminal for connection to the high voltage signal. This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of capacitors. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical. C 1. Quenching medium absorbs or extinguishes the arc produced between the contacts while operating medium is the medium by which the circuit breaks. In practice the first capacitor. a ground terminal and at least one set of secondary terminals for connection to the instrumentation or protective relay. from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the voltage signal is split. and hence the secondary terminals. which operates once and then has to be replaced. The circuit breaker can be classified in different ways1. a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. is often replaced by a stack of capacitors connected in series. Unlike a fuse.Capacitive Voltage Transformer (CVT): A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power systems to stepdown extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signals either for measurement or to operate a protective relay. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes. an inductive element used to tune the device to the supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and further stepdown the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay as shown in figure below: The device has at least four terminals. On the basis of Quenching medium -Air blast circuit breaker . This replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small voltage drop across the second capacitor C2.
Each 400 kV breaker would have two sets of trip coils which would be connected to separately fused DC circuits for greater reliability.5 pu.The primary difference between an isolator and a circuit breaker is isolator works only on no load whereas circuit breaker can be made to operate in both loaded and unloaded condition. Lightning arrestors are of heavy duty station class type with nominal discharge current of 10kA. The following equipments are protected against direct stroke of lightning: a) Main transformer and all other equipments: Lightning mast is used for protection b) Power station chimney: Using lightning conductor protection is given. 400 kV switchyard pantograph type bus isolators are used which connects the line with the buses. The tme duration of pre-insertion is less than 8 ms in each pole.-SF6(sulphur hexa fluoride)circuit breaker 2. Isolators: An isolator is an electrical device which can break an electrical circuit when the circuit is to be switched on no load. On the basis of operating medium -Spring operated circuit breaker -Solenoid operated circuit breaker -Pressure operated circuit breaker CB’s on the line are provided with pre-insertion resistors of 400 ohms per pole to limit the switching surges to a value less than 2.. An earthing switch is provided with HCB to discharge the residual charges left in the line.In VSTPS. Shielding of the substation from the direct lightening stroke is provided through earth wires located at structures peak. The purpose of the earth wire is to intercept direct lightning strokes which would otherwise strike the phase conductors. Lightning Protection SystemLA’s are provided at the terminals of the transformer for protection against lightening or any surge development in the system. shielding angle is 200. Tension to weight ratio is 20% than the power conductors.Suitable galvanized steel earth wire is installed so that it can withstand two successive lightning strikes of 150 kA. Total break time for any current upto rated breaking time is not more than 40 ms and the total closing time is not more than 150 ms. Other isolators are of horizontal centre break (HCB)type which is a line isolator. .All Lightning Arrestor’s of lines & transformers are of gap type. Local breaker back up protection is provided with each 400 kV breaker from both sides. There is a practice to install lightening arrestor at the incoming terminals of the line.
It can be used for communicating purpose for even long distance. This switchyard gets supply normally from the 400kv switchyard through two 200 MVA. 400/132 kv station transformer. It is also used for safety purposes. It provide high frequency signal to the transmitting side of the main line. power house and boiler: Using lightning conductor protection is given. If for any delay in giving command for relay or any delay in the breaker to break the circuit it gives back up command to circuit breaker to break the circuit. Shunt reactors: Shunt reactors are provided at line terminals for the overvoltage control and reactive compensation of 400 kV transmission system. Neutral grounding resistors are used for grounding of the neutral point of shunt reactors in order to minimize the secondary arc current. Wave trap:It is used to restrict the high frequency signal to the input side (generator side) Corona:Air gets ionised when there is a high voltage flow through the conductor and produces a hissing sound and forms a blue ring which results in corona loss which is maximum at sharp edges.c) 400kv switchyard: 1) Lightning mast is used for protection against direct stroke 2) For protection against lightning surges coming from transmission lines a set of non linear resistance type surge diverters are used. Start Up Power Supply System: Start up power supply is obtained from 132 kv switchyard. d) Buildings.This is reduced by using corona rings. The parameters are: (i) Reactive voltage (ii) Capacity (iii)Connection (iv) Quality factor frequency 420 kV 50 MVAR & 63 MVAR star with neutral brought out 250-350 at rated voltage and . PLCC:It stands for Power Line Carrier communication.
Below towers. b) The 6. c) The earthing system is designed to keep the touch potential within safe zone. All these areas have separate ground grids. along with bus wire supervision and hand reset trip relays Switchgear: The drives for auxiliary equipment rated 150kW and above are operated at 6. This is known as TRANSFER BUS scheme.6kV and drives having a rating below 150kW are operated at 415V.6 kV power received from either Unit Auxiliary Transformer or Reserve Transformer are connected to respectively 6. switchyard area and other areas of power station have efficient grounding system made of mild steel. Bus bar: The bus bar arrangements used in VSTPS consists of two main buses and one transfer bus. Safety Grounding: a) Power house area. • . There are two sections of buses-400 KV bus and 132 KV bus.5 ohms. b) The size of earthing conductor is such as to carry the maximum earth fault current for one second without exceeding specified maximum temperature at joints.6 kV system neutral is unearthed in stage I(Standard Soviet Practice) c) 415V system neutral is solidly grounded. The switchyard ground grid is connected to power house ground grid to maintain equipotential area throughout during phase to ground fault.6 kV Switchgears: 6. 3-phase. and 4-wire system having a provision for single phase 230V. The tower footing resistance shall be kept below 10 ohms. For starting up of these motors suitable switchgears/starters are provided. a tower footing resistance is used. These are very economical and are finding wide acceptance in the country. Each 400 kV bus bar section has a separate three phase high speed high stability circulating current type differential protection. Recent trend is to adopt RCC structure for supporting the buses. • 6.Station Grounding System: Equipment Grounding: a) Generator neutral is connected to earth only through the potential transformer provided on the neutral side. The overall earthing resistance is maintained within 0. The bus bar supporting structures are generally of steel lattice type.6kV switchgear bank through suitable breakers for further distribution to motors and to transformers for further step down to 415V.
1 sq inch copper equivalent) 132 KV-‘PANTHER’ ACSR (0. stranded aluminium conductor. earthwire and all fittings under all loaded conditions. copper conductor.4 sq inch copper equivalent) 400KV-‘TWIN MOUSE’ (2×0. The conductor used for the transmission lines are of ACSR. cross linked polyethylene. The important components of the transmission lines are— a) Conductor and accessories-The lines maybe single circuit or double circuit either in vertical or horizontal configurations. These conductors are given animal names on basis of their voltage levels. 66KV – ‘DOG’ ACSR (0. with extruded conductor and insulation shielding. insulated. copper tape screened and overall sheathed with extruded PVC 6.6kv Cables: unearthed 6.5 sq inch copper equivalent) b) Cables- 132kv Cables: single core. Motors capacity above 90kW are controlled by a 415V breaker from respective bus and that of lower capacity by magnetic contractors grouped together in a sheet metal cubicle for a number of motors. solid. stranded aluminium conductor. HRPVC/ cross linked polyethylene insulated.• 415 V Switchgear: The 415Vsupply from each 1000kVA transformer are connected to a suitable 415V bus having its distribution for different motors and starters. . PVC. Protection and control for individual motors is provided there in Switch Gear System. The maximum voltage across any disc shall not exceed 20 KV. termed MCC. This will reduce ageing and also minimise radio interference. gas/dry cured. PVC sheathed cable Control Cables: 1100V grade. d) Insulator and hardware-High strength toughened glass/brown glazed porcelain disc insulators shall be used. impregnated paper insulated cables 415 V Cables: 1100 V grade. standard aluminium conductors unfilled. Single suspension strings shall comprise of 23 numbers of discs of 120 KV Electromechanical strength. PVC insulated.2 sq inch copper equivalent) 220 KV-‘ZEBRA’ ACSR (0. c) Supporting structuresThe towers are of self supporting lattice steel type designed to carry the line conductors with necessary insulators.6kv grade. A double circuit lines carries double the power than the single circuit line. Transmission Line equipments: Transmission lines are required for transmitting power from generating stations to the load centres. PVC sheathed cables.
Generator exciter protection system: . 16)Generator transformer over fluxing protection. 17)Overall differential protection of generator transformer unit for duplicate of differential protection of generator and generator transformer.Earthwire is used to protect the power lines from high lightning strokes. 14)Pole slipping protection of generator without loss of excitation. 4) Earth fault protection of generator stator winding 5) Gas protection for faults inside transformer oil tank 6) Back up impedence protection for external symmetrical faults and for redundancy of unit main protections 7) Out of step protection under loss of excitation 8) Over voltage protection under idle run condition 9) Zero phase sequence protection for external earth faults in 400kv system 10)Current protection for rotor overloads 11)Maximum current protection for symmetrical overloads.e) Earthwire and accessories. Protective Relaying: Generator Transformer System: The following protections are provided for each unit: 1) Differential Protection for faults between phases of generator stator winding and on terminals 2) Inter-turn fault protection of generator for faults between single phase coils of stator winding 3) Differential protection for faults in transformer bushings. 15)Low forward power interlocks. 13)Negative phase sequence protection for external asymmetrical faults. 12)Earth fault protection in one point of the rotor.
6kv side for multi phase faults in the transformer winding and bushings. when the unit is out.6KV section is provided with differential protection to trip an appropriate sectionalizing breaker.6KV Switchgear: Reserve power supply bus bar to 6. Unit and Station Transformer: 1) Differential current protection 2) Gas protection of transformer and voltage regulator chamber 3) Overload protection for overload of 6.6/0.415 KV Sections and Diesel Generator Protection: 1) Over Current Protection for external faults 2) Zero phase sequence protection for earth faults in 0.415kv system. 0.1) 3 phase longitudinal differential protection 2) 2 phase maximum current protection 3) Protection for forcing drop to avoid prolonged excitation in case the generator field has not been suppressed incidentally.6kv windings 4) Overcurrent protection on HV winding side 5) Distance protection for back up protection of external faults 6) Low oil level protection 6. Motor Protection: . 4) Protection for generator rotor winding for current 2 times that of the rated value. 6.415kv Transformers Protection: 1) Over current protection against external fault 2) Zero phase sequence protection for earth faults 3) Symmetrical overload current protection 4) Current cut-off on 6.
3) Overload protection due to start-up or starting condition. As India is rising as a global power its need of electricity is escalating day by day due to rapid industrialization and urbanization.Each 6. which in turn is contributing to India’s rapid economic growth. CONCLUSION In this modern era development of a country is measured against its power usage. But to sustain economic growth uninterrupted power supply is must. I hope NTPC will continue rendering its reliable service to the people and government of the country. It was the nobility of the employees and working staffs to provide required theoretical background at their continuous job hours. Though the duration was short but I am quite .6 kv motor is protected by: 1) Fault current cut off for multi phase faults 2) Zero phase sequence protection for earth faults. 4) Under voltage protection to trip less important motors with time delay. Automatic switches with over current device are provided for fault protection of 415 V motors. The major responsibility of meeting this demand will have to be shouldered by NTPC. Its contribution towards the country is acknowledged by bestowing with the title of ‘Bharat Maharatna’. The training undergone was informative and educative.
confident that this experience and knowledge gathered in this period will mark its print both in my academic future and professional carrier. .
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