AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

5M? Qraw'3/ill Book
PUBLISHERS OF BOOKS
*
F

& 1m
O

P^

Coal

Age

Electric Railway

Journal

Electrical World

v

Engineering News-Record

The Contractor ^ Power Engineering 8 Mining Journal 6 Chemical Engineering Metallurgical
Electrical

American Machinist

v

Merchandising

. NEW LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING 6 CO. E. 1919 . C. & 8 BOUVERIE ST.'AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION BY OTTORINO POMIL'IO CONSULTING AERONAUTICAL ENGINEER FOR THE POMILIO BROTHERS CORPORATION FIRST EDITION McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY. YORK 239 WEST 39TH STREET. LTD. INC..

COPYRIGHT. MAP1.E PRE8S YORK . 1919. BY THE MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY. INC.

anh <0rttUt .

.

By far the The airplane industry is now shifting from the design and construction of military types of craft to that of pleasure and commercial this types. appropriate. and significant. This book presents in greater detail than has hitherto been attempted in this country the application of aerodynamic research conducted abroad to practical airplane design. YORK.INTRODUCTION major part of experimental work in aerodynamics has been conducted in Europe rather than in America. S. The time is. a tangible expression of the keen appreciation of the author for the great work of these two brothers. together with the assumptions upon which they are based. on the part human NEW flight possible. are such that the book lends itself to use as a text in technical schools and colleges. therefore. expense. courage and inventive genius which made analysis of many of the and operation. publication of this book at and it should go far toward replacing by scientific procedure many of the "cut and try" methods now used. Employment of the data presented should enable designers to save both time and The arrangement. where the feat of flying in a heavier than air machine was first accomplished. in that it is a return. and consequently their limitations. 1919. and explanation of the derivation of working formulae. vii . The dedication of this volume to Wilbur and Orville Wright is at once appropriate and significant. opportune. as a sort of recompense zation to the product of for the daring. presentation of subject matter. MACGREGOR. in the form of a rational in that it is problems relating to airplane design of the product of an older civilithe new. J.

.

II Elements of Aerodynamics The Glide Flying with Power 87 102 115 134 151 III . XIII.. V. The Wings The Control Surfaces The Fuselage The Landing Gear The Engine The Propeller 1 19 37 44 51 72 PART VII. XIX. Problems of Efficiency XIV. VIII. INDEX. XVIII. XV. XX. XI. X. 161 167 188 Flights 204 PART Design IV of the Airplane XVI. .. Landing Gear and Propeller. . - IX . Static Analysis of Fuselage. . 221 261 276 324 358 379 401 . I Structure of the Airplane II.CONTENTS PAQB INTRODUCTION vii PART CHAPTER I. Determination of the Flying Characteristics Sand Tests Weighing Flight Tests . Materials Planning the Project Static Analysis of Main Planes and Control Surfaces . . \ . III. On Stability and Maneuverability Flying in the Wind PART XII. VI. XVII. XXI. IX.. IV. The Speed The Climbing Great Loads and Long . .

.

P. 0. XI . Morton Savell for her valuable assistance in matters for his intelligent assistance in pertaining to English and to Mr. Garibaldi Joseph Piccione drawing the diagrams.ACKNOWLEDGMENT Lester The author desires to express his sincere thanks to Mrs.

.

as will be shown later. and in general for all animals of the air. of the negative flight. called Drag.AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PART I STRUCTURE OF THE AIRPLANE CHAPTER While I THE WINGS for birds. called component may be positive or negative. 2. and Horizontal component perpendicular to the line of Lateral Drift. component is found in the elevator used for the climbing maneuver of an airplane. this disturbance is reduced to the formation of zones of positive and negative pressures. Vertical or sustaining force. because of its motion. A body moving through the air produces. Horizontal component parallel and opposite the line of flight. wings those of the airplane are used solely to provide the means of sustaining the machine in the air. vertical The An example l . called Lift. a disturbance of the atmosphere which is more or less pronounced and complex in character. In the final analysis. The resultant of these pressures may then be classified into its three components : 1. The phenomenon of sustentation is easily explained. 3. serve to insure both sustentation and propulsion.

In actual practice. always negative. tends to retard the motion of is the principle line of The horizontal is component perpendicular to the called the force of "drift. . of load a resistance to motion of but 1 Ib. the force of drift is zero and the only components acting are the lift and the drag. then. It is carried. the ratio of the wing span to its depth or chord (called the Aspect Ratio).. have demonstrated the possibility of devising surfaces of such form that by properly moving them through the air they create reactions. g^ ratio.e. and This principle states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. for every 23 Ib. the horizontal component were positive. the body. as will be shown further on in a more detailed study of aerodynamical principles (Chapter 7). perpetual motion would ensue. For a body having a plane of symmetry and moving through space so that the line of flight is contained in that plane." because it tends to flight make the body drift from the line of flight. a surface capable of developing high values of lift with small values of drag is called a wing. which is used to define the efficiency Three factors influence such efficiency: the profile of the wing section. the value of the ratio that wings ^ varies from 15 to 23. This compo- nent. of which the vertical component has a far greater magnitude than the horizontal. " Conservation of energy" 1 underlying this phenomenon. This means be built. since it would be necessary only to furnish the initial force to set the body in motion. is of great importance in the directional maneuvers of airplanes. of birds' Observations made wings and results based upon the experiences of experimenters in aeronautics. which. that designers direct all efforts toward in- may offer creasing the of the wing. The body would then continue in its path without further applicaIf 1 tion of energy. natural. generally not existing in normal flight. it parallel to the line of flight. Thus.AND CONSTRUCTION The is horizontal component i.

however. may vary bution and value of the positive will vary. In the early days of aeronautics. back. a constant section throughout the span. however. there are the following distinct elements (Fig. many types of wings were built with a variable wing section. Because of the simplicity angles of modern construction. profile of a wing section is its major section at right to the span of the wing. to obtain the highest values of the j^ ratio. wing (Fig. the distriand negative pressures and give different values of Lift. The angle between the wing chord and the line of flight. bottom and trailing The proper use of these elements makes it possible edge. It is posas sible. As a result. Drag and ^ The laws of variation of these factors are rather complicated and cannot be expressed by means of formulae. 2). as well as to vary the Lift 'coefficient according to the load to be carried per square foot of wing surface. Line of FIG. called the angle of incidence of the between greater or smaller limits. In the profile of a wing. 1): leading edge. but the aerodynamical advantages derived from their use were never sufficient to compensate for the complicated construction required. to express them by means of curves . 1. 2. wings are generally built with The Back FIG.THE WINGS 3 the relative position of the wings (in multiplane machines).

which. follow the general law that the intensity of the phenomenon increases not in proportion to the speed. but so also is the number of molecules that are struck intensity of the by the body.4 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION and 4. Consequently it is seen that the phenomenon is quadrupled. then X (3) Li that X 1 is. whence the equation (1) 7 \2 1 becomes If A = . 5 In practice it is convenient to refer the coefficients X and to the velocity of 100 m.h. ft.p. the load in pounds carried by a wing with an and moving at a velocity of 100 m..). the speed or velocity of translation of the wing.h. but to the square of the speed. All aerodynamical phenomena.. It is now necessary to introduce a new factor. ft.h. 3 These illustrate the laws of coeffi- variation for the values of the Lift. differ in other elements. the fol- lowing general equations may 2 be written: L = D = where X d X A X V*\ XA X V J L = total Lift for area total D= V Drag for area A in pounds A in pounds speed of translation in miles per hour (m.p.h. Assuming a wing with an area of A square feet. when considered with respect to speed.p... is area of sq. . namely. and V = = 100 m. cients for Drag and ^ two types of aerofoils. 1 sq. This is accounted for by the fact that for redoubled speed not only is the velocity of impact of air molecules against the body moving in the air redoubled. although having the same lengths of chord. illustrated in Figs.p.

3.5 0.00.2505 10 -3-2-1 I 2S4-567&9 Degrees FIG.25 1.15 15 0. . 35 25 1.75 A.25.75.5 1.20 17. 4.THE WINGS 8 1.50:10 12.5 -3 -2 2345678 Degrees*.5 0.50. Fia.30 22. 7.

1 and wing No. The laws of variation of X and 5 depend upon the several wing No. the speed being the same both wings. the and D may 5 ratio - is equal to D which 7. edge should be designed with the same criterions as those adopted in the design of turbine blades.6 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 5 the head resistance in pounds for a wing with an area of 1 sq. Figs. For example. is obtained by dividing the L equation by the D equation. by using equation (2) the values of L and be found for any area or any speed. while and elements of the wing. wing No. 5 and 6 show the phenomenon schematically. 5 and - for two different types of wings to which we will refer as An wing No.p. the function of the leading edge is to penetrate the air and to deviate it into two streams. of each of these elements: Actually. with equal speeds. Knowing X and 5. in order to prevent eddies. ft. at an angle of incidence of 3. Now. wing No. 1. Figs. 1 gives X = 11. in other words. Also.6. 2. and moving at a velocity of 100 m.8. to continue in its . 2 gives X = 17. namely. one which will pass along the top and the other which will pass along the bottom of the wing. the coefficients X and 8 may assume an entire series of varied values by changing the angle of incidence of the wings. examination of the diagrams is instructive because it is it shows how possible to build wings which may have for totally different values of Lift. 2 carries a load 49 per cent. 3 and 4 show the laws of variation of X. top. greater than wing No. Eddies it is give rise to considerable head resistance and are therefore For that reason. bottom Let us consider separately the function trailing edge. In order to obtain a good efficiency necessary that this penetration be made with as little disturbance as possible. the leading edge. the air deviated above the wing tends Due to inertia.h. the leading great consumers of energy.

thus producing a positive pressure which forces the air molecules to follow the concairty of The air . also due to inertia. of the wing. 7. path downward so as to flow along the top curvature A dynamic equilibrium is thereby established between the negative pressure and the centrifugal force of their FIG. deviated below the wing tends instead. then. the various molecules (Fig. G. that the top curvature has a pronounced influence not only upon the intensity of the vacuum. but also on the law of negative pressure distribution along its entire length. 5. 7). FIG. Leading edge of poor efficiency. of the wing. to condense. POSITIVE PRESSURE. FIG. It is obvious. tending to deflect path.THE WINGS rectilinear 7 vacuum on top thus producing a negative pressure or This negative pressure exerts a centripetal force on the air molecules. Loading edge of good efficiency.

Curves showing the laws of distribution and negative pressures are given in Fig. 8.8 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Because of this the bottom curvature. a wing is not at all defined by the bottom curvature alone.9 times and equal to 74 per cent. Therethe study of the top curvature must be given more fore. as greater. 8. In practice. a centrifugal force is developed which is in dynamic equilibrium with the positive pressure produced (Fig. of the positive The resultant FIG. In the case under consideration. change in the direc- tion of velocities. 7). of these pressures represents the value -T-- It will be noted that the portion of the sustentation due to the vacuum above is much greater than that due to the positive pressure below. careful consideration than that of the bottom curvature. of the total Lift. it is 2. the means adopted to raise the value of X is .

THE WINGS to increase of the ties of 9 both the convexity of the top and the concavity bottom The Its liness of the wing. with the resulting losses of energy. 9. gradual decrease in the negative and positive pressures shape must be such as to straighten out the when the FIG. it is primarily necessary for the leading and trailing edges to be of a design which will avoid the formation of eddies. C of a wing. 9 and 10). Fig. the front view of a wing surface. the formation of a wake or eddies behind the wing. S and and bottom of the wing. and in order to obtain a higher value of the Lift coefficient X the top and' bottom curvatures must be increased. thereby increasing the intensithe negative and positive pressures. for good wing efficiency. until their difference becomes zero. affecting a smooth. that is. it will be seen that while in . air leaves air streamthe wing. trailing edge also has its bearing on the efficiency. 1 1 which Considering represents a section parallel to the leading edge. and shows the mean negative and positive pressure curves for the top the chord . 10. Trailing edge of poor efficiency. In brief. In this manner. FIG. is avoided (Figs. Trailing edge of good efficiency. From the foregoing Of it is easy to understand the importhe relation between the span tance of the ratio ^.

The loss is expressed by s X = c -> that s by the inverse of the ratio . Pres&ure. . It is necessary to thus lowering the value X of the wing. Negative Positive fir Pressure. for at the end of the wing a short circuit between This is due to the the compression and depression occurs. under pressure rushing toward the vacuum zone. is. 11.10 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION the central part the curves are represented by lines parallel to the wing. c"~~ FIG. at the wing tips A and B. The same result is obtained as though the also that the diagram is the wing. thus establishing an air flux (the so-called marginal losses). BB'D' and BB" D". which is done by increasing the ratio of the span to the r*) (Cf\ it is sometimes done in practice. that the in the average curves due to marginal losses disruption and BD. with the result that at the wing tips the average pressure curves air come together. equal to the chord of extends for a distance W Assume. This is average X remained constant and the lifting surface were reduced by the amount c 2 which means that the total surface If the product sXc is kept would be reduced by sXc c 2 constant by increasing s and diminishing c correspondingly. and the Lift is decreased considerably. as AC modified according equivalent to assuming a decrease in the Lift measured by the triangles AA'C'. and to a linear law. they suffer serious disruption. AA"C". reduce the importance of this phenomenon to a minimum. . the importance of the term c is greatly decreased.

e triplane. 13. a confliction of air flow is formed over the surface.THE WINGS span chord So it 11 is seen that by increasing the ratio > the c average value of the cient of Lift it is coeffi- increased. In practice. and values of their negative and positive pressures of air. Figs. Decrease in positive pressures FIG. another very im- from 5 to portant problem is presented that of the mutual interference of each plane upon the In view of the close arrangeothers. ment high of the surfaces necessitated by the structural considerations. the j n ^he cage Q f due to ^ . and there are also static and structural problems to be considered which limit the value of the ratio c In value modern varies machines. Triplane system. 12. 12 and 13 In illus- trate this phenomenon and triplane respectively. with the result that the value of the Lift coefficient entire wing is lowered. and is therefore advantageous to build wings of large spread. on bottom of upper plane. and 2. still losses are greater. this 12. and even more. FIG. however. triplanes and multiplanes. . In biplanes. the following effects ensue: 1. Decrease in vacuum on top of lower plane. there is a limit beyond which this advantage becomes a minimum. case of the for a biplane the biplane.

the air under pressure rushing violently to fill up the vacuum will result in a veritable cyclone in the intervening space. ft. ft. per sq. of 6 provided. that value has never been reached. is. ft. In practice. per sq. ft. for wing No. per sq. from each other. and an appreciable loss in maneuverability. Theoretically this value may vary between wide limits. point of view. so that . it can be assumed that the values of positive and negative pressures (vacuum) found at the top and bottom of both wings would be equal to 2 Ib. and 6 Ib. Decrease in positive pressures on bottom of upper 2. if a difference in pressure of 8 Ib. per sq. or the number of pounds carried per square foot of wing surface. per sq. Keeping in mind what has been previously stated (Fig. the discussion here will be limited to the biplane. is produced between two points in the air at a distance of 6 ft. It is thus seen how undesirable. ft. respectively. of course. the is 51 Ib. Special racing airplanes have been built whose unit loads were as high as 13 Ib. condensed and rarefied conditions of the air are being constantly produced. that the two wing surfaces had no effect on each other. Now. 8). AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Decrease in vacuum on top of bottom plane. the triplane really Another important ratio in aeronautics is the unit load on the wings. from an aerodynamical At the present time. per sq. the triplane is not a common type of airplane. with a unit load equal to 8 Ib. per sq. so however.12 1. and 4. for example. ft. Consider a biplane with a chord and gap each of 6 ft. but the principal disadvantages of such high unit ratio loads are the resulting high gliding and landing speeds. Decrease in vacuum on top of intermediate plane. plane. Decrease in positive pressures on bottom of intermediate plane. however.. 2 set at an angle of 6 and moving at a speed of 150 miles an hour. 3. For this reason designers strive to confine the unit load between the limits and 8 Ib. ft. When a wing is in motion.

50 10 0.50 10 12.5 0.25 5 i Z 3 4 5-6 7 & .75 /t 13 35 25 1.25 25 20 1.50 30 22. 0.THE WINGS 8 1.75 15 15 0.75 15 0.00 20 17.5 0.25 5 -3 -2 -I I 23456789 75 .5 1.

3. for the monoplane (Fig. the aerodynamical curve is practically the same as that in Fig. 3 will change for every one of the three for a biplane. Serving as the lower plane of a biplane structure.. Compare now a monoplane having a wing surface of 200 sq. Acting alone. a few brief computations will be made. 3. The problem then is to find the values of the angles of inci- dence and the thrust efforts required to overcome the Drag. since the aerodynamical behavior of the wing shown in Fig. and whose planes are each 100 sq. 14 gives the characteristics for wing No. 3). In order to study the phenomenon more closely. Fig.415 0. Serving as the upper plane of a biplane structure. Fig. 1500 200 _ : r which value of X gives. and assume that it is to be adopted In such a case. . 1 serving as a lower plane. as for a monoplane. Again consider the type of wing curve whose characteristics are given in Fig. 3 are no longer applicable and new curves must be determined experimentally. ft. the curves in Fig.14 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION a certain dynamic equilibrium ensues.. and 3. Assume each machine to carry a load of 1500 Ib. From the equation Since L == --= A then 1500 Ib. 2. Considered as an upper plane. at a speed of 100 miles per hour. ft. ft. = d = D = i 1 0. following conditions: 1. in area. with a biplane also having the same wing section. possessing the type of wing mentioned above. 15 gives the characteristics of a complete biplane whose upper and lower planes are similar.415 X 200 - 83 Ib. and 200 sq.

required by really only the machine. the corresponding spars of both upper and . of a biplane structure is 8 per cent. due largely to the great superiority.. more power than the monoplane The power absorbed by the wing system is about 25 per cent. from a structural point of view. so that the total loss due to the employment of equal area. it usually consists of spars. the the biplane is r~~g ratio being the same. therefore 8 per cent. the span of to weight.450 0. the final deduction must not be made that a biplane requires 8 per cent. which are running parallel to the span. to The the monoplane wings are fixed or hinged and braced by steel cable rigging (Fig. Regarding the former.P. of a machine is made by means of the spars.71 that required by the monoplane. As only 0. are fitted to the The junction of the wings to the body or fuselage spars. or 2 per cent.THE WINGS and for the biplane (Fig. Of late. is required to move the wing surfaces of this biplane than that necessary to move a similar wing in the monoplane structure. greater. The thrust required is 8 per cent. the biplane takes up much less ground by a space and is much lighter than the monoplane. For lifting surfaces of equal areas. the biplane structure has almost entirely supplanted that of the monoplane. offered cellular structure over a linear type. of 25 per cent. is to be noted that a wing structure two or more main beams called wing constructed to form the outline of the wing section. fuselage spars of In the biplane. instead.P. smaller than in the case of the monoplane.450 X : 200 - 90 Ib. of the total H. 17). In the case of the biplane ^ is seen to be 12 per cent. the main stress-resisting members of the wing. Wing ribs. However. 16). i d 15 D = = = 1 45' 0. more H.

FIG. 17). to which are glued and nailed or screwed strengthening flanges rib is usually built (Fig. 16. and the impossibility of monoplane structure in large machines because of its excessive weight. For those familiar with the principles of structures it is easy to see the great superiority of the biplane structure over the monoplane structure in stiffness and lightness.16 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION lower planes are held together by struts and cross bracing. the function of which is to stiffen the wing horizontally. The up with a thin veneer web. forming a truss (Fig. 20). A leading edge made of wood or steel tube struts connects the front extremities of the ribs. The spars are also held together by wooden and steel wire cross bracing. 18). The vertical struts of a biplane may between the upper and lower wings be either of wood or steel tubing.[ or box section for lightness (Fig. In . consists of two or more spars on which the ribs are fitted Wing structure is (Fig. the frame all types of airplanes. while for the trailing edge a steel wire or wood strip is used. The spars are usually of an I. 19). becoming more and more uniform for As already pointed out.

. 20. and some of the many possible methods are shown in Fig.THE WINGS 17 either case. different Many systems of Angle Strut:' Box.. FIG. Wood struts are often hollowed to obtain lightness.. and tacking or sewing it to the . 19. End Fitting -For Connecting Spar. Wing Trussing Strut Rear Spar. Inferior Trailing Edge. attaching the struts and cables to the spars are used. FIG. SECTION A-B (ENLARGED) FIG. >g to the Fuselage:''"" Intermediate tr I"Section Rib. 18. Interior Steel Wire Cross Bracing. they must have a streamline section to reduce to a minimum their head resistance. The wing skeleton is covered with linen fabric. 22. Section "> End Rib. attached by sewing it to the ribs.

The surface is then finished with bright leading and trailing edges.18 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION It is then given an application of special varnish. SECTION A-B(ENLARGED) FIG. FIG. thereby detracting as little as possible from the efficiency. called "dope. . which leaves the fabric smooth so as to reduce frictional losses to a minimum. 22." which stretches it and makes it air tight. 21. waterproof varnish.

control are used. perpendicular By a known machine principle of mechanics. one fixed. must be made to its center of gravity (C. devices which cause or prevent movements about that axis are called devices of directional stability.G. every rotation of the about its C.G. first fixed at the rear end of the fuselage. 19 . There are usually two surfaces which control longitudinal stability. and the devices causing or preventing rolling movements are called devices of lateral stability. is called the pitching axis. can be brought about or prevented.CHAPTER II THE CONTROL SURFACES reference its In studying the directional maneuvers of an airplane. called the elevator. principal axis perpendicular to the plane of symmetry. each capable of producing a rotation of the airplane about one of its principal axes. if three systems of principal axes. The axis parallel to the line of flight is called the rolling axis. movement are called The axis perpendicular to the line of flight. <The stabilizer or tail plane is a relatively small surface Its function is. any rotation of the machine about its C. One of machine while the third the two axes in the plane is is is parallel to the line of flight while the other to it. may be considered as the resultant of three distinct rotations.G. The bring about. Rotations about that The devices used to axis are called pitching movements. and the other movable. or prevent a pitching devices of longitudinal stability. one about each of the three On the other hand. Two of the of the axes are contained in the plane of symmetry normal to this plane. in the plane The of symmetry is called the axis of direction of flight.) and to three principal axes. called the stabilizer or tail plane.

. and secondly. the stabilizer will require relatively less surface than that required for large. In general stabilizer is generally its angle of incidence may be adjusted either on the ground or while in flight. However. that incidence must never be greater than the angle used for the main wing surfaces. Its value is generally 1 to 4 less than that of the wings. its speed. but it must always of all. to act as a damper on longitudinal or pitching movements. its longitudinal moment or inertia. and it may be raised or lowered flight flight. be lower than that of the principal wing surface. and the distance the stabilizer is set from the center of gravity of the machine. swift combat machines which require a high degree of maneuverability. Under this condition only. Moreover. The size of the elevator also depends on the weight. The stabilizer may be of various shapes and sections. If it is downward the air will strike it. it would add to the instability As on to the proper dimensions of the stabilizer. producing swung upward a reaction whose direction is upward or downward respecthus tending to set the machine for climbing or descending. It may be either lifting or non-lifting. the proportions of the stabilizer with respect to the other parts of the airplane are also dependent on another factor: the type of airplane. and on its distively. speed of the machine. 'C The elevator or edge of while in movable surface is hinged to the rear the stabilizer. such as those used for bombing operations and requiring a much lower degree of maneuverability. For small. will it act as a stabilizer. heavily loaded machines. In normal the elevator is is set parallel to the air flow so that there or no air reaction on its faces. they depend various factors such as the weight of the airplane. otherwise of the wings. moment of inertia. to offset or of the inherent instability of satisfy the basic condition that its unit loading per sq. ft.20 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION even completely invert the phenomenon curved wings. of The framework or skeleton of the wood or steel tubing.

also the type of airplane and the service for which it is intended must be given consideration. for quick and responsive machines the elevator must be proportionally larger than FIG. this will be more easily understood upon considering the functions of . for slow machines endowed with a greater degree of stabilIn other words. However. as those of the stabilizers. However.THE CONTROL SURFACES 21 tance from the center of gravity of the machine. the two proportions vary inversely ity. 23.

22 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION the two devices which are in a certain sense^ completely opposite. span. acting alone. deviation. the incidence of the wing is changed with respect to the air. First of all.p. or 2 from the leading edge. otherwise it is said to be unstable. and the normal angle of flight 2.3 X 200 = 1460 Ib. An outline of a type of stabilizer and elevator system is be made of the function of these two parts of longitudinal stability. The point of intersection of the air reaction on the wing chord is the incidence is called the center of pressure of the wing (Fig. A closer study may now when properly set. and vice versa. The by the ratio c The curves for X and for . 25. the air reaction will not only vary in intensity but also in locaIf the new reaction is such as to antagonize the tion. By applying the data from these curves to a wing of ft. are shown in Fig. the airplane is said to be stable. in an airplane. stability. The function of the stabilizer is to insure longitudinal The elevators function as its name implies. are unstable. 24) location of the center of thrust is usually indicated /p /> . Suppose now that the inci- . 23. thus the reaction moves in such a way as to aggravate the disturbance. supposing the normal speed to be 100 m. through which it is progressing. is order to bring about a change in the normal flying. Laboratory experiments have shown that for a with a curved profile. just to disturb the equilibrium of the machine in instead. exercises its stabilizing property. the wing loading will be 5 L = and load ft. given in Fig. it 7. chord and 40 ft.as functions of the c angle of incidence for a given wing section. when increased. of the chord. When. examination will be made of the mechanism by which the stabilizer. will falls at be in equilibrium if the center of gravity of the a distance of 40 per cent.h. the reaction moves forward as wing Wings having curved profiles.

0. 25.15 = 300 ft.0 0.20 -3-2-1 01 . this result will then produce around the center of gravity. 24.2000 Ib.5 15. 23456769 Degrees. or 1.5 0. FIG. a moment of 2000 X 0.50 17. Center of Pressure.THE CONTROL SURFACES dence is 23 increased from 2 to 4.85 ft.45 12.5 0. X TV.15 and it will be applied at 37 per cent. Ib.30 5.5 0.0 0.25 2. from the leading edge. of the chord. . then the sustaining force becomes L = 10 X 200 . C - ' FIG. "c" 0.0 0.40 10.35 7.

.5) set in such a manner as to present an 2 with the line of flight when the wing in front angle of practical case will A now be presents an angle of 1.3 X 200 = 1460 Ib. it will dence of the wing. The center of pressure of the elevator located at 0. the total resultant of the forces acting case is obtained. center of pressure of the 0. considered. Following the same line of reasoning for a case of decrease in the angle of incidence. Therefore. and 4.40 main wing located at X 5 = 2 ft.. Ib. values. the wing in question is unstable. and constituted of a surface of 15 sq. With these . 2. where a stabilizer is set behind this wing. from the leading edge.88 ft. tend to further increase the angle of inci- and such moment that is.05 15 91 Ib. (2 X 7. + 2. of the machine is equal to zero when the incidence is increased . = 11.78 ft. center of pressure of the main wing located at 0. In normal flight there is The The The The sustaining force of the main wing. 15 3.355 3. center of pressure of the elevator located at 0. and it is found that while in norin each mal flight. from its leading edge.410 X 2' = 0. ft. The The The sustaining force of the main wing equal to L. X X = = sustaining force of the elevator equal to L = s 6.. equal to L = s 7.30 X 5' 200 = 2260 1. then there is 1. sustaining force of the elevator equal to L = a 2 X = 30 Ib.24 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION will tend to make the machine nose up. the moment of total resultant about the e.g. and 4.44 X 2' = 0. from its leading edge. it will be found in that case that a moment is originated tending to make the machine nose down. is Suppose now that the incidence of the machine in- creased so that the angle of incidence of the front wing changes from +2 to +5. 2.82 ft.

In analogous manner it can be shown that if the incidence of the machine is decreased. that if the airplane were provided with only a stabilizer and with no elevator. It is obvious. to 2351 X (2. since any change in this angle would develop the machine to its original izing moment tending to restore Thus the exact function of the elevator is to proangle. developed.71/ = 2.44') ft. then. stabilizing moment (Fig. tends to prevent the deviation and therefore is a Ib.6 Ft FIG. a moment tending to prevent V 0. 26).THE CONTROL SURFACES to 25 5. that moment becomes equal 645 is. it would fly at only one certain angle of incia stabildence. that tending to make the machine nose down. that deviation is duce moments which will balance the stabilizing moments . 26.

the with the rolling whose point machine tends to set itself against the wind. the center of drift should fall before the center of gravity. enabling maneuver for climbing or descending. normal flight would be impossible. 27). an airplane in normal flight. to There are also usually two parts controlling directional one fixed surface called the fin or vertical stabilizer. instead. a force of drift is developed (Fig. Consider. that is. If this center is found to lie behind the center of gravity. but if is no longer coincident axis. In this case there is for some reason the line of flight no force of drift. If.26 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION This will allow the due to the stabilizer. with its line of flight coincident with the rolling axis FIG. (Fig. 27. and one movable surface called the rudder. as the machine tends to . that is. machine to assume it a complete series of angles of incidence. of application is called center of drift. it becomes endowed with directional stability. stability. 28). for example.

g. the condition of directional stability is easily attained by the use of a small vertical surface of drift which is set at the extreme rear of the fuselage. There is. (and consequently the e. not used at the present time. turn sharply about at the least deviation from its normal In practice.THE CONTROL SURFACES 27 course. in which the main wing surface is the one in the rear. since the center of gravity of an air- plane is found very close to the front end of the machine. This type of airplane. For that reason it is necessary to have a rudder. type. a vertical movable A machine provided with only a fin . This surface is called the fin or vertical stabilizer. but for that very reason it would be impossible for the airplane to change its course. is would possess good directional stability. however. a type of airplane called the Canard FIG. 28. falls entirely in the rear) and in which the problem of directional stability presents considerable difficulty. however.

since the two forces D f . AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION which.28 surface. a drifting force D" is airplane originated. and when D" X d" = D' X d'. and Obviously. The equilibrium will be obtained only if the line of D" no longer be and D' are unequal. rotate about the axis of direction and the line of flight will no longer coincide with the rolling axis. this deviation will then provoke on the rudder a the fin. The phenomenon may now reaction D' (Fig. which will have about the center of gravity a moment D'Xd'. equilibrium will be obtained. 29). then. when properly deviated. as a result. 'be studied more in detail. Let us suppose that the directing rudder is deviated at an angle. which tends to stabilize. the rectilinear. that is. the airplane will FIG. if line of flight will transported to the center of other than gravity they will give a resultant D = D" zero. 29. when the starts to drift in its course. will produce a balancing moment to overcome the stabilizing moment of thus permitting a change in the course of the drift.

the velocity of the airplane and r the radius of curvature of the line of flight.THE CONTROL SURFACES flight 29 becomes curvilinear. since _ " d" drift. an excessive directional stability flat exist.D' From this equation it will maneuverability in turning. which is analogous to that of a The airplane. and it is necessary that the rudder be located at a consider- able distance from the center of gravity. the difference be seen that to obtain remarkable D" D' must have a large value. stabilizer and fin. which are intended to produce moments to oppose the it is stabilizing moments of the fixed devices.E X Z!__E X A D g g ' ' v ' _!!_ D" . offers the great advantage of ship. however. g the acceleration due to gravity. must not being able to incline itself laterally which greatly facilitates turning. Or. airplanes are provided with movable surfaces. whose functions are to insure longitudinal and directional stability. It will now be . elevator and rudder. The foregoing applies to what is called a turn without banking. for good maneuverability. therefore where W V from which is obtained . D' it is necessary that the center of although being in the rear of the center of gravity. In summarizing the foregoing. a centrifugal force $ is then developed which will be in equilibrium with the resultant force of drift D. seen that in addition to the fixed surfaces. in fact. as is the weight of the airplane. Then equilibrium will be obtained ' when <J> = Z). as will be shown when reference is made to the devices for transversal stability. must be not too far behind it. In other words.

. If. Da If this reaction is a the airplane is said to have an indifferent transversal stability. there are two are classes of devices opposite in their functions. The resultant of the lateral is wind forces acting on the machine such as to make with the force D a a couple tending to restore the machine to its original position. Consequently. a and a form a couple tending to aggravate the inclination of the machine. together with the force a form a stabilizing couple. finally. 30. conditions must be such that the lateral reaction is Da that is. the point of application of the force a must be D D .30 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION is better understood that excessive stability contrary to good maneuverability. In like manner. L will have a resultant D n which will tend to make the W machine drift a lateral to (Fig. air reaction this drifting movement will produce a acting in the direction opposite D Da . the machine is said to be transverIf D a has sally stable. 30) . Let us consider an airplane in normal flight. and suppose that a gust of wind causes the machine to become inclined and the air reaction The weight laterally by an angle a. in order to have an airplane laterally stable. the same axis as D D D the latter said to be transversally unstable. Some used to insure stability while others serve to produce moments capable of neutralizing the stabilizing moments. for transversal stability. this is the case shown in Fig. .

D stability must not have an excessive value." the forces L and this airplane a lateral resultant W Da which tends to deviate laterally the line of flight. the couple of lateral . that is. has been explained before how a turning action may be obtained by merely narrowing the rudder. " will admit when the banks. However. cannot be actually done in practice since there is a Now. when . as will now be explained. will obtain a and equilibrium tending to balance the force A D when $ = D a (Fig. 31. 31). centrifugal force $ is thereby developed.THE CONTROL SURFACES 31 situated above the point of application of force a which is the center of gravity. possibility of the machine banking while turning. as it would decrease the maneuverability to such an extent as to make the machine dangerous to handle. and how It FIG.

Then the total force of drift is equal to This case is a Da of D D . a flat turn without banking will result. has been observed that the machine assumes an angle of = D" . the total force of drift Now if force is D + D a D a had its point of application too far above . since of lateral instability.D' (Fig. it the controls for lateral stability. a strong overturning moment would develop which would give the machine a dangerous angle of bank. 29) passes If the force of drift drift. and the angle a of the bank is increased. the result would be that with a slight movement of the rudder. This explains why pilots desiring to turn make a steep bank and at the same time nose the sharply. instead. in a direction opposite to force D. If force D passes below the center of gravity. we obtain r = 1 - F tan a This equation shows that the turn can be so much sharper as the speed is decreased. Therefore it is evident that an excessive stabilizing moment must be avoided.32 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION r is where the radius of curvature of the line of flight. . no practical interest. the center of gravity. then the angle of bank a is such that a is of the same direction as D. corresponds to the case to be avoided. In using the rudder. D through the center of gravity. w_ g x Z! Da 2 As Z) a = IF tan a. in order to lose speed. it D D Therefore. the airplane will incline itself so as to produce a resultant of L and W. which is force passes above the center of gravity. therefore M?which will give WX V 2 T r _. If. the angle of bank may be obtained in two ways by operating the rudder or by using the ailerons which are machine upward Now .

THE CONTROL SURFACES The ailerons are 33 Let us the wing ends (Fig. the pilot to the left. into play which tends to rotate the machine about the rolling Since it is possible to operate the ailerons in either axis. 32. is broken. the equity of the sustaining force on both the FIG. Thus a couple brought right and left wings. in a laterally the banking movement caused machine will tend to oppose is Da . With this inverse '. can bank his machine to the right or that the Supposing that the pilot operates the ailerons so machine banks to the right. is direction. a force stable produced. let a be the angle of bank. The AA movement. then. which. . 32) when they are operated. two small movable surfaces located at now observe what happens and BB' ailerons are hinged along the axes controlled in such a manner that when one swings and are upward the other swings downward.

all other conditions being similar. The foregoing considerations show the is ency existing between the problems and those of transversal stability. birds possess no means trols. is. applied very far above the center of gravity) the maneuver will be slow. of the ailerons. but use the motion of their wings for changing the direction of their flight. and consequently ailerons. the mobility of the machine. Now. to control directional stability by means of the lateral conFor 'example. or. It close interdependof directional stability practically possible FIG. we may either install fins above the rolling axis.34 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION by the The rapidity of turning. better still. 33. will increase in proportion as the rapidity of the banking movement increases. and the couple due to the if the value of the latter is very large (that FIG. 34. To raise the force D a with respect to the center of gravity. give the wings an upward inclination from the center . Therefore for good mobility of the airplane. and vice versa. the force a must not be too far above if D a is D the center of gravity. of control for directional stability alone. the rapidity with which the machine banks is proportional to the difference of the couple due to the actions force of drift .

steel outline of tubing or pressed steel members. thereby developing a lateral couple which is favorable to stability. ons is given in Fig. 34. the wing on the side toward which the machine assumes an angle of incidence greater than the inci- FIG. An wood ailer- FIG. ^The framework of the ailerons is usually of wood. 33).THE CONTROL SURFACES 35 to the tip of the wing. an airplane will produce stabilizing couples for every deviation from the position of equilibrium. The effect of this regulation is that when the machine takes an angle of drifts. 36. dence of the opposite wing. but these couples must not be . the so-called dihedral angle (Fig. 35. drift. the Concluding to be relatively safe and controllable at must be provided with devices which same time.

36 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION machine would then be of excessive magnitude. the muscular effprt_of the pilot.^ The effort required to move a control surface Depends on the distance h (Fig. the value of h is reduced to is h'. moved forward and backward to lower and raise the elevator. and consequently dangerous in These stabilizing couples must be of the cases. 35 and 36). for the too slow in maneuvers. In this manner the pilot always has control of the machine and it will answer readily and its effectively to his will. to a slight degree. many same magnitude as the couples which can be produced by the controlling devices. Balanced rudders are found on some of the high-powered machines. The system of control of maneuvering by the pilot usu- ally consists of a rudder-bar operated by the feet. as they reduce. If axis AB AB is moved to A'B' '. and therefore the required effort for the maneuver decreased. 37) between the center of pressure C and the axis of rotation. . 37. oted on a universal joint. and a hand-controlled vertical stick (called the "joy stick") piv- UNBAUANCED RUDDER IA BALANCED RUDDER FIG. and from left to right to move the ailerons (Figs.

h.p. In the discussion on wings. or nearly so. the fuselage must be designed so as to have.h. the more suitable K corresponding necessary power will be decreased. the type of engine. The attached to the fuselage. and must be reduced to a minimum in it order to minimize the power necessary to through the air. rudder and elevator are all load. to a reducing the major section of the fuselage as coefficient minimum. the velocity of the airplane. and (6) by lowering the value of. then . landing gear. (a) By K much as possible. 37 . the load. when V The of penetration of the fuselage. etc. The fuselage may assume any one of various shapes. crew and the useful The wings. fuel tanks. then R = K.p. shown that head resistance Laboratory experiments have 2 is proportional to S and V for a given' fuselage. For a fuselage moving along a path parallel to its axis. This major section of the fuselage. Equation (1) shows two ways of decreasing the necessary power. however.CHAPTER III THE FUSELAGE fuselage or body of an airplane is the structure usually containing the engine. as the lower is. In general. 2 Assuming our base speed as 100 m. Thus the the head resistance per square foot of the 1 = 100 m. is called the coefficient will be the fuselage. the Lift component is zero. coefficient S = is K and V = 100. move the fuselage Let S indicate the major section of the fuselage. the shape of a solid offering a minimum head resistance. and V . as nearly as possible. was observed that the air reaction acting on them is generally considered in its two components of Lift and Drag. depending on the service for which the machine is designed. the Drag component is predominant. R = if KXSx(^) (1) therefore.

passengers. the phenomenon of head resistance of the fuselage is due to the resultant of two positive and negative pressure zones. rectangular. so as to keep the transversal dimension as small as possible. fitted over the propeller hub. will K To improve the bow. This is easily affected with engines whose contours are circular.. it must be given a shape which \plL as nearly as possible approach that of the nose of a dirigible. triangular. but the problem presents greater difficulties with FIG. fuselage must be carefully especially the form of the bow and Analogous to that of the wings. section. thus improving the penetration of the fuselage. In may the second place. developing on the forward and rear ends respectively (Fig. 38). so designed that its major section follows the etc. form of the major section of the engine. To decrease the coefficient of head resistance. vertical types of engines. pilot. etc. or V types without Sometimes a bullet-nosed colwing is reduction gear. to arrange the various masses constituting the load (fuel. the value of be lowered. stern.) one behind the other. it is good practice. Whatever be the means employed to reduce the importance of those zones.39. square. when other reasons do not prevent it. 38.38 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION In order to solve problem (a) it is necessary first to adapt the section of the fuselage to that of the engine. fuselage be of circular. The FIG. fixed to and rotating with . the shape of the designed.

THE FUSELAGE 39 the propeller. 40) tending to decrease the pressure..P. It is interesting to compare such values with the coefficient of head resistance equal to 30. The value of coefficient K varies from 7 (for the usual types of fuselage) to 2.p. and (c) Monocoque type. FIG. 40. in area.p. Its form is then continued in the front end of the fuselage contour.8 lb. 39). a well-shaped fuselage has a coefficient of about 6. (6) Veneer type. its lines gradually easing off to meet those of the fuselage (Fig. we must overcome a resistance of only or less than one-tenth the head resistance of the Practically. depending on the type of construction used: (a) Truss structure type. and consequently increasing the efficiency. we must overcome a resistance of 30 lb.. in fact. so if its major section is. the resistance to be overcome at a speed of 150 m. . which will theoretically Fuselages may absorb about 66 H. in this case. is disc. but having a perfect streamline shape. 12 sq. To move of a flat disc 1 sq. for instance. and the shaping with the rest of the machine must be smoothly accomplished.h.h. which is the above disc at a speed of 100 m. 2. the stern of the fuselage it must be given a strong ratio of elongation. A special advantage is offered by the reverse curve of the sides. ft. be divided into three principal classes. 6 X 12 X = 162 Ibs..8 (for perfect dirigible shapes). a deviation in the air is originated in the To improve zone of reverse curving (Fig. ft. while in the case of the fuselage of equal section.

v Motor Supporting Beams. Main Spar5 k Mofor Supports Motor Supporl-ina-Beams FIG. Strut. g Wood Cross-Bracing. Mofor Supports. 42.40 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Mam Longerons. Transverse Strut. Bulkheads. FIG. 41. .

the oil tank is located under the engine. The longerons are generally of wood. the transverse section of the monois frame num and coque is either circular or elliptical. instead of being assembled with struts and bracing. 43). The whole covered in the forward part with veneer and alumiin the rear with fabric. the fuselage being formed of a continuous rigid shell. 41). The monocoque type has no longerons. It is important that the tanks be so located. the section of the longerons can be reduced (Fig. 42). Whatever the construction of the fuselage be. are held in place by means of veneer panels glued and attached by nails or screws. directly behind the engine are the gasoline tanks. and the small struts are often of wood. held together by means of small vertical and horizontal struts and steel wire cross bracing (Fig. as and the fuel is a load which is consumed during flight flight. although it is highly successful from an aerodynamical point of view. For example. in a two-seater biplane (Fig.THE FUSELAGE The 41 truss type generally consists of 4 longitudinal longerons. the center of gravity. located in a position corresponding to the center of gravity of the machine. Fuselages built of veneer are similar to the truss type as they also have 4 longitudinal longerons. which firmly holds the longerons in place along their entire length. plies. In order to insure the necessary rigidity. the distribution of the component parts to be contained in it does not vary substantially. at the forward end we find the engine with its radiator and propeller. although sometimes they are made of steel tubing. and if it were located away from decrease in its weight during balance of the machine. By the use of veneer. but the latter. glued together in three or more layers so that the grain of one ply runs in a different direction than the adjacent This type of construction has not come into general use because of the time and labor required in comparison with the other two types. The material generally used for this type is wood cut into very thin strips. the constant would disturb the .

42 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

Fig.THE FUSELAGE 43 Directly behind the tanks is the pilot's seat. surfaces etc. Under the fuselage is placed the landing gear. which support the entire weight the fuselage. cameras. are attached to that part on which the center of gravity of the machine will fall. The stabilizing longitudinal and the directional surfaces are at the rear end of The wings. . 43 shows the positions of the machine-guns. and behind the pilot is the observer. of the fuselage during flight. Its proper with respect to the center of gravity of the machine position will be dealt with later on.

especially the latter. The "take off" and landing. the amphibious. 44) only by doing this will the kinetic force of the airplane result parallel to the ground. the pilot when landing must modify the . 44 . intermediate type. off" from ground or water. which consists of both The two wheels and pontoons. and only then will there be no vertical comit is ponents capable of producing shocks. the study of which pertains especially to the outlines of the present volume.CHAPTER IV THE LANDING GEAR The purpose to take off- of the landing gear is to permit the airplane and land without the aid of special launching apparatus. There is a third. 44. This discussion will be devoted solely to wheeled landing gears. enabling a machine to land or "take \ FIG. are the most delicate maneuvers to accomplish in flying. the land and principal types of landing gears are which might be called the marine types. Even though a large and perfectly levelled field is available. line of flight until tangent to the ground (Fig.

Propeller Thrust. inertia force. T = = L = R = / = F = G = W propeller thrust. reaction of the ground. 45). G" Reaction of Ground. T. First. G). friction of the landing wheels. however. . the line of flight is not always exactly parallel to the ground when the machine comes in contact with the ground. of these forces and The moments about the axis of the landing gear may be divided into four groups: 1. head resistance of airplane. Forces whose moments are zero (the reaction of the ground. weight of airplane. the fields are never perfectly level. but for an airgenerally L= Tofal Lift of the Wings and Horizontal Tail The system Planes. of forces acting on an airplane in flight is referred to its center of gravity. 'enter of Ghpvity Inertia Force. 45. and secondly. the entire system of the acting forces must be referred to the axis of the landing wheels. plane moving on the ground. Such forces are (Fig. FIG. total total lift of wing surfaces.THE LANDING GEAR 45 In actual practice. The landing gear must therefore be equipped with shock absorbers capable of absorbing the force due to the impact. the maneuvers develop in a rather different manner.

Let us examine the stresses to which a landing gear is subjected upon touching the ground. and it saulting. ing (forces W and R). placing By placing the landing gear forward. Assume. (In fact. of these mo- gear. and this may be done until the moment can even become negative. aid or prevent sommer- saulting (forces L and 7) In group 4. in the case of a perfect landing. and it may be carried to a limit where this moment becomes so excessive that it of opposite sign. and a of gravity of the vertical line pass- ing through the center of gravity. a landing with a shock. force I prevents sommersaulting when the machine accelerates in taking off. the moment due to the weight is decreased. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Forces whose Forces whose Forces whose moments will tend to make the machine sommersault 3. then the machine could not move on the ground without sommeris zero. and 4. and aids sommersaulting in landing when the machine retards its motion. to prevent sommersault- moments tend moments may . In practice it is possible to vary the value ments by changing the position of the landing it forward or backward. for it cannot put itself into the line of flight. In practice this is brought about by having an angle of from 14 to 16 between the line joining the center machine to the axis of the wheels. and assumes a value when L = that is. when the machine is . Consequently it is necessary to locate the land- ing gear so that the tendency to sommersault will be decreased and the "take off" be not too difficult. (forces T and F). the moment of the force in direction at the pilot's will." By placing the landing 'gear backward. cannot be counterbalanced by moments Then the airplane will not "take off. W . L may be changed maneuvering the eleby vator. the reaction of the ground on the wheels is equal to the difference between maximum the weight and the sustaining force L. that is. an abnormal landing. the moment due to the weight of the machine is particularly increased. in this case.46 2.

The kinetic energy of shock absorbers. of the total kinetic energy. as the weight of such devices would make their use prohibitive.25 it. 0. are the tires and Fig.). due either to the encounter of some obstacle on the ground. That kinetic energy is equal to the acceleration due to gravity. and V the velocity of the airplane with respect to the ground. elongation for a certain type of The work absorbed by n ft. would be impossible to adopt devices maximum plane of weight kinetic energy to be absorbed in landing and velocity V. is wheel. assuming 0. referred to per cent.5 per cent.004. is equal to an air- W 0. or to the fact that the line of flight has not been straightened out. 46 gives the work diagrams for a capable of absorbing 900 ft.0025 to 0. (146 ft. Experience has proven that it is sufficient to provide shock absorbers capable of absorbing from 0.THE LANDING GEAR standing.. Then the up in the airplane. parts of the landing gear intended to absorb the an airplane in landing. Fig. with a deformation of 0. of elastic cord is under a per cent. it will be necessary that the landing gear be capable of absorbing a maximum amount of energy equal to 2000 \\^^) " " = 5300 ft. the kinetic energy of the machine must be considered.004 X X For example.p.) 47 In the case of a hard shock. per sec.^ times the area 1UU of the diagram corresponding to x per .-lb.h. 47 gives the diagram of the The wheel work elastic cord. moving at a velocity of 100 m.0050 X WX y V 2 for an airplane weighing 2000 lb. to 1 per cent. capable of absorbing all the kinetic energy thus developed. The foregoing where g is is the amount of kinetic energy stored it Naturally. elongation of x 77 equal to the product of ^.-lb.

to have a shock absorbing system 32 ft.48 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION cent. allowing an elongation of 150 per 0.15 0. cent. equal as shown in the As this gives a total of 2700 ft. 4b. 46. elongation. Supposing.5 010 0.-lb. . the work that it can absorb diagram to 1800 ft. ..20 025 FIG. is two wheels and two shock absorbers of such type will be sufficient for the airplane in question. long. for instance.

THE LANDING GEAR Rubber cord shock 49 absorbers. 50. FIG. FIG. which perform work by have proven to be the lightest and most their elongation. Experiments have been made with other types. such as the steel spring. 48. . hydraulic and pneumatic. FIG. 49. but the practical.

Similar to the landing gear. Fig. producing an energetic braking force. some brakin order to shorten the distance the machine ing device. Fig. Friction on the wheels. our discussion has been only on the Consideration vertical component of the kinetic energy. axle. has to roll on the ground. exerts on the machine an energetic braking action (Fig. Up to this point. is attached to the middle of the landing gear which can be caused to dig into the ground and pro- duce a braking effect. a short arm. On certain airplanes. and consequently offering no passive resist- when landing they can be maneuvered so as to be disposed perpendicularly to the line of motion. with a small plow blade at its lower end. must also be given the horizontal component. The practice therefore prevails of providing the tail skid with a hook. On some machines. 48 illustrates an example of elastic cord binding. When the available landing space is limited. the tail skid is also provided with a small elastic cord shock absorber to absorb the kinetic energy of the shock. 50). which. 49 shows the outline of a landing gear. but it the machine must be slowed of down by means often happens that these retarding forces are not sufficient. as it digs into the ground. use is made of aerodynamical brakes consisting of special surfaces which normally are set in the line of flight.50 results AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION have shown these types to possess but little merit. head resistance and the drag all have a braking effect. whose only effect is to make the machine run on the ground for a certain distance. but . ances.

Ratio between the major section of the engine and the number of horsepower developed. For a given engine. C the total fuel consumption per hour (gasoline and oil). 51 . Oil and gasoline consumption per horsepower per hour.CHAPTER V THE ENGINE be dealt with only from the airplane of view. P its power. the type under consideration. call E the weight of the engine. 2. Weight of engine per horsepower. and of verWhatever tical. equation (1) gives the linear relation between y and x. For all the problems peculiar to designers point the technique of the subject.. Such characteristics may be grouped as follows: 1. and x the number of hours of flight required of the airplane. there exist certain fundamental characteristics which enable one to judge the engine from the point of view of its use on the airplane. it is not sufficient to know only its weight and horsepower. which can be translated into a simple. 3. and 5. Position of the center of gravity of the engine with respect to the propeller axis. then the smaller the value of the following equation. will The engine There are various types of aviation engines with rotary or fixed cylinders. 4. special texts can be referred to. it is If we also essential to know it specific fuel consumption. the lighter will be the motor: V = E p + xX p C (1) . Number of revolutions per minute of the propeller shaft. and radial types of cylinder disposition. In order to judge the light weight of an engine. F. air cooled or water cooled.

52 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION graphic. per H.5 + OA8x.P. the total advantage is 270 lb. Let us consider two engines. 51. B is the lighter. since P SCO H. and B.3 has an advantage of 0.7 lb. equation For engine B. then V. having the following characteristics: A TABLE 1 For engine A.P. representation.Qx. equation ir\ (1) will give (1) y will give y = = + Q.. 10 Hours Translating these equations into diagrams (Fig. for flights up to 4 hours 10 minutes beyond which point. 2 9- 456789 . that'is. 51). see that engine If x Vt = 10 hours. B = . 8 lb. = = 7.x FIG. we A is lighter than engine B. 2.

for the sole reason that for the latter the above ratio is higher. only the weight per horsepower. We can then write W A + WP + W c + W v = eP. that the lower the ratio -p w between the total weight W. the better will be the flying characteristics of the machine. In this case (assuming Generally W A = / W. W components : WA = weight of airplane without engine group and WP = weight of the complete engine group. furthermore W v W = l 3 flight) c is Ib. the same general c value of the specific consumption = C p> varies around the same e it values. capable of carrying fuel for a flight of three hours and a useful load of 600 (pilot.2. Let us suppose that we wish to build an airplane of given horizontal and climbing speed characteristics. where C the specific conW 4 hours of sumption per horsepower which can be assumed to be equal = 600 to 0. devices. W v = useful load. In fact. arms.). ammunition.THE ENGINE Practically. . that -p weight W. W c = weight of and gasoline. oil accessories. of the machine with its Ib. . this gives W c . p In that case. observer. the flying characteristics is equivalent to fixing the Fixing maximum weight per horsepower. = E is of interest. etc. and the power P of the motor. WP = 4CP.55. for engines of the 53 types. we find it to be the sum of the following .2P. In fact. we shall see further on in discussing the efficiency of the airplane. that ratio is so important that may power in often be convenient to adopt an engine of lower comparison with another of high power. complete load. Analyzing the Supposing for example. = 10 Ib.

2P + 600 W must be to 10 since -p equal 60 4. per H. are absolutely similar. we naturally prefer the engine of lesser major section. and 416 H. is However. major sections.P. Supposing we have two engines. From these it is obvious then. in practice it often happens that an engine of higher power than another.54 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION shall We then have z that is. W = y W + eP + 2. each of their bulk. the same result is obtained. 300 H.le In Fig. and if e if e = = 3 .P. An example will make the point clearer.. 52 these relations have been translated into curves.446 O. Ib. and e = 3 per H.P. that although using an engine of 70 per cent. has a lower weight per horsepower. We see that 246 H.P. Let us examine the extreme values for e = 2 Ib.46 - e and consequently W = 600 0. greater. plus the disadvantage of having an airplane of which the surface (and consequently the required floor space).P. but different gine. 70 per cent. Ib. It is only necessary to note the importance of this matter. P = p= W = 2460 W = 4160 Ib. and it is seen that there are innumerable couples of values e. more power. not only does not possess higher weight per horsepower. 2. which satisfy the conditions necessary for the construction of the airplane under consideration. P. because it permits the construction of fuselages offering less head resistance. Another important consideration is the bulk of the enOf two engines having the same power. but on the contrary. whose characteristics with the exception of Suppose that one of .

for the resistance of all the other parts. for the resistance of the fuselage. The result is . the head resistance of the fuselage of the second is engine 50 per cent.THE ENGINE 55 of 9 sq. Let us assume that the power developed lowing manner : is used up in the fol- 30 per cent. and 30 per cent. these engines has a major section of 6 sq. and the other ft... greater than that of the first. for the resistance of the wing surface. a machine can be constructed whose head resistance will be 20 per cent. 40 per cent. ft. that with the second engine.

the tractor biplane the end of the fuselage on properly designed supports. may in some cases prove very convenient in making the propeller turn at a speed conducive to good efficiency. or at the most. are supported on transverse fuselage bridging and are anchored with steel wires which take up the propeller thrust (Fig. the principal accessory installations such as the gasoline and oil systems. Instead. of the speed. Furthermore. thereby losing about 7 per cent. The supports. for all rotary and vertical is or V radial engines. usually of wood. for engines with types of cylinders. and the water circulation for cooling. unless the proIn peller axis is raised by using a transmission gear. 53) installed in the forward . we shall see the great importance of the position of the center of gravity of the machine with respect to the axis of traction. this factor consequently becomes of vast . coinThis last condition is true cident with the line of thrust. due to the relations between the various head resistances and the speeds. as we shall see in the discussion on the efficiency of the airplane.56 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION greater. has a great importance in regard to the installation of The an engine in the airplane. the center of gravity generally found above the line of thrust. speaking of the problems of balancing. of employing a trans- mission gear in order to realize more favorable conditions. and let us discuss briefly. in turn. position of the center of gravity with respect to the propeller axis. in the type of machine most engine generally is used today. the transmission gear from the engine shaft to the propeller shaft. As has been pointed out before. importance for the efficiency. In the following chapter we shall see that the propeller efficiency depends on the ratio between the speed of the airplane and the peripheral speed of the propeller since the peripheral speed depends on the number of revolutions. An ideal engine should have its center of gravity below. and the convenience there may be in certain cases. Let us see now which criterions are to be followed in installing an engine in an airplane. . to which it is firmly bolted.

THE ENGINE 57 .

for the return and leading into the top of the tank (Fig. It is easy to place all the oil in sumption per horsepower is one tank. The motor M. so There as to reduce to a minimum the piping system. 54. bottom of the one leading from the are two pipe lines tank and which is used for the suction. the air in tank T] the gasoline flowing through cock i. consumption. The general scheme of the pressure feed is shown in Fig. As the gasoline must be sent to the carburetor which is generally located above the tanks. 54). goes to carburetor C. to 12 per cent. The principal artifices are a. Further- . but it is a difficult matter to contain all the required gasoline in a single tank.58 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION tank is generally situated under the engine. as much generally weighs from 10 per cent. the other. carries a special pump which compresses 55. as the oil conabout {oo f the gasoline ' Return Oil Oil Feed and Return Pump ' Pump Filter Return Pipe FIG. it is necessary to resort to artifices to insure the feeding. pump feed. Therefore. multiple tanks are used. The oil The it made of copper or leaded steel sheets. oil tank is usually as the oil it contains. especially for powerful engines. Air Gasoline pump pressure feed. Cock i enables the opening or closing of the flow between tank T and the carburetor. b.

Gasoline pressure feed system.THE ENGINE 59 more. in order that the latter of circulation is between the main tank T may be completed by a . cock i also enables a flow and the auxiliary tank t. so that the gasoline may flow to the carbu- FIG. it allows or stops a flow between the carburetor and a small auxiliary safety tank t. The scheme replenished. Fi- 1 i ' ' ' ' FIG. retor by gravity. the gasoline in this tank is used in case the feed from the main tank should cease to operate. 55. situated above the level of the carburetor. nally. 56.

56 line by the engine. the diameter must be such that the speed of gasoline flow does not exceed 1 ft. 0. because the tanks can be much lighter as they do air. The gasoline in the main tank T flows to a pump G. from clogging up the carburetor jets. which serves to produce pressure in the tank before starting the engine. is less not have to withstand the air pressure. while a tank operating without pressure weighs from 10 per cent. as it requires of the maneuver of opening or closing a cock. an example of only one main tank is shown. to 13 per cent.5 ft. that it is necessary to install proper metallic filters or strainers in the gasoline feed system. and him only finally. in order to avoid obstruction due to congealing. per second. it must be comparatively large for the oil. 55 and 56. which sends it to the carburetor. the cocks only changing so as to allow simultaneous or single functioning of each of the tanks. in We order to prevent impurities existing in the gasoline. or between T and t. for instance. Cock i permits or stops a flow between tank T and the carburetor. to 18 per cent.60 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION hand pump p. As a matter of interest. cock 2 establishes a flow between tank T and either or both of the pumps P and p. shows the scheme of circulation by using the gasopump feed. Gasoline pump feed is much more convenient than presIt does not use comsure feed because it is more reliable. If there are two or more tanks the conception of the schemes remains the same. or excludes them both. a tank operating under pressure weighs from 14 per cent.00666 gallon a second) the . eter of the piping system. shall note finally. or between tank t and the carburetor. In the schemes of Figs. As to the diamcopper. to 1. For the thus gasoline. pressed tiresome for the pilot. as much as the gasoline it contains. supposing an engine to consume 24 gallons an hour (that is. Pump G may be operated by a special small propeller or Fig. The piping systems for gasoline and oil are made of The joints are usually of rubber.

which lowers its temperature.5 Ib. 57 The water necessary to insulate the tank with felt.600 B.t. Finally. it flows to the radiator R. then for 1 H. % the It is often necessary to resort to special radiators to cool oil..THE ENGINE inside diameter of the gasoline pipe to in.u. in it is winter. per H. Water-cooling system. per H. are necessary. and since the heat of the combustion of about 18. in order to avoid freezing.55 Ib. per Ib. is warmed by contact with completed. 9300 B.u. and the circuit radiator..t.45 to 0. the cylinders. the thermal equivalent of 1 H.P. The gasoline consumption of the engines varies from 0. therefore only gasoline is = 9300 27 5 per cent ' ' f the heat f combustion of the .P. Now. per hour. shows the principle The engine is provided with a water pump P.t. which pumps the water into the cylinder jackets. On the contrary. per hour is 2550 B.P. after it has been FIG. Fig.. circulation exists only in water-cooled engines.u. 57. per hour. Assuming an average of 0. from the the water flows back to the pump. of the water-cooling system.P. 61 must be from J{ 6 in.

with respect application to the airplane.u. or about 2800 utilized in useful B. vary not only for each engine. are to be eliminated through exhaust gases or through the cooling water. we may then say that the lower the percentage of power absorbed the more efficient It is possible to determine experiwill be the radiator. the quantity of B. The B. In the air tube radiators (also called honeycomb radiators because of their resemblance to the cells of a beehive). This quantity of heat must naturally be given up to the air. to its must be remembered that a radiator is nothing more than a reservoir in which the water circulates in such a way as to expose a large wall surface to the air which passes conveniently through it.u. that. mentally the coefficients which classify a given type of radiator according to its efficiency. we can assume the water to absorb about 30 per cent.u. of the B.62 gasoline AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION is work. to be absorbed by the cooling water of an engine for power P.u. There are two main types of radiators the water tube type. 72.t.u. every horsepower per hour. the air passes through the gaps between the tubes. compared with those taken up by the cooling water.t. it : great number of small tubes. the water passes through a Before all.t. suppose we have indicated. while the air flows through For the present great flying speeds. which are First.t. the latter . In the first. or 6550 B. taken up by the exhaust. the flying characteristics depend on the weight per horsepower. is consequently equal to (2800P) B. and at some distance from each other. disposed parallel to.5 per cent. the radiator must possess two fundamental qualities. as minimum power to move it Since the weight also involves a loss of power..t.u. and the air tube or honeycomb type. but even for each type of exhaust system. and the radiator is used for that purpose. On the average. it must be as light as possible. the rest. and From the standpoint of its : Second.t. of application to the airplane. between the tubes. It must absorb the through the air. the water circulates through the interstices the tubes.

much more and more generally used. head resistance. ft. Finally. of radiator including the water. the influence of each of the above factors. water capacity. but also on its position in the machine. The first three are geometrical elements which can be defined without uncertainties. depends on the velocity of water flow and air flow. where S the frontal area of the radiator. cooling surface. and cooling coefficient. the cooling coefficient beside depending on the type of radiator.radiator has proven therefore is 63 suitable. The head resistance depends not only on the speed of the airplane. call TABLE 2 The power absorbed by the head of the radiator. and its To compare two frontal area. there are. and of the machine in feet per second. As one can see. types of honeycomb radiators. speed is V is the . may assume ft the following expression: X S X V\. W . resistance of 1 cu. ft. and its radiating surface. of radiator for certain types of radiators. and the initial temperatures of the air and water. and study weight. many factors which would be We must difficult to condense into one single formula. In the following table are given' the values of the weight R water capacity w and radiating surface S per cubic foot. also let us W .THE ENGINE type of . therefore content ourselves with studying separately. a the ratio between the weight of 1 cu. we will take into consideration a cubic foot of radiator.

of water flow to be constant. may become greater as the it For this reason the depth d air flow v increased in velocity. and t a of the air. however. depending on whether it is placed in the front of the fuselage. of radiator. (2) where I is the diameter of the tubes in and v the velocity of the air flow through the tubes in feet per second. not only depends on the type. S X d = I or S = -jj thus the preceding expression becomes X The coefficient \ X F 3 (1) varies not only with the different types but with the same radiator.u. the may 7 be expressed by (t w X - to) X v2 (3) where j radiator.64 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Let us call d the depth of the radiator core. the radiator must take . on the velocity v of air flow through the tubes. but on the difference between the temperature t w of the water. the air is excessively heated. if the engine has power P. advisable to keep at a maximum the difference in the water and air temperatures. The following that may be used in determining d: is through the tubes is a practical formula d = 8 X I X \/v feet.t. The quantity of heat radiated by 1 cu. or whether it is completely surrounded by free air. thus decreasing the difference in temperature between and the water. ft. and on the radiating surface S per cubic foot of the given radiator. on the velocity of water flow. is the cooling coefficient. varying with the type of Now. is limited by the fact that it is of radiators. This increase. Equation (1) shows that to decrease the head resistance it is convenient to augment the depth of the radiator d. Assuming the velocity quantity of B. then if the depth of the radiator tubes is greatly increased.

Therefore the volume C must be such that C X or. and be power absorbed by head resistance l will c x If ft x x v* = c_xjLXZ d we call -jr the ratio W SXlXVv > the power required to carry C X TFlb. First we will note that v (the velocity of air flow inside of the tubes). we can then write of all v We = d X V The temperature it is tw is not convenient to increase usually taken at 176F. in cold seasons. where due to the atmospheric depression. as the airplane must be able to fly at considerable altitude. is proportional to the speed of the airplane. Ibs. the cooling capacity of the radiator becomes . C X X ~ X V Therefore the total power absorbed by the cooling system will be PR = ^XAXJJ + SXlXv (4) C XWX L XV D and by equation x_ 800 w jX(t -t a )XvX2 X L.).THE ENGINE care of 65 of the radiator 2800P calories. it. 7 X (t w - to) X - v X S = 2800P C = 7 28QOP X (t w t a) X v X S m the 3 The weight of the radiator will be its C X W. For the air temperature t a we must take the maximum annual value of the region in which the machine is to fly. D can further simplify the preceding expression. (80C. .). the boiling point of water is lowered. will be (in ft.

= -y = and coefficient of velocity reduction inside the tubes. S = radiating surface per cubic foot of radiator. Finally. the ratio y. a = = = W 2^ = weight of radiator per square foot of radiating surface. ft. with respect to the speed of the airplane. we may take for example t a = 104. P the total power. In very warm climates.66 excessive. if Similarly. |8 coefficient of head resistance. varies where around Then p = ratio Po -p-> P is the power absorbed by the equation (5). becomes where the coefficients have the following significance: p = p = -=j percentage of power absorbed by the radiator. = 0. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION and therefore.9 1 (7) . we call c = C p the volume of radiator re- quired per horsepower. special devices are resorted to. 7 5 cooling coefficient of the radiator. and increase 2. re- by the proper ductions. As to the dimension (the diameter of the tube in. or all of the radiator. then the result tw is - ta = I 176 -- 104 = 72F.033 15. radiator.396 air passes). ^/ remembering W= that and . for cutting off part. for a letting good wing. I must be kept around 0. which the through experiments have shown that to diminish W. and simplifying as before. equation (4) gives c - 7X2-5 X V 38.

There % are two general methods.p. Modern airplanes have attained heights up to 25. or to convey the gases away joined together.. Ordinary exhaust used. ft 6. we will briefly discuss the systems of reducing the cooling capacity. Before leaving the discussion on radiators. a. battleplanes carry out their mission at heights varying from 10.000 ft. is preferable. exhausting singly cylinder. respectively.h.000 ft. Mufflers have not as yet been extensively adopted for aviation engines.p. For a given type of radiator. allow one to solve the problem of determining the volume of the radiator and the power absorbed. therefore it is necessary to study the actions of the engine at such altitudes. to 10 per cent. They state that the volume of the radiator is inversely proportional to the speed. such relations can be used within the present limits of airplane speeds (80 m.). principally because they entail a direct loss of power amounting to from 6 per cent. it is desirable to note the functioning of the engine at high altitudes. (8) C Naturally. and because tubes are of their bulk and weight. and is today more generally It is effected by providing the front face of the radiator with shutters which can be until the air passage is more or less closed completely obstructed. the point being. to 160 m.000 to 20.THE ENGINE 67 The two equations (6) and (7). then one can write 149/3 . . Before concluding this chapter..h. The second adopted. and S are constants. or to decrease the speed of air circulation. and the power required is proportional to the power of the speed. 583 38 9 ' y X 2 X * 7X5 (6) = 7 (7) X 5 X 2 and therefore equations and become. to decrease the speed of water circulation. from those parts of the machine that might be damaged for each by them..

is happens that the temperature of Then decreases as one rises above the ground. and that H jj. the air also at a given height level. it H. in feet. we will not take into account this decrease in temperature. In practice.68 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Since the density of the air decreases as one rises above the be the height ground. then H Fig. 58. H. con- i.5 0. which is primarily qualitative in nature.5 0.720 log M of shows the diagram for M as a function structed on the basis of the preceding formula. 58 = X 60. in order not to complicate the treatment of the subject.6 0. at ground level. the density // with respect to the ground than the value given by the above formula.7 0. With this foreword. according to a logarithmic law.O 0.9 0. however. let us remember that the moving .4 Q3 FIG. greater In the following discussion. at some point in the atmosphere and the ratio between the density at height H. let above sea level.

or to the density of the air. mass of oxygen burned Therefore in one unit of time. . obvious then. the engine torque proportional to the O.THE ENGINE power P. that as the machine climbs. is equal to the product by the engine torque M. the power of the engine decreases.JO? 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 H in Fee-l- FIG. 59. of the angular velocity GO co P = co XM M is At height H. P = where Mu = M X Po X COo (1) P =u It is M = power at sea level.

the mass of gas mixture taken in by the engine at each admission stroke. In practice. two solutions present themselves. To eliminate this loss of efficiency.000 ft.251 of the power of the engine. . corresponding to the increase of H. Two centrifugal multiple compressor designed (Italy) actioned by the engine shaft. the engine torque is increased. allows a complete recuperation of the power at 13. and as a result. types of compressors have thus far been experimented with. while at high altitudes it is overloaded with a weight of engine power mentioned above. for The of less . Such a method is evidently entirely out of proportion to the power actually developed. by Prof... with engines of such excess power. It be readily perceived. that if a machine is to climb 25. and the directly. since at ground level the airplane employs a useless excess of power.. it must carry an engine which will develop = = 4 times the minimum power necessary for its sustentation. it must be able to maintain itself in the air with will 0. p to In one of the following chapters will be shown the in- fluence that the decrease in the air density exerts on the power required for the sustentation of the machine. of the latter type. or it recuperates 50 per cent. is greater than the amount which would be sucked in from the atmosphere buretor. in other words. these are the actual means chosen by designers That is. the turbo compressor designed by Rateau (France). actioned by means of the exhaust gases. with an increase in weight than 10 per cent. the machines are to attain high altitudes. Anastasi example. One provisional solution (but of inestimable value in augmenting the efficiency of engines as they are actually conceived and constructed) consists of providing the engine with an air compressor which will feed the car- In this way.000 ft. a diagram is given for the reduction in per- centage =.of the power.70 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION In Fig. as to be equipped strictly sufficient to maintain flight even after the strong reduction of irrational. 59.

the actual The second solution (the one toward which engine technique must inevitably direct itself in order to open a way for further progress). Since it 71 absorbs 10 per cent. These compressors have not yet been adopted for practical use. which will be seen in the following chapter. . because of reasons inherent to the operation of the propeller. operation. consists in predisposing the engines so that the compression of air at high altitudes may be effected without the aid of external compressors. of the power in power recuperated is 40 per cent.THE ENGINE power.

Calling T the propeller traction in pounds. the pitch. less than PI. and by its operating characteristics. P = 227 H. per sec. propeller is defined by a few geometric elements.. 72 . and V = 200 ft. and V the velocity of the airplane in feet per second. Pi 2 and P 2 13 per cent. making the proequation (1) Every effort must of course be used in peller efficiency as high as possible. the propeller efficiency is expressed by p = TV 550 X P. Suppose for example T = 500 Ib. the power required for flight will be so much greater as the value of p is smaller. If P is the power of the engine in horsepower. the product T measures the useful work in foot pounds per second X V accomplished by the propeller.P. ^V_ 550 X P which means that having assumed a given speed and a given head resistance. The geometric elements of a propeller are the number of blades. may also be written as In fact.CHAPTER VI THE PROPELLER The propeller in aviation.80 = 260 H. is the aerial pfopulsor universally adopted Its scope is to produce and maintain a force of traction capable of overcoming the various head resistances of the wings and other parts of the airplane. then that for Pl for P2 = = 0. the diameter.70 0.P. the maximum width of is A the blades and their profile.

angle is greater than 90. which is called the angle of dispersion of the synchronizer (Fig. 4-bladed . 60. these fall in of revolutions change. as it often happens. 61). the 2-blade propeller. the velocity of the projectile remains constant. as the number jectiles. Now. there is a dispersion of proa sector 5. the projectile is fired through the plane of rotation of the propeller when the blade has rotated is not fixed. is 73 The type 3. which is easily understood if one considers that FIG. (devices called synchronizers). Angle a of revolutions of the propeller. Thus. 61. and 4 blades. are mounted on the airplane. while the angular velocity of the propeller varies. in other words. On most commonly used machines that have their propellers in front. but varies by an angle a with the number (Fig. especially when quick-firing guns with synchronized devices for firing through the propeller. the problem of firing directly forward is solved by equipping the machine guns with special automatic devices operated by the engine FIG. 60). altho in certain cases. which release the projectiles at the instant the propeller blades have passed in front of the machine gun muzzle. it is if this impossible to use 4-bladed propellers.THE PROPELLER Propellers are built with 2.

a certain not possible to reduce the blade width below limit. value. The pitch of the propeller. it is evident that to increase the efficiency. the other with variable pitch. two examples of propellers. the axis XX (Fig. Figs. 62). However. 63 and 64 illustrate respectively. for reasons of construction and resistance of it is . should be defined as "the distance by which the propeller must advance for every revolution in order that the In practice. from an aerodynamical point of view. or a more or less variable one. if 6 is the angle traction be zero. one with constant pitch. as will be observed further on. it is convenient to reduce the width of the blades to a minimum with respect to the diameter. The diameter of the propeller depends exclusively upon the power the propeller has to absorb. important as to its absolute with respect to the diameter. propellers are made with either a constant pitch for all sections.74 propellers AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION be convenient for reasons of efficiency. the pitch is measured the tangent of the angle of inclination of the propeller by blade with respect to its plane of rotation. the pitch of the propeller at that section will be p = 2irr tang 6 Practically. at a distance r from FIG. important Since the propeller blade may be considered as a small wing but is The width of the blade is not moving along an helicoidal path." for a cross section AB of the propeller. and upon its may number of revolutions. 62. however.

so that once the coefficients of these relations known. FIG. .THE PROPELLER the propeller. cent. Practically. 63. it 75 oscillates from 8 to 10 per The profile of a propeller. Let D = p = P = the diameter of the propeller in feet. All propellers belong to the having the same type of profile. Pi -teh Equal for all Sections. have demonstrated that there exist certain well-determined relations between the elements of M PmPnRtftrPte 1 f FIG. propellers. to section. It bears a great influence on the characteristics of a propeller. 64. of the diameter. it is for the easily possible to obtain all the data design of the propeller. the power absorbed by the propeller on the ground. although varying from section characterizes the type of the propeller. are said to same family. the pitch of the propeller in feet. propellers that are of the same family and geometrically are similar. Numerous laboratory experiments on by Colonel Dorand.

65) Now. but depends on the ratio V ^this Let ratio. . the power absorbed by the propeller and consequently coefficient a varies. V = = the speed of the machine in feet per second. Since TrnD is the peripheral speed of the blade y tip. . measures the angle that the path of the blade tip makes with the plane of rotation of the propeller (Fig. us examine the graphical interpretation of TTnD FIG. the efficiency of a propeller blade varies with the variation of the angle of incidence i. its is fixed. the angle of incidence is i i of measured exactly by 6' the blade with respect to the difference 6 6'] as 6 0'. as in the case of a wing. which shows that the propeller varies. This also explains equation (3).76 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION N p = number of revolutions per second. and the efficiency of the propeller. 65. varies with the variation of this explains gent = y why as tan- g varies. than the relations binding the preceding parameters are Po = a n3 D 5 (1) Equation is (2) states that the coefficient a of equation (1) not a constant. g path. y efficiency is dependent upon ~ . in fact.

3. 66. states For a propeller it. (1). 67 the curve is drawn illustrating that law for = 1500 R.s. Assuming the power.p. It is a parabola of the 5th r. then that equation becomes Po = X 10~ 8 n 3 Z> 5 and 1. n = 25 degree. assuming D = 10 the curve a cubic parabola. to rotate of a given diameter. 66 a curve ft. The curve for that law is drawn in Fig. In Fig. the diameter is to be given to the propeller inversely proportional to the power of the number of revolutions. the power required to rotate a propeller. For a given number of revolutions.p.THE PROPELLER Returning to equation for a. 10 15 20 n FIG.P. 77 for instance. \n R. In Fig. increases as the 5th power of the 2. . a = 3 and assuming a given value 3 X 10~ 8 . the power required increases as the 3d power of n.M. diameter. is drawn is illustrating that law.s.. 68. It is % an hyperbola.

78 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 500 400 300 I D_ 200 Diameter FIG. 5 10 15 20 E5 30 36 . .Ft. 67.

FIG. 69. Let us consider all geometrically similar propellers of the same family. so that p -^ . On the contrary. __ TrnD FIG. having diameter D and pitch p. it is of maximum interest to examine equation (3). Therefore. which gives the efficiency of the propeller. 79 which gives a as a function of irnD is of interest only inasmuch as it is necessary to know the value of a for equation (1).THE PROPELLER Equation (2). 70. we shall not pause in examination of it.

32. Naturally this condition does not suffice. maximum a.227. 70).8. 71 gives the values of -g> and p. Obviously that is very high. ~ = 0. varies with the variation maximum easy to construct a diagram giving -g- all the values of <p max as functions of Such a diagram shows its that a propeller of a certain type. Fig. = 69 gives the diagram p =/ 2 f gj for such propellers.275. especially when the great we see that for D - 1. one in shape. The use of these diagrams requires a knowledge of all the aerodynamical characteristics of the machine for which the propeller is intended. v V First. as functions of V > for the best propellers actually existing. now consider a group of propellers also of similar but having = 1. such that the ratio y~ will be the one at which efficiency. as the propeller must rotate at a number of revolu- tions irnD the propeller actually attains the IY\ 7i. The diagram shows that p increases and reaches a the value maximum value y = 0.71 corresponding to Let us profile.20. 7? - p max = 0.0.80 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 0.18 and .77 corre- spending to a value of If this experience is it V = g 0. Fig. However. gives ciency maximum effi- when = -g 1. fQ repeated for various values of yy will be observed that the it is from a propeller of that ratio. but will This will be similar to the preceding reach a value p max = 0. the irnD maximum efficiency p reaches a value of 82 per cent. efficiency obtainable of certain profile. and let us draw the efficiency diagram (Fig. even a partial study of them is very interesting for the results that can be attained.

32 V FIG.20 0.18 mi . An example will illustrate this point... efficiency cannot be attained because there are certain 7 TxICT 6x10 5x10 4x10 Q. parameters which it is impossible to vary.30 0.. iiiiiiiiiimmiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiittiQ 0.26 0...14 0.. it often occurs in practice..24 0. Let us assume that we have at our disposition an engine ..22 0...16 0. 71.26 0.Q 7 3x10r 5 2x10 IxlO iiiiiiiiiiiiiiimimiiiiiiiiiiiiiii .. that that value of fortunately. 0...THE PROPELLER 81 But unsimplicity of the aerial propeller is considered.

and let us assume that we wish to adopt such an engine on two different machines. that = 0. per sec.79. for this value of D. such that together with the value of a corref\r\ sponding to-W-> (Fig.. 1. for = an*D 5 5 n = 25 a XD = 0.0192.27 more than that of the first machine. ~ ' 10.3 ft. the two values satisfying the desired conditions are V 3.1 ft.14 10 -7 and 5 D = 10.P.0192 Now a the corresponding values of a and equations are D satisfying those = ~1. It ^> would be = . as n = 25. For the second machine instead 4-V n = 25.4 X 3... while its shaft makes 25 r. and V = 2 55 ' onn the expression ^ V 20 u becomes 3J4 x 25 ^D ~^ and a X D = 5 0. We the propeller for the second machine.6 15 to which '^responds > a that its = is. one to carry heavy loads and consequently slow.6. it will satisfy the equation 300 or. the expression - ^ becomes i equal to W We must choose a value of D. For the first machine.6 = 5. in fact. X pitch will be 0. 71)."'82 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION developing 300 H. has an efficiency of 79 per cent. Let the speed of the first machine be 125 ft.62. our propeller will have an efficiency of 62 per cent. can see then. the other intended for high speeds. * p = ^X The pitch and corresponding to these values results equal to 9.14 X 200 25 X83 = ' 296.4 the corresponding value of p is '~ 0. that 79 is ~1. = X25 X 10~ 7 . We shall then determine the most suitable propeller for each machine. and that of the second 200 ft..s.. per sec.p.48 X 10. and V = 125.

On the the preceding. for which it will is give good efficiency. such that value a corresponding to a V g gives for which Xn XD V = 3 5 = 300.THE PROPELLER possible to 83 improve the propeller efficiency of the first machine by using a reduction gear to decrease the number In this case. the reduction gear has gained g-^s = 1. From contrary. efficiency. on the total load. we see that in order to obtain good modern engines whose number of revolutions are very high. this abundantly covers the additional load due to the reduction gear. what happens when it operates at high equation of the power then becomes altitudes. that it is not sufficient for a propeller to be well designed in order to give good efficiency. but it is necessary that it be used under those conditions of speed V and number of revolutions n. Consequently we shall suppose a fixed maximum diameter of 14 ft. and if we bear in mind that the useful load is generally about Y% of the total weight. Until now we have studied the functioning of the propelLet us see ler in the atmospheric conditions at sea level. of the total load. But this would require the construction of a propeller of such diameter. ~ 0.p. represents a gain of about 50 per cent.72. which may mean 16 per cent. it would even of revolutions of the propeller.23 and = 0. the propeller may be directly connected. that it could not be installed on the machine. on the useful load.16 or 16 per cent. even if the number of revolutions of the shaft very high. of the power. to attain maximum efficiency of 82 per cent. We see then that in 0.. must be provided with a reduction gear when they are applied to slow machines. Then it is necessary to find a value of n. we see that a gain of 16 per cent.72 this case. The . the be possible by properly selecting a reduction gear. Concluding we can say. for very fast machines. p That value is n = 12.4 r.s.

the motive power decreases a little more rapidly than proportionally to M (see Chapter 5). then. at 14. If instead. it would practically be necessary for the propeller to brake the engine on the ground. the engine on the ground could not develop . would make 1900 revolutions at a height. where /* = 0. This.. in direct proportion to the ratio of the densities. the . power of the engine were kept constant and equal to then the number of revolutions would increase inversely P as vV So for instance.79 = 1180. as it is unsafe that an engine designed for 1500 revolutions make 1900. the preceding equation gives Theoretically.84 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION is where M consideration the ratio between the density at the height under and that on the ground (see Chapter 5). and and this propeller consequently the number of revolutions slowly decreases as the propeller rises in the air. As to the number of revolutions. Practically. In this way. A propeller making 1500 revolutions on the ground. so as not to allow a number of revolutions greater than 1500 X 0. the ally to n } power of the engine varies proportion- that is P = vP so that theoretically we should have a X D* would mean that the number of revolutions of the would be the same at any height as on the ground. however. This means that the power required to rotate the propeller decreases as the propeller rises through the air. is one of the principal difficulties that have until now opposed the introduction of compressors for practical use. however. by using a compressor or other device. In fact.5 the n revolutions should be Tr? = rTo = n 1-26 n.500 ft.

the which they are subjected. Today. there should be the solution of adopting propellers whose pitch could be variable in flight. To eliminate such an inconvenience. and the mode of designing them. the problem of the variable propeller has not yet been satisfactorily solved. and therefore the characteristics of the machine would be considerably decreased. will be dealt with in Part IV of this book. The materials used in the construction of propellers.THE PROPELLER all 85 its power. at the will of the pilot. but tentatives are being made which point to positive results. stresses to . thus the pilot would be enabled to vary the coefficient of the formula P = a X n3 XD b and consequently could contain the value of n within proper limits.

.

Direction of the Line of Flight. Direction Perpendicular' to L me of Flight and Contained in the Vertical Plane. 72). little of these laws can be established on a basis of Very This can only give indications theoretical considerations. in general. the research for coefficients. we shall consider aerodynamics as an Applied Mechanics" and we shall rapidly study the experimental elements in so far as they have a direct " moving through the air at a us represent the body by its center of gravity G (Fig. and in general. For these reasons. 72. positive and negative pressure zones will be produced on the various surfaces of the body. to the Di re ction Perpendicular Vertical Plane Containing the FIG. Due to the disturbance in the air. and let application to the airplane.PART II CHAPTER VII ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS of the air Aerodynamics studies the laws governing the reactions on bodies moving through it. the resultant speed V. Let us consider any body 87 . cannot be completed except in the experimental Lift- field. which are definitely those of interest in the study of the airplane.

the Drag component. and referring the values to the angle i that the line of path makes with any straight line contained in the plane of symmetry and fixed with the machine. R' s the Drift component. contained in that plane of symmetry. PAR FIG. . in such a case. . the most laborious research work of this kind would be of scant interest in the study of the motion of the s R and R' that the airplane. in general. and that its line of path is. 73. Let us resolve that resultant into three directions perpendicular to one another. the component R' d = 0. R s and R' d shall be called . s the Lift component. of for all the infinite number of orientations body could assume with respect to its line of path. this reference is made to the wing chord (Fig. and the third perpendicular to that plane. This is why made by assuming the study of components Rx and R s is the line of path contained in the plane of symmetry. body R^j in the air s . respectively: R R Xy . In general. If we wished to make a complete study it . Let us first note that the airplane admits a plane of symmetry. the first in the sense of the line of flight. may have any direction whatever.88 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION R of these pressures. the second perpendicular to the line of flight and lying in the vertical plane passing through the center of gravity. . These components R^. practically. of the motion of the would be necessary to know the values.

ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS
73),

89

called the angle of incidence; as to the force of drift, usually the study of its law of variation is made by
i is

and

keeping constant the angle i between the chord and the projection of the line of path on the plane of symmetry, and varying only the angle 5 between the line of path and
the plane of
angle of
drift.

symmetry

(Fig. 74)

;

the angle

5 is

called the

FIG. 74.

is

Summarizing, the study of components usually made in the following manner:
1.

Rx R
,

s,

and R' &>

To study #x and R

s,

considering
it

them

as functions

of the angle of incidence
2.

i.

To study R' by
s

considering

as a function of the

angle of drift

5.

For the study of the air reactions on a body moving through the air, the aerodynamical laboratory is the most important means at the disposal of the aeronautical
engineer.

The equipment
of a special

an aerodynamical laboratory consists tube system of more or less vast proportions,
of

90
inside of

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
which the
air is

special fans (Fig. 75).

made to circulate by means of The small models to be tested are

FIG. 75.

suspended in the air current, and are connected to instruments which permit the determination of the reactions

I

(3D

FIG. 76.

provoked upon them by the air. The section in which the models are tested is generally the smallest of the tube sys-

ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS
tern,

91

and a room is constructed corresponding to it, from which the tests may be observed. The speed of the air current may easily be varied by varying the number of

revolutions of the fan.

The velocity of the current may be measured by various systems, more or less analogous. We shall describe the Pitot tube, which is also used on airplanes as a speed indiPitot tube (Fig. 76), consists of two concentric tubes, the one, internal tube a opening forward against the wind, the other external tube 6, closed on the forward
cator.

The

end but having small
mitted by tube a

circular holes.

These tubes are con-

nected with a differential manometer.
is

The
2

pressure trans-

*Q mitted by tube b is equal to P; thus, the differential manometer will indicate a pressure h in feet of air, equal to

equal to

P+

~^r~] the pressure trans-

dV

p + T~ ~ p
that
is
,

~ dV*
~9

consequently

y =
as g

\ d

M

=

32.2, the result will

be

v=*~sxJ^
d represents the specific weight of the air. The preceding formula consequently gives us the means of graduating the manometer so that by using the Pitot tube it will read air

speed directly. With this foreword, let us note that experiments have demonstrated that the reaction of the air R, on a body moving through the air, and therefore also its components R x R s and R' s may be expressed by means of the formula
,

,

R =

a

d

XAXV*

92

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

where
a

=

coefficient

depending on the angle of incidence

or the angle of drift,

d
g

= =

the specific weight of the air, is the acceleration due to gravity (which at the latitude of 45 = 32.2),
the major section of model tested (and denned as will be seen presently), and

A =
V =

the speed.

of convenience we shall give the coefficients that the specific weight of the air is the one corassuming responding to the pressure of one atmosphere (33.9 ft. of

As a matter

water),

coefficients will

of 59F. Furthermore the be referred to the speed of 100 m.p.h. Then the preceding formula can be written

and to the temperature

and knowing K, it gives the reaction of the air on a body similar to the model to which K refers, but whose section is equal to A sq. ft., and the speed to V m.p.h.
It is of interest to

when the
more
1

the value of coefficient K, pressure and the temperature of the air are no atmosphere and 59 F., but have respectively any

know

value h whatsoever (in feet of water), and t (degrees F.). The value of the new coefficient ht is then evidently given

K

by
Kht

h -KX 33.9 x 4600 + 590 460 FiF.
<
>

This equation will be of interest in the study of
at high altitudes.

flight

Interpreted with
it, is

respect

to

the

speed,

formula

(1)

states that the reaction of the air

on a body moving through

proportional to the square of the speed of translation. This is true only within certain limits. In fact, we shall soon see that in some cases, coefficient determined by

K

equation (1) changes with the variation of the speed, although the angle of incidence remains constant.

ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS

93

From the aerodynamical point of view, the section of the parts which compose an airplane may be grouped in three main classes which are
:

1.

2.

Surfaces in which the Lift component predominates, Surfaces in which the Drag component predominates, Surfaces in which the Drift component predominates. first are essentially intended for sustentation.

and
3.

The

Among

them, the elevator is also to be considered, of which the aerodynamical study is analogous to that of the wings. The second, surfaces in which the component of head

resistance exists almost solely, are the major sections of all those parts, as the fuselage, landing gear, rigging, etc.,

which although not being intended
essential parts of the airplane.

for sustentation,

form
air

Finally, the last surfaces are those in reaction equals zero until the line of path

which the
is

contained in
itself

the plane of symmetry of the airplane, but manifests as soon as the airplane drifts.

enough of the criterions followed for the aerodynamic study of a wing. Consequently, we shall repeat briefly what has already been said. Let us consider a wing which displaces itself along a line of path which makes an angle i with its chord; a certain reaction will be borne upon it which may be examined in its two components Rx and R s respectively perpendicular and opposite to the line of path, and which shall be called Lift and Drag, indicating them respectively by the symbols L and D.
In Chapter
I,

we have spoken

diffusely

We may

then write,

'

D=sxAX (mJ
Where the
coefficients X

and

6

are functions of the angle

94

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

of incidence, and define a type of wing, and A is the total The wing efficiency is given by surface of wing. X L

D

"

d

and measures the number of pounds the wing can sustain for each pound of head resistance. In Chapter I, we have given the diagrams for X, 6 and
o

as functions of

i

for

two types

of wings; consequently,

it is

unnecessary to record further examples. For a complete aerodynamical study of a wing, it is necessary to determine in addition to the diagrams of
X, 6

and

->

as functions of

i,

also the

diagram

of the ratio

x

p

as a function of

i,

which defines the position at the center
II)
.

of thrust (see
/v

Chapter

Knowledge
i,

of the

law of varia-

tion of

^

as a functon of

is

necessary to enable the

study of the balance of the airplane. In the reports on aerodynamical experiments conducted
in various laboratories, American, English, Italian, etc., the reader will find a vast amount of experimental material

which will assist him in forming an idea of the influence borne on the coefficients X and 5, not only by the shape and relative dimensions of the wings, as for instance the
ratios
,.

span
chord of the wing
, ,

,
~.

7-7?:

and

thickness of the wing r T-TT j chord of the wing
-

. >

but also

by the

relative positions of the wings with respect to each

other; such as multiplane machines with wings, with wings in tandem, etc.
eral, solely

superimposed

In the study of coefficients of resisting surfaces, in genthe knowledge of the component R d is of interest; the sustaining component 7 x is equal to zero, or is of a We then negligible value as compared with that of R s
.

have

R =
8

KXAX

,

1QO

ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS
where

95

K

is

a function of

i,

and

A

measures the surface of

the major section of the form under observation, taken

I

I!

I

of the body, or to perpendicular to the axis of symmetry the axis parallel to the normal line of path.

96

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

In general, the head resistance is usually determined for only one value of i, that is, for the value corresponding to normal flight. In fact, it should be noted that an airplane normally varies its angle of incidence within very narrow to 10; now, while for wings such variations limits, from
of incidence bring variations of enormous importance in the values of L as well as in those of D, the variation of
coefficient

K for

the resistance surfaces
in laboratories,

is

relatively small.
is

Consequently,

only one value

found.

Nevertheless, exception is made for the wires and cables, which are set on the airplanes at a most variable inclination, and therefore it is interesting to know coefficient K
for all the angles of incidence.
is given below compiled on the basis of Eiffel's for the following experiments, which gives the value of forms (Fig. 77), and for a speed of 90 feet per second:

A table

K

A = B =
C =

D=

Half sphere with concavity facing the wind, Plain disc perpendicular to the wind, Half sphere with convexity facing the wind,
Sphere,

H=

Cylinder with ends having plain faces, with axis

parallel to the wind,

/ = Cylinder with spherical ends, with axis parallel to the wind, = Cylinder with axis perpendicular to the wind,

E

F = G = L =

Airplane strut Airplane strut
Dirigible shape,

fineness ratio
fineness ratio

J, >,

M=
N=
0\=

Airplane fuselage with radiator in front, Airplane wheel without fabric, and Wheel covered with fabric.
TABLE 3

These anomalies can be explained by admitare ting that the various speeds vary the vortexes which K K in question. and for the speed of from 13 to 100 ft. zones. In Fig. We see that coefof form A. (Eiffel's experiments).ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS 97 In the above table. one is immediately impressed by the very low value for the dirigible form. at different speeds these for other speeds. per sec. Its resistance is about 10 times less than that of the plain disc. and consequently the coefficients of head formed behind the bodies . per sec. The preceding table contains values corresponding to a speed of 90 ft. An example will better illustrate this point. eo 50 40 30 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 TO SO 90 100 110 Speed Ft. values vary. while that of ficient D decreases. FIG. these values would also be available On the contrary. 78 diagrams are given of the variation of for the forms A and D. per Sec. increases with the speed. If the law of proportion to the square of the speed were exact. therefore varying the distribution of the positive and negative pressure resistance. 78.

Fig. . the value of 40 K then increases. FIG. In studying the airplane. 60 70 80 90 100 110 Speed per Sec. shows an opposite tendency. coefficient K first decreases.70 30 90 100 1 10 Speed Ft. 79. per Sec.98 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Figs. 30 10 20 30 40 50 Ft. 79 and 80 give the diagrams of the coefficient K. it is more interesting to know the total head resistance than that of the various parts. for the wires and cables (Eiffel). for the wires. for the cables instead. 40 30 i. 81 gives the diagram showing how coefficient varies for the wires and cables when their angle of incidence K varies from to 90. Finally. 80.O ZO 30 40 50 60. FIG.

etc. . and K n.ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS if . . in Degrees the respective coefficients of head resistance. radiators. struts. and KI. . wires. Angle of Incidence FIG.). 99 we call AI. K 2. bombs. (fuselage. 81. . A z and A n the major sections of the various parts constituting the airplane and which produce a head resistance. landing gear. . the total head resistance R s of the airplane will be 7? /t: 5 = AI/LI Zi 7" /I . . wheels.

the power of the propeller. . it is accomplished by taking into consideration only the drift component. For what we have already briefly said in speaking of the rudder and elevator. the most important are the fuselFrom the point of view of age. and the rudder. in order to determine the moments = KiAi +K + . and for what we shall say more diffusely in discussing the problems of stability. the parts of the airplane can be considered as drift surfaces. which define its position on the surface of drift. . Pj and the efficiency p. we shall make brief mention of the aerodynamical tests of the propeller. T = P = P a. Finally. As to the study of the drift surfaces. K of drift and then.' n 2D 2 a n 3D a' = TV = P a V X UD . and not the component of head resistance. as the latter is Furthermore. Let us suppose that in the air current of we have a propeller model rotating an experimental tunnel. this study it is interesting to know the center of drift at various angles of drift. and the velocity V of the wind.efficaciousness for directional stability. drift forces. . it is opportune to know both of the coordinates of the center of drift. the fin.100 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION where a total coefficient of n A n and is called the 2A 2 head resistance of the airplane. By measur- number of revolutions absorbed by the propeller. When all the line of path lies out of the plane of symmetry. it is possible to draw the diagrams pf T. the center of drift may be situated before the center of gravity in such a way as to accentuate the path in drift when this has been produced for any reason whatsoever. Nevertheless. Numerous experiments by Colonel Dorand have led to the establishing of the following ing the thrust n. in negligible with respect to the former. its T P relations . may be unstable that is. the fuselages without fins and without rudders.

ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS where 101 the diameter of the propeller. and a and a are numerical coefficients which vary with the variation of is D y ~- This ratio is proportional to the other ~_ V it-nD velocity of translation peripheral velocity of incidence of the line of which defines the angle path with respect to the propeller blade. and p. P. . thereby possessing the data for the calculation of the propeller. Knowing the values it is of a' and a as functions of y ^> possible to obtain those of T.

of sustaining surface A. 82). 6 and the total head resistance a. keep Let us study the existing relations among the parameters W. V = constant). Then if R the airplane is well balanced. it will follow a sloping line of path vary. that is gliding. if this angle should some restoring couples (see Chapter II). <r. 6 (Fig. X. A. When the machine has reached its normal gliding speed (that is.CHAPTER VIII THE GLIDE Let us consider an airplane of weight W. the forces 102 . Suppose the pilot keeps the elevator fixed in a certain position maintaining the ailerons and the rudder at zero. and of which the diagrams for X. would be produced. 6. i. 6 and V. are known. Let us suppose that the machine descends through the air with the engine shut off. which will make a of incidence with the wing. tending to the machine at incidence i. in well-determined angle fact.

4 lb. and the total air reaction R. balance each other. one due to the wings XAX iTHn) and the other due to / V \ 2 parasite resistances a of the form . Where and X Rx is is expressed in XAF A in 2 sq.h. ft. R x and R s as function of what we have said in the Remembering R = x preceding chapters. all the forces acting on a body in uniform is. the angle of V incidence and of which the law of variation must be found of experimentally. 10. As to R s its expression results from the 5 sum two terms.p.THE GLIDE 103 acting on it are reduced only to the weight W. a and 7. R + W = Let us consider the two components R x and R s of R (on the line of the path and perpendicular to the line of path). Thus we shall have The equations (1) and (dA (2) become 10- 4 4 + 2 (7) V = 2 10- XAF = -- W W sin e (3) (4) cose We have immediately.. by squaring and preceding equations by adding the . a coefficient which depends upon in m..100. 5. that of opposite direction to in this case force R is equal and W\ that is. By a known theorem of mechanics. The preceding equation can then be divided into two others R + Rx + d W sin W cos 6 B = = (1) (2) Let us express the components X. rectilinear motion.

the gliding speed is inversely proportional to the coefficient X. Other conditions being equal. the gliding speed is inversely proportional to the value of sum (5 + ^r\ which represents ~r for A. the gliding speed directly proportional to the ratio-. cient of parasite resistance and the surface of the wings. responding to each value of i. the angle of glide that o is. the angle of glide proportional to the ratio -. 3. h. inversely proportional to the ratio -> to the efficiency of the wing. Other conditions being equal.104 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION (3) and dividing by (4) 5 x + ^ = tan* - (6) <5 As. therefore with wings having a heavily curved surface and consequently of great sustaining capacity. Equation (5) enables us to state the following general all : principles 1. the gliding speed will increase but the angle of descent will not 6. is directly between the coeffi- A. equations (5) and (6) enable us to find. Change. corand V. once the angle of incidence i is fixed. by increasing the load. to the unit load on the wings.-* that A. Other conditions being equal. the descending speed is much lower than with wings having a small sustaining capacity. W is is. \ Equation principles 4. the values X and are fixed. . The angle of volplaning weight of the airplane. a couple of values Thus the elements of the problem are known. V = 100 m. In other words. 5. is independent from the This weight doesn't influence but the speed. 2. This ratio is also usually called coefficient of fineness. is : (6) enables us to state the following general Other conditions being equal. p. Other conditions being equal.

4 XA A = 10. following a method suggested by Eiffel.25 5 -3-2-10123456789 Let us go back to formulas in the following (3) 7.THE GLIDE 105 With this premise we propose.5 and (5) and write them form -TFsin e = 10~ 4 (dA W Furthermore = let V [10-* (dA +cr)] (10 us assume A = 10. 0.50 10 0. to draw a special logarithmic diagram which will enable us to study all the relations existing among the variable parameters of gliding.(dA 4 (7) + o-) (8) .

X. 83. instead of drawing this diagram on paper graduated to cartesian coordinates. it will be then possible to draw the 2 2 logarithmic diagram of \/A + A as function of A.106 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Then the preceding equations become (9) Now. as for each value of the angle of incidence i. by means of and as A (7) and (8). X and is constant. sin . let us draw it on paper with . of Fig. ft. d from the diagram We can then compile the following table: TABLE 4 Thus we have a values of ->/A 2 diagram of number of pairs of corresponding A 2 and A which enable us to draw the + \/A 2 + A 2 as a function of A. 5. A = 270 sq. W = A (10) are known. <r. Let us consider an airplane having the following characteristics : W o- = 2700 Ib. we can. certain Now. determine a couple of values of A and A and consequently of \/A 2 + A 2 and A corresponding to each value of i. = 160 (average functions of i value bet ween as i = andi = 9). A equations numerical example will better explain this.

it is evident that the two segments corresponding to W. Log ( sin 0) parallel to OX. OF.2 log . rithmic diagram which gives 107 We shall have a loga- A/A 2 or + A 2 = /(A) . we can sum them in the following order: As 1. to the point A of the segments log W. can be replaced by a single oblique segment of inclination 1/1 on the axis OX and of lengths A/2 log W. log ( W]+ log OX as the 0) sin 0) 2 log V and algebraic 2 log V. the abscissa OX.THE GLIDE logarithmic graduation (Fig. following the axis of the ablog ( scissae and log 2 log 7. 84). 5. following the axis of the and sufficient to sum W ordinates. evidently. sin yj( Now log - 511 - j^ = log Therefore we can consider sin segments log W. we can consider OY as the algebraic sum of the two segments log Thus in order to pass from the origin the diagram it is W and 2 log 7. Now. Log Log W parallel to OX. the segments can be summed in any order whatever. 4. is sum of the Analogously the ordinate of point A OY = and as log log ^ W f W 2 = log W 2 log 7. log OX.-/! Let us consider any part whatever of this curve for instance the point A. sin 0) and 2 log 7. 2. of this point is nv OX = i log W. Similarly the two segments corresponding to 7 can be 3. . W parallel to OY.2 7 7 parallel to parallel to .

4 0.OZ -0. 84. m.06 -0.3 0. . is evidently that the three corresponding segments. The units of measure selected for drawing the diagram of Fig. V and sin 6 The condition necessary and suf- O. to OX. summed geometrically startficient in order that ing from the origin. OX + A OX one parallel in the respective scales. are the following: W in V in Ib.05 0.6 a system of values of W.04 0. V and sin be realizable with the given airplane.h. ' O. end on the diagram.2 A Sine FIG. Thus we can pass from the of length \/2 2 of the diagram by drawing 3 segto the point origin and two parallel to an axis of inclination 1/1 on ments.C3 -0.p. and which measure W.5 -0.108 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION replaced and by a single segment also inclined by 1/1 on 2 2 log V. 84.

^ that the same sin 0.3. because + have A2 W : y-2 substituting the preceding values of \/A 2 +A 2 and F. if divided by 10*. thus we have from the any one whatever of the values 1 X 10 X . making V = sin and W. W scale of A. gives the scale of sin It would be convenient to make x = 2700 72 1 in order to keep the scale of within the drawing.h.000 and is 164. for instance the point whose coordinates are A/A 2 For this point +A = 2 0.3 the corresponding segment is to a point of the diagram zero and we pass from the origin by summing geometrically the segments corresponding to Then. .3 and A = 0. scale of is. V and sin 6.1 We The have F = 2 27. it is first W and V. It is of all necessary to fix the origin of the scale of convenient to select our case it is airplane. we W that is = 8100 BB' = 8100 . Then from = 1 X V 10.3 m. in Furthermore to W equal to the weight of the W be equal convenient that the ratio W = 2700 Ib.THE GLIDE 109 In order to determine the relation between the scales of \/A 2 +A 2 and A 2 and the scales of W. Let us consider any point whatsoever B : of the diagram. ^ where x is a whole positive or negative number. sin -1 equal to that of A divided by 10 that multiplied by 10.p. equation A = sin 6. the weight W is repre- sented by the segment BB'.031 and for V = 164. 164.

2 and A = 0.139. whose coordinates 2 are: +A = 2 0. W sin immediately the pair of corresponding values of and V. Analogously taking CC' to 0"C" on the scale of V and marking 164. the angle its increases again.110 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Let us make is now and W = 2700. W V = ---^ e-s'so' ~""" 5m FIG. 85. 84 gives . the scales of speed will be individuated. it From it the diagram we see that by increasing the angle of decreases to a minimum. after which incidence. as For this point and for demonstrated with an analogous process. With the preceding scales and for the airplane of our example weighing 2700 Ib.0278 it is = 2700 we shall have.3 on C". then the corresponding to in order to pass from the origin segment of the diagram it would be sufficient to sum geoa point sin and V. in our case C'C = 116. in 0' and 8100 Ib. This means that the line of path raises inclination up to a limit which in our case is equal to . metrically the segment corresponding to zero Let us take any other point whatsoever for instance that -V/A C on the diagram. read on the scale of the speeds gives the value of the speed V corresponding to sin 0.. that CC' = 116. and marking Taking BB' to O'B" on the scale of 2700 Ib.p.h. speeds until it meets the diagram in C. the segment C'C.3 on 0" and 116.3. the diagram of Fig. In fact for any value whatsoever of sin for = from the point C' correspondent to sin is sufficient to draw a parallel to the scale of 0. in B" the scale of weights will be individuated. instance.3 m.

In practice the pilots usually dispose the machine even vertical but for a very short time. Furthermore the diaof sin shows the law variation of the speed of the airplane gram with a variation of the angle of incidence. was descending for instance from the height of it could reach any point whatsoever. 85). situated within ft. 86). When this . .14. today much diffused. We have seen that a centrifugal force is then originated spiral The descent <j> = W . keeping it preferably slightly below the normal speed which the machine has with engine running. is accomplished by keeping the machine turning during the glide. The use may good keep the speed within normal limits. V r 2 g equal and opposite to the centripetal force R' s which has provoked the turning (Fig. however. is a caution in order that the pilot.12 and 0. It is necessary to take up also the spiral glide which is today the of speedometers. if our airplane ft. a radius of 9950 in practice (Fig. This force R' s can be produced by the inclination of the airplane or by the drifting course of the airplane or by both phenomena. so as not to give time to On the other hand the airplane to reach dangerous speeds. while gliding very normal maneuver for the descent. is referred to an exceptional case with the present airplanes. which causes a strong decrease in the sensibility of the controlling Our example. It is seen that it is not safe to decrease too much the angle of incidence in order not to increase excessively the speed.1 111 to corresponding to the incidence of 5 6. one has to look out not to increasing excessively the angle of incidence in order not to fall in the opposite inconvenience of reducing excessively the speed.THE GLIDE about 1000 0. devices and consequently in the control of the machine by the pilot. Until now we have treated the rectilinear glide. the minimum value is between 0.

86. .112 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FIG.

THE GLIDE force is 113 inclination of the airplane. as we consider the fictitious weight instead of the weight W. we say the spiral descent is correct. developed . and we fall back to 0. Calling V and 6 the values of calling V and for a a. the formula for rectilinear gliding. (3) (6 Then equations 10. we shall have to consider a fictitious horizontal W plane perpendicular to perpendicular to W instead of the horizontal plane (4) 2 W. V V o V COS a sin B Ba .2 V = 0. we have sin 0' = sin 0^ . angle of drift is zero. we shall study only provoked solely by the that is. calling cos a the angle path with the horizontal.4 and become A + <r)V 2 = - - w sin 0' 0' 10. in fact. the machine then doesn't turn flat. with a plane perpendicular to instead of the angle of the line of path with the horizontal Therefore W .4 XA7 = W COS a cos (11) COS a (12) from which 10. as in practice this is the normal case. = Va and 0' a the values for the angle and we have V V ~ a. of the line of path. when the this case. . sn If we make a = we have cos a = 1. - sin 0' a = From known theorems of the line of of geometry.the discussion for this case as the weight were increased from to where We W W if cos a we can apply the formulae of the rectilinear but we shall be careful to consider the angle 6' gliding.

to obtain the couples of values V a where V and 6 sin 6 a corresponding to each value of a.114 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION from which sin 6 COS a i Resuming. an airplane has a speed and an angle of slope of the line of path which are greater than in the rectilinear gliding. and . corresponding to the rectilinear gliding. it is then easy. In general. equations (13) arid (14) tell us that in the spiral descent the angle of incidence being kept the same. if we suppose that we maintain a certain incidence (by maneuvering the elevator) and a certain transverse inclination a (by maneuvering the ailerons) the airplane will follow an elicoidal line of path. with speed Va and inclination to the ground B a which are given by the equations : V COS a and sin e a (13) = e51 5-^ COS a (14) are the speed and the inclination of line of path. from diagram 84.

during any engine without maneuvering the elevator. W. 87. that the course whatever of gliding. T. force will appear. namely. other than the weight R.CHAPTER IX FLYING WITH POWER ON In the preceding chapter flying with the engine off. R = T + W cos R x = W cos 8 (90 -0) = T + W sin 115 . the propeller thrust. W and air reaction W If. starts the pilot. 87). we consider the fictitious weight all the considerations made and Then notations adopted in the preceding chapter can be applied. Then a new FIG. we have studied gliding or Let us suppose now. instead of weight resulting from W and T (Fig.

and sin = 0. that is.4 \AV 2 + V 2 (4) (5) Now Ib.P. line is positive.h. that the angle B with the horizontal the machine descends. we have . corresponding to the thrust T in to the speed V in m.4 \AV = 2 W cos T 7 (2) Eliminating 10~ 4 V 2 from the two equations. consequently have cos return to the case of gliding.4 (dA + a) F 3 (6) . First of all let us sign. the angle = 0. for each value of T. and <r. and the power PI in H. we must increases. increase. for all the values T < T is. we of thrust necessary for horizontal flight. it is evidently equal to = IA7TV and because of equation (4) 550Pi = 1.4 (dA a) 10. will be determined. gives the value decreases.. (dA + - o-) ^ XA/ - = + W sin (3) from which T = (i \X + -^-W cos -TF sin Let us suppose that the angle of incidence is fixed. 5. Then. as B = equation (1) and (2) values T> become T = W= 10. then Equation (3) enables us to X. find the value of For T = 0. study horizontal flight. cos must decrease.116 or AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 10.47 10. As T and sin . T 0} the angle B with the horizontal line changes that is. Value T for which = 0. For = 1. the line of path ascends.p. For all the .4 (dA + <r)V = T + 2 W sin (1) 10.

Based upon the table given in the preceding chapter we can compile the following table: TABLE 5 This table gives a certain number of pairs of values corresponding to A and A and therefore enables us to draw the diagram of A as as function of A. Let us have as in the preceding chapter A = 10~ 4 \A A = 10.47 55QP! 73 = A (8) Let us consider then the airplane of the example used in the preceding chapter. Now instead of drawing the diagram on paper graduated with uniform scales. 88). 270 160 sq.47A) W_ ~ V* /550P .4 (dA Equations (5) + a) (7) and (6) become W= TT A 1. ft. We or shall have a logarithmic diagram which gives A=/(1. let us draw the same diagram on paper with logarithmic graduation (Fig.FLYING WITH POWER ON Equations 117 (5) and (6) enable us to draw a very interesting logarithmic diagram with the method proposed by Eiffel. that is. 83. = and whose diagrams of X and 6 are those given in Fig. the airplane having the following characteristics : W = 2700 A = er Ib.

118 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION x .

Analogously the ordinate of point A is W and as log yg W = log W 2 log V we can consider OF as and 2 log the algebraic sum of the two segments log in order to pass from the origin F. is F F and TF. it is sufficient to add the segment log 550 PI and W and log TF and F along the axes 2 the axes OF. to point A of Thus. log along Since evidently these segments can be added in any order whatever. \/2 2 to point A by drawing three segments. end on the diagram. thus we can con- OX as and segment the algebraic sum of segment log 550Pi. condition necessary and sufficient in order that a of values of Pi. then 2 log F parallel to the axes of ordinates of abscissa. measure in the respective The system and TF. we can take first log 550Pi parallel to the 3 Jog OX F 3 log F also parallel to the axes axes of abscissa. then and finally log parallel to the axes of ordinates.FLYING WITH POWER ON 119 Let us consider then any point whatever of this curve for instance the point A . scales PI. one parallel to the axes OX. may be realized with the evidently that the three corresponding given airplane summed geometrically starting from the origin. W evident that the two segments 3 log F and corresponding to F. 3 log V. . the second parallel to an axes of an inclination of 2 on 3 and the third parallel to the axes OF which segments it is Now 2 log F + . the abscissa OX of this point is Now sider log y = 3 log 550Pi 3 log F. can be replaced by a single oblique segment whose inclination is 2 on 3 and whose length is Thus we can pass from the origin 3 2 log F. segments. the diagram.

. 88 are the following: Pi in H. V and W. parallel to the scale V to We meet the diagram shall have Now for DA = 0.p. 84. = C in Applying the usual construction we shall lay off OB 3000.p. the corresponding speed. in fact for A whose the particular value V = 100 the segment to be laid off parallel to the scale of V becomes zero and so we go from the origin to the diagram through the sum of the only two seg- ments W and P.p. V W in in m. In order to determine the relation between the scales of A and A and the scales of Pi.h.120 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION units of measure selected for drawing the diagram The of Fig.p. EC = 200 in the respective scales. Let us consider then the point coordinates are A = 0. for instance W = 3000 and PI = 200 H.P. scales of W and Pi are determined. as'we have in CD we will have V = 140 m.3 and A = 0.h. V we proceed as follows : In order to determine the scale of W and Pi two values whatever. .0463 which gives W Thus the Let us give to --= 3000 Ib. Consequently.h. the coordinates A and A measure also W and P.P.P. Ib. it is necessary to fix the origin of the scale of V] we shall suppose to assume as origin V = 100 m. from point we draw a point D.0463 Corresponding to these points we shall have W 100 2 = 0-3 and ^~ = Pi == 0. Then for V = 100 m.h.2 H.153.

we draw then FF' parallel to the scale of the speed and we have in F on O'X' the value of the power V we f PI corresponding to a speed E. it is of the speed the value of the gives the scale of to study the way the easy possible to find for each value 0"D' power necessary to fly.FLYING WITH POWER ON that V. that is.h. In Fig. . in order to have two corresponding values of P and W = 2700 which is draw from any point whatever E on the scale of the speed. could hardly sustain itself. The phenomenon power increasing for the decreasing speed may seem strange. even more so. it would be. Let us draw first the tangent t to the diagram which is parallel to scale V. as one says.p. partially in order to insure sustentation this dynamical sustentation admits a maxi. An airplane having an engine capable of giving no more than this power. and the corresponding speed Fmin is 72. this is the minimum power at which the airplane can sustain itself . but could by no means follow an ascending line of flight. if the comparison is made with all other means of locomotion. the parallel to OX up to F. The examination of the diagram enables us to make some interesting observations.P. and could only fly horizontally or descend. and we have furthermore repeated on O'X' the scale of power. is. power necessary for motion is partly absorbed in overcomof ing the passive resistances.3 m. for which the necessary power for motion is so much greater as the speed of motion But we must reflect that in the airplane. For all the values of speed greater or lower than the above value. the necessary power for flying increases. Then. 121 the segment scales CD laid off in it is The being known airplane acts. this tangent will cut the axis O'X' in a point corresponding to a power of 58 H. tangent. 88 we have disposed the scales so as to facilitate the readings. point of intersection with the diagram. the increases. that is we have made the origin 0" of the scale of V coincide with the intersection of this scale and a line O'X' parallel to the axis OX and passing through the value the weight of the airplane.

Practically. and . the speed 7min corresponds to the minimum value which the speed of the airplane can assume. the determination of values pP 2 as a function of V becomes possible by using a method is also proposed by Eifell. but the further decrease is of no interest. and . it is necessary draw the diagram pP 2 as a function of F. the speed increases to values greater than 7min the power necessary for sustentation rapidly increases. It is quite true that theoretically the speed of the airplane can still decrease. and the power necessary for flying. evidently pP 2 To study to flying with the engine running. and the other two in the aerodynamical laboratory.122 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION efficiency corresponding to a given value of speed. also at that speed. in order to be able to compare for each value of V. mum below which. Therefore. and which interesting to expose diffusely. The maximum value the airplane speed can assume. as it requires increase of power which makes the sustentation and therefore the flight more dangerous. maximum value of useful power p the propeller efficiency. When . consequently. When they are known. the useful power furnished by the propeller is 2 Let P be the power of the engine. . more difficult. (1) it is necessary to know the following diagrams : Pi a (2) . the power pP 2 available for that speed. evidently depends upon the the propeller can furnish. the efficiency itself decreases./ (n) = I V f (~j))> which gives the value of \ coefficient a of the formula an*D 5 corresponding absorbed by the propeller. Pp = to the power The first of the three diagrams must be determined in the engine testing room.

log sum following three. of instead of drawing the diagram V p: nD as abscissae. Then. considering 3 log n of the following. and finally P p Now it is evident that the two segments log n log and 3 log n corresponding to n. and 5 log parallel to the axis of the ordinates. OF = p ^> U and we OF as the algebraic sum and log log 3 log n 5 log D. 3 and log following axis OX. and log P p D .FLYING WITH POWER ON Let us consider the equation 123 Pp = or As we have seen in chapter 6. let and those P by taking the values as ordinates of syr. and 3 log log n parallel to the axis of the ordinates. 71 the ordinate can write OF of point OF = log Pp A. D parallel to D gle oblique segment with an inclination of 3 on 1 and having . log V. can be replaced by a sin- then again . Let us now consider a point on the curve P -lb = is ( V for instance. A of the diagram. to point 5 log following axis OF. The abscissa of this point OX = conse " of the V log nD' but log V = nD log V ~ and is log n ~ log D ' quently we can consider OX as the algebraical log D. Analogously. a = /"" 1 therefore -'( Now. scales. point A. it is sufficient to add log V. respectively. as ordinates. we can first take log V. D axis OX. Since evidently these segments can be added in any order whatever. in order to pass from the origin 0. on paper with logarithmic graduation (Fig. the axis of the abscissae. log n. nlD 5 on uni- form abscissae and as us take these values. then log n parallel to n n and 5 log D. 89). log P.

124 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Analogously. 5 log log D and segments SCALE D two D. FIG. can be replaced by a single oblique segment with inclination of 5 on 1 and having a length proportional to log D.h. 89. by drawing four segments parallel respectively to .p. We can definitely pass from origin to point A of the diagram.m. D corresponding SCALE Uo 50 3 4x!0" 5x!0" 3 3 6xlO" 7xl0 3 &xl0 3 3 3 9xiO" 10xlO" I 60 70 80 90 100 J50 200 V. the to a length proportional to Jog n.

coordinates V ^ and P 3 J^ 5 evidently also measure V and Pp in fact for these particular values. and which measure V. is evidently that the four corresponding D corresponding segments (added geometrically starting from the origin) terminate on the diagram. have (see diagram 1800 and of ^^ = 2. in miles per hour n. and to axis OF. In order to determine the relation between the scales of P V ^ and and those of V. -^ = 2. and that Then for n = 1800 and D = 7.46 X p 10~ 12 deter- mines the scale of powers P p In order to find the scale of D. to the diagram. the segments to be laid off parallel to the scales n and D. in feet and P p in H. In this way Corresponding to Fi g. the axis OX at the point where ^ = the scale of i QQQ y = 7 5 0-0074. V = 100 m. . n. = D = P = 7. it must be marked on instance we go from . considering for only the speed V = 100 m.p. The units of measure selected for drawing the diagram of Fig. to tion 5 on an axis of inclination 3 on 1. 89 are: V. and so ] origin to the diagram by means of the sum of the two segments V and P p Then.5 ft. in their respective scales. make n equal to 1800.h. we .12 thus.m. n.p.46 X U we shall 10. become zero. for which the segment n is equal to zero.5 the of scale D be 7. Pp ..89) 7i V is determined.5 have P p = 340 H. and D.P. n.FLYING WITH POWER ON axis 125 OX. D. making n . and Pp . it is neces- sary to fix the origin of the scales of n and D.p. in revolutions per minute D.P. The condition necessary and sufficient for a system of and Pp to be realizable with a propeller values of V. to an axis of inclina1. marking the value 340 in correspondence to .h. Let us suppose that the origin of the scale n be 1800 r.

5 the result is n = 1270. starting from origin equal to n = 1800). and marking the value 6 ft. to find the scale of n. Analogously.h.p. Disposing of the three diagrams n3 > 5 \nD -' .06.p. we can then draw that diagram by means of the scale n. on the point D". in our case. it is sufficient to make D = 100 m.2 X 10. the scale of n defined.50 ft. (Fig. the scale of D is obtained. 7. and the scale of the power shown in Fig. by (for any two values whatever and P p = 100 H. by selecting the same units of measure (Fig. means of the usual construction a segment BC is determined. Then. we shall have 100 = 1800 3 X 2. a segment 0" (which by hypothesis 0"D" = BC' and marking is the value 1270 r. 89 (Fig. by taking to the is . Now. then for Pp = 100 and D = 7.h.p. starting from origin 0' (which is supposed to correspond to D = 7. by taking to the scale of D. scale of n. Finally.22 X 10~ 12 and consequently.P. analogous construction corresponding to C' is V = and P p = 100. 91). Thus.5. on the point D'. Let us suppose that we know the diagram P 2 = / (n). which measures the diameter value of D The D results from the value ~Tn5 p 7 which is read on the diagram at point C. 90). we can also draw the diagram p = f/ V \ \~j\r on the logarithmic paper.) by on the scale of D. which is easily determined in the engine testing room. we find -^ U TL p and by repeating that the segment BC' = 2.).12 which gives D = 6 ft.126 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION giving V and P p instance V = 100 m. 89). as Pp = 100 and n = 1800. a segment O'D' = BC. this value is 2.m.

of the speed. 92 shows how the operation is accomplished. Fig. making V'x coincide with axis OX. 89. 91 be drawn on transparent paper. 91. starting from the origin segment equal to diameter D of the propeller adopted. and ing let V V supposing D = 9. it is easy to find the values pP 2 corresponding to the values of V. in magnitude and direction.p. In fact let us draw in Fig. that Fig. a point V] then draw the horizontal line V'x.0 feet. supposto be made coincident with V = 100 m. of the scale of n. Supposing us take it to the diagram of Fig. The point of intersection A between the curves Pp and .FLYING WITH POWER ON 127 drawn on logarithmic paper. measuring D to the logarithmic scale We shall have of Fig. 89. and the point with any value V whatever.h.

. 91.128 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION r500 ^450 L400 L 350 r300 -150 -100 L FIG.

FLYING WITH POWER ON 129 40 50 60 TO 60 90 100 150 200 FIG. . 92.

in this figure.P. ft.p. H. which are comby the propeller. 88. per sec. we see Pi for V = 160 m. it The climbing speed will be maximum 1 In fact. 93.130 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION P 2 determines the values of 1 P 2. In fact in order to raise a weight v W W at a speed is v. all the speed values lower than the maximum value 160 m. corresponding to the maximum value of pP 2 in our example. We can then determine for each value of V. in Fig. we now dispose of a power pP 2 consequently the climbing speed is given by that is. v = "w x is (pPz ~ pP 2 thus proportional to the difference PI. this maximum Pi] is found for V = 95 and corresponding to it v = 33 ft.. = ^7. can be used for climbing. This has been done . Comparing. or to the diagram of the power developed by the engine.p. as they are read on the logarithmic scales. . point determines a pair of values of V patible either to the diagram of the power absorbed A and n. the values of Pi corresponding to the various speeds.h. the disposable power on the propeller shaft is greater than the minimum power necessary for horizontal flight. this value represents the maximum speed that the airplane under consideration can attain. necessary. would be required. a power of X W Ib. in fact for higher values of V. the corresponding value P 2 and we can obtain the values p X P 2 corresponding to those of V in Fig. the excess of power measured by the difference be- pP 2 and that pP 2 = For V = tween the values pP 2 and PI. P and n corresponding to an even speed. a greater power to the one effectively developed by the engine at that speed.h. The climbing speed v is easily found when the weight of the machine is known. oou X v X W PI.

FLYING WITH POWER ON 131 x .s MS ^$ 8 luV --- TT ** %\<=> Sg i .

W = 10. But the will decrease. consequently decreasing V and sin 0.425. the speed of the airplane is less than that of the airplane in horizontal flight. that is. which is less than the preceding value. let us suppose that the justing the fuel supply. FIG. as being the angle which with the horizontal line (Fig. for the already discussed exWe see as functions of V. and not to the maximum value of sin 0. as we have already seen. diagrams of v and sin = 0. to which velocity pilot V corresponds. the climbing speed will be decreasing instead of to the increasing. of path. by moving the elevator. In Fig. v = which represents the maximum of sin 29. In fact. it may happen that by increasing the angle 0. has another means for maneuvering for height. consists in the variation of the angle of incidence of the airplane.4 XA7 2 Fixing the angle of incidence fixes the value of X. 94). We then have v = V sin This equation shows that the maximum v corresponds maximum value of V sin 6. pilot The maneuver that must be accomplished by the in order to increase or decrease the climbing speed. 0. that is. . we have also see that in climbing. ample. pilot reduces the power pP 2 then the difference pP 2 PI. and consequently that of V necessary for sustentation the airplane then automatically puts itself in the climbing line .35. If the . for the value sin = that v is maximum for sin 0. 95 we have drawn. the variation of the engine power by adIn fact. supposing We that the engine is run at full power.132 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ratio The y gives the value sin which defines the angle the ascending line of path makes 0. 94.

p.h. . series of speeds.FLYING WITH POWER ON pilot reduces the engine = 0. FIG. 95. varying from a minimum value. the result will be v possibility. 133 PI = power to a point where pP 2 = 0. We see then the and sin by throttling the engine. but also upon the engine and propeller.45 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 V.M. of flying at a whole 0. which depends essentially upon the characteristics of the airplane. to a maximum value which depends not only upon the airplane.

air. it is said that the In this forces way we naturally disregard the consideration of which have provoked the break of equilibrium. 134 . The forces to which the airplane is subjected are: its weight W. In reality in considering the stability of the airplane. From this analogy." Several constructors have attempted to solve the problem of stability *of the by using solely the above criterions as a basis. therefore is no solid basis upon which to build a general theory of stability. the propeller thrust T. Let us consider an airplane in normal rectilinear horizontal flight of speed V. if the system of forces applied to the body is such as to restore it body to the original position of equilibrium. some have defined the stability of the airplane as the "tendency to react on each break of equilibrium without the intervention of the pilot. and let us suppose that we displace it a trifle from the position of equilibrium already mentioned. is in a state of stable equilibrium. cannot be disregarded. and are such as to often substantially modify the resistance of the original acting forces. either static or dynamic. and the total air reaction R. the disturbing forces which provoke the break of a state of equilibrium. Nevertheless. it is an limiting oneself to the flight in smooth to study the general conditions to which possible airplane must accede in order to have a more or less by great intrinsic stability.CHAPTER X STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY Let us consider a body in equilibrium. especially in rough air. airplane These forces are most variable. The knowledge of them and there of their laws of variation is practically impossible.

instead. 97 a group of straight lines corresponding to the various positions of the resultant R with the variation of the angle of incidence.STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY These forces are in equilibrium. responding it considered separately. the displacements about the three principal axes of inertia. the pitching axis. leaving all the air reaction R will change not only in tion magnitude. varied abruptly. the variation in position introduces a couple about gravity. Supposing now that the orientation of the airplane with respect to its line of path the control surfaces neutral is . must be found on the Let us consider the two positions Gi and resultant E 3 G 2 If the center of gravity falls on Gi the machine is un- what has been . If. . but The variaalso in position. are usually interesting only to corknow the different positions of the total resultant to the various values. that is. . the airplane is For simplicity. the airplane it is stable. 96). the rolling axis. effect however. of the angle of incidence. in magnitude has the only effect of elevating or lowering the line of path of the airplane. gravity. has the effect of returning establishing the original position. is R In Fig. and the directional axis (see Chapter II). have been drawn only as a qualitative example. the center of gravity (because said before). they meet point and their resultant is zero (Fig. has the unstable. in 135 one The axis of thrust T generally passes through the center of Then R also passes through the center of gravity. the center of which tends to make If this the airplane turn. of If flight of the airplane is we suppose that the normal incidence of 3. For the pitching movement. of increasing the displacement.

FIG. falls in (j 2 . the adoption of . because the raising would produce a partial raising of the center of gravity. On the other hand.136 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION stable. Then. In general. the position of the center of gravity can be displaced within very restricted limits. it is not possible to raise the wing surfaces much with respect to the center of gravity. If. in order to obtain a good stability. 97. and also because of constructional restrictions. instead. more so if we wish to let the axis of thrust pass near it. as demonstrated in analogous is considerations. stable. in fact for angles greater than 3 the resultant is displaced so as to have a tendency to further increase the incidence and vice versa. the center of gravity the airplane.

which may happen in practice. 137 which (as we have seen in Chapter II) are supplementary wing surfaces. in order that the maneuvers be not too difficult or even impossible. that the moment of the thrust about the center of gravity T X t. that necessary to consider the metathe enveloping curve of all the resultants is. in sary not pass through the center of Then. 99). 98). Starting from a point 0. (Fig. The preceding is applied to cases in which the axis of It is also necesthrust passes through the center of gravity. generally situated behind the principal wing surfaces and making an angle of incidence smaller than that of the principal wing surface. Naturally it is necessary that the intrinsic stability be not excessive. let us take a group of segments parallel and equal to the various resultants Ri this. which the axis of thrust does for stability. be equal and opposite to the moment R X r of the Let us see which are the conditions air reaction (Fig. centric curve.STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY stabilizers is usually resorted to. it is To examine . thus facilitating the placing of the center of gravity within the zone of stability. The effect of stabilizers is to raise the zone in which the meeting points of the various resultants are. to consider the case. it is necessary gravity. in order to have equilibrium.

In other words. The joining line DD' { i} t is BB' now when i differs infinitely little from at point i. which is tangent to curve ft at let us B the equilibrium will exist for all the other values of incidence. parallel to 1 . Ri FIG. b. that is.138 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION corresponding to the normal value of the speed. and consequently it . let us take two segments CD and CD' equal to Ri the value R and R'i respectively. and the equilibrium exists for a value of the angle of incidence. also quently. we wish divides the stability zone from the instability zone. if i' differs infinitely . ' to straight line ao. 99. If we demonstrate that the moment of R' about G is equal to the moment of R the equilibrium will be demonstrated to be indifferent. Let us suppose that the center of gravity falls at G on oa. At point A. parallel to end of t tangent to the metacentric curve a. where Ri is draw oa R extreme We wish to demonstrate that the straight line oa is a locus of points such that if the center of gravity falls on it. (understanding the speed to be constant) to demonstrate that oa is a locus of the points corresponding to the indifferent equilibrium. BB' becomes tangent to the curve conseDD' becomes parallel to tangent 6. Starting from C point of the intersection of and R'i. Let us consider one of the resultants. Now point C. and that the incidence varies from the value i (for which we have the equilibrium) to a value infinitely near i'. this . for instance Ri.

we have seen its function is to produce some positive and negative couples capable of opposing the stabilizing couples. Nevertheless. from is coincident with A that To it the equilibrium is indifferent. consequently dividing the line Ri into two half corresponding to the zones of stability and instability. On the other hand. machine with A great stability is not very maneuverable. the mobility of a machine in the longitudinal sense. From what has already been said. depends upon the ratio between the value of the that stabilizing moments and that of the moments it is possible to produce by maneuvering the elevator. it will be a point of indifferent '.STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY little 139 (and consequently the segments GC with GA) then the two triangles GCD' and GCD (which measure the moment of Ri and R'< with respect to G). and thus the entire zone of stability will be defined. it should be noted that these variations of speed are never instantaneous. it will be easy to establish lines the half line which corresponds to the stability. as they have common bases and have vertices situated on a line parallel to the bases: i. In referring to the elevator. equilibrium.). All other conditions being the same (moment of inertia of the machine. it orientation with respect to the line of path. The foregoing was based upon the supposition that the machine would maintain its speed constant. then a new unknown factor is introduced. braking moments. and consequently permitting the machine to fly with different values of the angle of incidence. find gravity falls on the intersection of the propeller axis and the resultant R i} then the center of gravity will be on R { and since A is on the line oa. in Chapter II. even though varying its Practically. become equal. etc. is not so difficult when the metacentric curve The and the values R> for a given speed are known. . suffices to suppose for a moment that the center of is. which are the zones of stability and instability. happens that the speed varies to a certain extent. which can alter the values of the restoring couple. calculation of the magnitude of the moments of stability.

the various applied forces are no longer in equilibrium. drift force above or below the center of gravity. but have a resultant. and which will be stabilizing if the axis of the drift force passes above the center of gravity. an airplane inclines itself laterally. be able to change the relative values of its stability and maneuverability. this should be easy by adopting a device to vary the In this way. In the other two cases. the total air reaction on the airplane is no longer contained in the plane of symmetry. As to lateral stability. the machine will gradually place itself in the course of drift. be an overturning moment if this axis passes below the center of gravity. When. but there is a drift component. it can be denned as the tendency of the machine to deviate so that the resultant of the forces of mass (weight. as it requires the continuous attention of the pilot. On account of this fact. and forces of inertia) comes into the plane of symmetry of the airplane. it will instead. In the first case. To obtain a good lateral stability. we could in the machine. at the pilot's will. Furthermore. resort to having strong stabilizing couples prevail normally it being possible at the same time to imme- diately obtain great maneuverability in cases where it became necessary. the moment due to the about the center of gravity is zero. it is necessary that the axis of the drift component meet the plane of symmetry of .140 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION a machine of great maneuverability can become dangerous. the line of action of which can pass through. in which it will maintain itself. the drift com- ponent will have a moment different from zero. if the pilot does not intervene by maneuvering the ailerons. consequently. which is not contained in the plane of symmetry. of Then the line of path is no longer contained in the plane symmetry and the airplane drifts. ratios of the controlling levers of the elevator. the other advantage would also be obtained of being able to decrease or increase the sensibility of the controls as the speed increases or decreases. An ideal machine should. for any accidental cause whatever.

by a problems pertaining to for an center of gravity (Fig. quadrant. 100. we may say that it is possible to build machines which. as it is generally done. by giving the wings a transversal inclination usually called "dihedral". that this tively to the machine. This is obtained by adopting 100 and 101. that is. thus to obtain a good transversal stability it is necessary that the center of drift fall above the horizontal line drawn through the center of gravity (Fig. . This result can be obtained by lowering the center of gravity. 100). we have Fig. are provided with a great intrinsic stability. Summarizing. however. that point is called the center of drift. Naturally what has been said of longi- tudinal stability. or by adopting a vertical fin situated above the center of gravity. in calm air. so as not to decrease the maneuverability too much. If Center of Drift falls on this Zone the Machine isLaferalty Unstable excessive. have good stability of direction is.STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY 141 in the plane of the machine at a point above the horizontal line contained symmetry and passing through the center of gravity. 102 which shows that the center of drift must fall in the upper right By adding Figs.falls on this Zone the Machine 'is Laterally Stable * it / FIG. regarding the convenience of not having If Center of Drift. having a tendency to react every time the line of path tends to change its orientation relaIt is necessary. 101). that the center of drift fall behind the vertical line drawn through the The condition necessary stability. Let us finally consider the directional series of airplane to considerations analogous to the preceding one. can be applied to lateral stability. a rear fins. or.

consider the case in which the axis of thrust passes through the center of gravity. the disappearance of the thrust will not bring any immediate disturbance in the first longitudinal equilibrium of the airplane. or when acrobatics are being accomplished. FIG.^ Directional Instability. Let us now suppose that the engine is shut off. Then the propeller thrust becomes equal to zero. If Center of Drift falls on this lone the Machine has Directional Stability. 102. If Center of Drift falls on this Zone the Machine has. But the equilibrium between . in order not to decrease the maneuverability which becomes an essential quality in rough air. In this case. Let us Zone within which the Center of Drift must in Order that the Machine be Tnansversallij and Directionallu Stable. Thus far we have considered the flight with the engine running.142 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION tendency be not excessive. 101. . FIG..

STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY 143 .

and the line of path is. the axis . thereby reducing the speed of the airplane.144 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION and the weight. will be broken. Practically. an increase of the angle of a stabilizing couple is then produced. Let us note that the glid- new ing speed in this case smaller than the speed in normal flight. and air reaction. it is equal to W] that is. as a consequence. " 4 we will have or VjB" r \ When the axis of thrust does not pass through the center of gravity. as the engine is shut off a equal and of opposite direction to the moment is produced moment of the thrust Thus if with respect to the center of gravity. caused. and is consequently equal to -i^T 2 is W \/W . that is incidence descent. the inclination of the line of path and the speed will increase until they reach such values that the air reaction The normal speed becomes equal and of opposite direction to the weight of the airplane (Fig. tending to adjust the machine for the becomes descendent. it will happen that this position (due to the fact that the impulse impressed on the airplane by the the stabilizing couple makes it go beyond of equilibrium) is not reached until after position a certain number of oscillations. that is. thus equi- librium between the component of sustentation of the air reaction and the weight is broken. tending to restore the angle of incidence to its normal value. of the airplane then tends to restore itself. being no longer balanced by the propeller thrust. 2 W +T 2 I T 2 \ W W 2 V and V" the " respective speeds. 103). component of head resistance. will act as a brake. the reduction of speed brings a decrease in the sustaining force. in gliding instead. the air reaction in normal flight and in gliding flight. thrust. R^ R" and calling ~~ VW " . calling R' and R" respectively. the air reaction must balance z and T. in fact in normal flight.

If tend to make the airplane is provided with intrinsic stability. sudden gusts of wind may be encountered which tend to increase the amplitude of the oscillations. the oscillations diminish by degrees. looping. and which will be greater in case the axis of thrust passes above the center of gravity. and greater in the gliding second case than the speed obtainable when the axis of thrust passes through the center of gravity. more or less rapidly according to the importance of the dampening couples of the machine.. thus putting the machine in a position to probrake of the equilibrium. and consequently That is why the pilot must have complete conto fall. instead. that is. as In' other words. will be smaller. Naturally. trol of the machine. of paths of descent. the pilot intervening by maneuvering the control surfaces can provoke a complete series of equilibrium. is directly proportional to the stabilizing couple in calm air. equilibrium. the moment the airplane nose up. If developed instead. the moment developed will tend to make the airplane nose down. controls are energetic enough. thereby greatly decreasing the pitching and rolling movements. but attains it by going through a certain and thus. a gliding course will be established. if the well as to dampen the oscillations. to counteract the disturbing couple. spinning. with an angle of incidence different from that in normal flight. stabilizing couple is introthe airplane does not immediately regain its original duced. it passes below the center of gravity. etc. machines must be provided with great maneuverability in order that it may be possible. In rough air. as to rapidly regain the . it is necessary to dispose of the very energetic controls. The speed of in the first case. voke a definite at the pilot's will. We have seen that when a number of oscillations of which the magnitude . not so much to start the maneuvers themselves. In order to accomplish acrobatic maneuvers such as turning on the wing. the maneuvers accomplished by the pilot can counteract the periodic movements.STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY of thrust passes will 145 above the center of gravity. and smaller in the opposite case.

Naturally in order that this may happen. what is more important. the machine will tend to leave the spiral fall. it will tend to orient itself in such a way as to have the line of path situated in its plane of symmetry and making an angle of incidence with the wing surface equal to the angle for which the longitudinal equilibrium is obtained. it acts as a centripetal force. That is. Let us consider an airplane provided with intrinsic automatic stability. its course in falling. in other words. and. be subjected to two forces. as being left in the air with a dead engine and will insufficient speed for its sustentation. in that case a see then what a great convenience the pilot has in able to dispose of the energetic controls which can being We . can only subjected. Let us suppose. Let us consider two components of the air reaction. The airplane air reaction. an airplane left to itself. Thus. The disposable vertical space may happen to be insufficient to enable the machine to come out of crash will result. falls in a spiral line of path. which is called spinning. the component and the horizontal component. which do not balance each other. may establish the equilibrium. and tends to vertical make the airplane follow a circular line of path of such radius that the centrifugal force which is thereby developed. The vertical component partly balances the weight. and put itself in the normal gliding line of path. if the machine is provided with intrinsic stability. be balanced by a horizontal component of acceleration. that the pilot does not maneuver the controls. the difference between the weight and this component measures the forces of vertical acceleration to which the airplane is The horizontal component. as the air reaction can have any direction whatever according to the orientation weight and of the airplane and the relative direction of the line of path. instead. are necessary. a certain vertical space.146 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION of equilibrium if normal position for any reason whatever the necessity arises. a certain time. now. then.

1. It is necessary that the maneuvering devices be such all as to give the pilot control of the machine at times. apparatuses of this kind. Before concluding the chapter it may not be amiss to say a few words about mechanical stabilizers. it is sufficient only to mention the landing maneuver to be convinced of the enormous difficulty offered by a mechanical apparatus intended to guide such a maneuver. without requiring an excessive nervous strain from the pilot. and criterions regarding the intrinsic stability of a 3. which in turn maneuvers the controls. up to date. Anemometric. cannot replace the pilot in all maneuvers. we can mention the following general machine: 1. Their scope is to take the place of the pilot by operating the ordi- nary maneuvering devices through the medium of proper servo-motors. their use should be limited to that of replacing the pilot in normal flight. Summarizing. Clinometric. but their parts can always be referred to one of the three preceding categories. and Inertia stabilizer. We can group the various types of mechanical stabilizers.STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY be 147 properly used to decrease the space necessary for restoring the normal equilibrium. as a consequence of its sensibility. or sensible to the causes which produce them. Naturally. It is necessary that the airplane be provided with intrinsic stability in calm air. 2. especially during adverse atmospheric conditions. Essentially. into three categories: 2. There are also apparatus of compound type. a servo-motor. . in order that it react automatically to small normal breaks in equilibrium. This stability must not be excessive in order that the maneuvers be not too slow or impossible. We can then say at once that a mechanical stabilizer is but an apparatus sensible to the changes in equilibrium which is desired to be avoided. and capable of operating. 3. thereby decreasing his nervous fatigue.

104).148 1. in fact. small disk will go forward under the spring reaction. instead. these movements control a proper servo- motor which maneuvers the elevator so as to put the airplane into a climbing path when the speed increases. sensible to the variations of the relative speed of the airplane with respect to the and consequently tend to keep that speed constant. as cause the airplane to offer it a greater hold. the speed decreases. 104. R will decrease. this man- The maneuver. because of an increase or decrease of the motive power. a certain position of equilibrium is obtained. Such functioning is logical when the increase or decrease of the relative speed depends upon the airplane. Through rod S. R increases and the small disk goes If. which can go forward or backward under the action of the air thrust R. in fact. is no longer logical if the increase of relative speed depends upon an impetuous gust of wind which strikes the airplane from the bow. the square of the speed. and under the The air thrust R. it would . speed stabilizers. however. and the FIG. is proportional to reaction of a spring S. When the relative speed is equal to the normal one. for instance. and into a descending path when the speed decreases. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION The anemometric stabilizers are. euver would aggravate the effect of the gust. if the speed increases. principally. They are. air. backward so as to further compress the spring. Schematically an anemometric stabilizer consists of a small surface A (Fig.

STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY 149 Thus we itself. under the action of the inertia forces and reacting springs. coupled so as to insure the perfect conservation of a horizontal plane. is the stabilizer. counter-indications. inertia. the mercury level. as usually said. whatever it may be. In general. and to-day considered the best in existence. etc. then the gyroscope insures the wanted inclination of the line of path. The inertia stabilizers are. used by can give. the pendulum. and to a couple. and to eliminate the effect of forces of force. is best clinometric stabilizer that has been built. inserted between the servo- pilot to fix his machine for climbing or descending. which lead to false maneuvers. see that it an anemometric is stabilizer. A special pedal enables the detachment of the stabilizer and the control of the airplane in a normal way. In consideration of this. The common The which Sperry fault of these stabilizers is that they are sensible to the forces of inertia. 3. . which is until now. the gyroscope. can be reduced. the Doutre stabilizer. in general. 2. to a force applied at the center of gravity. and of which the scope is to block the small anemometric blade when the increase of relative speed is due to a gust of wind. It consists of four gyroscopes. including the centrifugal The relative movements of the airplane with respect to the gyroscope system. undergo relative displacement. is provided with certain small masses sensible to the inertia forces. Several types of clinometric stabilizers have been proposed. one of the most successful of its kind ever built. which in turn actions the elevator and the horizontal stabilizing surfaces. A special lever. the disturbing cause. and which. enables the There is a small anemometric blade which fixes the airplane for the descent when the relative speed decreases. made of small masses which are utilized for the control of servo-motors. motor and the gyroscope. control the servo-motor. with respect to the effects produced by it.

which originate three angular accelerations. The A complete inertia stabilizer should be provided with three linear accelerometers accelerometers. and vertical).150 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION force admits three components parallel to three prinand consequently originates three accelerations cipal axes. having as axis the same principal axis of inertia. be resolved into three component couples. . The couple can (longitudinal. which would and three angular six measure the aforesaid components. transversal.

speed U. that the existence of a wind changes not only in dimension but also in direction. with respect to the ground. in flight the airplane can be considered speed as a body suspended in a current of water.CHAPTER XI FLYING IN THE WIND Let us first of all consider the case of a wind which is constant in direction as well as in speed. if from a point We V A point B. and the of the wind. 105. becomes equal to the resultant of the two speeds V and W] we can then write (Fig. but influences solely its speed relative to the ground. be the speed proper of the airplane. it is necessary to make the airbut in a direction AO making plane fly not in direction AB } an angle 5 with AB such that the resulting speed 151 U is in . Such wind has no influence upon the stability of the airplane. 105) U = 7+ W W see then. and co is the angle which the wind direction makes with the line of path AB. of which the Let V W FIG. speed we wish to reach another Furthermore.

152

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

the direction

AB.

By

a

known

geometrical theorem,

we

have

W
and

2

- 2UW cos (180 - 5 8

co)

sm

-^

W sin
.

co

A

simple diagram
co

is
5,

given in Fig. 106, which enables the

calculation of angle

angle

which the covered, is known.
This diagram
is

when the speeds V and W, and the wind makes with the line of flight to be
constituted of concentric circles, whose

radius represents the speed of the wind, and of a series of radii, of which the angles with respect to the line OA give the angles co between the line of path and the wind. Let

us find the angle 6 of drift, at which the airplane must fly, for example, with a 30 m.p.h. wind making 90 with the line of path (the drift angle of the trajectory must not be confused with the angle of drift of the airplane with respect
to the trajectory, of which we have discussed in the chapthe intersection Let us take point ter on stability).
of the circle of radius

30 with the line

B BC

which makes

90 with

OA making B
;

the center, and speed
shall

V

of the air-

plane the radius, which

we

suppose equal to 100 m.p.h.,

we

have point C which determines U and 5; in fact OC In our case U = equals U, and angle B CO equals d. 95.5 m.p.h., and sin 8 = 0.3. The speed of the wind varies within wide limits, and can
shall

rise to

110 miles per hour, or more; naturally it then becomes a violent storm. A wind of from 7 to 8 miles an hour is scarcely perceptible by a person standing still. A wind of from 13 to 14 miles, moves the leaves on the trees; at 20 miles it moves the small branches on the trees and is strong enough to cause a flag to wave. At 35 miles the wind already gathers strength and moves the large branches; at 80 miles, light
tiles, slate, etc.,

obstacles such as

are carried away; the big
of

storms, as

we have already mentioned, even reach a speed

FLYING IN THE WIND
110 miles an hour.

153

As airplanes have actually reached than 110 m.p.h. (even 160 m.p.h.), it would speeds greater be possible to fly and even choose direction from point to
point in violent wind storms.

But the landing maneuver,

consequently, becomes very dangerous. At least during the present stage of constructive technique, it is wise not to fly in a wind exceeding 50 to 60 m.p.h. After all, such winds are the highest that are normally had, the stronger

ones being exceptional and localized.

On

the contrary,

154
for the

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

aims of an organization, for instance, for aerial mail service, it would be useless to take winds higher than 30 to 40 m.p.h. into consideration. If we call the distance to be covered in miles, V the

M

the maximum speed speed of the airplane in m.p.h., and in m.p.h., of the wind to be expected, the travelling time in hours, when the wind is contrary, will be

W

v _
450

M

w

M

400

300

200

100

50

100

150

200

V

M.p.h

FIG. 107.

When

the wind

is

zero the travelling time will be

M
consequently
V

FLYING IN THE WIND

155

Supposing that we admit, for instance in mail service, a maximum wind of 35 m.p.h., a diagram can easily be drawn which for every value of speed V, will give the value
100
ling

Y which

measures the percent increase in the travel-

time (Fig. 107). This diagram shows that the travelling time tends to become infinite when V approaches the value of 35 m.p.h.

For each value of

V

lower than 35 m.p.h. the value 100

-f-

is negative; that is, the airplane having such a speed, and flying against a wind of 35 m.p.h. would, of course,

A

B

A'

FIG. 108.

retrocede.

As V

increases above the value 35, the term
for

100 Y
l>0

decreases;

V =

100

we have

for

instance

100
lo

=

154 per cent.; for

V

=130,

100^ = "o

137 per

see then, because of contrary wind, that the per cent increase in the travelling time, is inversely proportional to the speed.
cent., etc.

We

Before beginning a discussion on the effect of the wind upon the stability of the airplane, it is well to guard against an error which may be made when the speed of an airplane is measured by the method of crossing back and forth between two parallel sights. Let AA' and BE' be the two Let us suppose that a wind of parallel sights (Fig. 108). is blowing parallel to the line joining the parallel speed

W

sights.

Let

ti

be the time spent by the airplane in covering
in the direction of

the distance

D

AA'

to

BB' and
',

Z2

the

156

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

time spent to cover the distance in the opposite direction. It would be an error to calculate the speed of the airplane tz In fact the by dividing the space 2D by the sum fa in going from A A' to BB is equal to speed

+

.

f

and in going the other way

By adding the two above equations: member to member, we
have

that

is

Now this expression has a value absolutely different from
the other
-

2D -~r
2

For example: supposing

D=

2 miles,

ti

*i

=

0.015 hours,

and

t2

=

0.023 hours,

we

will

have

while

2D

+
When
and

t2

0.015

+

=
0.023

105 m.p.h,

the speed of the wind is constant in magnitude direction, the airplane in flight does not resent any effect as to its stability. But the case of uniform wind
is

The amplirare, especially when its speed is high. tude of the variation of normal winds can be considered Some observations proportionally to their average speed. made in England have given either above or below 23 per

cent, as the average oscillations; and either more or less than 33 per cent, as the maximum oscillation. In certain
cases, however, there can be of even greater amplitude.

brusque or sudden variations

FLYING IN THE WIND

157

Furthermore, the wind can vary from instant to instant also in direction, especially when close to broken ground. In fact, near broken ground, the agitated atmosphere produces the same phenomena of waves, suctions, and vortices, which are produced when sea waves break on the rocks. If the airplane should have a mass equal to zero, it would instantaneously follow the speed variations of the air in which it is located; that is, there would be a

complete
siderable

dragging

effect.

As airplanes have a con-

mass they consequently follow the disturbance

only partially. It is then necessary to consider beside the partial dragging effect, also the relative action of the wind on the airplane, action which depends upon the temporary variation of the
relative speed in

magnitude as well as

in direction.

The

upon the airplane takes a different value than the normal reaction, and the effect is that at the center
reaction of the air
of gravity of the airplane a force and a couple (and consequently a movement of translation and of rotation), are produced. We have seen that in normal flight the sustaining component L of the air reaction, balances the weight. That is,

we have
10- 4
If

\A7

2

the relative speed V varies in magnitude and direction, the second term of the preceding equation will become

10~ 4 X 1 A V' 2 and in general
,

we
2

will

have
2

10- 4

X'

XA X

V

A X V

2 4 $ 10- XA7

Consequently we
in sustentation

climbing or such an acceleration that the corresponding forces of inertia will balance the variation of sustentation.

shall have first of all, an excess or deficiency and then the airplane will take either a descending curvilinear path, and will undergo

158
If,

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
for instance, the sustentation

path will bend downward. masses composing the airplane, including the pilot, will undergo an acceleration g contrary to the acceleration due
line of
f

suddenly decreases, the In such a case, all the

to gravity
If

g.

of the pilot, his apparent weight will no be mg but m(g-g') if it were that g'>g, the relative longer weight of the pilot with respect to the airplane would become negative, and tend to throw the pilot out of the
;

m is the mass

comes the necessity of pilots and strapping themselves to their seats. passengers Let us suppose that an airplane having a speed V undergoes to a frontal shock of a gust increasing in intensity from
airplane.

Thence

W + ATF;

W

if

the mass of the airplane

is

big enough, the

relative speed (at least at the first instant), will pass from the value to that of ATF; the value of the air reaction 2 which was proportional to will become proportional to

V
2

V+

V

(V

+ ATF)
(V

;

the percentual variation of reaction on the wing

surface will then be

+

ATF)

2

- F =
2

2

X FX

A

W + (ATF

2

)

AW
v
that
is, it

/ATF\ 2

-\v~)

will

be inversely proportional to the s"peed of the

Great speeds consequently are convenient not airplane. for reducing the influence of the wind on the length only of time for a given space to be covered, but also in order to

become more independent

of the influence of the wind gusts. Let us now consider a variation in the direction of the wind. Let us first suppose that this variation modifies only the angle of incidence i; then the value X will change. For a given variation At of i, the percent variation of X will be inversely proportional to the angle i of normal flight.

From this point of view, it would be convenient to fly with high angles of incidence; this, however, is not possible, for reasons which shall be presented later.

FLYING IN THE WIND
Let us

159

now suppose
will

direction of the relative

that the gust be such as to make the wind depart from the plane of

then be an angle of drift. A force of drift will be produced, and if the airplane is stable in calm air, a couple will be produced tending to put the airplane

symmetry; there

against the wind and to bank it on the side opposite to that from which the gust comes. Naturally it is necessary that

phenomena be not too accentuated in order not to make the flight difficult and dangerous with the wind across.
these

We find here the confirmation of the statement that stabilizing couples be not excessive.

.

with a head resistance notably less than the weight itself. the mass of apparatus which For the sustentation group. machines and mechanisms which successively transform work. able to effect the calculation of efficiency in an airplane. necessary to consider two principal groups of apparatus: the engine-propeller group and the sustentait is To be of the significance of the engine-propeller group efficiency. the whole efficiency (that is..PART III CHAPTER XII PROBLEMS OF EFFICIENCY Factors of Efficiency and Total Efficiency The efficiency of a machine is measured by the ratio between the work expended in making it function and the For a series of useful work it is capable of furnishing. the ratio between the energy furnished to the first machine or mechanism and the useful energy given by the last machine or mechanism). etc. the landing gear. The ratio between the lifted weight plied energy 161 . The function of the sustentation group is to insure the lifting of the airplane weight. is. the fuselage. has no significance. is equal to the product of the partial efficiencies of the successive transformations. The sustentation group comprises the wings. because neither supnor returned energy is found in it. the controlling surfaces. it is the ratio between the useful power given by the propeller and the total power tion group. There is no doubt supplied to it by the engine. as it was previously defined. that forms the actual airplane. the efficiency.

the other to the parasite D = Thus the measured by 10. because the values of and p are not constant.4 (5A+<r)V* the sustaining surface can be efficiency of L \A 5A D + o- If p is the propeller efficiency. by what has already been mentioned in Chapter IX. Moreover. The lifted load of an airplane is given by the expression L = and the head resistances : 10. Let us immediately note that the value of r is not constant. mining therefore the of . the product r = p X e can serve well enough to characterize the total efficiency of the Naturally the number r cannot be considered as airplane. which vary with the variation of the angle of incidence i. and a diagram of efficiency e as a funcmaking tion of speed V. a ratio between two works. one referring to the wing surface.4 XA7 2 resistance is equal to the sum of two terms. this equation permits the deterof a corresponding value V for each value of i. In fact e is a function of X and 5. when the engine propeller group is fixed. it is interesting is the value of r as a function of the speed. Practically.162 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION resistance is and the head usually taken as the measure of the efficiency of the sustentation group. and p is a function of the speed V and of the number of revolutions n of the engine. the value of p as a function of V can be found and then it is easy to draw the diagram of r as a function of V. as it contains the factor e which is always greater than 1. and it differs from a true and proper efficiency (which is always smaller than unity) because it is in general greater than unity. which possible by remembering the equation to know W In fact =L = 10.4 \AV 2 W being constant.

. 109. the diagrams p = f(V) and PI = /(F).PROBLEMS OF EFFICIENCY It is possible to give r a 163 much simpler expression than the preceding one. (2) Knowing W. 93 gives the values of Pi and p corresponding to the various speeds for the propeller which has already been considered in Chapter IX. thus obtaining \A and (dA W= 550Pi + <r) 4 from the equations 10- XA7 4 2 = r 1. V FIG. for instance. 109. we can draw the diagram r = f(V). of the W Let us draw. can then obtain the value of r We corresponding to each value of Fig. For this airplane we have = 2700 lb. this diagram for the airplane example of Chapter IX.47 10- (dA + a) V s and substituting in (1) we have 0.00267 P = WV -. consequently W Fig. V and draw the diagram of .

has an efficiency equal to less than one-half the efficiency it mum = the has at the speed of 95 m. we would have an imperfect idea of the real total efficiency.p.9 V = 95 m. thus calculating r based on the maximum speed of the airplane and on the maximum power of its engine. This value is much lower than the maximum which the airplane can give. for instance (which represents the maxifor V for a value of speed. Such power is absorbed partly by the airplane. speed of the airplane under consideration) r that is r is equal to 45 per cent.h.h.p. Knowing n. which can be measured by ordinary barographs. = 160 m.164 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION This diagram shows that r is maximum and equal to 6. V be the speed of translation meas- ured by one of the usual speedometers. In other words our airplane running at its maximum speed. horizontally at tion (2) can also be written the airplane flies its maximum speed. it is possible to have the value of r corresponding to the maximum speed.p. after which it decreases. of the maximum value. intend to show that to measure the efficiency corresponding to the maximum climbing speed is not a difficult matter. Let vmax be the maximum climbing speed.h. equa- r = 0. 550p'~ . 3. Let us suppose in fact that the airplane makes a climbing test Now we and let n be the number Let of revolutions of the engine while climbing. to which corresponds..12.00267 X W * V T2 of Practically then when we know the maximum speed the airplane and the corresponding maximum power of the engine. Let us consider again formula (2) since Pi = pP 2 when . The power absorbed by flying will be . to maximum climbing speed. we know the value P' 2 corresponding to the power developed by the engine. and partly by the work necessary to do the lifting. pr _ VV ^max.

4 \A7 2 0. W rv ""5507 that is is. Breguet has proposed an expression which he calls motive quality.267 W* X -4= X VA is p X - +T -~ X (3) The motive quality q the expression q = P % . Equation (3) can be written That is. it have a value approximate enough to the maxiF'. Let us remember the two equations: mum = = PP 2 W 10. v and n.PROBLEMS OF EFFICIENCY where p is 165 the propeller efficiency which can be estimated with sufficient approximation knowing zontal speed corresponding to vmax . V ~ (V is the hori- We then have rmaX> ~ r>/ V'W M ''max. q is measures the P = 2 0.267 10- 6 (dA +d)7 3 By eliminating V from the two preceding equations.267 VA X w = 3 /^ q .). value of the total efficiency. by measuring possible to and by estimating p'. we 5 have P = 2 0.x Let us remember that \A We see that q = r it proportional to r and therefore efficiency of the airplane. whose magnitude can be used to give an idea of the efficiency of the airplane.

for instance W ~= consequently 10.695 g max =.3. and its maximum value corresponds to the maximum of ascending speed max That is. we have by expressing vmax in ft.177 .267 TT* VA (P' \ _/ Z 550p' which can also be written 147 m "- IW vl y^^ '~ P 550. g max is easily calculated. .P2 W Since we have W is r- the load per sq.267 Also q assumes various values. per second that z. . 0. 0. y= P' 7.166 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION from which we have = 0. ft. In the preceding example . P = 0. . vmax and p' being known. and P ^ is the weight per horsepower of the airplane. of the wing surface. v' = ' 33.

future of the airplane. seen that the faster an airplane dangers when On is. In regard to propellers.CHAPTER XIII THE SPEED In ordinary means of locomotion. P that if we wish to increase o-. but modern speedy airplanes are designed so as to permit a strong reduction in speed when they must return to earth. speed sidered as a luxury. P 2 in H.p. Let us remember that the two general equations of the flight of an airplane are: W 550 P X P 2 = = 10.4 XA7 4 2 (1) 1. as to its application in everyday life. for the whole phenomenon of sustentation is based upon the relative speed of the wing surfaces with respect to the surrounding air.47 10. and V in m. Equation (2) We see then. but in the airplane. When the airplane is in flight. high speeds present dangers incommensurably smaller than those which threaten a train or a trary it we have motor car running at high speed.P. It is quite true that high speeds present real landing. A and of p is of the greatest importance not only in order to obtain a higher speed but also in order to improve the total efficiency. we 167 The improvement .h. the con- the better fights against the wind. stands essentially upon its possibility of reaching average commercial speeds far superior to those of the most The rapid means of transportation. V we must increase and PZJ decrease 6. is it usually conrepresents an essential necessity.(dA + <r)7 3 (2) by expressing gives.

p'" will be such that p' max p" max an d p'" max correspond to the three sider. this means that for each 1 per cent. we may think that for a perconsequently P K centual increase of P 2 the same may be applied as that which has been said for a per cent. . p" p'" /D'"] the curves of the efficiencies p. -^=r ^ -^ < irnD (Fig. corresponds) is directly proportional to the ratio ^y ---7 Let us con- V y" values -. three propellers of V" and of pitch p' r '. have discussed influence upon and the factors which have and we have seen that p is a function of the ratio y ~r- irnD p as By drawing the diagram a function of .168 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION their efficiency it. D". . It is not possible to translate into a formula the relation which exists between P 2 d A and a. H increases only by per cent. increase of p. of increase of the efficiency. irnD with a given machine we wish to have the maxiit is y" 1 mum convenient to select the propeller of such pitch and diameter so as to give the maximum In formula (3). the speed horizontal speed. Thus the change of P 2 is reflected upon the terms 6 A and a. for instance. it depends upon the form and profile of the is smaller for the wings with very flat . is seen to be to the efficiency power. } It is necessary then to successive case. diameter D'. irnD if Now.. also 2 is seen to be to the power and at first glance. such that p'/D'<p"/D"< p". make proper verifications for each The value of 6 wing surface. p". we see it that p passes through a decreases. < J .> . consequently of greater weight and different incumbrance. y ^. The increase of the motive power H P 2 is another means of increasing the speed. to increase P 2 means adopting an engine of higher power. 110). maximum value p max after which The value y ~ (to which the value p max . Practically though. . the propeller efficiency at that speed.

THE SPEED 169 .

The decrease of sustaining surface upon the increase of speed. 111). the value of V is inversely proportional to Let us give X the maximum value cally possible to give (the 10). Naturally this convexity is smaller than that of the wing back (Fig. not to ex- . We then also have a negative pressure below the bottom. it is necessary not to excessively increase the value of W -r- . =100that is.170 aerofoil. A also has influence FIG. and the sustentation is then due to the excess of negative pressure on the back with respect to that on the bottom. of the X max which it is practione corresponding to i = 8 to Then the preceding formula gives the minimum value . F mi . some designers have even adopted wings with convex instead of concave bottoms. that is. fast machines. From this point of view it would then be convenient to greatly increase the load per unit of the wing surface -rA. W But remembering equation (1) we have that V = 100 This expression states that when WwV Vx lw _! -j- is given. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION and which for " For very this reason are usually called "wings for speed. Vx to A the minimum is speed at which the airplane can sustain itself directly proportional \A . 111. speed it is possible to attain. / Conse- quently if we wish to keep the value of F min within reasonable limits of safety.

per sq. 112). us suppose that for a given airplane any four of the above terms are known.6.8.P. let us 2 ... Such machines are difficult to maneuver. P = 350H. and <r upon the speed.h. .ft. 2. 5. and a the preceding values. Practically ft. ft.it is then necessary: 1. ft. A = 340sq. For decreasing To reduce the coefficients of head resistance of the various parts to a minimum. while the . it is equal to the due to the various parts o.7 to the value 0. For the sake of interest we shall recall that in the Gordon Bennett race of 1913. must be lowered to values of 6 to W 4 and even 3 The Ib. To reduce the corresponding major sections to a minimum. and let us see how V varies with a variation of the 5th element. let Suppose p for instance that 2 = 0. For sport and touring -Tmachines. and naturally require a great mastery in landing.jo. machines participated with a unit load up to 13 Ib. A. vary from the value 0. that is. decrease of o-. the value of A. for p = 0. the speed is about 130 m.8 it is above 136 m. Then. giving P A. are the worst gliders.6 = 0.= 200. of the airplane.is kept between 6 and 10 per sq..THE SPEED cessively reduce 171 W of the value of A. consti- tutes one of the most interesting means (7 of increasing speed.h. draw the diagram of the equation = 3 V By making we 155 5 X 340 + 200 (Fig. Let us remember that = 2 sum KA of all the passive resistances that is.7. their practical use would have been excessively dangerous. see that while for p = 0.p. analogous to the increase of p. Ib. P 2 5.p.7. per sq. the value -T. In order that the reader may have an idea of the influence of the five factors p.

73 0.70 Offc 0. by 14. 112.172 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION efficiency increases by 4. 113. the speed increases = /(P 2 ). Analogously the diagram V = /(<r).3 per cent. 114. adopting the preceding values and equal to the normal density..76 0. always for the constant terms. 115.6 per cent. that All the foregoing presupposes the air density constant to the one correis. and V -E CL E 130 0. have been drawn respectively in Figs. V = f(A).74 0. V = /().00 P FIG. . and 116.

FIG. 113.9 perature of 137 ft. 136 J34 V ><J\ A* 132 131 I3c feo 370 400 P 2 Hp. following a logarithas it is Now known mic law given by the equation H = 60720 P X 519 = 60720 log (1) . 173 of water and to the tem- 59F.THE SPEED spending to the pressure of 33. the density of the air decreases as we rise in the atmosphere (see Chapter V).

In Fig. and with a uniform scale on the abscissae. the density corresponding to a given height for a given value of the temperature at ground level. By . using these diagrams.174 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Where H is the height in feet. giving to t successively various values. is easily found. t is the Fahrenheit temperature at sea level. 40. 20. 117 these lines are drawn for t = 0. and and the V is the ratio between the density at height normal density denned above. H Equation (1) can be translated into linear diagrams by using a paper graduated with a logarithmic scale on the ordinates. 59 and 80F. p p^ is the ratio between the pressure at sea level and the pressure at height H.

and let us place in evidence the influence of the variation of the density on various parameters which appear in it.THE SPEED Then let 175 us again take up the examination of the formula " for speed F = 155X T^7F 200 250 300 350 A 5c( Ft-. 115. The efficiency p is a function of ^: nD . since P varies with a variation of /*. FIG. V and n We have already spoken of the influence of the density . now this ratio is influenced by the vary. then also variation of the density.

176 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION on the motive power in Chapter V. In Chapter IX we saw how to draw that diagram when the density is normal. 116. where we saw that the ratio between the power at height H and that at ground level is equal to /* \ \ JC cL \ \ \ J3I 130 150 160 170 ISO 190 200 FIG. therefore the diagram f(V) changes completely with a variation of p. The is useful power pP 2 given by the engine propeller group thus a function of the air density. that is. /* = 1. Let us now consider pPz = .

10 120 FIG.5 0.8 09 1.THE SPEED the case of of /* 111 < 1. 89 of Chapter been drawn ona logarithmic scale for the propeller family IX refers. The ratio fj.4 0.] = <* is not only a function is =. In Fig. 118 such diagrams have to which Fig.0 1. 117. to Consequently for each value of /> nee(i s t n a diagram be drawn. but also of and precisely that ratio proportional 25000 A\\ \\ \ VN NX eoooo 15000 AS 10000 \N 5000 0.6 0.7 0. and for the values ^ = .

.178 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 1. h .41. 24. corresponding. 0. tional to diagram In Fig. 91 of Chapter IX. 0. .0. to the heights of 0. The diagram which gives the motive power P 2 as function of the rrSOO number of revolutions is also to be decreased propor- E450 V m . ing values Then by the known grams P P = 2 construction. drawing it for the precedn.000. 16. p. we can draw /* the dia- f(V) for the preceding values of (Fig. of Fig.000 and 28.25. 0. 120). 119 we have taken up again the /*. FIG. 118.55.000 ft. for a temperature of 59 F.

THE SPEED r550 ^500 =450 179 HOO ^350 i-300 -250 -200 -150 -100 hO 50 .

180 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

of the airplane is constant V and equal to 2700 possible according to what has been said also in Chapter IX.4 M (dA + er) V s remembering what has been said in Chapters VIII and IX _^=A and KKHP = 1. 6.. ures to this scale. = = 10. 120).THE SPEED In order to 181 make evident the influence of the decrease of the air density on the parameter proper of the airplane. proceeding as follows: Let us consider the diagram A =/(1.55. parallel to W. the value p ends of these segments.47 X 10. let us take up again the general equation of flight W= 550Pi 10~ 4 1. We have seen in Chapter VII that X. it is and /*. P. From each point of this diagram let ju us draw segments parallel to the scale of and which meas- Let us join the 0. consequently the preceding equations become a- W 550Pi that is. to simplify the interpretation of the diagram. We shall have a new diagram A = / = 0. and vary proportionally to ^.47 XA7 2 = X 10. intend to demon(1.47 f or ju X A) = 1 (Fig.47 A) corresponding to /* = We .55.47A Then considerations analogous to those developed in the preceding chapters enable us to take /* into account by introducing a new scale with a slope of 1/1 on the axis of the abscissae and to pass from the origin to any point whatsoever of the diagram by summing geometrically four seg- ments equal and As the weight lb. or in other words on the power PI necessary to flying.4 (8A + <r) 7 3 and make evident the influence of the air density.4 M XAF 2 1.

and 28. it is possible to use the diagram A (1. that we wish to find corresponding pairs of values /* V and PI W = be sufficient to draw from a parallel to the scale of power and from A. by adopting the same scales as said above.47A) for fA = 0.000. if we wish to Thus. we shall have in A' and A" respectively a pair of corresponding values of speed V of power PI for /* = 0. that is at the height of 16.55. From the examination of . Based upon analogous considerations the diagrams A = /(1. which give the values of Pi and pP 2 corresponding to M = 1. The meeting points of these dia24. We then dispose.. the Let us suppose 0. The diagrams corresponding to the This means that for height of 28.47 A) drawn.000 of the corresponding power and speed. '" drawn parallel to the scale By now construction A A"' for is equal to 0.000 ft. 120 of four pairs of diagrams. on the original diagram. Let us note immediately that while the maximum speeds depend essentially upon the engine-propeller group and consequently can be varied with a variation of the characteristic of this group the minimum speeds depend 121). the airplane of our case the flight would not be possible at this height. extreme point of the segment A A"' corresponding to the value /* = 0. maximum and minimum exclusively upon the airplane. as A A" and 0. for the heights of 0. 16.000 ft. that is.000 grams define the maximum value of the speed which the 0.182 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION if from any point whatsoever A of this diagram we draw a parallel to the scales of V and P.41 airplane can reach with that given engine-propeller group at the various heights.35. have been drawn.55 a parallel to the scale 2700 and = Then it will 0' corresponding to 2700 Ib. a height of 16. in Fig.41 and /* = 0. = 0"A'.55. For the lower altitudes of the corresponding it is possible to draw the diagrams speeds (Fig.55.000 ft.55. of speed. will individuate These two straight lines will meet in A" and two segments 0' A" and A A" as measure study the flight at =/ ft. 0. do not intersect.35. In fact let us call A'" the meeting strate that point of the straight line A A of ju.

it is then necis essary to extend the characteristics of the engine above 2200 revolutions per minute. .THE SPEED 183 the diagrams of Fig.50 0.75 0.0 0. It is interesting to study the case (merely theoretical at the present stage of the technique of the engines) in which 175 150 125 Vmin 100 75 50 1. Let us suppose that this characteristic be the one of We can then draw by the usual construction the Fig. 120 we see that as we raise in the atmosphere the maximum speed which the airplane can reach diminishes gradually while the minimum flying speed increases accordingly. 121. H(t -59) the motive power not effected by the variation of the air density but keeps constant at the various heights.25 8 8 8 FIG. 122. We shall see immediately that in Ihis case the propeller will greatly increase the number of revolutions.

. FIG.184 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION fc. 122.

THE SPEED 185 .

This has been done in Fig.186 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION which give PI and pP 2 . We see how these . 123. pairs of corresponding diagram. in which has been drawn only part of the diagrams containing the intersections which define the maximum speeds.

against 1500 r.m.m. For our example we find that the speed at 28.p.h. 124 for the values M = 1.m.p. 28. If we could build propellers with diameter and pitch variable in flight. 0. and then decreases following the usual law of proportionality.p. after which it will natuIn order to make a more rally begin to decrease again.000 Let us note first of all that in practice it would not be possible to run the engine at 2450 r. Thus we also find that the ft. without risking or breaking it to pieces.00. is number of revolutions of the propeller at 2450 r. furthermore after 12.p. of Fig. 0. the operation of the engine-propeller see then that as We we raise. because the problem of propeller is one of the most serious obstacles to be overcome for the study of the devices which make it possible to feed the engine with air at normal pressure at least up to a certain altitude. The utmost we can suppose is that the power is kept constant for instance up to 12. the speed remains about constant. .000 ft. while at sea level it was 160 m.55.64. as they increase and sible 187 how flight becomes poseven at 28.000 ft. group would be greatly improved and a great step would be made toward the solution of the aviation engine for high altitudes.000 ft. Based on this hypothesis we have drawn the diagram likely hypothesis. if the engine is designed for a maximum speed of say 1800 r. 0.000 ft.h. 0.p. we shall suppose that the power is kept constant up to 12..000 ft.p.m. is equal to 265 m.THE SPEED speeds vary.35 the speed increases but much less than in the preceding case. In second place we shall note that it would be practically impossible to build an engine or a special device such as to of keep the same power at any height whatsoever.41.. and for greater altitudes. at sea level.

obtained when the difference pP 2 is of interest to us . are sary In Chapter IX we have known. and we have seen that the climbing speed pressed in feet per second). Pi) max. then first of that the airplane be built so that the mininecessary value of PI be the lowest possible. when the' power necesp X P 2 furnished by the propeller and the power PI for the sustentation of the airplane at that speed.CHAPTER XIV THE CLIMBING seen that the climbing speed can be easily calculated as a function of V. the maximum value # max speed.f(y) FIG. of the climbing PI is maximum. is v (ex- given 2 by 550 pP -Pi W pi. in the second place 2 P necessary that the propeller be selected so as to give 188 . Practically. Let us suppose that the power mum it is be given. we wish to increase sary to make the value (pP 2 all it is the climbing speed it is necesPi) max the maximum possible. = Thus if 2 550 (pP W . 125.

0.55.41 For convenience. these curves are reproduced in Fig. it is possible to adopt an entire series of propellers on a machine. While the propeller p' is better for speed than p". in order to increase the airplane. shows how this can be accomplished. be made speed. M and for values of = 1. as before. Comparing the same value of /*. call ju Let us. it is necessary to study the influence the decrease of the air density has upon the climbing speeds. As the formula airplane rises. to each one of which corresponds two special values for the maximum horizontal and climbing Naturally the selection of the propeller will according to whether preference is given to the horizontal speed or to the climbing speed. the diagrams p' and p" correspond to two propellers having different ratio p/D. practically. and then = /(/*) Referring to what has been said in the preceding Chapwhen the characteristics of the airplane for /* = 1 are known. 120 of the preceding chapter w*e have drawn these curves for the example of Chapter IX. maximum pP 2 difference PI. 126. and at sea level. the climbing of an airplane in the atmosphere. the value n decreases (1) should be written *>max. not at the maximum speed of the but at lower speeds. At sea level ju = 1 and the maximum climbing speed is the one given by formula (1). 125 of p/P is decidedly better for climbing. Thus. In order to study in full details. the curves ter P P =/(F)andP =/(7) 2 1 In Fig. it is easy to draw for different values of /*. the ratio between the air density at height H.THE CLIMBING the 189 efficiency. the propeller which corresponds to the lower value Fig. it is pairs of curves corresponding to the easy to plot the diagram which gives . 0. 0.

190 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

128a. 127. which is easily obtained. v from = f(H) . per sec. 191 have drawn as ordinates. To construct this diagram it is necessary first of all to draw the diagram of the equation I = /(#) Fig. giving the time spent by the airplane in reaching a certain height H. taking v max as abscissae 127 we and H It is interesting to draw the diagram t = f(H) 24000 20000 I6UOO 12000 8000 4000 10 "V 20 30 4O (max) ft.THE CLIMBING the climbing speed at the various heights. FIG. this diagram. In Fig.

192 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 0. 128.20 0.40 0.10 6000 12000 IQOOO 24000 1500 1000 500 6000 12000 15000 24000 H(Ft) FIG.30 -|t> 0. .

tends toward zero. that the airplane has reached its ceiling. usually defined as the height at which the ascending speed becomes less than 100 ft. that of also tends and consequently that to say. This chart gives the diagram directly means H=f(f) that is. = f(H) v gives t. It is advisable to stop a little longer in studying the influence the various elements of the airplane have upon the ceiling* . In Fig. b. per minute. That when the It is reaches a certain height. airplane said then. infinitely long time. (Fig. 128 we have drawn the scales of H f or t = t 59.THE CLIMBING 1 193 By integrating = f(H) we have t = f(H). In Fig. it no longer rises. X dH = t the integration of diagram a. it gives the times on the abscissae and the heights the airplane practically the on the ordinates. Since by increasing H is the value } tends toward of . 129 an example of a barographic chart has been given. In actual practice the time of climbing is measured by of a registering barograph. In fact the elementary area of the diagram equal to 1 = f(H) is X dH dH v but consequently 1 v X dH = dt and '- (Jv that is. would take an ceiling is* Since to reach its ceiling. 128 6). toward <.

194 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION -LH9I3H .

then. one which gives the maximum efficiency correspond- and ing to the maximum ascending speed.4 (SA + er)7 3 W thus eliminating = 10. assume varies proportionally to constant. is reached when v = 0. Vj and X are proportional P! therefore = 267 X 10. with sufficient practical approximation. since Pi the useful power available.4 XA7 2 V from the two preceding equations Pi = 267 X 10-' (SA + to ) X /*.THE CLIMBING Let us again consider the formula v 195 = 550 X pP 2 -P W let us place in evidence the influence of /* on the difference pP 2 Pi.47 X 10. TF* That is *"*' xZ . Now 5. that is. it will correspond which makes the second term 267 X10. Supposing that we adopt a propeller best for climbing.8 (/*SA + + M<r = 267 X 10. 550Pi but = 1. we can. p /*.3 =: (5A and we can then write Since the ceiling to value //. can Be represented by MPP 2 As for Pi.3 of the preceding equation equal to zero.

making them variable one by one. a. we shall give to these parameters a series of values. that is 60. we shall study the influence of this variation upon H l . then enunciate the following general principles: . Every -decrease of dA.720 log We "can 1.720 log M maximum value #max = of ceiling will be # ma. W A T- = load per square foot of wing surface. W Equation (1) can also be put into the following form: " ffma*. Every increase of p. = 60. and similarly increases the ceiling and vice versa. P 2 and \A increases the ceiling of the airplane and vice versa. and then. and with H .196 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Remembering that H the = . 60.720 log gA+ ^ H where P W pr A.720 X log 1 tf _= 60. a proceeding analogous to that adopted for the study of horizontal speed. X = = propeller efficiency lift coefficient of lifted per wing surface horsepower square foot of wing = = weight total resistance per surface. We then have five well-determined physical quantities which influence the value max As an example. 2.

P. 130. per sq.74 0.7 078 0. X = 22 = dA 6 Ib.THE CLIMBING Let us suppose for instance that 197 ^ f* W A. W p = 0.= 1pj22.0x24l 3. 1. .3lx I.2 + = = 6 Ib. per H.80 FIG.I3x3.3L 1 34000 33000 0. 35000 Hmax.ft.8.7Z 0.

P. K.41 3. s. ) for p' W variable from 0. 131) Ib. 130) (Fig. 132) . = = /(P) for p variable jf(X) for X variable x . = /((W\ pT (Fig'.8x2.3k 1. and the normal graduation on the axis OY: Then Hmax= 0. from 6 to 14 per H. 131.8 from 10 to 22 (Fig.31 FIG.198 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION it is easy to draw the following diagrams on a paper the logarithmic graduation on the axis of the abhaving scissae OX.7 to 0.13x3.

In fact the values of p and X max . how. with sufficient practical approximation.2 to 1. for the greatest . ft. of the three elements which are always known in an We H . it is possible to reduce the formula which to become solely a function of W. 134) w 132. 133) H = /W\ f( ~A I ^ or ~A W va ^e from 6 to 9 Ib.THE CLIMBING 6 199 0- A for ] XA + A variable from 1. per sq. wish to show now. . Pi and A maK gives that is.8 (Fig. (Fig. airplane.

75 - X = - 16 1 J H max= Man r8* 22 0x2 41 [ 3.31* 60900!og (8^ x 3.31 A FIG. Let us furthermore remember that the head resistance 8 and sustaining force Rx are expressed by = 10~ 4 XAF 2 . 133.200 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION parts of the airplanes are values differing but little from each other and which can be considered with sufficient approximation equal to P = 0.

15 .THE CLIMBING and consequently ! 201 8A + \ 27000 V 25000 6.18.15 and 0. Now.5 9. Assuming we have = 0.0 _W_ FIG. 134.15. T-> in a well-constructed airplane.0 6.0 8. value shall of -~ is between 0. the minimum 0.5 70 75 8.

W/P2 FIG. Then formula (2) becomes - H ^ x -. 60. log fin 790 i 75 ^ X 16 X 10+ 2 . 135.202 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION for X and = 16 dA = 2.4 Hmax 24000 : 2ZOOO ZOOOO 16000 14000 12000 \ sooo \ 6000 4000 2000 8 9 10 II 12 13> 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 .720.

= 60. . of the airplane are power and sustaining surface known.THE CLIMBING that is 203 H^. we have plotted the diagrams of find H max rapidly and Fig. 135 which makes it possible to .720 log 17 65 ' /W\* (A) Based on this formula. with sufficient practical approximation when the weight.

incompatible with too high horizontal and climbing speeds. to 40 H.P. The great war which has demanded great impulse to many that the high power available should be almost exclusively employed in raising the horizontal and ascending speeds under the urgency of military needs.P. 204 . It is interesting to transfer to 'a diagram the history of the increase of the power of the engines from 1909 to the end of 1918.P. we have to-day attained engines which develop 600 H.CHAPTER XV GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS In studying the history of aviation. We then find military machines. has it gave a secondary the research of great loads and great cruising radii. single seater scout planes. can barely carry a total load of 600 Ib. that with 300 H. 136). while problems of aviation. with which aviation started. leaving as just ended. is decidedly marked. that is the progress of aviation engines in 9 years (Fig. and more. the continuous increase of the dimensions of airplanes and of the power of From the small units of 30 engines.

the ratio y.P. gasoline and armament). since U W the weight of the airplane and U the useful a fraction of W we can write is U = uW where u is naturally less than 1. that the airplane will j I be able to make miles. and two seater machines that with 400 H. Remembering airplane the expression of total efficiency of the r = 0. the vital problems of aviation are: the increase of the useful load j and the increase of the cruising. which is . Now certainly it is not by carrying some hundred pounds of useful load and by having the possibility of covering two or three hundred miles without stopping.00267 WV ^ ^ 2 we can also write U = That equation shows that load it is in order to increase the useful 7* necessary to increase u. To be able traverse great distances of land and sea with safety.GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS 205 (including pilot. think that the two problems coincide. It is necessary that the hundreds of j is carrying a load such as to make these crossings commercial. and more can barely carry a total useful load of 1300 Ib. as it will better be seen in the following At first glance one may part of this chapter. coefficient and P 2- (a) The u = gives the per cent. radius. each one having proper characteristics. its entrance among the practical means j of locomotion. the great future of mercantile aviation. this is only partially true. and to pounds become respectively thousands. To-day then. Let us start with the examination of the problem of useful load. Let us call load.

W = u W 2 + eW + a. and in that case the airplane having a lesser weight of structure. that is. calling o'i X W ture. undesirable to increase the value of u = ^ by diminishing the solidity of a machine. is to say is. also has a smaller factor of safety. let us suppose that the weight be different for both.W + eW + a W 2 and subtracting member from member Ui u2 = a2 ai That that less. can have the same factor of safety. The effort of the designer must therefore be to find the maximum possible value of coefficient u. and if this is under the given it is limits.206 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION represented by the useful load with respect to the total weight of the airplane. the weight of its structure will instead be Now the weight of the structures. W respectively Let us further suppose that the engine be the same for both airplanes. the weights of the airplanes properly speaking considered without engine and without useful load. the useful load of the first machine is greater than W that of the second. Therefore. Let us consider two airplanes having equal dimensions and forms. if the airplanes are studied with the same criterions and calculated with the same method. the weights of the structhen. evidently characterize the solidity of the machine. assigning a given value to the . It may also happen that two machines having different weights of structure. shall have and equal to U\ and C7 2 . and in that case. it may become dangerous to use it. and the useful loads instead be Then we. and vice versa. we will have W W = u. and that its weight be equal to e X W] and a 2 X W. the machine having less weight of structure is better calculated and designed than the other. \ shall have a 2 > ai. if if u\ > u%.

A fast machine having the same power. of V. 137. That (b) it to say. with a consequent reduction 2.3 (which we have with the minimum minimum for the fastest machines. of the value u. we studied coefficient r and saw that was a function it Let us now study ratio y and find in the maximum value to be put in the formula of useful load. the coeffiweight. must be lighter (see the than a slow machine formula of total efficiency). there- 40 6O V 80'Vo V-- IOO V. the importance of coefficient e increases. necessary for very fast machines. cient u varies from the minimum value 0. is and In Chapter XII. fore the value of coefficient a in the fast machines is greater than in the slow ones. In modern airplanes. . The low value two causes: 1. the forms and the various parts which permit obtaining this with quantity of material. of u for the fastest machines depends upon The must factor of safety. KQ FIG. to the value of 0.GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS factor of safety dispositions of coefficient 207 and seeking the materials. therefore u diminishes. that is. be greater than that necessary for the slow ones.45 for slow machines. as for instance the military scouts).

Then evidently r' =-. however. and could thereit is fore scarcely sustain itself. Practically it is not possible to adopt the A* maximum value y-> as the airplane would be tangent. draw tangent t from to point A of the diagram. r" == tana T Since we seek the r maximum in order to have value of y> two values and V it such that their ratios will be the will suffice to maximum origin possible. enables making some considerations of general character. = 0. To =r = tana max . y o Therefore infinite pairs of speeds spectively greater and smaller than T ize V V . 137 shows the diagram r The Fig. 109 of that chapter. This. will be cut in two points A' and A"-.208 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION f(V) already given in diagram refers to a par- Fig. naturally one would choose only the values of speed 7'. which are greater. its development.00267 2LL WV r* states that ^ y is proportional to ^-is W mum height H max a function of - a function of W *2 Now as the maxiit is p-> consequently also . and V" exist. let us call r' and V" the values of and r" the values of efficiency and V speeds corresponding to these points. The value y- must be inversely proportional to the height In fact the equation r T to be reached. then necessary to choose a lower value of y- and corresponding to a speed Vi>V . rewhich individual- equal values of ratio y . in general. From origin let us draw any secant whatever to the diagram. ticular = example.

Let us furthermore suppose that the airplanes have the same total efficiency r. proportional sions. as it can be easily demonstrated by virtue noted principles in the science of constructions. as r = 0. therefore A is proportional to W and consequently we may write aW = a"W* . having the same coefficient of safety. which is equivalent to the cube of the square root of of structure a X W the sustaining surface. it is necessary that they have a similar value for the unit load of the sustaining surface -r W . Then. and of for the speed. constant. naturally arises. sustained by some technical men. "up to what limit is it possible to increase the dimensions of the airplane ?" First of all it is necessary to confute a reasoning false in The question premises and therefore in its conclusions. will be proportional to P 2 the total weight of the airplane with a full load will be proportional to the power of the engine W W The weight is = pP 2 of airplanes geometricto the cube of the linear dimenally similar. then aW = but a'A H W r A. and as that is r and V are constant. to demonstrate the impossibility of an its indefinite increase in the dimensions of the airplane. The reasoning is the following: Consider a family of airplanes geometrically similar.00267 WV ^~ f\ .GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS (c) 209 We treat finally the problems - which relate to the increase of power P 2 The increase of motive of power has the natural consequence immediately increasing the dimensions of the airplane. In order that this be so.

.004 we shall have ^ Now tion.000 lb. that the In fact. useful load barely be capable of raising becomes zero and the airplane would its own dead weight and the a" So for example supposing e = 0. = P so e xW =-W P = constant a -f -. until coefficient sions of the machine which satisfies the u becomes zero for that value of W W equation 1 - e - a" y"W = that is TF-'A^V V / a. all the preceding reasoning has no practical foundabecause it is based on a false premise. e X W is propor- e X W = e' XP 2 but p. it is not at all airplanes be geometrically similar. as the dimenincrease step by step. . = fe^V= 35.210 that is AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION a = a"W y ' Since the weight of the motor group tional to the power P 2 .25 = 0. that is." Thus the engine.e that is e Then as u + 1 e = 1 we will have u = and - this formula states that the value of coefficient u diminishes step by step as increases. that is.

Nature has solved the problem of flying in various ways. the preceding demonstrates that to enlarge an airplane in georeasoning metrical ratio would be an error. so it is the scientist has numerous openings for the permissible to assume that with the in- . solution. from the fly to the butterfly. there will be the possibility of obtaining the same factor of safety by greatly diminishing the dead weight of the structure. Another criterion which will is aeronautical constructions. For example. and to concentrated forces represented by the various weights. one of the criterions which should be of actual technical means followed in large aeronautical constructions is that of disThe wing surface of an airplane tributing the masses. from the sparrow to the eagle. The multiplane field of research. there are birds weighing 15 lb. It may be protested that flying animals have weights far lower than those of airplanes. to create new structures and new dispositions of masses such as to make possible the construction of airplanes with dimensions far greater than the present average machines. it should not be difficult for man.GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS necessary that 211 it be so. Now by distributing the masses respectively on the wing surface. in such a way wing spans. dispositions also offer another very vast As we see. from the bee to the dragon fly. on the contrary. we obtain the same effect as for instance in a girder or bridge when we increase the supports. but if we recall. that is. probably prevail in large the disposition of the wing suras to avert the excessive faces in tandem. we find wing structures entirely different in order to obtain the maximum strength and elasticity with the minimum weight. For example. in flight must be considered as a beam subject to stresses uniformly distributed represented by the air reaction.. we will understand that if nature has been able to solve the problem of flying within such vast his limits. owing to knowledge. that alongside of insects weighing one ten thousandth of a pound.

reducing the percentage of passive resistance and increasing the wing efficiency and the propeller efficiency. and let us call dW its variation in time dt. Let us consider the variable weight at the instant t. can cover. the and since that of weight in the consumption is exactly equal to the decrease time dt. Perfecting the aerodynamical technique of the machine. (c) Finally.00267 . and motive power. Let us now pass to the problem of increasing the cruising Let us call AS max the maximum distance an radius. Concluding. that is reducing the percentage of dead weights in order to increase u. we shall have dW = From cPdt (1) the formula of total efficiency we have P = 0. it varies from its maximum initial value Wi to a final value fy which is equal to the difference between Wi and the total quantity of gasoline and oil consumed. be able to notably increase the useful load. we may say that the increase of useful load can be obtained in three ways u but even to make power we shall : (a) Perfecting the constructive technique of the airplane and of the engine.212 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION crease of the airplane dimensions not only may it be possible to maintain constant the coefficient of proportionality Thus with the increase of it smaller. W W If P is the power of the engine and oil c its specific con- sumption (pounds of gasoline and consumption in time dt will be cPdt per horsepower). and let us propose to find a formula airplane which shows the elements having influence upon $ max The total weight of the airplane is not maintained constant during the flight because of the gasoline and oil consumption. increasing the . W . (6) T so as to increase the value of ratio y corresponding to the normal speed V.

002677! W ~= const X W ~ is made variable. and c - W = W f for S = S we shall have. by regulating the motive power and therefore the speed. let us suppose that we have assigned a certain value Vi to F. we have already seen that it is a function of V. Thus the preceding integration becomes very simple. In fact. we shall now see that it is also a function of W. as W= Wi for S = 0. it is convenient. log e W f = - 0. it would also vary Supposing now that a law which cannot be expressed by a certain P. can.00267cTF r dt dS ~ dt . In fact. to make value r about constant and equal to the maximum possible value. it will then also vary ratio W r. following simple mathematical equation.00267 T S max + log e that is .GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS then substituting that value in (1) 213 dW = and since 0. however. We can also consider an average constant value for r. then the total efficiency will be r consumption of the engine. approximation. W and p- consequently Practically. Regarding r.00267 'cdS J with sufficient the entire duration of the voyage. be considered constant for specific = 0.00267c r TF and integrating The value of c. = - 0. 0.

1. The cruising : Upon . radius therefore depends upon three factors the total aerodynamical efficiency.3 1.1 1.4 1.9 2.8 1.214 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION of and introducing the decimal logarithm instead Napierian r < - the x lo g IP C=0.7 1. This deis linear.0 "Wf FIG.43 (i) WL Wf 3600 3200 2600 2400 10 JJ sE 2000 x 1600 (f) 1200 800 400 v// 1.0 1.2 1. 138.6 1. that is to an increase of say 10 per pendency say.5 1.

5 1. 139.3 1.0 Wf FIG. 3. the radius of action would be doubled.6 1. for example.GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS cent. That dependency is inverse.2 1.7 1. Upon the ratio between the total weight of the airplane and this weight diminished by the quantity of gasoline and . 2.8 1.0 1. x a 2000 E ID 1600 1200 W/// 400 1. Wi if for we could C=0. of 215 aerodynamical efficiency.9 2.4 1. Upon the specific consumption of the engine. equally increases the maximum distance which can be covered by 10 per cent. reduce the specific consumption to half. thus.54 3600 3200 2600 7f 2400 A -t.

S max . an element which did not even . that is. that the essential difference between the formula of the useful load and that of the cruising radius is in the fact^that in the latter the total specific con- usmption of the engine.3 1. upon the ratio between the dead weights and the useful load.4 1. consequently. That ratio depends essentially upon the construction of the airplane.5 1.8 1.7 1. 140.0 WL FIG. We see.216 oil AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION the airplane can carry.60 3200 2800 2400 2000 7 V/ / 1600 / X 1200 500 400 i.6 1.2 1.865 -3600 log C=0.9 2.o 1.

are known. by what we have seen above. per H. and for night bombard- ment.47 Ib. com- prising military loads. Starting from formula (1) grams of Figs. We shall suppose therefore that the useful load.56 to 0.60 to 0. in Fig. we have constructed the diaand 140 which give the values of 139 $max. their low weight per horsepower (2 Ib. W f .GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS 217 appear in the other formula. reconnaissance.60 per H. it is interesting to examine as table resuming the characteristics of the best types of military airplanes adopted in the recent war. and even less). intervenes and has a great importance. day bombardment.P. per H. almost all modern aviation engines leave much to be desired. per H. A decrease from 0. In Table 6 the following elements are found: Wi = weight of the airplane with full load. has been supposed that c = 0. The use of the diagrams is most simple. W ^~ W.48 would lead. to an increase in the cruising radius of 25 total The per cent. The hour. as a function of it W- -^ for the different values of r and c. for modern engines is about 0.48 Ib.54 and in Fig. is obtained at a loss of efficiency.Wi Before closing this chapter.P. for scouting. From that point of view.P. c and ^-.60. . 139 c = 0. 140 c have a normal scale on the ordinates and a diagrams In Fig. = weight of the empty machine with crew and f instruments necessary for navigation. and permits rapidly of finding the radius of action of an airplane when r. while gasoline engines have been constructed (for dirigibles). hour. in fact they are enormously strained in their functioning and consequently their thermal efficiency is lowered.= ratio between initial weight and all final weight.P. = 0. 138 logarithmic scale on the abscissae. hour. consists of gasoline and oil. 138. consumption per horsepower in gasoline and oil. which only consume 0.

of the gain in weight is supposing that to reinforce the airplane so as to have the same necessary ^ factor of safety.= 1 weight per horsepower. p/ ip = Vmax .* r = 0. = = the gain in distance covered.218 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION -p P = maximum power of the W. ^max. ^max.75 X 550 is the power absorbed in horsepower to obtain the ascending speed umax . A..75. r = the new ratio between the new initial weight . supposing Of ~- c = 0.000 X v 0.. r'. engine. maximum ascending speed averaged from ft. supposing a propeller efficiency equal to 0.W<) the new value of the final weight. can lift at V .60.^j- _ -- is the horizontal speed of the airplane for which ' we have the maximum the total ascending speed max. W'i plane 375 X r' X ' P is yf the total weight the air- speed excess power of 15 per cent. S and S' = corresponding to Fmax . W p = = = load per unit of the wing surface.00267= W W . -==^ W- respectively.r> maximum W- distances covered in miles ^ and 85 V. V V ^X - is efficiency cor- responding to r' 7max 0. the the - maximum horizontal speed of the airplane. ground W p> _ _ V level to 10. supposing an allowance of is W' f = W +M f (W^ .00267 V is -jr^pr the the total efficiency corre- sponding to V. flying at speed V instead of V.

GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS 219 .

they The if their enormous excess of power could be renounced. final weight. as for instance the scout machines. o// way little convenient to the cruising as to useful All war airplanes are utilized very load and consequently as to cruising radius. than for the heavier types. . -p-^ new load per horsepower. is naturally stronger for the more light. As column could have a radius of action far superior pTo shows. of 1 The examination deductions: 1. quick airgain planes. to S" = the maximum distance covered corresponding W- ^ and to r '. the the new load per unit of wing surface. because in that radius increases.220 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION and the new W= ^ w= A. 2. Table 7 enables making the following of Whatever be the type machine it is fly at a reduced speed 7'.

Knowing coefficients these elements it is possible to calculate the ultimate strength in pounds per square inch specific weight in pounds per cubic inch and _ modulus The a coefficients of elasticity in pounds per square inch specific weight in pounds per cubic inch A\ and A z are not plain numbers. for aviation materials used in the construction of an airplane are The more or less suitable quality of material can be estimated by the knowledge of three elements: specific weight. It may be that two materials have equal coefficients AI and A 2 but different specific weights. that is.PART FOUR DESIGN OF THE AIRPLANE CHAPTER XVI MATERIALS The most varied. measures the length in inches which a wire (also of constant section) of the material should have in order that its weight be under the action of capable of producing an elongation of 100 per cent. A 2 instead. The higher the coefficients AI and A z the more suitable . and a very simple physical interpretation can be given to them. a wire of constant section of a certain material should have in order to break its own weight. ultimate strength and modulus of elasticity. but have dimension. 221 . for instance. In that case the . is a material for aviation. AI measures the linear length in inches which.

. etc. Tables 8 and 9 give respectively tables of standardized wires and cables. rubbers. joints.222 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION material of lower specific weight is preferable when there are no restrictions as to space. of In Table 7 are shown the best characteristics required a given steel according to the use for which it is intended. in rolled form for bolts.. plates. Steel wires and cables are of enormous use in the construction of the airplane. or in order limited. for forged or stamped pieces. (fabrics. B. varnishes. steel and their manufactured products. Various materials etc. glues. D. in tinned or leaded sheets for tanks.). to decrease head resistance. : C. 141. grouping them into the following broad categories A. in sheets for fittings. instead. In all of the following tables whenever possible. We shall briefly review the principal materials. preference will be is given to the material of higher specific weight when space This because of structural reasons. STEEL AND THEIR COMMON FORM AS USED IN AVIATION Iron and steel are employed in various forms and for various uses. we shall give the values of specific weight and coefficients AI and A. FIG. IRON. Wood and veneers. Iron. A. Various metals.

or steel steel drawn X cc . H H < Alloy Alloy Cold . Ni.MATERIALS 223 Ill >^ 4* o n ss d d o o_ g'T <- (N CO TH CO TH ill us o 10 o o * o o d d o o 00 00 Tt< o" o o o o 10 10 10 10 o o o o d odd 10 >0 10 o j I 3 o ^ o d o IO oo d d s d .5-.3" S s r-l (N dd ^Milil' O CO l *O (N (N <N (N <M II II O O O O II II II >O (N N * 3'Ssr. ? S S o d d d S3 ss o O O * 10 do oo K.s O 00 CO 00 3^i in ^00 ilill W < col Ni.

6 Number of turns = diameter IE inches in dia.224 TABLE 8. WEIGHTS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OP STEEL WIRE English Units METRIC UNITS j-iie may minimum numoer 01 complete turns which a wire must withstand be computed from the formula: 2 7 68. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION SIZES. . in millimeters .

Recently. The smaller diameters are extrais they can be used as control wires as they well adapt themselves in pulleys. the figure shows how these strands are formed. but the wire by reduces. flexible so that FIG. not yet greatly broadened. in order to obtain a better air penetration. Their use Fig. the so-called "eye" (Fig. 225 WEIGHTS. depending on the diameter of the wire. steel streamline wires have been introduced to replace cables.MATERIALS TABLE 9. The cable made of 7 strands of 19 wires each. 142 shows the section of one of such wires. the total resistance of 20 to 30 per cent. especially because their manufacture has until now not become generalized. . an easy attachment to make. 142. SIZES AND STRENGTH OF 7 X 19 FLEXIBLE CABLE The formation of cables is shown in Fig. We cables. that the system will rapidly become has popular. 143). however. It is foreseen though. is shall now take up the attachments of The attachment most commonly used It is it wires and for wires. 141.

144. are becoming of general use. 146). FIG. . FIG. 147). 145. 100 per cent. 146. in this way an attachment is obtained which gives FIG. 145). 144). which made either of stamped (Fig. The soldering is with tin in order to avoid the annealing of the wire. of the wire resistance. made The is best attachment of cables is made by aluminum so-called splicing after bending it around a thimble sheets or of (Fig. 143. FIG.226 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Wires with larger threaded ends (called "tie rods") A very good (Fig. can be obtained by covering the bent wire attachment with brass wire and soldering the whole with tin (Fig.

MATERIALS Steel is 227 also much used cold rolled. 147. in tube form.62d Area FIG. either seamless. 148. Perimeter = 6. Table 10 gives the characteristics FIG. 4 . or welded. Tables 11 and 12 give the standard measurements of round tubes with the values of weight in pounds per foot and the values of the polar moment of inertia in in. of the steel of various tube types.

turnbuckle is made of a central barrel into A A which two shanks are screwed with inverse thread. The best profile (that is. lightness is given in Fig. 148 which and gives the formulae for obtaining the peridrawn. penetration) is also and air shows how it Tables 13 and 14 give all the above mentioned values. 1496) Double fork end turnbuckle (Fig. the area. and furthermore the weight per linear foot for the more commonly used dimensions. the profile which unites the best requisites of mechanical resistance.228 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Steel tubing having a special profile formed so as to give a minimum head resistance is also greatly used for interwhich must plane struts as well as for all other parts necessarily be exposed to the relative wind. the shanks have either eye or fork ends. 149c) . greatly used fitting in aeronautical construction is the turnbuckle. thus we have three classes of turnbuckles : Double eye end turnbuckle (Fig. 149a) Eye and fork end turnbuckle (Fig. and the moments of inertia I x and I y about the two principal axes as function of the smaller diameter d and thickness t. which is designed to give the necessary tension to strengthening or stiffening wires and cables. meter.

MATERIALS 229 t~ mo m CO So o o in ic TJ< o* in o' in o o ^ ooooo TJ< -<f m o m 10 in in ^* ooooo' o "5 o o o o o' o d o 00 ooo o o o 5 ooooo O <0 00 00 00 3 3 OOOOO m m m s oo nm CO CO CO c> >> CO CO o 'is n s m H CO 1-1 7 '1 m N f m m 111 S a 3 S 3 s 3 s 8 * o 00 o ^^ : .8 I . S 5 .

230 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

MATERIALS 231 .

232 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

MATERIALS 233 .

tables of standard measurements with indications of breaking strength. yellow poplar. the reader may easily procure from the respective firms. Wisconsin. duraluminum. Tables 16 and 17 give the characteristics of the principal woods used in aviation. although its specific weight is Tempered aluminum use at % C. and spruce are especially used. spruce. either in solid species of extensively used in the construction of the form or in the form of veneer. For the wing structure. U. mahogany (true). High resistance bronzes are used for the barrels of turnbuckles. not requiring any treatment. l Cherry. Aluminum is used rather exclusively to make the cowling which serves to cover the motor. Great attention must be exercised in the selection of the 1 Forest Service. Copper and the relative piping systems. . silver maple. have not become of general because their tempering is very delicate and it is all. red gum. African mahogany. B.. VARIOUS METALS Table 15 gives the physical and chemical characteristics of various metals most commonly used. brass. S. douglas fir. easily lost if for any reason the piece is heated above 400F. aluminum. Yellow birch. iron. copper.234 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION For turnbuckles as well as for bolts. that is. etc. Madison. Aluminum can also be used for the tanks. mahogany. are especially used in manufacturing veneers. WOODS Wood is airplane. and brass are generally used for tanks. This table has been compiled by the Forest Products Laboratory. sugar maple. has a resistance and an elongation comparable to those of homogeneous that of iron. We call especial attention to the untempered aluminum alloy which. and walnut are used especially for manufacturing propellers. alloys. radiators. etc. yellow poplar. bronze. red wood.

MATERIALS 235 .

Furthermore. without knots and burly grain. is done with proper It is very important. PROPERTIES o Strength Values at 15 Per Cent. and above all they must be thoroughly dry. it is important to select by numerous laboratory tests the quality of the wood to be used. that the fiber be parallel to the axis of the piece. it improves them if such seasoning is conducted at a temperature not above 100F. Mo timbers for aviation uses. as for instance the beams. they must be free from disease. especially for the long pieces. As an example of the importance which the value of the density of wood has upon the major or minor convenience of its that use in the manufacture of a certain part. Artificial seasoning does not decrease the physical qualities of wood. because between one stock of wood and another. great differences may usually be found. on the contrary. but. otherwise the resistance is decreased. and precautions. homogeneous. let us suppose we design the section of a wing beam which has to .236 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 16.

0.2" and a height equal to rectangle having 2.oe in. cu. the section of the section will equal r 20. per sq. | - 2 . in.0197 Ib. instead.MATERIALS F VARIOUS isture.8". for which the value of .000 modulus TT7 - Ib.000 Ib.000 r For fir. for the spruce with a weight per cu. Table 17 gives a modu- lus of rupture of 7900 Ib. for 237 HARD WOODS in Airplane Use Design resist. with a density of 0. ft. in. per cu. . of 27 Ib. We shall make a comparison between the use of spruce and the use of douglas fir. inch. to a bending moment of 20.-inch us suppose that the maximum space which it is possible to occupy with this section is that of a a base equal to 2.- inch. that is..0156 Ib. let coefficient AI is about the same. . Since the maximum bending moment is equal to 20. for and example. we shall have w.

2" X (2. the section modulus and the area of the section will be respectively W = A = y* [2.2 s 0.064 Ib.8 2. 3 from which we have = A = For fir 0. the spruce beam will weigh 4. to*0.2" X 2.0156 = 0.9" 4.37 X 0. 2.069 = 124 Ib. in.8" 2 -- - - 0.238 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 17. M Let us call x the thickness of the Making the thickness of the web equal (2. the weight of the spruce beams would be 1800 X 0.29 X 0. while the weight of the fir beams would be 1800 X . 1800 in. Consequently.. in.8x. 150a).53 in. i.37 sq.069 Ib..2 flange (Fig. in.e..65" 3. in. of length. while the fir beam will weigh 3. For spruce W = x W = 2. that the total length of the beams be 150 ft. per in. Supposing then for instance.0197 = 0.. PROPERTIES Strength Values at 15 Per Cent.8s) (3 - 2x) 2 ] cu. we shall have analogously = = A x 0.29 sq.8z) X (3 - 2x) sq.

that is. this for instance is the case of Then the product E X I (elastic modfuselage longerons. a gain of about 10 per cent. ulus X moment of inertia) . A = with a weight per inch of 2. and a weight per cu. 1596) x = 0. for 239 OF VARIOUS CONIFERS Use in Airplane Design 0... of 0.064 cent. per sq. more than 7 per would be obtained.062 and for 1800 in. in. side x.MATERIALS oisture.. Let us now examine an inverse case. in..500 Ib. which has the same coefficient AI as the preceding woods.48" 2. a case in which the piece is loaded only to compression and no limit fixed upon the space allowed its section.44 sq. that is. a gain of 9 Ib. we use elm.. a weight of 112 Ib.0255 = 0. If = 115 Ib. Let us suppose that the longeron has a square section of We then have " - 12* x . is of interest for the resistance of the piece. we would have (Fig. but a resistance of 12. over the spruce.44 X 0.0255 Ib. in.

150.240 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Supposing that we have two kinds of wood of modulus EI and E 2 and specific weight Wi and TF 2 respectively. according as to whether it is made of one or the other quality of wood. and suppose that coefficient A 2 be the same for both kinds. If we wish the piece to have the same resistance in both cases then Let us section . that is EI Ez FT' W* DOU6LAS FIR FIG. ELM call 7\ and 7 2 the moments of inertia which the must have respectively.

of course. Thus. that is.e fiber is much greater than in a Now the aim in using veneer parallel direction to the fiber. a metal from the foundry would be. Veneer is made by glueing together three or a greater is odd number of thin plies of wood. Vice versa. the resistance to shearing in a direc- tion perpendicular to th. homogeneous in all directions. disposed so that the fibers . consider the veneers. Wood is not. and the elastic modulus can be from 15 to 20 times fiber higher. for instance. which have become of very great importance in the construction of airplanes. exactly to obtain a material which is nearly homogeneous in two directions. specific weight.^-Xt* i from which W The weights per and l xS = 2 W 2 x^ (1) linear inch evidently will be in both cases W their ratio l X zi and TF 2 X x2 2 w will be W But from (1) 2 X Wi X xS = ~ 2 W consequently 2 X z2 that the piece having the greater section will weigh less. the resistance to tension parallel to the can be as much as 20 times that perpendicular to the fiber. parallel and perpendicular to the fiber.MATERIALS that is 241 AiWi i - xS = A 2 W. for shear stresses we have the reverse phenomenon. its structure is of longitudinal fibers so that its mechanical qualities change radically according to whether the direction of the fiber or the direction perpendicular to the fiber is considered. as Let us now for instance. therefore it is convenient to use the material of smaller is.

In Tables 18 and 19 we have gathered some of the tests . so that they may all be influenced in the same way by humidity. this also makes the joining more easy by means of screws or nails. because the veneer offers a much better hold. of Considerations analogous to those given for the density wood. of humidity. in order to withstand the wear due to external causes. If we wish to FIG. that is. core. wishing to attain a it is better resistance in bending. 151. 151). Light material would also be convenient for the faces. thus avoiding the deformation of the veneer as a whole. the thickness of the panels will be inversely proportional to the density. so that the finished panels may have from 10 to 15 per cent. but they must also satisfy the condition of not being too soft. odd and that the external plies or faces ber have the same thickness and be of the same quality of wood. the weight being the same. giving perfect symmetrical deformations. It is advisable to control the humidity of the plies during the manufacturing process. therefore. core made of light thick material. low density for the In and consequently the resistance to column loads are proto the cube of the thickness. of preferable to use plies fact. but the moment of inertia. lead to the conclusion that. of plies to the ut- most. portional the great advantage of having the. decreasing their thickness. have the greatest possible homogeneity in both it is advisable to increase the number directions.242 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION It is necessary that the numcross each other (Fig. we see. of plies be.

2 l>C^t^>OOOO<Ni-(I>.MATERIALS 243 2 3 4* sq.-T 3* c^ r-T i-T r-T of 00000 .2 oo oooooooooooooo COCO COQOCOCOT^cOCDCOiO i O PH 03 -tJ 02 la ft Ii a.2 3 C5OC50000COO5rHOOOOOC500OOOO 111] O OQ L- oooooooooooooooo .(MOOl>(MOOI>i-T O5OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO of r-T c<r co" r-T c<T i-T r-T r-T . 1000 per h J 4? I! 2& ail &a| Ill |p .

244 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION gjrl H bfi <5 8 'o l W 005OO5 "tfCOCO CD O -CO^ -OS -Oi-i <MOO^til>O500 * si J 3-1 ooooo T-H 1 1 ooooo oocOTf ooo ooooooooo lOCOt^-COOT^O IS 1 0000000 0000000 .5 O" ^0 ! II oooooooooooooooo .s ^ '' -- .

245 HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY PANELS NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No. 109 .MATERIALS TABLE 20.

" the veneers all three plies of the same thickness and the grain of successive plies was at right to which these tests refer were angles. Grand Rapids. Eight %" were tested. from Mo" to throughout. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No. Michigan. . made at the " All material was rotary cut. Corp..246 TABLE 21. Perkins' glue was used thicknesses of plies. In Tables 20 to 29 are quoted the characteristics of three-ply panels of the Haskelite Mfg. 109 Forest Product Laboratory.

109 One of the best veneers for aviation is is one obtained with if spruce plies. 247 PANELS HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No. The fabric is characterized by its resistance to tension and .MATERIALS TABLE 22. though sometimes of silk. D. Fabrics used for covering airplane wings are generally of linen or cotton. VARIOUS MATERIALS (a) Fabrics. this easily understood we consider the low density of spruce.

248 TABLE 23. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories PANELS Report No. 109 .

MATERIALS TABLE 24. 109 . 249 PANELS HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No.

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOE THREE-PLY PANELS NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No. 109 .250 TABLE 25.

251 PANELS HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOB THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No. 109 .MATERIALS TABLE 26.

109 . AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories THREE-PLY PANELS Report No.252 TABLE 27.

MATERIALS TABLE 28. 253 PANELS HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No. 109 .

109 . AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY PANELS NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No.254 TABLE 29.

MATERIALS OCO OOT-H 10 255 >!fc 00 OCO i 1 (N rH !>COCOt>-COtO iO I O CO <M T O} J J 00 00 00 CO O (N 00 CO O i-H 00 t <MCO O O Tt<l^OOO(Nl> O O CO 00 <N (N & 00 CO 00 CO OO I> <N 00 !> !> (N iO (N O 00 O O O O <N O O O O O O CO CO (N iO iO O O T-l 00 <N 00 !> n o3 mj3 So THOO l> (NrH CO eq o O o O '-i (M OCOCO(N ^^HC^C^ oooo OOCN-^Tti OOOO O O O O i-HCOCOO pq Q pq I d g C I I Mi o o o o ri "3 13 'o 'o d c c <t I fl fl I JJJJ pq i-HC<l CO OCOt>OOO5O .

Fabric must be homogeneous and the difference between the resistance in warp and woof should not exceed 10 per FIG. cent. of the total resistance. For landing gears the so-called elastic universally adopted as a shock absorber. therefore. the excess of resistance in the other direction resulting only in a useless weight. made of a The rubber strands are square and are compound containing not less than 90 per cent. thus working equally in both directions and having con- sequently the same resistance: in the calculations. (6) Elastic Cords. 152. the minor resistance should be taken as a basis. 152). and weight. Both the inner and outer braids are wrapped over and under with three cord is or four threads.256 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION woof and the warp. per square yard. the cost of this material with respect to the gain in weight is so high as to render its use impractical. We see that silk is the most con- venient material for lightness. . the resistance in pounds per square yard (referring to both woof and warp) and the ratio between the resistance and by its per square foot. both in the direction of the weight Table 30 gives the characteristics of several types of In this table we find for various types the weight fabric. It is made of multiple strands of rubber tightly incased within two layers of cotton braid (Fig. to tearing. in fact the fabric on the wings is so disposed that the threads are at 45 to the ribs.

size of a single 257 strand is The rubber are subjected to strands are covered with cotton while they an initial tension. .035 inch. 153. in order to increase the Initial Tension = Number of Elementary Si rands* m 550H4 ti*igM'p*rW 6& 350 250 200 150 100 50 100 150 200 Lbs. 153 and 154 show this clearly. Z50 300 350 Loadm FIG. work that the elastic can absorb.MATERIALS of the best Para rubber. The diagrams of Figs. 153 give$ the diagram of work of a mass of rubber strands without cotton wrapping and without initial tension.05 and 0. Fig. The between 0.

In general.200 lb. in the second case a work about 16 times greater can be absorbed with the same weight. of elongation the of elastic cord cotton wrapping is cord with 127 per cent.. that an elongation of 150 per cent. per Yard* Initial K 450 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Loading. while that absorbed by This shows the great convenience in using elastic cords with a high initial tension. the elongation is limited for structural rea- sons.. that is. . cent.727 Weight. Pounds. 154 gives the diagram of the same mass of rubber strands with an initial tension of 127 per cent. let us suppose for instance. Naturally to do this it is necessary to translate the per cent. 154. be the maximum possible.. which is easy when the weight per yard is known. and with the cotton wrapping. of cord without initial tension and without cotton 200 Tension* 127% Viameter=053lin Va of Elementary Strand 4. 153 and 154. For 150 per 1 Ib. scale of elongation into inches. wrapping. The work can be easily calculated by measuring the shaded areas in Figs. It is then interesting to calculate the elastic and to elastic work which can be absorbed by 1 Ib. elastic work absorbed by without initial tension and without 1280 lb. of cord having initial tension and cotton wrapping compare it to that which can be absorbed by 1 Ib. FIG.-in.-in.258 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Fig. of initial elongation is equal to 20.

A they good stretching varnish must render the cloth absolutely of oil proof. and will increase the weight of the fabric by 30 per cent. precisely for this reason the is cellulose nitrate used very seldom. absolutely excluded because conceal the eventual defects of the cellulose film. The former are intended to give the necessary tension to the cloth and to make it waterproof. the whole varnish being dissolved in turpentine. notwithstanding its much lower cost when compared with cellulose acetate. of acetate and using more concentrated solutions afterward. The cellulose acetate is usually contained in the proportion of 6 to 10 per cent. The solvents mixtures must be such as not to alter the fabrics and not The to endanger the health of men who apply the varnish. Finally it should be noted that it is essential for the varnish to increase the inflammability of the fabric as little as The use gums must be possible. starting with a solution of 2 to 3 per cent.MATERIALS (c) 259 Varnishes. A good finishing varnish must be completely dry in less than 24 hours. . increasing at the same time its resistance. presenting a brilliant surface after the drying. into divided u two Varnishes used for airplane fabrics are classes: stretching varnishes (called dope")> and finishing varnishes. and its resistance by 20 to 30 per cent. The finishing varnishes which are applied over the stretching varnishes have the scope of protecting these latter from atmospheric disturbances. In general for linen and cotton fabrics three to four coats of stretching varnish are sufficient. it is preferable to give a greater number of coats. for silk instead. and of smoothing the wing surfaces so as to diminish the resist- ance due to friction in the air. The finishing varnishes are used on fabric which have already been coated with the stretching varnishes. stretching varnishes are generally constituted of a solution of cellulose acetate in volatile solvents without chlorine compounds. These have as base linseed oil with an addition of gum.

and able to withstand a solution of laundry soap. in. Beside having a resistance to shearing superior to that of wood. a good glue must also resist humidity and heat. average resistance to . Glues are greatly used both in manufac- turing propellers and veneers.).260 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION wash with a resistant to crumpling. (d) Glues. There are glues which are applied hot (140F. per sq. and those which are applied cold. A good glue should have an shearing of 2400 Ib.

it is more summarily in this and the following chapters. as for instance: high speed. us suppose that we wish to study a fast airplane to be used for sport races. Airplanes can be divided into two main classes war air: planes and mercantile airplanes. the general criterions do not vary. facility in installing armament.). etc. assumes a capital importance. making general remarks which are applicable let In order to fix this idea. on the contrary. but the possibility of transporting heavy useful loads and great quantities of gasoline and in order to effectuate long journeys without stops. it appears.CHAPTER XVII PLANNING THE PROJECT airplane is to be designed. For mercantile airplanes. good visibility. while the speed has the same great importance a high climbing power is not an essential condition. great climbing power. often though. more or less great cruising radius. Whatever type is to be designed. munitions. the type of motor is imposed and that naturally limits the oil. those qualities are essentially desired which increase their war efficiency. possibility of carrying given military loads (arms. interesting to develop Rather than exposing the abstract criterions. In the former. Usually the designer can select the type of engine from a more or less vast series. bombs. to each design as 261 . fields of possibility. there are certain elements on the basis of which it is necessary to imposed conduct the study of the other various elements of the When an design in order to obtain the best possible characteristics. the general outline of a project of a given type of airplane. etc.

beside the gasoline and oil necessary for Capable three hours flight. (pilot accessories).p. 5 % The total useful load will equal W u = 180 4.262 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION future aviation races will certainly be marked by imposed limits. and C the total specific consumption of the engine in oil and gasoline. W ~ < 0. 3. the maximum hourly consumption of the engine. A 2. etc. the designer may be the following to construct an airplane having the maximum possible speed and also embodying the following qualities: itself to : The problem which presents 1. For instance. of carrying a total useful load of 180 Ib. An engine of which the total consumption in oil and gasoline does not surpass 180 Ib. call its ft. per hour at full power.. which may serve to stimulate the designers The of airplanes as well as of engines efficiency and the research of all those factors towards the increase of which make flight safer. Remembering that in normal flight W since the condition itself for is = 10- 4 XA7 2 V = 75 m. the load per square foot of wing surface will have to equal 00 of the maximum value X max which it is possible to obtain with the aerofoil under consideration..p. P the power of the motor in horsepower. when running Let us at full W the total weight in pounds of the airplane W the useful load. u load in pounds. A sustaining surface in sq.3cP .56 X max that is. can be imposed.h. for machines intended for races the ultimate factor of safety.h. the minimum speed. & and 4. imposed that the airplane sustain we must have .. Capable of sustentation at the minimum speed of 75 m. coefficient of ultimate resistance equal to 9.

V Remembering the imposed condition that cP must not exceed 180 lb. A p W \ the weight of the airplane. expressing in m. call 263 W W R the weight of the motor including the the weight of the radiator and water. of the radiator R= As ' V well-studied type safety. for airplanes of a certain and having a given ultimate factor of can be considered proportional to the total weight.PLANNING THE PROJECT Let us propeller.34. we can therefore write W Then (1) A = aW pP can be written W that is = 180 + 3cP + + b ^ + aW W = of a type analogous to the Consequently in the outline of the is The machine we must design single-seater fighter. we can use the coefficients corresponding to that For these. we can take b = 45. Then u \ p I It I A / Calling p the weight of the engine propeller group per horsepower we will have W The weight said in of p = pP and water. the value of a is about 0.h. also. at the same time the weight p per horsepower must be as small as possible..p. we will have to select an engine having the minimum specific consumption c. in order to have the maximum value of P. project type. by what we have Chapter V. can be assumed proportional to the power the engine and inversely proportional to the speed. . it to the weight of the airplane.

2.h. = 2130 in the first approximation.h.h. Of the other engines the more convenient II for which the value of p is lower. w 1992 840 -- (3) (1 W 0.p.400 V W as a approximation. making a becomes = 0.53.264 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Let us suppose that four types of engines of the following characteristics are at our disposal: TABLE 31 It is clearly visible that engines No. is undoubtedly type Then formula p = 2. 180 Ibs.8. first (3) let us re- of total efficiency gives = 0.00248 ^we can take r WV (4) and that then for a machine making P = of great speed = 2.34.p.06) = W = V m&x = = ^min. . 75 m. that the principal characteristics of our airplane will be Then V = 159 m. To determine member that the formula r W = 1992 + 20. b = 45. 159 m. p = 300. P = . 300 we have _!_ 0. W 2130 Ibs. (2). Ill and No. 300 H. IV should without doubt be discarded since their hourly consumption is greater than the already imposed.P.00248 V and substituting in that is. c = 0.p. Consequently we can claim.

at the same time gives a good efficiency at maximum speed.* . We have seen that we must have ~-< 0. where X max is the maximum value it is practical to obtain. while permitting the realization of the above condition.4. Q -3-2-1 I 2 3 4 5 =16 From the aerofoils at our disposition.PLANNING THE PROJECT Let us 265 now determine the sustaining surface.56 X max .75 0. i 0. let us select one which.25 10. 50 10 12. Let us suppose that we choose the aerofoil having the characteristics given in the diagram of Fig. we must have . Then as X max = 14. 155.5 0.

266 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

and foot bar Gasoline tanks and distributing system Oil tanks and distributing system 155 25 40 6 Ib. Total 2.. Ib. control stick.'.. Ib. 30 125 821 Wing Truss Spars Ribs Horizontal struts and diagonal bracings Fittings and bolts Fabric and varnish Vertical struts Main diagonal bracing Total 4.. Ib. A = 265 sq. The scheme will be that shown in Fig. Landing Gear Wheels Axle and spindle Struts 32 25 15 4 Total. 156..... Let us select a type of biplane wing surface adopting a chord of 65". Ib. Ib.. 276 Fuselage Body of fuselage Seat. Total 3. . Ib. Ib. 76 . Ib. Ib. Ib. Engine Propeller Group Dry engine and propeller Exhaust pipes Water in the engine Radiator and water . We can then compile the approximate table of weights. 180 477 Ib. Ib. Ib.. Cables Ib. Ib. Instruments . Ib.PLANNING THE PROJECT For 267 W -j- = 8 and W = 2130 Ib. Ib. 251 5. Cowl and finishing 25 Total Ib. considering the following groups: 1. Ib.. 11 Ib. Ib. Ib. Ib. 660 6 . 668 Ib. ft. Ib. Ib. 100 26 20 30 25 40 35 Ib. Useful Load Pilot Gasoline and oil .

the ratio between the wing span and length usuSince we have assumed the ally varies from 0. ft. 8 Ib. we shall gravity of the fuselage (with truss. and of the landing gear. In determining the length of the airplane. with the exception of the wings and landing gear. It is all the loads). since it is possible to easily increase or A decrease the areas of the stabilizing and control surfaces. of the wing then easy to combine the three drawings so that the following conditions be satisfied: 1.70.268 6. we shall make the length equal adopt the ratio 0. 10 Ib. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Controls and Tail Group 12 Ib.. 21b..6 to 18 ft. 6 Ib. 157) shows the various masses. Total 38 Ib. Ailerons Fin Rudder Stabilizer Elevator. The side view (Fig.60 to 0. these are separately drawn in Figs. we have a certain margin. the distance of tail system from the center of gravity. That the center of gravity of the whole machine be on . Then with the usual methods of graphic statics we determine separately the centers of that is. For machines of types analogous to those which we are studying.678. or better. wing span equal to 26. We can then compile the following approximate table TABLE 32 schematic side view of the machine is then drawn in order to find the center of gravity as a first approximation.. 158 and 159.

PLANNING THE PROJECT 269 .

FIG.270 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 200 Pounds 100 Scale. erf Weights". .0 Pounds. 12. 158.

PLANNING THE PROJECT 271 Pounds FIG. 159. .

272 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION spuno<j .

having determined a based on machines which have notably well chosen control surfaces. 2. then necessary to calculate the dimensions of the To do this. whatever about the center of gravity (that surface the product of by the distance of center of thrust from the center of gravity) we shall have a M = X W 2 y- Value a can be assumed constant for machines of the same type. and elevator. it would stabilizer. by about 25 per cent. 160. In our case. Practically a sufficient approximation is reached by coninstead of the moment of inertia. if we have a greater margin above the axis of thrust it is advisable it be not greater than 4 or 5 inches instead it falls below the axis of thrust. rudder. not only must be on the vertical line passing by the center of pressure. 161. The ideal condition of equilibrium is that the center of gravity. That the The superimposing has been made in Fig. 273 by the center of pressure of the axis of the landing gear be on a straight line passing through the center of gravity and inclined forward by 14. it is easy to determine M. if it falls that its distance from as the conditions of stability This shall be seen in Chapter XXI. Value a in our case can be taken equal . and 163). it falls 2. but must also be on the axis of thrust .PLANNING THE PROJECT the vertical line passing wings. 162 at the maximum. that is. improve. The center of gravity having been approximately determined we can draw the general outline (Figs. sidering the weight Then its calling M W the static moment its of any control surface is.5 in. It is be essential to know the principal moments of inertia of the airplane. Then. fin. is The graphic determination of these moments certainly possible but it is a long and laborious task because of the great quantity and shape of masses which compose the airplane. thus found. above the propeller axis.

163. 50 100 Inches FIG. .274 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FIG. 162. 50 100 Inches // FIG. 161.

it is I is feet and S is the surface of the rudder elevator and ailerons in square feet.PLANNING THE PROJECT 275 to 3900 for the ailerons. taking as the units of measure pounds for W and feet per second for V. TABLE 33 . 2100 for the elevator. Then possible to compile the following table where the lever arm in a and M have the above significance. and 2500 for the rudder.

two top and two bottom ones. usually 276 . In this chapter the static analysis of the wing truss and of the control surfaces is given. 164 shows that the structure to be calculated is composed of four spars. referring to the ordinary treaties on mechanics and resistance of materials for a more thorough discussion. connected to one another by means of vertical and horizontal trussings. 30 60In Scale of Lengths Fig.CHAPTER XVIII STATIC ANALYSIS OF MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL we shall limit SURFACES Owing ourselves to the broadness of the discussion to summarily resume the principal methods used in analyzing the various parts. For convenience the analysis of the vertical trussings is made separately from the analysis of the horizontal and upon these calculations the analysis of the main ones. * beams can be made.

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES
First of all
it is

277

necessary to determine the system of the acting forces. An airplane in flight is subjected to three kinds of forces the weight, the air reaction and the pro:

peller thrust.

balanced by the sustaining component L, of the air reaction; the propeller thrust is balanced by the drag-component D. The weight and the propeller thrust
is

The weight

are forces which for analytical purposes can be considered as applied to the center of gravity of the airplane. The

components

L and D

instead, are uniformly distributed
-

on

the wing surface.

Practically, the ratio

assumes as

many

FIG. 165.

mum value, which
=
jr

different values as there are angles of incidence. is assumed in computations,
0.25.

The maxiis,

usually,

Thus

it

will

be

sufficient to

study the distributhe horizontal

tion of L, because,
stresses

when

this

is

known

can immediately be calculated. Let us suppose that the aerofoil be that of Fig. 165 and that the relative position of the spars be that indicated in this figure. The first step is to determine the load per linear inch of the wing. Fig. 164 shows that the linear

wing development of the upper wing is 320.48 inches while that of the lower wing is 288.58 inches. We know that the two wings of a biplane do not carry
equally because of the fact that they exert a disturbing influence on each other; in general the lower wing carries less than the upper one; usually in practice the load per
unit length of lower wing
is

assumed equal to

0.9 of that

278
of the

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

upper wing. of the upper wing
320.48

Then evidently the load per is given by

linear inch

+09X
wing

2858
=
3.29

'

and

for the lower

it is

given by
Ib.

0.9

X

3.66

per inch

these linear loads we must deduct the weight per inch of the wing truss, because this weight, being linear

From

0.43

L FIG. 166.

0.57

L

applied in a directly opposite direction to the air reaction, decreases the value of the reaction. In our case the figured

weight of the wing truss is 276 Ib.; thus the weight per linear inch to be subtracted from the preceding values will be 0.45 Ib. per linear inch. We shall then have ultimately:

Upper wing loading Lower wing loading

3.21 Ib. per linear inch 2.86 Ib. per linear inch

Knowing these loads, it is possible to calculate the distribution of loading upon the front spars and upon the rear For this it is necessary to know the law of variation spars. of the center of thrust.

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES
It is easily
is

279

understood that when the center of thrust

displaced forward, the load of the front spar increases, and that of the rear spar decreases; and that the contrary happens when the center of thrust is displaced backward.

We

suppose that in our case the center of thrust has a displacement varying from 29 per cent, to 37 per cent, In the first case the front of the wing cord (Fig. 166).
shall
will

spar will support 0.62 of the total load and the rear spar support 0.38; in the second case these loads will be

respectively 0.43

and 0.57 of the total load. Thus the normal loads per linear inch of the four spars can be summarized as follows:
Front spar upper wing. Bear spar upper wing Front spar lower wing Rear spar lower wing
Practically
it

1.98 Ib. per inch
1.82 Ib. per inch 1.75 Ib. per inch
1.62 Ib. per inch

is

convenient to

make

the calculations

using the breaking load instead of the normal load; in fact there are certain stresses which do not vary proportionally to the load but follow a power greater than unity, as we In our case, as the coefficient must be shall see presently. equal to 10, the breaking load must be equal to 10 times
the preceding values.

We can then initiate the calculation of the various trusses which make up the structure of the wings. We shall proceed
in the following order,
(a)

computing:

bending moments, shear stresses and spar reactions Determination of the neutral curve of at the supports.
the spars
(6)
(c)

and rear vertical trusses upper and lower horizontal trusses
front

unit stresses in the spars. loaded (a) The spars can be considered as uniformly continuous beams over several supports. In our case there are four supports for the upper spars as well as for the
(d)

lower ones; the uniformly distributed loadings are the
preceding.

280

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Let us note first, that in our case as in others, the distribution of the spans of the rear spars is equal to that of the spans of the front spars; thus the only difference between the front and rear spars is in the load per unit of length. It suffices then to calculate the bending moments, the shear
stresses

spars;

and the reactions at the supports for the front the same diagrams, by a proper change of scales,

can be used for the rear spars. In our case, the unit loading for the rear spars is equal to 0.92 of that for the front
spars.

o

as so in. Scale of Lengths

FIG. 167.

With this premise we shall give the graphic analysis based upon the theorem of the three moments, but we shall not explain the reason of the successive operations, referring the reader to treaties on the resistance of materials. First consider the upper front spar (Fig. 167); Jet be its

XY

length and A, B,

C D,
y

its

supports,

made by

the struts.

Let each span be divided into three equal parts by means of trisecting lines aa i} bbi, cci, etc. For each support with
the exception of the first and last ones, the difference between the third parts of its adjacent spans shall be deter-

mined; and that difference is layed off starting from the In our case we subtract support, toward the bigger span.
the third part of span

BC

from the third part

of

span AB,

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES
and the Thus V
difference
is is

281

layed

off starting

from

B

toward A.

obtained.

The

line

mm\ drawn

through

V

per-

is called counter vertical of support. pendicular to one- third of BC is subtracted from one-third Analogously

XY

of

CD, and

its

difference

is

laid off

from C toward D,

fixing

a second counter vertical of support nni. Starting from A (Fig. 167) let us draw any straight line that will cut the trisecant bbi, and the first counter vertical

which prolonged will cut the Join first trisecant of the second span cci in the point G. G with F by a straight line which will cut X Y at the point H. This point is called the right-hand point of support B. Starting from H we draw any straight line that will meet the second trisecant of the second span ddi and the second and N respectively. Find diagonal nni at the points and the point P by prolonging the straight line between

of support mrrii in the points Draw the straight line

E and F respectively.

EB

M

M

C. Point 0, the right-hand point of the second support, and line XY. In is given by the intersection of line

NP

order to find the left-hand points for the supports C and which will interest the counter B, draw the straight line and Point R where the lines vertical nn\ at point Q.

PD

MQ

XY

intersect each other will

support C. Starting from R cut the first counter diagonal at point S.
point of intersection of lines

be the left-hand point of draw the line RG which will

SE

and

XY

will

Point T, the be the left-

hand point of support B. The right-hand and left-hand points being known, we
suppose that we load one span at a time, determining the bending moments which this load produces on all the Summing up at every support the moments due supports. to the separate loads, we shall obtain the moments originated by the whole load.
shall

The moment on the external supports is equal to that given by the load on the cantilever ends, as it cannot be influenced by the loads on the other spans, owing to the
fact that the cantilever

The load on

beam can rotate around its support. the cantilever spans however affects the other

282
spans.

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

To determine
is
I

this effect

we proceed

in the follow-

ing manner: Consider support
at this support
linear inch

A

(Fig. 168); the

moment
Ib.

equal to

^p

calling

w

the load in

per
off,

and

the length of the span in inches.

Lay

to

any

scale, the

segment

A A' = -^

wl 2

*

Let us then draw the straight line

AT;

it

will intersect

the vertical line through support B at point 1; the segment IB measures, to the scale of moments, the moment that the

load on the cantilevered span produces on support B.
320

M

In.

50

In.

8000

16000

In.l

Scale of Lengths.

Scale of Moments.

FIG. 168.

Then draw the

straight line IE; it will meet the vertical line through support C at 1'; the segment 1'C measures, always to the scale of moments, the moment originated on support

C by the

load of the cantilevered span. The moment in cannot be influenced by the cantilever load on X A.

D

Let us now determine the effect of the load on span AB, on the moment of the various supports. Draw FG perpendicular bisectrix of AB and Jay off, to the scale of moments,

- that is, equal to the moment o which would be obtained at the center point of AB, by a unit load w, if were a free-end span supported at the extremities. From T, the left-hand point of support B,
a segment

FG

equal to

;

AB

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES
raise a perpendicular
line

283

which cuts

line

GB

at

W.

Draw

meet the perpendicular through support T at point 2. The segment B2 read to scale, will give the moment on support B due to the load on AB. Point 2' is obtained by prolonging line 2R until it meets
the perpendicular through C at 2'. Segment C-2' represents to the scale of moments, the moment on support C due to
the load on

AW to

AB.
effect of the load of
is

In order to find the

span
off

BC

on the

other spans, proceed analogously; that
bisectrix of

lay

BC, equal

to scale, to the

moment

ML on the ML =
8

Let us find points and P as indicated in the figure and let us draw the line NP which prolonged will meet the perpendiculars on supports B and C at points 3 and 3'. Segments B-3 and C-3' read to the scale of moments, will give the moments produced by the load of span BC on the supports

N

B

and C

respectively.

XA and AB we obtain the moments originated on BC by the loads on spans CB and BY. The construction is clearly indicated in Fig. 168. Resuming, we shall have the moment originated by cantiProceeding as for spans
lever loads

on the supports

A

and D, and the moment
the different spans, on the

originated

by the loads on B and C. supports
For the point
of support
is

all

B the moment BC

due to the canti-

lever load

equal, read to the scale of moments, to distance B-l, the moment due to the load on is equal to the moment due to the load on is equal to B-3, B-2,

AB

the

moment due

to the load on

CD

is

equal to B-4 and

f

that due to the cantilever load on

we assume that
support

If is equal to J5-5'. the distances above the axis are positive

DY

XY

and those below are negative, the
B-l, B-2, B-3,
total
-4',

total

B will be equal to the algebraic
and
B-5'.

moment BB' on sum of the moments

Analogously the algebraic

moment on

C.

The

total

sum CC' will represent the moment on the external

supports will naturally remain the one due to cantilevers,

284

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

and DD'. In order to find the variations of the bending moment on all the spans, the load being uniformly distributed, we must draw the paraand consequently equal to
bending moments as though the spans were simply supported (Fig. 169).
bolse of the

A A'

25

50 Inches

Scale

of

Lengths
16000 InJbj.

8000

Scale of Moments

50 Inches 25 Scale of Leng+hs

8000

I6001n.lte:

Scale of Moments.

FIG. 170.

Then the difference between the ordinates of the parabolse and those of the diagram A A' E' C' D D give us the diagram XA r a' E' V C' c' D' YX which represents the diagram of
f

the bending

moment

(Fig. 169).

Knowing the diagram

of the

bending moments,

it is

easy

ot Peflecf ions Fia. Furthermore. and on the numerical values of the reactions have been marked. called We as it pause in the process of graphic integration. from the diagram of bending moments we can obtain the elastic curve. can be found in treaties on graphic statics. Ibs.0 In x Scale at Lengths Scale of Moments _ Scale. that is. 15. to find the diagram of the shearing stresses. and which elastic curve (Fig. we obtain the form is M the neutral axis of the spar assumes.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 285 through a process of derivation applying the common methods of graphic statics. and consequently the reactions on the supports (Fig. by double integration of the diagram of which obtain the deflections y. 170). by the ratio multiplying the basis between the scale of moments and that of the lengths. 171). 170 the scale of forces has supports the corresponding been drawn. 25 50 In. 171. which will be needed later. shall not . In fact let us remember that the analytic expression of is the bending moment given by M R = E X = I X dx and consequently y that E B we is. In H Fig. 8000 16000 In.0 30. The scale of forces is obtained by of the derivation.

Figs. developed. 172. 170 of the and 171 refer to the calculation In Figs. 175 and 176 instead. the scale of the moments. 174. 172. On The preceding diagrams also give the bending moments. 167. . these figures. of the lengths and of the forces are also indicated.58Jn 20 401 Scale of Lengthi 6000 12000 In bs I Scale of Moments FIG. 2S3. beside the unit loads which are already known. 173. the graphic analysis of the lower front spar is upper front spar. 168. We shall make use of the elastic ZO 40 In - Scale of Lengths FIG.286 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION curve for the determination of the supplementary moments produced on the spars by the compression component of the vertical and horizontal trussings. 169. 173.

Scale of Len 9 +h 6000 Seals. 741. 12 I421n*(n) Scale of Deflections FIG.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 287 20 40 In 6000 12000 In lt. 176. . of 12000 lalbs Moments 40 In 20 Scale of Lengths 6000 COOOlnjbs Scale of Xomen-te . Scale of Lengths Scale of Moments FIG. 20 40 In.

and diagonals.92 of the loads of the front spars. because only of the of the machine.92. and the other below. and since trussing the reactions on the supports are in the ratio 0. in fact it suffices to multiply both the values of the forces and those of the moments by 0. it suffices FIG. 177.92. But we speaking of the unit stresses in spars. trussing is composed of two spars. With that premise let us remember that for equilibrium symmetry it is first of all necessary that the resultant of the external . and the loads per linear inch of the rear spars are equal to 0. by bracings called diagonals. 178). The vertical the counter diagonals relax and consequently do not work. these are inversely proportional to the product /. for the purpose of calculation we can consequently consider the vertical of trussing as though it were made spars. and by bracings called counter diagonals which serve to stiffen the structure (Fig. In 177). it is possible to calculate the vertical trussings. and consequently they vary from spar to shall return to this in spar. one above. as the spans are the same. as evidently the stresses are also symmetrical (Fig. flight. struts. which must resist tension. for simplicity we shall consider only one-half of it. connected by struts capable of resisting compression. (6) Knowing the reactions upon the supports.288 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION the shearing stresses and the reactions on the supports for the rear spars. to calculate only the first. the plane of symmetry will naturally have to be considered as a plane of perfect fixedness. furthermore. Since the front has the same dimensions as the rear one. special note should be made of the scales of ordinates A for the elastic curve. the elastic modulus by the moment of EX inertia.

this force is balanced by that part of the weight of the machine which is supported at point A and which is exactly equal to 5695 lb. as it is usually expressed in graphic statics. the internal reactions close on itself. for convenience. that is.. be. in BH we shall have the . Moreover it is necessary that in any case the applied external force is (reaction at support). This consideration enables the determination of the various internal reactions through the construction of the stress diagram. illustrated. in Fig. for our example. CD. Referring to treaties on graphic statics for the demonstration of the method. 179. The reactions upon the supports are all vertical and directed from bottom to top their sum . 179). equal to 5695 lb. be in equilibrium with the internal reaction. BC. cd. now. and de are laid off to a given scale on AB. it is essential that the polygon of the external forces and of FIG. The values of the reactions on the supports individuated by zones ab.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 289 forces be equal to zero. from B and C we draw two parallels to the truss members determined by the zones bh and ch respectively. and DE (Fig. we shall here illustrate. 178. the various graphic operations.

. 179. Scale of Forces FIG.290 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION __ t_ 1000 2000 Ibs.

291 23 In. . TRUSS DIAGRAM 22 44In Scale of Lengths 500 100 Ibs Scale of Forces FIG.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES . 180.

179. From points H and D we draw the parallels to the members gh and gd] in HG and DG we shall have the stresses in hg and dg'. finally from points G and A we draw the parallels to the members individuated by zones gi and ai. in Fig. signs for compression stresses. Based upon the values found in the preceding construcTable 34 can be compiled.292 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION member bh. in E ^ and (r^ we shall obtain the stresses in these members. . a resistance equal to half of that which is had in normal flight is generally admitted. naturally the turnbuckles and attachments must have a it is of the cables selected for our example. For this case. in normal function only in case of flying with the airplane upside down. 180. and The counter diagonals which do not work flight. and in CH that corremember ch. as is generally done in order to obtain a better penetration. The calculation of the bracings presents no difficulties. The stress corresponding to sponding to the 7 of arrows of the stress diagram enable the easy determination which parts of the truss are subjected to tension and which to compression. sufficient to choose cables or wires having a breaking strength equal to or greater than that indicated in the table. which is absolutely exceptional. beside marking the scales of lengths and of forces. Table 35 gives the dimensions For the principal bracings we have adopted double cables. from points E and G we draw the parallels to the members determined by zones ef and <//. In Fig. adopting + signs for tension stresses. obtaining the corresponding stresses in GI and AI. By multiplying these stresses by 0. in fact not only does the diameter of the cable exposed to the wind corresponding resistance. we have marked the lengths and the stresses corresponding to the various parts. That table permits the calculation of the bracings and struts.92 we shall obtain the values of the stresses of the rear trussing. The determination of stresses is analogous to that made for normal flight and is shown tion.

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 293 TABLE 34 TABLE 35 .

etc. two cables For the struts. it is necessary to apply Euler's formula which by means that a solid of length gives the maximum load a moment of inertia 7 can support section having W I with a elastic In that formula a is a numerical coefficient and E is the modulus of the material of which the solid is made. being exposed to the wind. Let us remember that the struts. where t is the thickness and d is the smaller axis. which can be considered as solids under compression. We shall quickly see that practically it will be convenient to adopt a smaller coefficient in consideration of practical unforeseen factors. by what has been said in Chapter XVI. In Chapter XVI a table has been given of oval tubes normally used for struts. that for struts it is convenient to use materials which even having high coefficients AI and A 2 have a well as high specific weight. Then the best material for struts is steel. present a head resistance which must be reduced to a minimum by giving them a shape of good penetration as by reducing their dimensions to the minimum. that for Let us apply Euler's formula to these tubes. This last consideration shows. We shall have = w with a ~p- Remembering then that the area of these struts is given sufficient approximation by the expression A = Q. becomes possible to streamline the of wooden faring.37td the preceding formula can be written as follows W a XE 6. such as weight per unit of length. The theory gives the value 10 for coefficient a.294 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION but it result smaller. area of section. relative moment of inertia. remembering them / = td*.37 X 1 . with the most important characteristics.

Adopting pounds and inches as the 3 X 10 7 and consequently unit. 4 llx!0 minimum dimension of 10 ~r~^ 47x 10 x 7T 7 10 20 30 40 i 50 60 TO 80 90 100 d FIG. and the the strut.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES where 295 W r -I = unit stress of the material = ratio between that portion of the length which can be considered as free ended. we have E = (1) W = 47 X 10 5 X a X 1 . 181.

to determine its dimensions. can be satisfied by infinite couples of W values A and d. That depends upon the in general it gives lower values. With this premise it is simple. 7 is the weight of one foot of strut of width d. In Fig. and also upon the thickness of the sheet and the dimensions Based on averof the sections being not always uniform.296 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Naturally this formula can be applied only for high values of the ratio ^. when the ultimate stress which a strut must withstand. and its length. computation purposes. For these values the line. struts being partly manufactured by hand and partly rolled. age values we can therefore assume that for properly manufactured struts a coefficient a = 8 can be adopted for at our works. practically below the value -3 = 60 this formula can no longer be relied upon. having large dimensions and small thicknesses. If |8 is the weight per horsepower lifted by the airplane. practical diagram shown by a dot and dash In Tables 36 to 39 of the many tests we have tabulated the results of some on metal struts which have been made In these tables the practical value of coefficient a of Euler's formula has been calculated. are known. Moreover infinite solutions exist. 181 the diagram corresponding to the preceding formula is given. since formula (1) when and I are given. However. the value of A becomes smaller and consequently the weight of the strut diminishes from that point of view it would be convenient to use struts . drawing the diagram with a dotted instead of a full line for the values of is -3 < 60. and increases the power necessary to fly. Evidently by increasing d. the increase of d increases the head resistance of the airplane. it is seen that while in some tests a has a value higher than 10. k its coefficient of head resistance as was definitely stated in Chapter . Therefore it becomes necessary to adopt that solution which requires the minimum power expension.

i y -S -g ""O r-5 r-=< * X.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 297 I 3 1 f a Al I V-/-. ^ 5 M feriHF-H ""o '%'$. s ^ Ml I O T I 00 1> CO CD O rH 2 ( r-lil t~} f^ ^ (^ ^^ f i f^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ CO CO CO - s ^ H 3 ^H * O5O5O CX)CDOOOOOCO'OOOOOCOC75QO odd CD C^ dddrH'rH'o'dddddd 1s* 00 oooo>oooooooo rH ^* O^ GO O^ !> O^ CD *O CD OO ccT c<f co" ^HOOOOOOOOOOCD COCOCOCOCOCOCO(N(N(N(NrH odd dddddddddooo oorHoo lO-^CO 10 10 CD^ co oo^ co co^ io_ i>^ os_ co^ CD_ cq_ o^ co^ i>t>.i> i>oot>i>oot^i>-i>i>t>i>t> CD (M C1 CD ooo oooooooooooo O lOiOO CDOCDOfMO O fl cOcD^O cDCDcDCDcDCDcDcD'O'OcDcD odd ddddoooooodd odd dddddooooodo OcDOO H^COCO cDCDcDOiOOcDcDcDcOcDcDcO COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO .'$'$.

II . ^OQOppQOQQQQQO 100*0*000010000 ooocoooooi<Mcooocooo O T < *k1 I o os O O O (O' lOi 1 * 'i I 1 I CO t^ O^ O^ r ooooooooooooooo CO *O iO ^H C^ O5 O^ *O 00 "^ C^ H CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO <M CO CO CO rHCOOiTHi-(OOrHOpr-*T-( ooooooooooooooo OOOOOcOOOiOOOOOOOOOO a ooooooooooooooo Ot-IOrH^HOi-I'-lT-HrHOOOrHO .298 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION AT 8 II EC .

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 299 d d 03 o3 a a 1J 'S ^^ '"C J c3 J c<3 'S 'S *"^ *"C3 O Q) 02 O 000000 00 r.CO 00 1 I-H O5 to T-H O CO CO 00 GO 00 GO CO Ol l> GO GO CO O O O t^ 1C IO O O O O (N CD rH O i 1 GO r.t^ 1 r-H I-H (N (M GO >O GO 'f O5 GO rt< lO CO 00 IO iO l> O O 01 IO O O5 IO CO O5 i-H o rH CO to GO Oi CO GO CO CO <M t^ <N CO (N CO 1-1 CO 00 CO <N CO (N CQ (M CO O 100000 O O o o O O O 00 CO 00 GO CO CO ^8i O5 t>- l> O CO CO CO CO 1^ O O CO CO CO CO CO CO o o d o o o 0000000 CO CO O5 rt< T^ CO <N ^H rH 00 CO <N O5 TjH r*H 10 O (N (Nl^iO>OO(N tO OS) 00 COt^cOcDOOOJ lOiOtO^OT^-^ CO CD rJH 00 iO 10 CO iO (N (N O5 CO iO O Tt< >O O CO CO O O <N (N CO (N CO CM (NT^Tj<COOOOOCD oo CD co l> COOIOOOOOGO OOt^l>CO00001^ Ot^-t^OOOCOCO CO i i O O O *O O O O O O5 CD Tt< t-- O I s- O CO !~ i Is- ~ 00 IsI> CO CO 1 ' i~ i Is- Tf CO rJH Ol Ol O5 O5 O5 Ol IO iO iO *O O ^O o o o o o o Oi co O^ Oi Oi O5 O^ O5 O^ 000000 gcocoggcoco o ooooodd (N O5 00 O5 O5 CO >O tO 000000 CO (N CO CO (N CD O^ O^ O5 O^ O^ O^ (N <M (N (N CO <N o o o o o d o Oi O5 O5 O5 00 O5 Oi (N (N CO (N (N CO (N .

300 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

6 X 10. the resistance). that is. < l ( \dj shall have + me x 10. A is expressed in square inches.9 p /b^F u 3. taking an average value p = 0.h. the one which satisfies the equation from which 13. a. load which a strut must support. will 301 V the speed of the airplane in m. the total of strut be equal to 1 p = P + X 267 X 10. = Ib.. but that value is the one which makes the derivative of the second term of the preceding equation equal to zero. ]8 and V to equation gives the expression of resultant of the weight and head one foot of strut as function of the be known.5 for struts of the type which we are studying. Then. the preceding total power (that is. . and p the propeller power p absorbed by a foot l efficiency.36A 3 Now the weight 7 7 = equal to 12 X A X 0.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES VII.p. absorbed by minor axis d of its section.75 we shall have where p = + ~ 103.280 is Ib.*y Supposing W.9 d7 3 Formula (1) permits expressing A as function of d A consequently we 47 X 10 5 X a X . the designer's interest is to find the value of d Evidently that makes p minimum.8 X WXl a 2 X ft XF 3 Let us remember that the symbols have the following significance : W I = maximum braking = length of strut. In Chapter III we hav seen that k = 3. I.

h.P. value 8. . then t A = the thickness of the tube is 6.37^ The computations example. As an effect of the stresses in the vertical trussings. Their calculation is usually made by admitting that they can absorb from Y^ to of the load on the struts. since when W and I are known..1.5 X 10a = 8. a certain compression in the spars of the upper wings and a certain tension in the spars of the lower wings are developed. to assume for these horizontal components 25 per cent.302 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION a = = coefficient of Euler's formula. gives 3. % horizontal trussings have the scope of balancing the horizontal components of the air reaction. The scope of these bracings is that of stiffening the wing truss easily obtained.7 X 1 -77T. the foreseen speed Furthermore for a we can adopt the is about 158 m. for r W= = 61. As we have (c) The seen. ratio between the total weight and power of the V = airplane. have been made with these criterions. Table 40. it is sufficient for the calculation. Before passing to the calculation of the horizontal trussings it is necessary to mention the vertical transversal trussings which serve to unite the front and rear struts (Fig. of the value of the vertical reactions. For our example the weight of the airplane is 2130 Ib. then = 7. 182).76 9 W 2 I (2) X 10.p. speed of the airplane. Then the preceding formula becomes: d3 Euler's formula. and its power is 300 H. (3) Equations (2) and (3) enable obtaining d and A. of the struts for the airplane in our and at the same time of establishing a connection between the diagonals of the principal vertical trussings.

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES As an effect of the stresses in the horizontal have a certain tension in the front spars and a pression in the rear spars. is a distribution . 182. of stresses as Consequently in the various spars there shown in Table 41. TABLE 40 FIG. 303 trussings we certain com- TT O.

304 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 41 .

in the other two spars instead the stresses add to each other. 185. Sometimes also the lower ones. which is doubly compressed. it is practical to adopt drag cables which anchor the wings horizontally. The We spar which is in the worst condition is the upper-rear one.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 305 see then that while there is partial compensation of stresses in the upper-front and lower-rear spars. 184. In order to take the stress from it. 6TRES5 DIAGRAM FIG. at least partially. LOWER DRAG TRUSS DIAGRAM 13 24 In Lengths. . Usually these drag cables anchor the upper wings only. Scale of 400 NX Scale of Forces STRESS DIAGRAM B-F FIG.

B. As we have already seen. The moment drawing of inertia is determined either by mathematical calculation or graphically by the methods illustrated in graphic statics. This analysis is usually made following an indirect method.306 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION In Fig. 187 gives this graphic construction for the spar. We fix certain sections for the spars and determine the unit load corresponding to the ultimate load of the airplane. 186. The areas are determined either upper rear two principal methods of verification are used: The elastic curve method. 2. Analysis of the Unit Stresses in the Spars. In Figs. They are made of spars. 184 and 185 the graphic analysis of the horizontal trussings of the lower and upper wings have been given. the most convenient section is determined. and A is the area of the section. and of steel wire cross bracing. : 1. 1$3 the acting forces have been indicated equal to 25 per cent. of the vertical components. where P T is the sum of the stresses PL and PD originated in the considered part of the spar by vertical and horizontal load. This method consists of determining the total unit stress f T by adding the three following stresses Practically A. in Fig. 183 the schemes of the horizontal trussings for the lower and upper wing are given. Stress due to bending moments fM = ^r where M is the . a certain number of horizontal transversal struts. Stresses of tension or of pure compression fc = f A. Fig. that (d) is. The Johnson's formula method. by the planimeter or by the section on cross-section paper. A. under form of verification. Let us suppose that in our case the sections be those indicated in Fig. The areas and the moment of inertia are determined first. After various attempts. as they are entirely analogous to those described for the vertical trussing. we need not discuss them.

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 307 .

308 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

Douglas fir. modulus from the neutral Bending stress due to the compression stress /A = P V A - Z the compression stress and A is the maximum deflexion of the span which is obtained from the elastic In order to know A it is necessary to know the curve. In this table In Table 42 PL = PD = PT = due to vertical trussings. stress For these stresses the sign has been adopted when they are compression stresses and the sign when they are tension stresses. it is necessary to adopt bending an intermediate modulus of rupture. is We shall remember that moment 3 . . *%&. adding the values fc fM and /A we obtain /r which is the total unit stress. If we wish to determine the factor of safety of the section it is necessary By . port- orford. + A = area of the section. PL + PD = total stress due to both trussings. where PT is elastic modulus E of the material because this modulus enters into the equation which gives the scale of the elastic curve (see Figs. A E= elastic modulus of the material. 171 and 176). in our case corresponding to a load equal to ten times the normal flying load.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES bending moment and 309 Z is the section modulus. this modulus of rupture divided by Jf o /r gives the factor of safety. stress due to horizontal trussings. the modulus of rupture of the material. Fig. obtained by dividing the I by the distance of the farthest fiber of inertia this axis. We have given in Chapter XVI the moduli of rupture to know to bending for various kinds of wood. 188 shows diagrams giving the modulus of rupture as function of ratio ~ JT for the four following kinds of wood. of For combined stresses and compression stresses. spruce and poplar. all the preceding data for the sections of the spars most stressed has been collected. .

o en|npow S 4*05 2 6 I Qi 1 o o IQ [000 9500 Q j ' CO o o O (0 .O 000 snjnpow o 10 vP o O ^9 o LO IO 8 LO O .J.310 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION O o uj-bg -isd-sqljn^-dny ^.

= moment due to compression stress P T PT = unit stress due to the moment /A = . this enables us to determine the modulus of rupture. with the exception of that corresponding to point B of the upper-rear-spar. This . We see that the factors of safety are about equal to those found by the preceding method. fc//T ratio total stress. originated by the compression stress. thence the factor of safety. A. one fixed for both ends fixed the values of the quantities necessary by the Johnson's formula all for calculating the factor of safety method have been collected. S = s total shearing stress. is a numerical coefficient and the other symbols are those of the preceding method. ratio 188. / /M A ~v unit stress A due to this bending moment. between the compression stress and By using the diagrams of Fig. = maximum deflexion of the span. M = bending moment due to air pressure. = = = unit stress to shearing. Z = section modulus. The value of coefficient is dependent on end conditions and is K K = 10 = 24 = 32 In Table 43 for for hinged ends one hinged. B. o .MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 311 = moment of inertia of the section. The Johnson's formula method is based upon John- son's formula: PT A + M PT KEI l* \ ) where I is the length of the span.

In fact. for this point discrepancy occurs because the coefficient should have been 32 instead of 24. as an actual fixed point. K from an examination of the it is elastic spars (Fig. the calculation of the shearing stresses and of the bending moments which are developed in the ribs should be mentioned. Before leaving the calculation of the wing truss.312 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION * No bolt holes. the two methods are practically equivalent. as was assumed. . 171). seen that point A curve of the upper is to be considered and consequently for this point the coefficient 32 should have been taken. With this single exception.

189 gives the values of the pressures TABLE 42 (Continued) along the entire rib. The integration of this diagram gives the diagram of the bending moments. 190 (6) referring it to a rectilinear 189. 189 whose ordinates correspond to the shearing stresses. 189 and 190. diagram (a) represents diagram (6) of Fig. The rib can be considered as a small beam with two supports and 3 spans. 190 (c). the supports being made by the spars. which is usually made graphically is illustrated in Figs.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 313 This calculation.to render this diagram more clearly it has been redrawn in Fig. the integration of this diagram gives diagram (6) of Fig. In Fig. In order . Fig. axis and adopting a doubled scale for the shearing stresses. The distributions of the shearing stresses and bending . Diagram (a) of Fig. 190.

and the control pass to the calculation of the tail system Figs.314 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION DO DC TABLE 43 B A B A * No bolt holes. 192 and 193 give respectively the assembly of the fin-rudder group and the stabilizer-elevator group. very easy when the distribution of the loads on the surface . moments being known the dimensions rib flanges of the web and of the can easily be determined. In Fig. The calculation of their frame is shall We now surfaces. 191 a general view of a very light type of rib is given.

In normal flight as well as during any maneuver whatever.021 4065 7890 7900 7850 7900 7900 12. 194). Let us first of all consider the fin-rudder group (Fig. For instance. the distribution of the pressures on these surfaces is very TABLE 43 (Continued) 12220 78. that it suffices to follow any loading hypo- even if only approximate. 194 (c) can be adopted.021 7800 5380 . the hypothesis illustrated in the diagram of Fig.6X106 77200. We suppose that the unit load decreases linearly on the fin as well as on the rudder. Consequently only the procedure for the culation of these loads will be indicated. as it is usually done in practice.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES is 315 cal- known.4 10.0 complex and varies according to their form.9 17. profile and their sumed thesis Practically. in the fin it decreases from a maximum value u in the front part to a minimum . though.8 19. such high factors of safety are asfor them. 979 6110 4300 3900 2930 1030 900 900 300 180 6110 455 160 150 44000.

4In.In.316 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION . SHEAR DIAGRAM FIG. LOADING DIAGRAM TABLE OF AREA WEIGHTS IN POUNDS .56 112 Ibs Scale of Area Weights 12 13 14 15 16 17 H=16.olbs/lin. . 28. 189.3 8.54 In 64.96 In. 10 20 In.Scale of Shears 168 336 Ibs 1 t i t i i i 1 2^3 456789 28 .In.88In.6 Scale of Lengths Scale of Loads Ibs/lin. 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 7. 4.

MOMENT DIAGRAM 'UOOInlbs 550 Scale of Moments.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 317 SHEAR DIAGRAM j 10 i i (1) i 20 in 163 336 lb&. Scale of Lengths' Scale of Shears W 168 Ibs. . Scale of Shears. FIG. 190.

as the airplane faster. we can assume u m = 0. 1Q4 (&).p. we have Sa that is X k X A u = u = Xu m X k Za The value u having all been the determined. have ft. If A is the total area. practically for speeds between 100 and 200 m. In order to determine the numerical value of u the average value u m of the unit load of the so is surfaces is usually given. surfaces of the are 25 fin rudder (Fig. is This average value assumed much greater. the load their areas are determined. let us call a one of these areas and ku the corresponding unit load.167 expressing u m in pounds shall per square In our case foot. we Ibs. the unit load decreases from u to zero.5 u in the rear In the rudder instead. and In our case they are as given in the table of Fig. upon it will be evi- dently aku. part.318 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION value equal to 0.h. divided into 194 (a)). we have . about u m = Then the and sections per sq.

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 310 JL .

320 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

-.FT.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 321 = Centers of Pressure of Elements r Fin and 123456-763 Rudder of Entire Surface of IO 10 Scale Scale of 20 Inches of Lengths 500 Weighted Are AREAS IN SQ. . 23456 WEIGHTS 7 9 10 U 12 13 14 15 LOADING IN DIA6RAM POUNDS '. 194. [FiQ.

of Elevator Center of Pre entire Sut7f( FIG.AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Centers of Pressure of Elements Centers of Pressure. 195. .

easily determine: (a) the center of loads of the fin. that for this group we usually assume u m = 0. following the usual methods. 195 all the operations previously described are It is repeated for the stabilizer-elevator group. noting. ft. . which in our case are as given in the These loads being obtained. in our case um = 35 Ibs. the center of loads or center of pressure of the rudder. we table of Fig. however. then possible to determine the reactions on the various structures and consequently to make the calculation of their dimensions. 194 (d).22 that is.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 323 elementary values aku. what is usually termed the center of pressure of the fin. In Fig. that is. X V per sq. (6) and (c) the center of loads of the entire system.

Let us suppose the frame to be the one shown in Fig. (6) is (Fig. maneuvering the rudder.CHAPTER XIX STATIC ANALYSIS OF FUSELAGE. Stresses while landing. and the reactions on the supports are calculated (Fig. (d) (e) Maximum stresses in flight. 196d). such a fuselage has a frame of horizontal longerons connected by wooden bracings. In these trussing conditions it is easy to determine the shearing stresses and attached to the bending moments when the weight of the various parts composing the fuselage or contained in it are known. It is then easy to draw the diaof the shearing stresses (Fig. As we have seen in the first part of this book. corresponding to the case of normal When the pilot maneuvers the elevator. . this frame is covered with veneer. particular cases: (a) Let us consider the following Stresses in normal flight. which calculated if the moment of inertia of the fuselage 324 easily known. glued and nailed to the longerons and bracings. 1966). 196c). flight (a) In normal as a beam supported the fuselage should be considered at the points where the wings are it and loaded at the various joints of the which make the frame of the fuselage. Analysis of Fuselage. and of the bending gram moments flight. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER A. First the reactions of the various weights on the joints of the structure. the fuselage is is subjected to an angular acceleration. 196a. Let us consider the case of a fuselage made of veneer. (6) Stresses while (c) Stresses while maneuvering the elevator.

50" 16.75" 15. 20. . Scale of Shears 5000 10000 lb5.In. 15.90" 17. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 325 2/5.FUSELAGE.201 2/80". $ 7 = 9 | 16 uo In.77/7.10" 24.60" . 2 2> 4 5 e 7 6 9 10 II 12 MOMENT DIAGRAM FIG.i M 3A5//7.50" 23.30" _ 10.15" 23. Scale of Lengths 7617/^5 SHEAR DIAGRAM 250 500 Ibs.30" 10. Scale of Moments. (b) 4 SPACE DIAGRAM 30 60 In. 196.

_. . Then remembering the equation of mechanics . in fact for the calculation of the angular acceleration. X inch 2 X inch shall have do. 198c). since its results give a greater degree of safety. the total moment of inertia of the airplane and not only that of the fuselage should have been introduced: therefore the angular acceleration found is greater than the effective one. X inch We shall suppose that a force equal to 1000 Ib.. C = I X where C = = IP -IT acting couple polar moment of inertia = dt angular acceleration and as in our case C = 7 = we 1000 X 177 Ib. is suddenly applied upon the elevator.000 . 197 the graphic determination of this moment of 2 inertia has been made. as illustrated for our example. It is then easy to obtain the diagrams of the shear- ing stresses (Fig. 1986). Thus. originated bending moments (Fig. However this approxi- mation is admissible. dt~ "97^00" This angular acceleration originates a linear acceleration in each mass proportional to its distance from the center of gravity and in a direction tending to oppose the rotation originated by the couple C.000 mass 177.000 Ib. which appear in the various masses of the fuselage. jected 198a. Let us note that the stresses thus calculated are greater than those had in practice. when a force of 1000 and of the by the forces of inertia Ib. = 97.000 Ib.326 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION In Fig. 177. . in Fig. acts suddenly upon the elevator. its result is I = 97. each mass will be subto a force.

197.H'. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 327 6Oin Lengfhs . . 000 Ik mass. 1= = H.FUSELAGE.4 97. x in 2 FIG.Y = 100*50x19.

Scale of Shears 10 It \Z 13 30000 feOOOO in/lbs Scale of Moments. 198. 30 Scale of Forces Scale erf 60 Lengths 400 800 Ibs.328 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 400 800 Ibs. MOMENT FIG. .

199. the and the . in flight. FIG. let us suppose that the breaking load is applied at the same time upon the wings. for the elevator. (d) In order to calculate the maximum breaking stresses elevator.ON RUDDER RUDDER AND ELEVATOR LOADS AND TEN TIMES THE FUSELAGE WEIGHTS. LANDING GEAR (c) AND PROPELLER 329 For maneuvering the rudder the same applies as The same diagrams of Fig. 198 may also be used for this case.FUSELAGE. SHEAR DIAGRAM FORTEN TIMES THE FUSELAGE WEIGHTS 8 2 9 10 II 12 13 3 4a 4b 5 O) SHEAR DIAGRAM FOR 752 LBSON ELEVATOR 6 7 8> 9 10 II 12 13 SHEAR DIAGRAM FOR 3OOLBS.

upon the rudder. 200. to multiply the loads of the fuselage 2. 3. II 12 3 4041? 5 6 7 762 3 10 II 12 13 MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR POUNDS ELEVATOR LOAD ONLY. FIG. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION This : is equivalent to make by the following hypothesis 1. upon -the elevator. to apply 762 Ib. 10.330 rudder. Scale of Moments 2 3 4 4*> 5 6 7 10 ^ 9 MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR TEN TIMES THE FUSELAGE WEIGHTS ONLY. 30 60 in Scale of Lengths 30000 60000 "!libs. Q 9 10 II 12 13 MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR 306 POUNDS RUDDER LOAD . 3 4<a 40 5 7 ONLY. to apply 309 Ib.

10 II 12 13 MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR ELEVATOR LOADS AND TEN TIMES THE FUSELAGE WEIGHTS tl ti 40000 80000 /te. Scale of Moments 3 4a 4 b 5 & 7 8 9 10 II 12 '3 MOMENT DIAGRAM FO.R COMBINATION OF ELEVATOR FIG.FUSELAGE. 201. AND RUDDER LOADS AND TEN TIMES THE FUSALAGE WEIGHTS . LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 331 j l I 30 60 in Scale of Lengths.

200 a. The stress due to shearing is given immediately. 2.600 "= ft 076 215. 201a shows a diagram obtained by the algebraic sum of the first two diagrams. through their sum. dividing the maximum shearing stress by the sections of the veneer. ordinates Having obtained in this manner.600 and its plane of stress makes an angle x with the tana Ib. the bending moments are rudder). cal plain such that The maximum moment is equal to 216. 199d). on the elevator. the diagram of the total shearing stresses in flight (Fig. and to the load of 306 Ib. necessary to consider separately those produced by vertical forces (loads on the fuselage and on the elevator). it is possible to proceed in the checking of the resistance of those sections. c). c. 2016 shows the total diagram whose ordinates m" are equal to the hypotenuses of the right triangles having the sides corresponding to the and n of diagrams 200c and 20 la.332 It is AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION then easy to draw the diagrams of the shearing stresses in this case (Fig. In Fig. on the rudder. Let 1. 199. Fig. b. X verti- = Horizontal Vertical moment moment Then a certain section is the usual methods of static graphics the moments of inertia of the four assembled longerons with respect to horizontal axis 16. a. and those produced by horizontal forces (loads on the In Fig. 3 and 4 be the four longerons constituting section 4-5. As for the stresses in the longerons. the diagrams of the m maximum shearing stresses and maximum bending moments corresponding to the various sections. For simplicity it is customary to assume that the longerons resist to the bending and the veneer sides to the shearing stresses. inch. Fig. it is necessary to determine their ellipse of inertia. b.300 fixed for the longerons and with == and to a vertical axis passing through the center of . to the load of 762 Ib. In order to calculate the it is maximum bending moments. and consequently. 202 the checking for section 4-5 has been effectuated. shown due respectively to 10 times the loads on the fuselage.

FUSELAGE. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 333 (a) TRANSVERSE SECTION AT 4-5 Q 6 12 In Scale of Lengths. . 202. i i i i i 400 800 In* Scale of Ellipse of Inertia Mrt (t>) ELLIPSE OF INERTIA AT SECTION 4-5 Maximum Moment at Section 216600 inlbs. 2 Maximum Extreme Fiber Stress* ^ -WOlbs/i* 2 in' Modulus of Rupture for Spruce =3700 Ibsjin Factor of Safety ^7^ -* 10 =2/7 Fia.

Let us consider the following particular cases: 2. gear and In landing. Since. Figs. 203. 3. line OB 4 draw the parallels to OA. 4. is obtained. The vector the ellipse of inertia may be drawn (Fig. r radius OA of such an ellipse which makes the angle a with the vertical gives the moments of inertia to be used in the In order to have the section modulus. The system of acting forces. . N<i. Nz and N*. of Landing Gear. the fuselage is supported by the landing by the tail skid. We can then compute the unit stresses and therefore the M M . and the member subjected to bending (axle and spindle). 206. 202&). it will suffice to and verify that the In our case these sections of the fuselage are sufficient. stresses result lower than the maximum considered in flight. . to meet the straight the moments of inertia in Ni. Normal landing with airplane in line of Landing with tail skid on the ground. it is calculations. By dividing measured by O'A' by the largest of the 4 segments MiNi. laterally inclined by the maximum with the machine angle which can be allowed by the wings. 205. that is. 4 N 4 the section modulus Z 2 A^ 2 MJVs. is then that shown in Fig. flight. Fig. the coefficient of resistance of the landing (e) usually taken between 5 and multiply the preceding stresses by 6 gear is 6. ' M M . Landing on only one wheel. Landing with lateral wind. In the fourth case horizontal stress it maximum is has been assumed that the not greater than 400 Ib.334 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Then gravity of the system are determined (Fig. with coefficient 1. Analysis 1. M coefficient of safety. 207 and 208 illustrate respectively the construction for those four cases. For necessary to draw B'O' 'the conjugate diameter to O'A of the four longerons draw OB paralthe center of gravity and 3 2 lel to diameter O'B'. the diagrams of the bending moments. 202a). B. 204 shows the diagrams of the shearing stresses and bending moments corresponding to that case. giving for each the tension on compression stresses. as it will be seen. . from the four points Mi.

LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 335 is r~ 30 60in.FUSELAGE. FIG. 203. Scale of Weights. Scale of Lengths 20 O 4OO Lt>3. .

Fia.lbs Scale of Moments MOMENT DIAGRAM. 204. .336 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 7 R oo 8 s 9 12 * 13 3b SHEAR DIAGRAM o 7500 tsooo in.

1 AND PROPELLER 337 o JOOLBS _k> I SIDE ELEVATION HALF FRONT ELEVATION I. 4000 Scale of Moments FIG. LANDING GEAR CASE. . inlin. DIAGRAM OF LANDING GEAR 5OO LBS. I i 20 40m Scale of Lengths. ^ FORCE POLYGONS 300 600 Iba Scale of Forces SPINDLES - Scale of Lengths. 205.FUSELAGE. i AXLE MOMENT DIAGRAM 8000 'Jibs.

HALF SIDE ELEVATION DIAGRAM OF LANDING GEAR 500 LBS. 206. POLYGONS 300 600 Scale of Forces 20 in. . I Scale of Lengths (b) FORCE.338 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION CASE 2. Scale of Lengths AXLE MOMENT DIAGRAM 4000 8000/ Scale of Moments FIG. FRONT ELEVATION 20 40 in.

lbs Scale of Moments AXLE MOMENT DIAGRAM .62 In 6000 12000 In. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 339 CASE 3 DIAGRAM OF LANDING 6EAR FORCES ACTI N6 ON SP1 NDLES 26.FUSELAGE.

340 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION because with a great transversal load the wheel would In Fig. for each member : The table gives the following elements M P = f compression or tension stress I Z A F c Fm F t = Bending moment = Moment of inertia = Section Modulus = Area of the section = unit load due to compression = Unit load due to bending = Total unit load of rupture or tension Modulus Coefficient of safety . 1 SIDE DIAGRAM OF LANDING N I ELEVATION GEAR 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i o ciO o-f- 4O 1 in Scale 400 bs. 4-. 208. CASE. the results of the analysis having been break. FRONT I . Lenq+hs FORCE POLYGONS 200 400 Ibs Scale o-f Forces FIG. 209 the sections of the various members have been given. grouped in table 44. .

LANDING GEAR o t AND PROPELLER 341 ^^ ^^ ^^ (MOOOO(MOO OO1>" OOI> ^HCO i-HO ^""* CO OiOOOOO 1^ * iC TH C^ 00 O O O O O <N OOO CO CO TH CO !> 1C i ( 00 II Of r-T C<I O rt< o O C^ CO :8 oT o" 00 CO ^^ CO !> -00 1s* 00 !> COOOGOOOCOOOOOOOCOOOOOC3 CO ^^ CO CO ^^ CO ^? 000000000000 COOOO^OCOO ~ OO OO JJ OOOO oooo o ooo ^) -| W o o oo CTJ >^< T-l 4) -| COCOOOCOCOOOCOCOOO. .HCOCOOO.FUSELAGE. .1 * g i 1^1 g .s d o .9 oo co^o CO CO CO ^^ 00 *O CO ^^ 00 J^O CO CO 00 *O C^l CO ^^ CO C^ CO '^ CO C^l CO ^^ CO _j CO CO 00 *O C^ CO '^ CO -J dddddddddddoNoodddoNpp ooooo oooco O^O OOC^I 11+1111+ +11 +11 1C rH i I <N 1 iC OO 1-1 1 .

212 and 213. made to what has been said in Chapter XVI. This static analysis is usually undertaken as a that is. Furthermore it gives six sections of the propeller which are reproduced on a larger scale in Figs.65 ft. 211. 212 and 213. Analysis of the Propeller. by first drawing the propeller based upon checking. Supposing a propeller is chosen having the profile shown in Figs. is convenient. 209. 210. will be seen that for the airplane of our example the adoption of a propeller having a diameter of 7. It . 210 gives the assembly of only one half the propeller blade the other half being perfectly symmetrical. and a We shall then see the aeropitch of 9 ft. it In the following chapter C. FIG.342 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION for the criterions to be followed in the selection and reference is to be computation of the shock absorbers. In this chapter we shall limit ourselves to static analysis of the propeller. data furnished by experience and afterward verifying the sections by a method which will be explained now. As 'Hinge at this Point O - O 4OIJ1 Scale of 51 Lencj+hs. DE ELEVATION. dynamic criterions which have suggested that choice. 211. 890 Sec. Fig. HALF FRONT ELEVATION . C-C D-D SECTION! A. SECTION C-C AND D-'D.A.

LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 343 .FUSELAGE.

344 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

shall then proceed to find the total unit stresses. pp = power absorbed by the propeller when o> turning at N revolutions. If any section A of the propeller considered. 3. In general. A so their action case: 1. 1. . = corresponding angular velocity. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 345 should be noted that in that type of propeller the pitch is not constant for the various sections. The forces which stress the propeller in its rotation can be grouped into two categories: Centrifugal forces which stress the various elements constituting the propeller mass. stresses. Bending Torsion stresses. Air reactions which stress the various elements constiis tuting the blade surface. on that section produces in the most general Tension stresses. 2. resulting thereby in a greater lightness for the propeller. We and the curvature to be given to the neutral axis of the propeller blade. 2. with that produced by The stresses will then be those of tension and torsion. it is necessary to fix the following elements : N = number of revolutions of the propeller.FUSELAGE. In order to proceed in the computations. these resultants section do not pass through the center of gravity of section A. but increases from the center toward the periphery until the maximum value of 9 feet is reached which is the one assumed to characterize the propeller. immediately seen that by giving a special curvature neutral axis or elastic axis of the propeller blade it is to the possible to equilibrate the bending moment in each section It is produced by the centrifugal the air reaction. force. the forces which stress that section are then the resultants of the centrifugal forces and the resultants of the air reactions pertaining to that portion of the propeller included between and the periphery.

cherry. N = co 1800. We shall then an infinitesimal increment have of the radius.0252 . in. per cu. d$ = 9 X co 2 X A X r r X dr = from which 2. 2 is any section whatever of the propeller. /sec. Suppose that we choose walnut. for which A = 0. which by means of formula (1) permits drawing the other whose which integration gives the total centrifugal forces $ stress the various sections (Fig.3 X A X 2.3 X dr ~= dr one X A X r (1) Then by determining the areas of the various sections A.X A X where g is dr A dr the acceleration due to gravity = 386 in. In our case. 215). As for the material. Ib.P. 214. Furthermore P p = 300 H. the propellers mahogany. The elementary expression centrifugal force d$ 2 has. and is .346 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION is A = density of the material out of which the propeller to be made. Let us now find the expression for the centrifugal force d$ which stresses an element of mass dM and for the reaction of the air dR which stresses an element 1-dSoi the blade surface. we shall be able to draw the diagram A = f (r) of Fig. the d$ = since dM X co X we can place dM = . as r is known. and therefore = 60 = 188 I/sec. . can be made of walnut. etc.

we may make dS = 16000 I X dr 24 28 Radii in Inches FIG. surface element of the blade. Calling I the variable width of the propeller blade. on the other hand. 215. velocity of rotation r U is the resultant of the velocity have plane. The and of velocity of translation V. 214. dS is a is K 24 2& 20 Radii -in Inches 32 FIG. and U is the relative velocity of such a blade element with respect to the air. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 347 The elementary sion air reaction dR has dS the following expres2 dR = where KX X U a coefficient which depends upon the profile of the blade element and upon the angle of incidence. of the airdirection of these velocities being at right angles to each other we shall co U* = 2 X r2 +7 2 .FUSELAGE.

and therefore with sufficient FIG. may be kept constant for the practical approximation various sections and equal to an average value which will be determined. The expression -j. 216. it will consequently be convenient to consider the two components of dR. 216). com- K ponent dR perpendicular to the plane of propeller rotation and component dR r contained in that plane of rotation t (Fig. changes direction from section to section.348 therefore AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION dR = from which KX = 2 (co X r2 +7 X X 2 ) I XX Xr + 2 X I It is immediately seen that it would be very of difficult to take into consideration the variation coefficient K from one section to the other.can also be put in the following form : KX co 2 X + ~) X I . We note that dR being inclined backward by about 4 with respect to the normal to the blade cord.

LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 349 .FUSELAGE.

X inch . we shall have DE = We may CLfir r/T" -j^ and dr DF = - dr then draw the two diagrams = // \ /(r) (-"Kt and -j. equals one-half of the motive power being 300 H. .p.P. so that Make -. these diagrams have been two separate figures for components R r and R the former having been plotted in Fig. V '2800 make AB = .350 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION co In our case per sec. of components is.h. equal to CD. and the angular velocity r M the motive couple will equal OAA vx KQH - ^-= 800 Ib.= ^77* 1 . the squares of 2 ^ +r 2 . maximum value The = 188. these segments will give the terms -IT- BC" V . the diagrams of the bending moments t r and M t can easily be obtained. = 188 and V = 156 m. of It should be noted that the couple. We shall evidently have CO On an axis AX lay off the various radii (Fig. /(r) whose integration gives the value shearing stresses. except for the constant K. 2 + AC 2 BC = 2 72 CO" + r? etc..= -lOOr = 1-49 perpendicular to AX. E r and E. 218. that plotted in gives the For clarity. in Fig. Projecting D in E and F. X ft. = 2800 in. 217 and the latter t..at CD makes an angle of 4 with the prolongation of BC. of a M co The shearing stresses # r and R being known. 217). by means new integration. In this manner may be calculated. = 9600 Ib. Analogously by drawing BC' .. corresponding to the various sections. and = AB that is. from B draw segment BC.

LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 351 o CO <y S^ O O _G> m O <M ? il) 2 fe 0) 0) .FUSELAGE.

moment produced in any section whatever by the centrifugal force is somehow made to be in equilibrium with the moments and the deflection stresses If the M r M t . the coefficient Then. consider any section whatever of the We shall then A propeller blade. and the elementary forces d$ and dR applied to t The elementary force d$ follows a radial direction. the shearing stresses R r and R and the moments due to the r and t. V- VeJocify erf Aeroplane FIG. are known. manner and conse- quently that of the shearing stresses and thus the value of is also determined. M M t air reaction. X inch. especially because they stress the blade in a direction in which the t Let us M greatest moment of inertia is smaller than that corresponding to the direction in which the blade is stressed by the bending moments Let us M r.352 therefore AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION M The r = |X96001b. while the elementary force dR follows a direction perpendicular to the plane of rotation of the propeller (Fig. while . 219. 219). call -^ the inclination of any point whatever of the neutral axis curve of the propeller. for each section. it. scale of fixed in this . X moments is inch = 4800 Ib. will be avoided. first of all consider the moments which are the and consequently the most important. K the resultant stress due to the centrifugal force.

that is. and by an elementary torsion couple dT The effect of this couple will again be referred to. but falls at about 33 per cent. dr. 220). and for the moment we shall suppose dR applied to the center of gravity. Let us t t . 220. . obtain y=f(r] which gives the shape that the center of gravity axis of the propeller blade must have in elevation (Fig. this force can be replaced by an elementary force dR applied to the center of gravity. However. tions. Since we may write every element the various sections will be dR it is ~ t dR /dr t easy to draw the diagram *=> w and. that the resultant of d$ and dR be tangent t to the neutral curve of the propeller blade. from d& t known principles of mechanics. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 353 is applied to the center of gravity of the element A X the air reaction dR is not applied to the center of gravity. supposing that this be true Under these for condi- AX dr of the propeller. by graphically integrating this diagram.FUSELAGE. all stressed only to tension. of the chord. t assume then the condition d$ dy 20 24 28 36 40 44 Radii in Inches FlG.

the shape in plan is found by considering the forces d<$> and dR r in Fig. torsion stresses. in Inches FIG. . 222 the diagram of f l obtained by the preceding equation has been drawn. 20 24 Radii in 20 Inches FIG. for every In Fig. 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 Radii. section Tension stresses are easily calculated. Thus the tral axis propeller may be designed. 2. These stresses are of two types: 1. 222. 221. 210 the neu- has been drawn following this criterion. In Fig.354 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION With an analogous process. tive diagrams have been drawn for -v. the reladij = f(r). tension stresses.= f(r) and y '. in A they are equal to fact. 221. Let us now determine the unit stresses corresponding to the case of normal flight.

211. thus in Fig. h the lever arm of the axis of dR with respect to the center of gravity. to the torsion stresses. of h are marked on the --T- sections (Figs. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 355 As tion air reaction. they depend only upon the Let us consider a section and the air reac- A dR which acts upon the blade element Evidently 2 t I - dr correspond- ing to this section. width of the blade Z. we have seen. f(r} and by integrating. 218. 212 and 213) the values and ^ ff are given by the diagrams diagram of Figs.FUSELAGE. at 0. that of T = f(r) . 217. therefore dR will in general produce a torsion about the center of gravity.33 falls. 223 the drawn of may be dT = dF -. the elementary torslonal h moment 2 will be dT = and consequently X dR = h X (dR t + dR*)* The values . let us call point as of the The dR = (dR of application of dR + dR *)* r Inches FIG. 223.

FIG. 224.356 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 01 2345 . . <&' 40 3 4 8 12 16 20 24 25 32 36 40 44 FIG. 226. 40 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 in.012345 FIG. 225.

2 X/ 2 2 )^ where a - 1 . to this effect it suffices to determine the ellipse of inertia of the various sections by the usual methods of graphic analysis. we will have respect to the principal axis of For each section (Figs.65 X 2 (/i + 4 X -. 225).3 modulus of rupture in tension = modulus of rupture in shearing gives / ^**' / Then the diagram which may be drawn (Fig. 226). a safety factor between 4 and 5 is practically suffi- cient for propellers. it sections are sufficient. 212 and 213). which. the approximation which can be reached is practically sufficient. we shall have the values /2 of the It is immediately eviunit stresses to torsion (Fig. LANDING GEAR It is AND PROPELLER 357 now necessary to determine the polar moments Ip of the various sections. the corresponding values of the total moment of torsion T by the values of the section modulus for torsion Z. does not correspond to though. 211.35 X /i + 0. of the polar moment Ip and of Z p = -oc In Fig. the total stress f is determined by the formula practice. dent that this method is exact only when the neutral axis of the propeller is rectilinear and in the direction of the radius. we have shown the values of the area. When the unit stresses /i and /2 to tension and torsion are known. f t for the various sections It is seen that the value of the maximum that is. to about J^ the value of the modulus of rupture. Dividing. then calling I x and I y the moments of inertia with inertia. however.FUSELAGE. effect t In f = t 0. as the torsion stresses represent a small fraction of the total stresses. As stress is equal to 1280 pounds per square inch. 224 the diagram Ip for the various sections and the diagram -7 oc = Zp have been drawn. for each section. may be concluded that the aforesaid .

A and A will also be functions of i.4 (5A + (7) The preceding equations can then be written W ~V~2 =A / . as in Chapter VIII. Let us assume. that A = 10~ 4 XA A = 10. n^ = i47A 358 Since A and a are constant and X and 5 are functions of the angle of incidence i.CHAPTER XX DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS Once the airplane is calculated and designed. head resistance.4 \AV 9 2 and 147 X 10~ (5A + <r)7 3 where = A = V = PI = = o- W weight in pounds. Let us remember that the aerodynamical equations binding the variable parameters of an airplane are method for this W 550P! - = 10. surface in square feet. testing it in an aerodynamic laboratory. and sustentation and of resistance of the wing surface. . The best determination would undoubtedly be that of building a scale model of the designed airplane and of This. is often impossible. theoretical power in coefficient of total 5 X and = coefficient of horsepower necessary for flight. and it is therefore necessary to resort to numeric computation. speed in miles per hour. it becomes possible to determine its flying characteristics. however.

DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS I- 359 o o CO 1 .

that the head resistance offered to each other by two or more bodies close and moving in the air is not always equal to the sum of the head resistances the bodies encounter when moving each one separately.5. remembering that a = 2K X A that is. It is then easy to compile Table 46 which gives a = 132. TABLE 45 2KA = 132. the couples of values corresponding to A and A and consequently enables us to draw the logarithmic diagram of A as function of A (Fig. if such experimental determination cannot be available. it is equal to the sum of the head resistances of the various parts of which the airplane is composed. A and X A for the various parts tunnel. but it can be either greater or smaller. an exact value of the coefficient obtained only by testing a model of the airplane in a wind <? However. it is possible to obtain a pair of values of A and A corresponding to each value of of A as function of A can i.360 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION X. Let us suppose that X and 8 are given by the diagram of The value of a is calculated by Fig. This. 227). and the logarithmic diagram Then. K This table gives constituting the airplane in our example. and <r then be drawn. does not always hold true. 5 being known. because of the fact however. the value a can be determined approximately by calculation as has been mentioned above. can be Thus. 155 (Chapter XVII). Table 45 shows the values of K.5 .

If we wish to study its climbing speed it is of speeds.p. gives Fmin = that necessary to draw the diagram which gives pP 2 as function of the various Thus it is necessary to know speeds. laying this segment off on the scale of speeds we have Fmax< It is also seen that the minimum segscale speed at which the airplane can sustain itself is given by the ment B'B" which. Then our airplane can fly at speeds between 72 and 153 m. we can reach an efficiency of p = 0. this makes possible the immediate determination of the maximum speed which can be reached. which represents ^max.p..p. imposed as a condition. P V processes analogous to those used in Chapters VIII and IX. read on the 72 m. . that the number of revolutions of the propeller may be selected. The diagram then enables us to immediately find the pair of values V and PI corresponding to sea level..h.h. then the maximum useful power is 0.h.p. Thus power case is it is necessary to know the of the engine (which in our 300 H.h.815. supposing.. as it should always be.) and the propeller efficiency. it is lower than the value 75 m.P.815 X 300 = 244 H.P. the characteristics of the engine and propeller. making PI = 244 we have A A" the segment = 153 m. is.DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS The this 361 and of l diagram are easily found with scales of W.

815.362 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION mum Let us suppose that the characteristics of the engine be see that the maxithe same as those given in Fig. mum minute. if we wish it is to reach the maxi- efficiency of P = 0. 228. is developed at 1800 revolutions per power We 310 300 290 2&0 270 260 BO 240 230 220 210 200 190 I&O 13 14 15 16 15 R.p.P. 228. on the other hand. of 300 H.m( Hundreds) FIG. certain ratio between the necessary to satisfy a translatory velocity of the air- .

229 are shown the values of the maximum obtainable efficiencies with 10 . adopting as units. propellers of the best known type a to-day. 229. which is repeated in Fig. 71 (Chapter VI). In Fig.DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS^ 363 plane and the peripheric velocity of the propeller.-3 10' iz V nD FIG. how- . with the indica- tion of the values V -~ = P and v corresponding to the value of maximum efficiency.

-I 10 - 2 ' 2 X 1Q . 7.000 ft. case to connect the propeller directly with the crank-shaft.p. and XIV.12 Knowing that V = 153 and P = 300 H. found is very near to the be convenient in our average R. and 28. P . p = 0.we have seen that 7max = 153 m. " j. XIII.h. it is possible to draw the diagram of pP 2 as a function of V for any altitude.000.P.815. . r..p. for P. Let the characteristics of a family to which our propeller belongs be those given in the logarithmic diagram of Fig.h. 229 allow us to obtain the number of revolutions and the diamIn fact f or p = 0. 230. Since we want . 230. D ' . have the same characteristics (see Chapter IX). D and p. 16. Then with the same criterions which have been explained in Chapters. for n. It should be remembered that all propellers having the same blade profile and the same ratio between pitch and diameter. this purpose the diagrams have been drawn in Fig. for For instance. whose values are defined by the preceding equations. Solving these equations we obtain: D = p n = 1690 revolutions per minute. IX.p.000.m.92 feet. will Having obtained the propeller.P. we have as unknowns n. for V.m. Since the of revolutions it number of the engine. m. it is necessary to know the characteristic curve of the propeller family to which it belongs.815 we find eter of the propeller.p. 24. H. and = 9.364 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION p and D. and feet for ever. the altitudes 0. the diagrams of Fig.35 feet. 11-4 X 10. and consequently .

drawn from which it is seen that the maximum velocity at sea level is only 150 m.DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 365 p which give the values IV J-J ^ corresponding to these altitudes and in Fig.h. 232 have been using these diagrams those of Fig. with a corresponding useful This depends upon the fact that a proof 225 H.P. FIG. 230. By power . 231 the diagrams of P 2 of the same heights.p. 4X10" 3 6x10 3 8xlO~ 3 lOxlO" 3 12x10" I4*IO~ 3 ifr 60 I i i i 70 i 80 i i 1 1 1 1 i 1 90 1 1 100 1 1 1 150 I 200 I I i i I 1 1 J i i I I V. Tn:p.-h.

366 peller AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION has been directly connected which should have been used with a reduction gear having a ratio of TOQQ* We will immediately see that if we wish to adopt a direct connection it is more convenient to choose a propeller which. although .

DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 367 .

number and therefore as = 1..5 ft. it velocity is equal to 29.92 ft. The diagrams of Fig. is of smaller dimensions so as to permit the engine to reach the most advantageous number of revolutions and therefore to develop all the power It is interesting. must then be considered as the ceiling of our airplane if equipped with the above propeller. on the ground the ascending At 28. however. 2346). 148 m. Let us now suppose that a propeller is adopted of such diameter as to permit the engine to reach its maximum It = of revolutions.p. ft. the behavior of the propeller having a diameter of study 7. the height of 28..000 ft.000 at 24. at 28. ft.18.7 per that is. per minute. equal to a little more second. 138 m. in 50 minutes.000 150 m. 232 show that the maximum hori- of which of 7. These velocare plotted in Fig. that is.h. to first it is capable.h. the airplane can reach a height of 28.h.h.000 ft.p. ft. By using the diagram of Figs. t v = f(H) it is easy to obtain that of its = f(H) and therefore by integration.p.368 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION belonging to the same family.65 ft. 144 m. of diameter are at at 16.92 zontal velocities at the various altitudes with the propeller ft. 233. 227 and 230 we find with easy trials and by successive approximation that the most suitable propeller will have a diameter of 7. in 3000 seconds.p..000 ft. 234a).. we obtain that of (Fig. than 100 ft.000 ft. in order to compare it to that of a smaller diameter. ities From ~ the diagram of (Fig. a pitch of about . per second. /(#). These diagrams allow us to obtain the differences pP 2 PI and therefore to compute the values of the maximum climbing velocities v at the various heights. is equal to 1. which gives the time of climbing can be seen that with this particular propeller.

233. .DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 30 369 * 25 20 15 \ 10 10000 20000 30000 H=F+. FIG.

234. .6 30000 3200 2400 1600 &00 10000 30000 30000 H=Ft (*) FIG.370 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 0.

DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 371 .

372 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 35 30 25 20 15 10 10000 20000 30000 H=Fh FIG. 236. .

4 O (D (f) ? 0.3 r= n 0.-H 373 pe A 0. 237. FIG. .5 0. 30000 .6 0.2 10000 ZOOOO 30000 3ZOO 24-00 1600 500 10000 ZOOOO H=Ft.DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS .

000 at 24. m. the airplane cannot lift itself in it is necessary to have a certain excess of power in order to leave the ground.7 ft. of velocities.h.. The second the first propeller. then the maximum useful available power will be 244 H. Supposing p = 0. this condition as Practically. m. ft. is reached in 2400 seconds.. per minute..000 156 155 150 144 m. arises: is decidedly better than the one.p.374 9 ft. which the airplane could lift. The question now What is maximum load that can be lifted with our airplane? It is therefore necessary to suppose the efficiency of the propeller to be known.h. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION This propeller is the one for which the static analysis was given in the preceding chapter. 47 A) (Fig.p.h.815. in only 40 The diagram of Fig. however. per second = 222 ft. read on the scales of velocity. The diagram of Fig. For such a propeller = f(H) and the logarithmic diagrams of P P 2 the diagram v . at 16.P. Let us again examine the diagram A = /(1. 235 show that the new maximum at ft. that is. the ceiling has become greater than 28. 236 shows that at an altitude of v = 3.000 ft.p. gives 7 = 132 m.P.h.p.000 at 28.000 ft.. 236 = f(H) and = f(H) have been t plotted in figures and 237a& respectively.. The corresponding velocity is measured by segment BD which. minutes. that is. The diagrams velocities are of Fig. 237 finally shows how the height of 28. 28. therefore. . 238) for our airplane at the point corresponding to 244 H.000 ft. on the scale of powers. ft.h. and which in our case would be about 7300 Ib.p. m. draw a perpendicular to meet tangent t in B drawn from the diagram parallel to the scale From B draw the parallel BC to the scale of Point C gives the maximum -theoretical load powers. those of 235. ft.

DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 375 .

720 log = 0. 12. measured by B'D and is equal to 116 m. to meet tangent t in B draw the parallel to the scale of power.000 we will have p becomes 0. that sq. from 0' raise the periu f f . we had ft. the parallel p to the scale of velocity.000 ft. ft. Until now we had supposed a load of 8 increased Ib.5 case the useful power H. From origin of the diagram draw a segment 00' parallel to the scale of and which measures ju = 0. and which in our The corresponding velocity is case is about 4100 Ib. For each of such hypotheses will be necessary to calculate the new values of A and A the results of these calculations are grouped in Table 47.685.815 has been adopted. ft. per up to 10. A =265 sq. it meets the horizontal line in C' drawn from BB'. 239 have been drawn. the point which corresponds to this power. . lifting surface is reduced from respectively.000 ft.P. The useful power will be 244 H. that is. .P. V be obtained. from C' draw the parallel to 00' up to C" this point defines the value of the maximum load which our airplane could lift up to 10.376 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Supposing then we fix the condition that the airplane As should be able to sustain itself at a height of 10.h. that is. H= for l 60.685X300 = 167. Let us now study what the effect would be of a diminu- pendicular until '. per sq. to 214. tion of the lifting surface. Now supposing this load is 14. drawing from A. maximum scale of of drawing the tangent t parallel to the from each of the various curves the points tangency which determine the minimum velocities will velocities. 153 it and 134 sq.P. on the intersection with this line and the diagram we shall have the point which defines the .815X0. 178. and 16 Ib. the 265 sq.p. let us then suppose that in each case a propeller having the maximum efficiency of 0.685. ft. therefore in this 10.5 H. successively. By means of this table the diagrams of Fig.. Let us then draw a perpendicular from A' corre- H = From B sponding to 167. ft.

DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 377 .

necessary for flying. it also increases minimum power therefore a diminution in the climbing velocity ceiling.5 + a) Table 48 gives the values of the maximum and minivelocities corresponding to the various wing surfaces.378 A = io-"XA AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 47 a . This table sustains the point that while a reduction of mum surface increases the the values of the increase in the Figure 239 also clearly shows that a diminution of surface requires an maximum velocities. minimum velocities. = A = 10~"(5A 132. and and in the TABLE 48 .

(Fig. constructed so as not to interfere with the deformation of the wing truss. so that weight W. During the test. In both cases the machine is placed so as to have an inclination of 25 per cent. In general customary to make separate tests (A) on the wing truss. the . 1. a whole. other loaded as in inverted flight. . with its component L stresses the vertical trusses. per linear inch. per linear inch. Sand Tests on the Wing Truss.CHAPTER XXI SAND TESTS WEIGHING FLIGHT TESTS I The ultimate check on static computations giving the resistance to the various parts of the airplane. In the first assumption. per linear inch. (B) on the fuselage (C) on the landing gear and (D) on the control system. Two sets of tests are usually made on a wing truss to determine its strength one assuming the machine loaded as in normal flight.62 Ib. is made either by tests to destruction of the various elements of the structure or by static tests it is upon the machine as. per linear inch.98 Ib. the inverted machine is loaded with sand bags. in the second assumption the machine is loaded with sand bags in the normal flying position. and with its component D stresses the horizontal trusses.82 Ib. so that the weight of the sand exerts the same action on the wings as the air reaction does in flight. 1. A. the fuselage is supported by special trestles.75 Ib. For the example of the preceding chapters it is well to remember that these reactions were due to the following loading: Upper Upper Lower Lower front spar rear spar front spar rear spar 379 1. 1. The distribution of the load upon the wings must be made in such a manner that the reactions on the spars will be in the same ratio as those assumed in the computation. 240).

380 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

241. not exceeding a weight of 25 Ib. .DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS The sand is 381 usually contained in bags of various dimensions. These sand bags must be so placed that beside the preceding conditions. in order to facilitate UPPER RIB A 15 35 40 35 35 30 25 20 20 15 10 10 10 5 5 5 LOADS IN POUNDS LOWER RIB. FIG. they give a loading satisfying handling. A 15 35 35 30 30 25 ZO 20 20 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 LOADS IN POUNDS.

the Ib.382 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION for the diagram upper and lower rib analogous to those in Fig. TABLE 49 . 241 a. For the airplane of our example. below the theoretical diagrams. b. while in actual flight to the air reaction. UPPER WING FIG. 242. using sand bags of 5. and tables 49 and 50. 242 and 243. . it has an opposite direction These weights must be taken into consideration in determining the sand load correspondin g to a coefficient of 1 Before starting a static test it is customary to prepare a diagram of each wing with a table showing the loads corresponding to the various coefficients. the machine being inverted. In these figures. has practical loading. which gravitates upon the vertical trusses and therefore must be added to the weight of shown the sand. 10 and 25 In the test corresponding to normal flight. these diagrams are shown in Figs. been sketched. it is necessary to consider the weight of the wing truss.

Then proceed as follows 1. it is necessary to take a preliminary reading of the intersections of the graduated rulers with the copper wire. 243. Naturally.9 .4- 383 I 24O 24-. .SAND TESTS WEIGHING FLIGHT TESTS 13. Start loading the sand bags on the wings. before applying the load.O LOWER WING.Q i eo.9 I 2Q. elastic curve below a are subjected in order to determine their elastic curves In general the determination of an coefficient of 3 is disregarded. FIG. TABLE 50 Factor safety Table of loads for sand test During the progress of the test it is of maximum importance to measure the deformation to which the spars under various loadings. following the preceding instructions for a total load corresponding to a coefficient of 3. as the deformations are very small. To measure the deformations small graduated rulers are usually attached to the spars in front of which a stretched copper wire is kept as a reference line. Z4. minus the weight of the wing truss. so as to compute the : effective deformation.

Take another reading. 6. Furthermore the deformations with the load. 7. 8. 5. test is prepared. Load the machine again so as to reach a total load 1 equal to four times that corresponding to a coefficient of minus the weight of the wing truss. Take another reading with the machine unloaded. portion of the fuselage. At the same time a load equal to the breaking load of the elevator itself is placed corresponding to the point at which the elevator is fixed. Consequently all the elements are had by means of which the unit stresses in the various parts of the wing truss under different loadings can be computed. Take a new reading with the machine unloaded. As the maximum coefficient for which the machine has been computed. times the weight of the various masses contained in the fuselage. it was seen that the principal flight. 6. it is not safe to take further readings as the falling of the load which follows the braking may endanger the observer. The various of the deformations with the load and those after readings basis unloading. allow the computation of deformations sustained both by struts and diagonals. etc.. Sand Test of the Fuselage.384 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 2. Unload the wing truss gradually and completely. Unload the machine completely. so on for coefficients of 5. etc. For the determination of the coefficient of safety the sum of the weights of these masses is taken as a basis. In computing the fusel- age. to equilibrate the moment due to this load the usual procedure is to anchor the forward Fig. When this entire load has been placed on the wings. 4. take a reading of all the rulers. are usually put in tabular forms and serve as a for plotting the elastic curves. 4. 5. 7. and subsequently loading it with sand bags and lead weights so as to produce loads equal to 3. stresses are those pro- duced in made by suspending Therefore the fuselage sand test is usually it by the four fittings of the main diagonals of the wings. is approached. 3. and that corresponding to which the ma- And chine will brake. 244 clearly shows how the . B.

SAND TESTS WEIGHING FLIGHT TESTS 385 .

whose possible to plot the diagram of area fWdf gives the total work the shock absorbing system is capable of absorbing. under the wheels. it is as a function of /. D. " and to denote the weights read on the Using scales under the wheels and for that read on the scale supporting the tail skid. of loading which may Weighing the Airplane. metry it is The contained in the plane of symthis it it. and under the propeller hub for the case of Fig. two 246). W II The weighing of the airplane is not only to determine whether the effective necessary weights correspond to the assumed ones. with full load. happen in flight. and loaded with the criterion explained in Chapter XVIII. the first time with the tail on the ground (Fig. The load assumed coefficient is as a basis for the determination of the taken equal to the total weight of the airplane If. the total weight will be W W W" W = W + W" + W" The vertical axis v' divides the distance passing through the center of gravity I between the axis of the wheels and . 245). the corresponding vertical deformation / is determined. is center of gravity of the airplane. and one under the tail skid for the case of Fig. This is done with the landing gear in a position corresponding to the line of flight and by loading it with lead weights. To determine suffices to determine two vertical lines which contain and for this only necessary to weigh the aeroplane twice.386 C. 246. 245. Sand Test of Control Surfaces. This test is made with the control surfaces mounted on the fuselage. corresponding to each value of load W. but also to determine the position of the center of gravity both with full load and with the various hypothesis. Three scales are necessary for each weighing. and the second time with the nose of the machine on the ground (Fig. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Sand Test of the Landing Gear.

SAND TESTS WEIGHING FLIGHT TESTS

387

388

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

the point of support of the tail skid into two parts Xi and #2 so that

W + W"

for

which

W"

i

i/r////

SAND TESTS WEIGHINGFLIGHT TESTS

389

390

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
since
Xl

and

+ X2 =

I

and

W+W
=
I

"

+ W" =

W

we

shall

have
~\K7"'

x1

X

W

Let us proceed analogously for the case of Fig. 246. In this manner two lines v' and v" are obtained whose intersection defines the center of gravity. To eliminate eventual errors and to obtain a check

on the

work

it is

convenient to determine the third line

v'",

by

balancing the machine on the wheels; v"' will then be the vertical which passes through the axis of the wheels (Fig. The three lines v', v" and v'" must meet in a point 247).
(Fig. 248).

Ill

The

flight tests

include two categories of tests, that

is;

A. Stability and maneuverability tests. B. Efficiency test. A. The purpose of the stability tests is to verify the balance of aeroplane when (a) flying with engine going, and when volplaning, (6) in normal flight and during maneuvers.
.

Chapter XI has stated the necessary requisites for a wellbalanced airplane, therefore a repetition need not be given.

SAND TESTS WEIGHING FLIGHT TESTS

391

392

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
said of maneuverability tests,

The same may be
is

whose

to verify the good and rapid maneuverability of the scope airplane without an excessive effort by the pilot. of the efficiency tests is to determine the characteristics of the airplane, that is, the ascensional flying and horizontal velocities corresponding to various loads and

B.

The scope

eypes of propellers which might eventually be wanted for
txperiments. Table 51 gives examples of tables that show which factors of the efficiency tests are the most important to determine.

APPENDIX
following tables are given for the convenience of the designer: Tables 52, 53, 54, 55 and 56 giving the squares

The

and cubes of velocities. Table 57 giving the cubes of revoluTable 58 giving the 5th tions per minute and per second.
powers of the diameters in
TABLE
52.

feet.

TABLE OF SQUARES AND CUBES OF VELOCITIES

393

394

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
TABLE
53.

TABLE OF SQUARES AND CUBES OF VELOCITIES

APPENDIX TABLE 54. 395 TABLE OF SQUARES AND CUBES OF VELOCITIES .

TABLE OF SQUARES AND CUBES OP VELOCITIES .396 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 55.

APPENDIX TABLE 56. 397 TABLE OP SQUARES AND CUBES OF VELOCITIES .

s. .398 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 57. TABLE OF CUBES OF R.M.p. AND R.P.

COIOI> o^ T-H cq_ 10^ T-H T-H^ a^ c^cocOT-ioooOT-Haj <N Tt< O T-HCi^OOOO^fT-icOCOOO cO^b-OOCOI>-Tt tOcO CO CO CO ^^ Oi | T-H "^t* C^l C^l t>- COOSOit^-toOcOO t>T-H 1^ T-H CO CO T t t>T I 1 I O3 tO 00 T-H o T-H Tt^ -^ to GO <N r^ Oi o COOOOOr^(MtOOOCiiOl^-O T-HCOCOOcOtOOOiOOO CO tO l> T I 0^ to CO 1^ GO O5 T-I t^- 00 1> T-H CO IO O O 00 O O rH GO O CO ^ <M " T-H T-H <M 00 CO T-t t^ t^ CO CO to tOCOI>OOO5OT-H(McO .APPENDIX OT-HT-HOSCOT-IT-HOSOO o~ I 399 COt>OOOOOCO(NOOCO -~ cT to" i ft^-^HOiCOCOCOOOOi CO IO CO 00 l>- 00 rfrl CO IO T-( CO T-H co to i> o <NCO<NCOCOI>.O<N 001>.COail>OrtiO OOIMOCOOOCOOO <MtOCi"*l<M^OT-H T-H <N CO to l> !>-T-HOOdCOiO''^'^GOtOO OOOOOOO(MC<JCOCOTt<00 CO CO T-HOCO"*tr^lO"*OOT-HT-(O5 Q C5 O (M CO CO rH C^ CO "^ CO O5 t^. O iO CO O CO t>.CO rt< ^^ O5 CO CO (N iO rfi CO <N CO oo o oo ci >O CO iO 00 iO (N CO 00 O O CQI tOC^Ol>-T-HCOOI>>OCOCO rH<N'*oOCO'-HT-icOcO<N T-H CO T^ CO O5 COCOOT 'ooooiocococoT-i S s -> io T-Tco 5jri>^is^T!-rirroo~crTjr I> <M Tt^ Oi T-H (N CO TtH CO GO O O ^ 1-1 CO T-H O CT (N* r-T co" T-H" O^ O Cf T-H T-H T-H cf CO~ (M O5 O5 CO T-H T-H rH (M Tj< CO T^T-HOOJI^COT-HOOT-H o^ t^ co^ tq_ (NCOO5COC^O.

.

89 of. 314 Flat turning. 12 structure. 19 principal. 151-159 Flying tests. 29 Flying characteristic determination. 209 Dispersion. 257-258 Elevator. 2 19 of sustaining group. 32 Biplane. -101 Ailerons. efficiency. for airplane. 68-71 types of. 19 rolling. 130-133 time of. factors influencing lift- drag efficiency. uses of. 56 sis. 35 Dimensions of airplane. 256-258 curve method spar analy- Cables. 51 influence of air density on. 204-220 factors modifying. 90 Aerodynamics. 273 position of. 188-203 Ceiling. 20 Engine. 247-256 Fifth powers table. Canard type. 161-166 of B Banking. 27 195-203 Center of gravity. 234 Cruising radius. 234 234 Angle of drift. 70 Control surfaces. angle of. definition Drift. 286 Copper. direction. 31 angle of. 20 computation. at high altitudes. tables of. Drag. 51 center of gravity of. 102 problems of. 19 sand test of. 191-194 Compressors.INDEX D Aerodynamical Laboratory. 73 Distribution of masses. 15 Elastic cord. 322 function. system. elements of. 392 . 19 E Efficiency. effects of. 393-397 401 Fabrics. 87. 33 Dihedral angle. 273 Climbing. 22 size of. 399 Fin computation. 214 Cubes. 51 function of. increasing the. 35 pump uses pressure feed. 225 splicing. 89 Axis. 58 Aluminum. 1 of. 211 construction Air of. 358-378 Flying in the wind. 1 of incidence. 189 speed. 306-311 work absorbed by. pitching. 226 characteristics of.

58 types of. Rubber cord. 137 Flying with power on. 67 fuselage. 102-114 angle spiral. 342-357 Great loads. 47 Rudder. 211 45-46 in. feed.402 Flying maneuvrability. 332 324-334 Oil tank. 2 efficiency of. angle of. 36 balanced. 79-85 75 104 111-114 pitch. Glues. 261-275 piping for. of. 6 landing gear. 49 energy absorbed by. 1 of. 73 blades. 44 Leading edge. 386 stresses on. 6 function Lift. control surface. 115-133 Forces acting on airplane in flight. Monocoque Mufflers. 379-384 Shock absorbers. 39 Motive quality. 72-85 efficiency of. 39 K G Gasoline. 60 Pressure zone. 44-50 analysis of. 168 . 221-260 Metacentric curve. 47-48 binding of. 390 INDEX Materials for Aviation. spar analysis static analysis of. 222-234 Radiators. 58-60 Glide. blades. 276-288 Speed. of. 386 2 wing truss. multiple. 88-89 Iron and steel in aviation. 58 Pitot tube. 46 sand test of. 134-150 uses of. 62 Resistance coefficients. Sand 2 of. 1 Principal axis. tank. 386 fuselage. 74 profile of. 47-48 M Maneuvrability. 260 static analysis of. 384 of. 96-98 Rib construction. Fuselage. 46-47 type of. 315 6 Lift-drag ratio. 204-220 types of. feed. 10 means to increase. test. 334-342 position of. 61-67 types of. 37-43 reverse curve 39 sand test of. 167-187 Marginal losses. 47 Spar analysis. position of. types of. 19 Propeller. 36 static analysis of. 16 Landing gear. 391 stability. 39-40 value of for. 45 effect of. 74 width R Incidence. 165 Multiplane surfaces. 384-385 law of variation value of. 91 Planning the project.

50 uses of. 50 Tail system computations. effects of. 230 tables of streamline. 324-334 of main planes. 246-254 computations. of control surfaces. Synchronizers. truss. efficiency. 73 W Weighing the airplane. 276 Tail skid. 234-254 characteristics of various. function of. 259 Veneers. 288-292 Tubing. system. 56 239 . 3 sand test of. 322 U Unit loading. 224 streamline. 49. 278. tables of. tables for round. effect 134-150 directional. 225 Wood. 315-323 of fuselage. 212 shape of. 393-397 Stability. effect of. 121 Tie rods. 276-314 Varnishes. 156 Wing. 229-231 Triplane. fittings. 18 stretching. 294-296 tables. 259 Streamline wire. 141 147 140 transversal. 139 intrinsic. 241-254 tables for Haskelite. 20 Static analysis. 141 zones of. element of. 20 function of.INDEX Spiral gliding. 147-150 Useful load increase. 225 Struts. 12 Truss analysis. computation dimension of. tables. 306-314 Wires. 137 20 279 mechanical. 30 of. 232-233 of. 211 flying. 226 Trailing edge. 231 of weights for round. lateral. Stabilizer. steel. action. 379 unit stress on. analysis of. 259 finishing. 9 236- Transmission gear. on stability. 314-323 Tandem Tangent surfaces. 389 Wind. 9 elements of. 111-114 Squares. table of moment of inertia for round. 297-300 1 Sustentation phenomena. 403 Transversal stability. 12.

.

.

.

.

.

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful