TIMPURILE

1. Exprimarea prezentului
• Unui singur timp dintr-o limba ii pot corespunde doua timpuri dintr-o alta limba. It’s been raining for two days.Ploua de doua zile. It often rains here. Aici ploua des. • UN prezent poate fi folosit shi pentru a exprima o actiune viitoare: She is coming tomorow. • Ptr, a reda prezentul in engleza sunt patru forme verbale: He’s living in London at the moment. El locuieste la L. in acest moment . He generally lives in London. In general, el locuieste la Londra. She’s lived here for two mounths. Ea locuieste aici de doua luni. She’s been living with him for six years. Ea locuieste impreuna cu el de 6 luni.
1.1

Prezentul simplu
Intrebuintare 1.ptr a descrie o actiune care se repeta in mod regulat:

I go to the cinema every week. Do your children often fight? 2.ptr a exprima un obicei: He doesn’t smoke but he drinks a lot. I play the guitar. 3.ptr. a exprima un adevar general valabil, cum ar fi o lege fizica: Water freezes at 0C and boils at 100C. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 4. ptr. a povesti o succesiune de evenimente scurte : He opens the door, comes in and switches the light on . 5. ptr.a exprima o actiune programata in viitor, in special at, cand se specifica momentul producerii ei: Your plane takes off at 12 o’clock and lands at 3 o’clock. We meet them tomorow at dawn. 6. intr-o propozitie subordonata introdusa prin IF sau UNLESS, atunci cand verbul din principala este la viitor: I’ll kill you if you tell him. They’ll arrest you unless you cooperate. 7. dupa when, as soon as , before, after , intr-o fraza in care verbul din principala este la viitor : I’ll help you when I come back We’ll have dinner as sun as you’re ready. 8. cu verbele care exprima un sentiment (love, like, hate, dislike, prefer…), cu cele care nu presupun notiunea de durata ( seem, want, belong, know, meen, wish…), si cu cele care redau cuvintele cuiva ( say, tell, ask, answer…): I don’t like westerns, I prefer horros films. What do you meen? He seems tired. He says your son does’t work much. OBS: atentie la caul verbului to think ( a gandi / a reflecta , a crede , a considera ….) I’m not sleeping , I’m thinking. I think you don’t sleep enough.

Prezentul perfect simplu
Present Perfect nu se traduce intotdeauna cu perfectul compus din romana.

Formare :

have/has+ Vb.III(ed)

I have painted my car. He has eaten fish. I haven’t understood anything. Have they arrived? Hasn’t she got married yet?

Mi-am vopsit masina. El mananca peste . N-am inteles nimic. Au sosit? Ea nu s-a maritat inca?

Se foloseste indeosebi atunci cand e vorba de prezent sau de viitor decat cand e vorba de trecut. I have arrived? inseamna I am here Have you met John? Inseamna Do you knou John? 1.El descrie o actiune trecuta ale carei efecte se fac simtite si in prezent: I have finished my essay. Mi-am terminat lucrarea . They have sold there house . Ei si-au vandut casa. OBS: Titlurile ziarelor si informatiile de radio si televiziune se scriu adesea la present perfect simple: The hostages have been freed. Ostaticii au fost eliberati . The president has resigned. Presedintele a demisionat. 2.Se foloseste cu indicatorii temporali nedifiniti, cum ar fi ever, never, before, yet, already……dar niciodata cu indicatorii temporali definiti: yesterday, last week, a mounth ago….. I have already told you that. 3.Se folosete ptr a descrie o actiune care a inceput in trecut si se continua in momentul vorbirii: I haven’t seen him today yet. Nu l’am vazut inca azi. ( dar “ I didn’t see him yesterday”) 4.Folosit impreuna just acest timp descrie ceea ce s-a intamplat de curand: He has just arrived. El tocmai a sosit . They ‘ ve just got married. Ei tocmai s-au casatorit. 5. Descrie o actiune inceputa in trecut si care se prelungeste si in prezent: How long have you been here? De cand esti aici. I’ve been here for three months. Sunt aici de trei luni. I’ve been here since Christmas. Sunt aici de la Craciun. OBS: for + durata: for an hour = de o ora since + moment precis: since one o’clock = de la ora unu “for “ inseamna si “ timp de…” EX: I’ve lived in London for two years. Locuiesc la L. de doi ani. I lived in London for two years. Am locuit on L. timp de doi ani.
6.

Intrebuintare

Se foloseste in expresiile :” This is the first time …………It’s a long time since……” This is the first time I’ve eaten caviar. Este ptr prima oara cand mananc icre negre. It’s a long time since you have written to me. De mult nu mi-ai mai scris .

Prezentul Perfect Continuu
I’ve been writing for three hours.

Acest timp insista asupra duratei unei actiuni care a inceput in trecut si se continua in prezent. Faceti diferenta: I’ve written three letters. Am scris trei scrisori.

Scriu de trei ore.

( continuitate )

Formare:

have/has+been+Vb.+ing
I have been working for a week. He hasn’t been working for a week. Has he been working for a week? Lucrez de o saptamana. El nu lucreaza de o saptamana. El lucreaza de saptamana?

Hasn’t he been working for a week?

Nu lucreaza el de o saptamana?

• Perfectul prezent continuu se foloseste cam in aceleasi situatii ca si Prezentul perfect simplu. Totusi el accentuiaza ideea de continuitate in prezent actiunii descrise: I’ve lived here for years. I’ve been living here for years. I’ve painted my room. I’ve been painting for hours. OBS:

Locuiesc aici de ani de zile ……( Voi pleca) Locuiesc aici de ani de zile…….( Raman ) Mi’am zugravit camera……( Si am terminat ) Pictez de mai multe ore.

Interogatia are adesea urmatoarea forma:

How long have you been learning English?

( De cand inveti engleza?)

2.Formarea trecutului
2.1

Trecutul simplu

Denumit in engleza simple past , acesta corespunde in romana cu perfecttul simplu, perfectul compus si cu imperfectul. • Este un timp simplu care se formeaza fara auxiliar.Este timpul care pune cele mai multe probleme , printre altele si din cauza folosirii perfectului compus dn romana. • Este timpul povestirii prin excelenta: EX: Moliere was born in 1622. He became an actor , wrote plays and died in 1673.

Formare :

S+Vb.II(ed)+complement
Verbele regulate urmeaza o regula simpla: trecutul afirmativ (la fel ca si participiul trecut ), se formeaza adaugand -ed (d) daca verbul se termina in -e: to work→worked; to live → lived. Shakespeare lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth ceturies. Shakespeare a trait in secolele al XVI lea si al XVII lea. • Daca verbul se termina intr-o vocala +y, y se transforma in -i. To try → tried; to cry → cried • Verbele care au accentul pe ultima silaba si se termina intr-o consoana precedata de o vocaladubleaza aceasta vocala finala: to stop → stopped; to rob → robbed; to prefer → preferred.
• •

Intrebuintare:

make→ made; to take → took ⇒ ( forma a doua a verbului de conjugat).

Verbele neregulate au fiecare un mod propriu de formare a trecutului afirmativ( ca si a participiului

trecut) : to

Trecutul simplu este cel mai frecvent folosit cand este vorba de trecut.El se aplica unei actiuni trecute, incheiate si datate.
Henry al VIII-lea married six times. What did you do when you met him? I went to London six years ago.

1.

Acest timp se foloseste ptr a exprima o intamplare trecuta :
William the Conqueror became King of England in 1066. Wilhelm Cuceritorul deveni rege al Angliei in 1066.

2.

Se foloseste ptr o actiune scurta sau o succesiune de actiuni scurte:
He came in, took his gun and shot everybody.

El intra, isi lua arma si impusca pe toata lumea. 3.

Se mai utilizeaza ptr o actiune repetata in trecut:
I walked to school when I was your age. Mergeam pe jos cand eram de varsta ta.

4.

In concordanta timpurilor fara a se face vreo referire la trecut:
I wish I had a motorbike. If you got up earlier, you could work more. As vrea sa am o motocicleta. Daca te-ai scula mai devreme , ai putea munci mai mult.

Cu exceptia acestui ultim caz totdeauna exista o raportare la trecut, intr-o propozitie cu verbul la preterit.
5.
• •

Aceasta raportare poate fi explicita : - Corneille wrote Le Cid in 1636.( C. a scris Cidul in 1636) Alteori poate fi implicita(subinteleasa): - Shakespeare wrote thirty-seven plays. ( obs: datarea se subintelege--se stie ca Shakespeare a murit). • Despre un scriitor in viata se va spune: - He has written two novels. ( El a scris doua romane—subinteles: pana acum).

2.2

Trecutul continuu

Acest timp se formeaza cu auxiliarul to be:

ex:

WAS/WASN’T(PERS.I-III SING.) + ING WERE/ WEREN’T (LA CELELALTE PERS.) I was sleeping while they were talking . Eu dormeam in timp de ei vorbeau.
He was working. He wasn’t working. Was he working? Wasn’t he working?

---- La afirmativ : S+AUX+VERB ---- La negativ : S+ AUX+NOT+VERB ---- La interogativ: AUX+S+VERB ---- La interogativ neg: AUX+NOT+S+VERB

Intrebuintare
Trecutul continuu exprima o actiune in curs de desfasurare -1- intr-un anumit moment din trecut: What were you doing yesterday at five? Ce faceai ieri pe la cinci? -1- in timp ce alta actiune s-a produs : I was working when he came in . Lucram cand el a intrat. -3- simultana cu o alta aflata in curs de desfasurare tot in trecut. In acest caz se foloseste while: in timp ce. Some were dancing while others were singing. Unii dansau in timp ce altii cantau. Observatii: -1- Trecutul continuu se traduce in romana prin imperfect.(ceea ce era in curs de desfasurare).Faceti diferenta: He was leaving when I arrived. El pleca atunci cand eu am sosit. (Cele doua actiuni sunt simultane) He left when I arrived. El a plecat cand eu am sosit. ( Prima actiune este cosecinta celei de-a doua)
 

-2- Atentie la cele doua utilizari ale imperfectului in limba romana: ceea ce era pe cale sa se petreaca : He was going to school when I met him. El mergea la scoala cand l-am intalnit. ceea ce se petrece in mod regulat : He went to school on foot. El mergea la scoala pe jos.

2.3

Past Perfect Simple( pluperfect) - M.M.C.P.

Se foloseste ptr o atiune anterioara altei actiuni trecute. Acesta este definit ca fiind trecutul trecutului. Ex: They had finished when I arrived. Ei terminasera cand am sosit eu.

Formare:

S+Had + Vb.III(ed) HAD+VB.III(ED) Intrebuintare:
-1- se foloseste ptr a descrie o actiiune care s-a petrecut inaintea altei actiuni, tot trecute, exprimate de regula printr-un verb la trecutul simplu : • Everybody had left when the bomb exploded. Toata lumea plecase cand bomba explodase. -2- Se foloseste adesea in vorbirea indirecta dupa verbe ca: told, said, asked, thought… Acest timp se refera la evenimente deja petrecute in mometul vorbirii: • He told me that he had never seen her before. Mi-a spus ca nu o vazuse niciodata pana atunci. -3- Folosit cu for si since , past perfect exprima o actiune care a inceput in trecut si care a continuat pana la un moment precizat din trecut. In acest caz el corespunde imperfectului din limba romana: • They had knoun each otherfor several years when they got married. Ei se cunosteau de cativa ani cand s-au casatorit . -4- Past Perfect se foloseste cu constructii care incep cu it was along time… Faceti diferenta cu constructiile care incep cu it is a long time … • It’s a long time since I have seen you . E mult timp de cand nu te’am vazut. • It was a long time since I had seen you. Era mult timp de cand nu te vazusem. -5- Past Perfect se mai foloseste dupa I wish, if , if only, cu referire la o actiune care nu a avut loc si care este regretata: • If I had known….. Daca as fi stiut……….. • I wish I had met him…. As fi vrut sa’l cunosc….

2.4

Past Perfect Continuous

Acest timp se aplica unor actiuni care s’au derulat pana la un anumit moment din trecut, moment care serveste drept punct de referinta : • I had been working for an hour when he arrived. Eu lucram de o ora cand el a sosit.

Formare:

HAD+BEEN+VB.+ING

Ex: - I had been working… - I had not been working… - Had I been working…? - Hadn’t I been working…?

Intrebuintare:
-1- Se foloseste ptr a exprima o actiune inceputa in trecut si care a continuat pana la un moment dat din trecut, cand s-a petrecut ceva care a intrerupt-o sau care a avut un anumit efect asupra ei:

Everyone had been sleeping for hours when the bomb exploded. Toata lumea dormea de cateva ore cand bomba a explodat.

-2- Acest timp se foloseste in vorbirea indirecta in asociere cu verbe ca: said, told, asked…

Comparati:

He says he has been living in London for two years. El spune ca locuieste in Londra de doi ani. Cu • He said he had been living in London for two years . El a spus ca locuia la Londra de doi ani.

3.Formarea Viitorului
Modalitatile de exprimare a viitorului sunt diverse si nuantate. Mai mult , unele verbe implica o valoare de viitor prin insusi sensul lor ( to intend: a avea intentia, to wish: a dori, to expect: a se astepta la, to hope: a spera…) Principala dificultate provine din faptul ca prezentul este strans legat de viitor sub forma intentiei sau a previziunii. 3.1

Will+infinitiv prtezent Formare:
(FORME CONTRASE WILL= ‘LL (FORME CONTRASE:: WILL= ‘LL,,
WILL NOT= WON’T WILL NOT= WON’T

WILL + INFINITIV WILL + INFINITIV

-1- exprima actiuni viitoare : They will come next week. (vor veni saptamana viitoare). -2- ptr actiuni independente de vointa vorbitorului: I’ll be 20 next Saturday.( voi implini 20 ani…….) -3- introdus de verbe ca think, hope, belive exprima o actiune imediata: I think I won’t help you after all.

-4- El permite deasemenea exprimarea unor ordine:

You’ll get up at six and start working immediately.

Atentie!

Acest timp nu se va folosi dupa constructii temporale, cum ar fi when sau as soon as(de indata ce ), atunci cand propozitia principala este la viitor: Ex: - I’ll come when I’m ready. (voi veni cand voi fi gata)

3.2

Will + infinitiv perfect(viitorul perfect)

Acest timp exprima o actiune care se va termina la un moment in viitor. El corespunde viitorului anterior din lb. romana. Ex: He will have left his room by 11 o’ clock. El isi va fi parasit camera pe la ora 11.

Formare:

will+ have+Vb.III will+ have+Vb.III
He will have gonne… He won’t have gonne… Will he have gonne? Won’t he have gonne?

Intrebuintare:

Se foloseste ptr a exprima o actiune imediat anterioara unei intamplari sau unei actiuni viitoare: Ex: I’m sure they have bought you a present for your birthday. Sunt sigur ca ei iti vor fi cumparat un cadou de ziua ta .

3.3
Ex:   

Viitorul in trecut --- actiuni viitoare privite dintr-o perspectiva trecuta:
She said he would never marry me. (ea a spus ca el nu se va insura niciodata cu mine ) They were to have six children. (ei urmau sa aiba sase copii) The first time I met you were going to leave for Australia. (prima oara cand te-am intalnit urma sa pleci in A.  The first time I met you were leaving for Australia. (prima oara cand te-am intalnit tocmai plecai in Australia)

4.

Conditionalul se construieste in principal cu auxiliarul modal would urmat de infinitivul prezent sau perfect. Adesea el este urmat de o propozitie introdusa de if:

Exprimarea Conditionalului
Conditionalul prezent:

A)

Formare:

WOULD + INFINITIV PREZENT
• •

Forma contrasa a lui would este ‘d , iar cea a lui would not este wouldn’t. Should poate fi folosit la persoana I singular si plural, dar de regula se foloseste would la toate persoanele.

-1- acest timp serveste la exprimarea unei conditii:  I’d tell you her name if I knew. (ti-as spune numele ei daca l-as sti) -2- ajuta la exprimarea politicoasa a unui sfat sau a unei rugaminti:  I’d like some bread, please. (as dori niste paine , va rog!) -3- este folosit in vorbirea indirecta:  He said he would be late. ( a zis ca va intarzia ) -4- Folosim aspectul continuu atunci cand vrem sa insistam asupra a ceea ce am face daca…….  If I was at home, I’d be watching a good film instead of listening to your conversation. Daca as fi acasa, as urmari un film bun decat sa te ascult pe tine. -5- Cu valoare de conditional se folosesc could si might, formele de trecut ale lui can si may:  Could you help me?  It might rain.

B)

Conditionalul trecut:

Formare:

Would + have+ Vb.III
-1- exprima ceea ce s-ar fi intamplat, dac imprejurarile ar fi fost altele:  I would have become a doctor if my parents had been rich. As fi devenit medic daca parintii mei ar fi fost bogati. -2- exprima regretul ca lucrurile nu s-au desfasurat altfel:  If only I had known, I’d have invited you. Daca as fi stiut te-as fi invitat.

C)

 introduce o conditie si este compatibil cu majoritatea timpurilor.  Verbul care urmeaza dupa if nu poate fi la viitor sau la conditional:

If

PRINCIPALA

SECUNDARA

1) Viitor
Voi pleca I will go
DACA IF

Prezent
am bani. have money.

2) Conditional prezent
As pleca I would go
DACA IF

Past tense
as avea bani. I had money.

3) Conditional trecut
As fi plecat I would have gone
DACA IF

Past perfect
as fi avut bani. I had had money.

-1- ptr a exprima o posibilitate prezenta sau viitoare, se foloseste cu un verb la prezent: • If it rains, I won’t go to the park. Daca ploua, nu ma duc in parc. -2- ptr a exprima o ipoteza prezenta sau viitoare, se foloseste cu un verb la trecut: • If I had $1000, I’d buy new clothes. Daca as avea o mie de dolari mi-as cumpara haine noi. • I’ll come if I can. • I’d come if I could. Vin daca pot. As veni daca as putea.

Faceti diferenta:

-3- If poate exprima si o sugestie: • If you stopped shouting, I could hear what your father says. As putea auzi ce spune tatal tau, daca ai inceta sa strigi. -4- in cazul unei ipoteze trecute , if este urmat de past perfect: • If I had knoun, I wouldn’t have come. Daca as fi stiut, n-as fi venit.

(corespondenta timpurilor)
anterioritate

The sequence of times

(1) PREZENT

simultaneitate posterioritate a

⇒ orice timp cerut de context

he comes.

Ex:

He tells me that tells (prez.)

s
p

he comes. he will come.
anterioritate → PAST PERFECT ( HAD + Vb.III)

(2)

PAST TENSE

PREZENT PERFECT
Ex: He said
(past tense)

simultaneitate → PAST TENSE ( HAVE+Vb.III / Vb.II) posterioritate→ FUTURE IN THE PAST (WOULD )

had been he was

⇒ bussy.

would be anterioritate → PAST PERFECT

(3) WISH
Ex: I wish
(wished)

simultaneitate → PAST TENSE ( Vb.II) →WERE (WAS) posterioritate → FUTURE IN THE PAST (WOULD) he had been…

he were…
he would be…

HAD / would rather → ( mai degraba) HAD / would better → (mai bine) HAD / would sooner → ( mai curand) Ex: - You ‘ d rather stay
(1) (2)

⇒ infinitiv scurt

home.
=

would You + had rather + 2 (subinteles)
(SUBIECT)

PAST TENSE

I’d rather you stayed home. anterioritate past perfect

CA SI CUM CA SI CAND DE PARCA Ex: 

AS IF ≅ AS THOUGH

posterioritate

past tense

You speak as if you

had knoun knew

⇒ the truth.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
• •

It’s time It’s high time

a we went home. ( past tense ) p for as to go home. (acuzativ) he should
be there.

for him to be there.

It’s vital

(Ac.) (inf.)

he be there.

WILLIAM SOMERSET MAUGHAM THE LUNCHEON 1. to catch, caught, caught- a prinde 2. to catch sight of- a zari 3. beckoning- semn(cu mana) 4. it was long since I had seen her- trecuse mult timp de cand o vazuse ultima oara 5. I hardly think- nici nu cred 6. to address - a se adresa 7. brightly- cu exuberanta(luminos) 8. to get younger- a intineri 9. tiny- micut 10. to overlook- a da spre 11. cemetery- cimitir 12. to earn- a castiga 13. harely- cu greu 14. to keep body and soul together- a-si tine zilele 15. presently- indata, dupa putin timp 16. limited- limitat 17. beyond- dincolo de… 18. was so far beyond my means that- depasea asa de mult mijloacele mele (banesti) incat… 19. flattered- flatat 20. consequence- consecinte 21. to last- a tine 22. to cut out- a reduce, a renunta la… 23. to manage- a se descurca 24. in apparance- in aparenta 25. imposing- impunator 26. charming- femecator 27. to excite - a starni 28. sudden- brusc 29. purpose- scop 30. talkative-vorbareata 31. bill of fare- menu 32. nowadays- doar in ziua de azi 33. unless- daca 34. my hart sank- mi s-a stras inima 35. afford- a-si permite 36. cheap- ieftin 37. dish- fel(de mancare ) 38. mutton chop- cotlet de berbec 39. unwise- imprudent 40. as though- ca si cand 41. effusive- exuberant, expansiv 42. to fancy- a-si inchipui 43. to turn pale- a pali 44. trifle- fleac 45. casually- degajat 46. to forbid, forbade, forbiden- a interzice 47. take to task- a certa 48. be in the habit- a avea obiceiul 49. airy-gratios, eteric 50. blush- imbujorare , roseata