A Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the Graduate School University of the Immaculate Conception Davao City

In Partial Fulfilment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts Major in Mathematics


THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Introduction Mathematics is a basic skill needed that every person must acquire to survive in this world. However, according to Abel, Mathematics is not something that we normally associate with sublime beauty. The way mathematics is taught, it is a subject that many people would prefer to avoid because they find it difficult . Some pupils are not comfortable with mathematics and are not confident about their mathematical ability and that any skills that they have as gained are to irrelevant. be Some pupils that see the





mathematics program must be considered to have failed them (Riedesel, et. Al, 1996) . In international setting, based on 2007 Trends in

International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and 2009 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) showed major deficiencies in students’ learning in mathematics. Students showed a basic lack of understanding. Most could not solve even straightforward problems.

Based on the TIMSS previous results (1995, 1999 and 2003), the Philippines is lagging behind its neighboring Asian countries. In the 1995 TIMSS, the Philippines ranked 39th in Math out of 42 participating countries. In 1999, the Philippines ranked third to the last for math. In 2003 TIMSS, the Philippine ranked 41st in Math among the 42 participants. Very alarming since the Philippines is second to the last when in terms of mathematical ability. In 2007 TIMSS, the Philippines did not join because of its low rate. The quality elementary education in the Philippines has deteriorated over the years as indicated by the low achievement rates of students in 2007 especially in Math which is 64.81% only. It is very low compared to the desired 75% cut-off score. Meanwhile, the quality of secondary education is not far from that of the elementary level as indicated by the poor performance of 4th year students in the National Achievement Test (NAT) in 2006 in all subjects particularly in math with Mean Percentage Scores only of 44% .

The report of Tony Rimando (2009) revealed that the region’s performance in both elementary and secondary National Achievement Tests (NATs) is not impressive.6 percent.In local scene. .4 percent in Mathematics . through the results of the 2010 RVM National Achievement Test. It is for this reason that the researcher conducted this study to find out how to improve the Math proficiency of our department. The secondary level also registered a dismal academic performance as it posted an unimpressive mps of 41. five and six need to focus more on the instruction in Mathematics since it has the lowest average percentage rate compared to English and Science. The Grade 6 pupils scored lowest in Math. the quality education especially in Math in Mindanao is in a dismal state requiring immediate attention from educational leaders. garnering only a mean percentage score of 62. showed that the three levels – grades four. In the Grade School Department of the University of the Immaculate Conception.

Five And Six pupils in Math? 2.Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study was to determine the influence relationship of the academic performance Math on the RVM Math Achievement Test Results of the grade five pupils of the University of the Immaculate Conception the school year 20092010. the study seeks answers to the following questions: 1.) What levels in is the level of performance of the three RVM Achievement Test in math? . More specifically.) What is the level of the academic performance of Grades Four .

) Do academic performance of the three levels significantly contribute on the RVM Achievement Test results in math? Null Hypotheses Ho: There is no significant relationship between the academic performance of the pupils and RVM Achievement Test Results in math? Ho: Academic performance of the intermediate pupils do not significantly contribute on the RVM Achievement Test results in math? Theoretical and Conceptual Framework .3.) Is there a significant relationship between the academic performance of the pupils and RVM Achievement Test Results in math? 4.

students need to construct their own understanding of each mathematical concept. To do this. or maybe discarding the new information as irrelevant. When we encounter something new.This study is anchored on the theory of constructivism advanced by Piaget and Vygotsky . In any case. or otherwise attempt to transfer mathematical knowledge. we are active creators of our own knowledge. Constructivism is basically a theory – based on observation and scientific study – about how people learn. through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. explain. we have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and experience. explore and assess what we know. It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world. so that the primary role of teaching is not to lecture. but to create situations for students that will foster them in making the necessary mental constructions. In Mathematics. maybe changing what we believe. Constructivism suggests that math knowledge results from people forming models in response to the questions and challenges that come from actively engaging math problems . we must ask questions. constructivism is a theory about knowledge and learning. According to them.

Figure 1 : The Conceptual Paradigm of the Study Independent Variable Dependent Variable ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE • MATHEMATICS • RVM ACHIEVEMENT TEST RESULTS MATHEMATICS Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study is confined within the bounds of the levels of academic performance in Math and their RVM Math Achievement Test of the Grades Four. evaluation. Thus. nor as merely the blossoming of an innate gift. . the independent variable is the academic performance of the intermediate level in mathematics. in this study. Five and Six pupils of the University of the Immaculate Conception in the academic year 2009-2010. The challenge in teaching is to create experiences that engage the student and support his or her own explanation.and environments not from simply taking in information. the dependent variable is the RVM math Achievement Test. communication and application of the mathematical models needed to make sense of the experiences.

The respondents of the study were further delimited using the stratified proportional random sampling to 237 intermediate pupils of the University of the Immaculate Conception enrolled in the academic year 2009-2010. Furthermore. This study begins from December 2010-March 2011. the study was delimited in measuring the pupils’ performance according to the coverage of the grade five Mathematics as prescribed by the Religious of the Virgin Mary (RVM) Commission on Education and with the minimum learning competencies set by the Department of Education. Significance of the Study With an intent to ascertain the relationship between the level of academic performance of the Grade Five pupils in Math and the RVM .

The result of this study can help the teachers level up their trainings. administrators. The findings of this study will serve as an eye opener for the parents to dedicate their efforts in guiding. skills. Teachers. parents and pupils. attitudes. Parents . The result of the study shall be of benefit to the administrators because somehow through this study they can specify necessary curricula. teachers. and policies that are appropriate in enhancing the learning competencies of the learners and the quality instructions of the teachers. monitoring and supporting their children’s learning and achievement . The findings derived from the study will give them insights on how to engage in classroom discourse and activities .Math Achievement Test results. skills and knowledge to improve and highlight quality education for Mathematics . practices. the researcher hopes that the study will benefit the school. Pupils. School Administrators.

AchievementMeasure of the effects of a specific program of program or instruction (Anastasi.and social interaction to improve their academic performance in Mathematics . achievement was measured by the RVM Math Achievement Test.It refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. It is also the ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate verbally or down on paper. Academic Performance. RVM National Achievement Test – It is the test conducted annually by the Religious of the Virgin Mary sisters (RVM). Definition of Terms The following terms were defined conceptually and operationally for further understanding of the study. 1997) . . It is composed of three subject areas. math and English with 50 items in each test. In this study. Science.

. Consequently.This measures the competencies of the Grades four. the ideas and concepts acquired herein have helped posit the hypotheses. MPS – It means Mean Percentage Score. five and six pupils of the RVM Schools nationwide. The salient feature of the gathered information was realized through the various readings in the library and internet surfing. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter is a presentation of the researcher’s related literature and studies aided the researcher in organizing and formulating the theoretical framework of this study. This indicates the ratio between the number of correctly answered items and the total number of test questions or the percentage of correctly answered items in a test.

the better we will be able to communicate with them.The Meaning of Mathematics What is Mathematics? Mathematics is commonly defined as the study of patterns of structure. 1990) . the better we’ll be able to help children learn. The more we know what people believe mathematics is all about. More often than that. it is the study of figures and numbers. Mathematics is many things to many people. In recent years. one might say. the better we understand mathematics. Raising scores and having a good appearance are the goals of most schools because newspapers and other media rank . standardized test scores are used to determine how well students are doing in school. More important. change and space. more informally. testing programs have increased (Kamii. Examination/Achievement It is important how the achievement was measured before the conclusions can be drawn .

Parents care about their child’s academic performance because they believe good academic results will provide more career choices and job security. are also influenced by concerns about the school’s reputation and the possibility of monetary government institutions. In the past. and so devise methods of measuring success in order to create plans for improvement. much efforts is made to identify. academic performance was often measured more by ear than today. which can hinge on the overall academic performance of the school. though invested in fostering good academic habits for the same reason. Academic Performance According to Michelle Bell. Gardner (1993) agrees that academic achievement should be measured . education is not the only road to success in the working world.schools and district by test scores. although. evaluate. track and encourage the progress of students in schools. Other facet of society also rely on these test scores to determine the best schools. Teachers’ observations made up the . Schools. State and federal departments of education are charged with improving schools.

the problem continued. Different teachers valued different aspects of learning more highly than others. method of determining how well a student is performing is a fairly recent invention. and although some standardization was attempted in order to make the system more fair. and today’s summation. Results provide framework for talking about how students fare in school. and a constant standard to which all students are held. minimizing complaints by holding teachers and schools accountable for the components of each and every grade. Grading systems came into existence and were initially criticized due to high subjectivity. . The tracking of academic performance fulfills a number of purposes. Areas of achievement and failure in a student’s academic career need to be evaluated in order to foster improvement and make full use of the learning process. and exploration of alternate methods of measuring performance is ongoing. Performance results also allow students to be ranked and sorted on a scale that is numerically obvious.bulk of the assessment. Today. or numerical. changes have been made to incorporate differentiation for individual students’ abilities.

At the state level. For regular grading.Performance in school is evaluated in a number of ways. Teachers evaluate in the form of letter or number grades and side notes. students are evaluated by their performance on standardized tests geared toward specific level and based on a set of achievements students in each age group are expected to meet like that of the RVM Math Achievement Test. students demonstrate their knowledge by taking written and oral tests. It is a measure of the accomplished skills and indicates what a person can do at the present (Atkinson 1995). He noted that the greater number of courses taken by students and their more extensive classroom experience with Mathematics outside the classroom may give them an advantage. Kimball (1989) explained the differences between traditional and alternative views in the achievement of students in Mathematics. 1982). The advantage is in the . Achievement Test Achievement is a measure of what a person has learned within or up to a given time (Yaremko et al. to describe how well a student has done. turning in homework and participating in class activities and discussions. performing presentations.

Greater experience with mathematics may provide specific knowledge such as algorithms that can be used to solve problems. class when standardized activities extracurricular Mathematics may facilitate learning. Another way of explaining the performance of students is the novelty or familiarity of the situations.knowledge confidence of Mathematics taking which gives them tests. Another explanation in the achievement of mathematics is the autonomous approach in learning that facilitates performance on standardized tests. These differing styles of learning facilitate performance on different kinds of achievement measures. which require one to apply or generalize mathematics knowledge to a new or familiar problem. On the other hand. greater experience may facilitate through general familiarity with mathematical thinking and increased confidence. Having more mathematics-related experiences may increase students’ performance on standardized either directly or indirectly. performance Indirectly. increased Moreover. There are students who are motivated to do well and . there are other students who take rote to learning approach to mathematics that proves to be advantageous in the classroom exams.

This challenges. are given by the same person. they do well on standardized test. Second. On the other hand. the classroom examinations are taken several times within a course with the same group of people. but become less confident when dealing with novel materials. On the other hand. which offer more but do less well on classroom exams. there are students who are motivated to do well and are more confident when dealing with novel or challenging situations but are less motivated to perform well when faced with familiar situations. but they do less well on standardized test that are more likely to contain novel topics. the standardized test is given outside the class time and in a strange environment. They are more novel in two ways: the standardized test is a more novel situation because it occurs less often and sometimes is administered by a stranger. the materials or problems on a .are confident when dealing with familiar situations. Thus. Occasionally. and occur in the same physical environment. explanation rests on the assumption that standardized tests are relatively more novel and unfamiliar than classroom examinations. Thus. they do better on mathematics examinations that cover relatively more familiar topics.

the RVM Math Achievement Test is an annual examination administered to all RVM schools throughout the country to determine the achievement level.standardized test are more likely to be novel or unfamiliar to the students taking the test. the students may be given hints or information about how to prepare for a traditional classroom exam. The study of Alicante (2009) and Garao (2006) were related to this study since they dealt on the deteriorating quality education especially in mathematics. . strengths and weaknesses in Math. Achievement tests are designed to allow to demonstrate the academic proficiency of the children and they are also reliable measure of the child’s and school performance. parents hope this test will give them big answers. achievement testing is a big concern for educators and parents today. A ‘fair test’ in the classroom emphasizes what have been taught. In this case. Whether children attend public. private or home schools. On the other hand. Standardized exams are not designed to cover what has been learned in class. Moreover.

Researcher Method . sampling procedure. the respondents involved in the data.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research methodology. the researcher instruments. data gathering procedures and the statistical treatment that were used.

The goal is the acquisition of the factual. Good (1963) defines correlation as the tendency for corresponding observations in two or more series to very together from the averages of their respective series. conditions and others. 1974) . Research Locale . Five and Six was applied in this study. to have similar positions. accurate and systematic data that can be used in averages. analyzes and interprets gathering data. a class of events. In a correlation method. A descriptive method of research is a fact-finding approach which studies the nature and status of a group of persons. a relationship between variables is determined (Aquino. frequencies and similar statistical calculations. objects. Correlation is one of the most common and useful statistics. It is a single number that describes the degree of relationship between two variables. It also describes records. that is.A descriptive correlation method of research with the use of data on the academic performance in Math and the use of the RVM National Achievement Test conducted by the Grades Four.

Moreover. Davao City is typhoon-free due to its location. It is cosmopolitan and metro lifestyle.This study was conducted at the University of the Immaculate Conception Grade School Department Bajada. 971 kilometers (524 nmi) by the sea. which are further divided into 11 administrative districts containing a total of 184 barangays. Davao City where the school is situated is young romantic city in the Philippines. It . Davao City. It is divided into 3 congressional districts. The city enjoys a weather that balmy all year round.61 square kilometres. The area of Davao City is 2.443. Davao City is approximately 588 miles (946km) statute miles southeast of Manila. The University of the Immaculate Conception formerly known as Immaculate Conception College is the first catholic school in the island of Mindanao founded in 1905 by the Congregation of the Religious of the Virgin Mary sisters (RVM). It is one of the most beautiful cities in Asia. it is very accessible and is the gateway to the Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East Asia Growth Area or BIMP-EAGA.

A universal sampling technique was used since . At present. the Grade School Department has a total population of 1. The study is conducted at the Grade School Department of the UIC which is located in J. four kilometres away from the city proper. the annex and Bajada where the grade school and high school are held. the main. Since it is away from the city. 4 coordinators and a principal. Respondents of the Study There were 196 Grade Five pupils in the University of the Immaculate Conception involved in this study who served as respondents. its place is very conducive for learning because it is also free from the pollution and noise of the roads more than that it is also very wellventilated and it has rooms full of attractive decoration. There are 41 teachers.P Laurel Bajada Davao City.has three campuses. It is situated in a seven hectare lot.289 from Kindergarten to Grade Six.

Sources of data The data used in this study was obtained from the following: 1) Final Rating in Mathematics 5 The average rating in Mathematics for the four grading periods of the academic year 2009-2010 that the pupils received was taken as a measure of their academic achievement in Mathematics. These pupils represented the whole population of the Grade Five classes. FINAL RATING 100-95 94-90 89-85 84-80 79-75 74-70 2) RVM Math Achievement Test Result The RVM Achievement Test was used to evaluate the performance of the pupils’ respondents in math.there were only five sections of the Grade Five. The test is conducted annually by the Religious of the Virgin Mary. It is PERFORMANCE LEVEL Excellent Very High Level High Level Average Level Low Level Very Poor Level .

Tabulating. five and six pupils of the RVM schools nationwide. Research Procedure The researcher followed the given steps. Science and English with 50 items in each test. analyzing and interpreting the data Statistical Treatment . 2. 4. Obtaining the results of the RVM Math Achievement Test administered to the Grade five pupils from the Guidance Office. Securing the final rating in Mathematics of the Grade Five pupils from the Registrar’s Office. The RVM Achievement Test was subjected to expert consultation that measures the competencies in grade four.composed of three subject areas namely: Math. 1. Seeking permission from the principal to conduct the study. 3.

1. The Person-r was used to test the relationship between the academic performance in Mathematics and the result in the RVM Math Achievement Test. = 0. All the interpretations were based on  significance using the two-tailed test. It is obtain by dividing the sum of all the scores with the total number 2.05 level of .The following descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation were used to interpret the data. Person r – correlation tells the magnitude and direction of the association between variables and the varied on an interval or ration scale. Mean – is a central value of a group of observation of individuals.

A. The Relationship of the Academic Performance and the Result in the RVM Math Achievement Test when pupils are grouped according to their sex. the data gathered are presented. The Relationship of the Academic Performance and the result in the RVM Math Achievement Test d.CHAPTER IV RESULTS. The relationship of the Academic Performance and the RVM Math Achievement Test Result when the pupils are grouped according to their IQ Level e. Level of Pupils’ Academic Performance in Mathematics by Class b. The discussion in this chapter follows the sequence below. analyzed and interpreted. Profile of Pupils’ Performance Based on the Scaled Ability Score in RVM Math Achievement Test by class c. Level of Pupils’ Achievement in Mathematics . ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA In this chapter. a.

shows the performance of the Grade Five pupils in Mathematics by class. Table 1 Level of Pupils’ Academic Performance in Mathematics By Class SECTION Mother of Christ Mother of Divine Grace Mother of Good Counsel Mother of Mercy Mother of Perpetual Help Over all Mean MEAN INTERPRETATION Average Level Table 1 shows that among the five sections GRADE FOUR OLA OLHR OLP OLB OLMM .Table 1 that follows.

75 77.25 87.00 85.75 82.75 88.75 89.25 86.00 80.25 85.75 87.50 87.25 83.00 84.00 84.25 80.50 77.25 87.75 83.75 83.00 82.50 90.00 81.75 80.00 78.50 82.00 87.00 78.50 91.00 79.00 84.25 89.75 84.00 91.00 84.00 88.25 86.25 87.75 83.00 83.00 86.00 80.50 87.00 90.75 79.50 84.00 85.00 81.50 87.00 82.00 83.00 83.00 85.00 87.25 83.00 81.25 87.75 86.50 79.25 80.25 83.00 87.75 89.50 85.00 83.00 82.50 84.25 85.50 75.75 85.50 87.00 92.25 81.50 79.00 86.25 87.50 82.00 81.75 88.75 87.00 87.50 76.75 87.00 88.25 87.50 80.25 84.50 83.00 81.00 86.50 88.50 87.75 90.50 83.50 91.50 84.50 84.50 89.25 87.00 88.25 87.00 90.50 88.50 80.75 80.00 88.00 87.50 75.00 81.00 84.50 81.00 87.50 86.00 77.00 86.00 90.00 87.75 .00 79.50 83.25 87.50 86.75 83.00 86.75 84.25 81.50 87.25 87.75 84.84.75 81.75 80.50 85.25 84.00 88.25 84.75 88.75 82.50 87.50 88.00 84.25 83.50 84.00 88.00 84.50 81.25 88.75 83.50 83.00 82.50 77.75 85.00 81.25 81.75 85.25 79.25 84.50 91.75 83.00 87.75 84.00 86.00 80.00 87.50 82.75 89.00 89.75 87.00 86.25 88.25 84.25 84.00 82.25 80.50 87.75 85.25 80.00 78.25 80.

25 87.50 79.50 82.25 82.75 81.00 88.50 79.00 82.25 86.50 79.75 83.75 89.50 83.75 83.50 83.75 .00 85.50 78.00 89.25 92.00 82.25 89.00 82.25 89.75 80.50 81.75 80.75 82.50 89.25 80.00 81.25 81.00 84.50 83.50 81.75 85.50 83.25 83.25 89.25 78.00 85.00 88.50 89.00 86.00 86.50 85.25 82.25 87.00 82.75 83.25 89.GRADE FIVE Mother of Christ 88.75 79.25 90.25 79.25 91.25 83.00 88.50 83.00 89.50 83.75 82.25 90.75 81.75 Mother of Divine Grace 79.50 90.75 83.75 87.50 78.00 87.50 81.25 83.00 83.75 82.00 80.25 88.00 79.00 79.00 85.50 88.25 80.75 81.25 85.00 80.00 Mother of Mercy 86.50 86.00 83.25 81.50 88.50 81.00 79.75 82.00 85.00 88.00 89.00 81.25 91.50 82.50 81.75 87.50 90.50 84.50 81.75 90.50 81.00 87.75 90.50 84.75 90.50 84.50 86.50 86.25 82.25 81.75 85.75 90.25 89.00 84.25 87.75 80.50 85.50 89.25 88.75 81.50 88.00 Mother of Good Counsel 89.25 85.00 Mother of Perpetual Help 81.25 90.50 83.00 87.50 81.50 83.50 87.00 82.25 83.75 84.00 79.25 83.50 89.25 85.50 81.25 91.00 81.75 81.50 89.75 84.75 82.25 91.25 82.00 87.25 87.25 79.50 82.00 83.75 85.50 84.25 87.00 83.50 89.00 80.

75 85.00 89.00 88.75 77.00 86.75 79.75 82.75 85.75 84.25 83.75 86.00 89.50 82.25 GRADE 6 QOAP 82.00 80.75 80.75 88.25 77.00 87.00 83.50 84.50 85.25 QOAS 83.50 81.00 84.75 88.75 83.00 89.00 80.25 80.50 80.00 84.50 88.25 80.75 87.50 89.25 90.25 88.50 86.25 85.75 77.00 81.25 83.75 84.25 80.00 90.50 81.25 85.75 89.00 88.87.00 82.25 83.00 89.50 83.75 88.25 83.25 81.00 85.75 80.50 88.75 85.25 89.75 90.00 79.25 82.50 83.75 78.25 83.25 84.75 87.00 79.75 82.75 83.50 84.25 90.00 81.50 75.50 78.25 83.25 87.00 83.50 82.25 80.75 87.25 82.50 85.00 77.25 90.00 82.50 80.75 84.50 89.00 88.75 QOAN 86.75 79.25 87.75 84.25 81.50 83.00 81.25 75.75 83.50 79.50 85.50 80.75 87.25 87.25 92.25 88.75 82.00 87.00 76.00 78.75 86.25 87.00 81.00 86.50 82.75 84.25 82.75 84.00 87.50 85.25 83.50 85.75 81.75 80.75 81.50 82.00 81.25 81.75 82.25 80.75 87.25 81.25 QOP 83.25 86.00 84.75 83.00 91.50 82.75 77.25 81.75 84.25 89.00 79.50 85.00 78.75 86.50 83.25 82.00 86.50 QOV 82.25 87.75 85.25 89.50 .75 83.75 90.50 77.00 91.75 86.00 83.00 79.75 87.25 82.75 89.75 85.25 87.50 86.25 88.

75 85.75 86.50 84.00 86.50 83.92.25 82.50 85.75 87.00 88.50 83.25 88.50 87.25 88.50 84.75 90.00 86.00 85.50 88.25 84.75 86.00 .50 79.25 84.75 83.25 90.75 83.50 82.75 83.25 90.00 86.50 86.00 86.75 80.50 81.25 85.50 84.75 87.50 81.50 82.00 84.75 82.00 79.75 84.00 77.50 86.75 87.75 87.75 88.25 88.25 81.50 81.25 84.50 86.25 81.50 83.00 86.25 81.50 86.75 78.75 85.25 80.50 81.00 80.25 89.50 90.25 80.50 83.00 85.00 85.50 89.75 84.25 83.

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