ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF TALL STRUCTURES

ABSTRACT The structural aspects of high rise buildings, particularly fundamental
approaches to the analysis of the behavior of different forms of building structures including frame, shear wall, tubular, core and outrigger-braced systems. Introductory chapters discuss the forces to which the structure is subjected, design criteria which are of the greatest relevance to tall buildings, and various structural forms which have developed over the years since the first skyscrapers were built at the turn of the century. A major chapter is devoted to the modeling of real structures for both preliminary and final analyses. Considerable attention is devoted to the assessment of the stability of the structure, and the significance of creep and shrinkage is discussed. A final chapter is devoted to the dynamic response of structures subjected to wind and earthquake forces. Includes both accurate computer-based and approximate methods of analysis. INDEX 1. Tall Buildings 1.1 Why Tall Buildings? 1.2 Factors Affecting Growth, Height, and Structural Form 1.3 The Tall Building Structure 1.3.1 The Design Process 1.4 References 2. Design Criteria 2.1 Design Philosophy 2.2 Loading 2.2.1 Sequential Loading 2.3 Strength and Stability 2.4 Stiffness and Drift Limitations 2.5 Human Comfort Criteria 2.6 Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Effects 2.7 Fire 2.8 Foundation Settlement and Soil Structure Interaction Summary

1 Nonproportionate Nontwisting Structures 4.4 Behaviour of Nonproportionate Structures 4.1 Proportionate Nontwisting Structures 4.6.6 Stress Analysis of Shear Walls 4.3 Hybrid Approach to Preliminary and Final Analyses 4 Shear Wall Structures 4.1.6.1 Preliminary Analysis 3.References 3 Modelling for Analysis 3.3.1.1 Behaviour Of Shear Wall Structures 4.2 Nonproportionate Twisting Structures 4.1 Membrane Finite Element Analysis 4.2 Analysis of Proportionate Wall Systems 4.1 Approaches to Analysis 3.3.3 Nonproportionate Structures 4.2.5 Effects of Discontinuities at the Base 4.2 Analogous Frame Analysis Summary References .2 Intermediate and Final Analysis 3.1.2 Proportionate Twisting Structures 4.2.

However. it is debated whether underwater height should be discounted in the same manner as height below ground is ignored on buildings.2 m (1.2 m (1.717 ft) in height on 17 January 2009.698 ft). USA. and highest occupied floor. and only the tallest are recorded in publicly available information sources.7 ft) Warsaw radio mast.[2] By 7 April 2008 it had been built higher than the KVLY-TV mast in North Dakota. without any part of that height being supported by wires.474 ft). It is taller than any other man-made structure ever built. Taiwan.000 m (3. The Magnolia Tension-leg Platform in the Gulf of Mexico is even taller with a total height of 1. Taipei 101 in Taipei. to become the tallest structure ever built.EXAMPLES: The world's tallest structure is the 828 m (2.38 m (2.[4][5][6] It has the world's second highest public observation deck at 446. The Troll A platform is 472 m (1.285 ft). However.5 m (1. The Shanghai World Financial Center had the world's highest roof. which stood from 1974 to 1991. Guinness World Records 2009 listed the Ursa tension leg platform as the tallest structure in the world with a total height of 1. Opened in 1976. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) was highest in the final category: the greatest height to top of antenna of any building in the world at 527. are defined as "towers".432 m (4.000 ft) in height. TALLEST STRUCTURES: The tallest man-made structure is Burj Khalifa. Canada.465 ft).000 ft) off the sea floor leading some. Despite this. 449. was formerly the world's tallest completed freestanding structure on land.730 ft).300 ft) deep. The tension-leg type of oil platform has even greater below-water heights with several examples more than 1.The CN Tower in Toronto. The height of its roof. recognizes a building only if at least fifty percent of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area.815 ft).[3] That September it officially surpassed Poland's 646.120. Burj Khalifa broke the height record in all four categories for completed buildings by a wide margin. an organization that certifies buildings as the "World¶s Tallest". highest occupied . a skyscraper in Dubai that reached 828 m (2.3 m (1.717 ft) tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai.306 m (4. Guyed lattice towers such as these masts had held the world height record since 1954. was the world's tallest inhabited building in only one of the four main categories that are commonly measured: at 509.The Petronius Platform stands 610 m (2. United Arab Emirates. standing at 553. 439. The building gained the official title of "Tallest Building in the World" at its opening on 4 January 2010.The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.598 ft) and 474 m (1. including Guinness World Records 2007.549 ft).3 m (1. these platforms are not considered constant structures as the vast majority of their height is made up of the length of the tendons attaching the floating platforms to the sea floor.There are dozens of radio and television broadcasting towers which measure over 600 metres (about 2.2 m (1.671 ft) as measured to its architectural height (spire).441 ft). such as the CN Tower.555 ft) respectively.[1] Structures that do not meet this criterion. to claim it as the tallest freestanding structure in the world. had been overtaken by the Shanghai World Financial Center with corresponding heights of 487 m (1. it was surpassed in height by the rising Burj Khalifa on 12 September 2007.

It retains the latter record. and with antenna masts excluded.450 ft).556 ft). as Burj Khalifa's official observation deck will be at 442 m (1.2 m (1. Willis Tower (previously . KVLY-TV Mast Tower Wide Up until 1998 the tallest building status was essentially uncontested. Counting buildings as structures with floors throughout.floor. and the world's highest public observation deck at 474.

Willis Tower led in the fourth category with 527 m (1. On April 20. however. its site entered the record books twice on September 11. Excluding the spire. a new antenna mast was placed on the Willis Tower. Malaysia were built. previously held by the World Trade Center until the extension of the Chicago tower's western broadcast antenna in 2000. This action caused a considerable amount of controversy. Its completion gave it the world record for the first three categories. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is used to define the rankings of the 100 Tallest Buildings in the World. reaching 512 m (1. pedestrian entrance. significant. giving it hold of the fourth category. the Willis Tower held first place in the second and third categories. The World Trade Center became the world's tallest buildings to be destroyed or demolished. controversy arose because the spire extended nine metres higher than the roof of Willis Tower. the Petronas Towers are not taller than Willis Tower. was completed. With a spire height of 828 m (2. Since being completed in early 2010. Height to Architectural Top (including spires and pinnacles.[ . Burj Khalifa leads in all categories (the first building to do so). the Petronas Towers held the first category and the original World Trade Towers held the fourth. When the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur. Burj Khalifa surpassed Taipei 101 as the tallest building to architectural detail and the Willis Tower as the tallest building to tip.729 ft).717 ft). 2004. replacing the Singer Building. Within months. Taiwan.726 ft). On July 21. One World Trade Center measured 526 m (1. so CTBUH defined four categories in which the world's tallest building can be measured:[11] 1. indeed. Height to Top of Roof (omitted from criteria from November 2009 onwards)[12] 4. Before Burj Khalifa was completed. in that category. 2001. but not antennas.680 ft). and pronounced Petronas as world's tallest. It also leads in the category of highest occupied floor. At the time. Highest Occupied Floor 3.Sears Tower) in Chicago was considered the tallest. open-air. over a year prior to the World Trade Center's destruction in 2001. Taipei 101 in Taipei. the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) reduced Willis Tower from world's tallest and pronounced it not second tallest. 2007 it was announced that Burj Khalifa had surpassed Taipei 101 in height. but third. At their convention in Chicago. Its antenna mast included. Height to Tip The height is measured from the level of the lowest. which once stood a block from the WTC site. 2. masts or flagpoles).

denser media like salt water.312 ft) that do not use guy-wires or other external supports. All structures greater than 500 metres (1.Categories Of Tall Structures The list categories are: y y y y The structures (supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that might use some external support constructions like cables and are fully built in air.640 ft) are listed. defined as consisting of habitable floors. All supertall buildings (300 m and higher) are listed Burj Khalifa compared to some other well-known tall structures. non-supported structures. The freestanding structures list uses pinnacle height and includes structures over 400 metres (1. The building list uses architectural height (excluding antennas) and includes only buildings. . This means truly free standing on its own or. The structures (media supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that are not totally built in the air but are using support from other. in similar sense. Both of these follow CTBUH guidelines. as more than fifty US TV masts have stated heights of 600±610 metres (1969±2000 ft). Only the three tallest are listed.

currently under-construction in New York City. The Abraj Al Bait Towers are under construction in Mecca. is expected to be 634 m (2. It is expected to be 558 m (1.126 ft). . is expected to be 632 m (2.831 ft) tall up to the antenna. The Jakarta Tower (Menara Jakarta) is on-hold in Jakarta.[23][24] The Pingan International Finance Centre. Indonesia. under construction in Shenzhen. Its spire will top out at 1.150. Each of the following are under construction and. The Pentominium. it will become the world's tallest all-office building.073 ft). with public access in the spring of 2012.000 sq ft) and the tallest hotel in the world. It will also be the largest building in the world with a floor area of 1. planning. Construction began in 2007 and completion is expected in 2013.[25] One World Trade Center. depending on the order of completion.360 ft) tall. Completion is expected in 2015. next to the Shanghai World Financial Center and the Jin Mao Building. The tallest tower is expected to be 601 m (1.776 ft (541 m).Under construction and on-hold Numerous supertall skyscrapers are in various stages of proposal. it would be the tallest all-residential building in the world. could become the world's tallest building or structure in at least one category: y y y y y y y y India Tower is under construction in Mumbai's Marine Lines.972 ft) tall when completed in 2011. It was expected to be completed in 2012. The Shanghai Tower. or construction. is expected to be 648 m (2.[22] and expected to complete by 2016.693 ft) tall and have 120 floors. becoming secondtallest building in the world when completed. It will be a broadcasting tower to replace the old Tokyo Tower. thus may be tallest concrete tower. but has been put on hold. The Tokyo Sky Tree under construction in Tokyo's Sumida district. is expected to be 720 m (2. will be the tallest building in the United States and the Western Hemisphere. Will be used for hotel and residential. under construction in Dubai. is expected to be 516 m (1. Also. Completion is expected in 2014.080 ft) tall. under construction in Shanghai. If completed. Saudi Arabia. Construction began in 2008 and completion is expected in 2011. Construction was started in 2010.000 m2 (16.500.

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