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The Independent Scholar re--=.». —— Winter 2006 Vol. 20,No4 Letter from the president ‘As we near the end of 2006, I want to remind you that there will be changes that affect membership. First, in 2007 we will institute an income-based dues structure ~ a practice used by many other non-profit organizations. Members will base their dues on their annual income, This upcoming change was announced in Kati Lynn's Membership Services Committee report in the last issue of 71S. Kati Lynn’s research indicated that with the new dues structure, 65% of members will be paying lower dues than previously. It may look like we will lose money, however, we plan to institute ‘more efficiency and cost saving tactics that will even out our revenue flow. You may have received your dues notice already. More details are in this issue. Tom Snyder, chair of the Communi 1s & Media Committee, is leading the project on a new design for the NCIS web site. With committee members David Sonenschein, Alicia Galvan, Margaret DeLacy, Yosef Wosk, and Dick Magat, along with Kendra Leonard, Kati Lynn, and myself, Tom has developed a set of specifications that has been sent out as a request for proposal to a number of professional web design firms. This process takes time, and I can assure you that we continue to have a fine working web site for NCIS, with Webmaster Margaret DeLacy. Independent Scholars Eventually, we plan to offer 7/S in an online downloadable version. Initially, this new electronic edition of the newsletter will be in tandem with the hard copy version for those who still want the hard copy by postal mail. However, we hope that over time the entire membership will receive TIS from their computers. By doing so, we eliminate the print production time needed as well as the costs associated with a print edition and postage. We plan to do this over a transitional period that will satisfy the needs of all the members. Continued on next page Cet tine err 4 REPORT FROM PARIS By Wendy Pojmann Highlights of Paris-based research, Q SELLING Your SCHOLARSHIP By Joanne Lafer Convention notes: writing marketable non-fiction. 410 INDEPENDENCE Day By Debra Ziegeler Meet our newest and only member in the UK. 414. TRIBUTE TO SARA HALPRIN 1943-2006 46 Access To FuLL-texr RESOURCES By Margaret DeLacy Enhance your research techniques, 24 OnroLosica: DecoLonizarion: LEARNING FROM HAWAIIAN ‘SOVEREIGNTY By MT. Karo ‘Anmexation of Hawai'i - was it legal? 24 = December 2006 Ontological Decolonization: Learning from Hawaiian Sovereignty By M. T. Kato An autonomous production of academic discourse, which I consider as one of the tasks of an independent scholar, entails efforts to discern the site of production in relation to the strategic formation of discourse.’ This is particularly so in places like Hawai'i where I have been engaged in the discursive production. On a surface level, the American incorporation of Hawai'i (i.e., Hawai'i as part of the United States) seems naturalized as a public discourse Gue to the formidable forces of post-missionary colonial institutions such as the US federal and state apparatus, the yw US military, mass media, and the business establishment. And yet, the legitimacy of this dominant discourse has been questioned at its fundamental level through the discourse of Hawaiian Sovereignty, which is being produced by the nation in the process of recovering its totality. One of the most serious contentions that the dominant discourse is faced with is the illegality, and hence the nullity, of the American incorporation of Hawai'i. On the eve of Queen Liliuokalani’s proclamation of a new constitution that could in effect have tilted the balance of power back to Hawai‘i nationals from the growing influence of foreign nationals in the running of the Hawaiian state, a group of missionary descendents and sugar planters staged a coup état and overthrew the Kingdom of Hawai'i, with the full support of the US, on " For the strategic formation of discourse, see Michele Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans, Alan Sheridan (1977, New York: Vintage Books, 1995); Edward Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1978). January 17, 1893. However, from the overthrow to the annexation, the American incorporation of Hawai'i was so procedurally flawed according to the intemational law as. to render it invalid. For instance, the constitutional monarchy, as a member of the family of nations, held treaties with European nations, Japan, the US, and others. In the overthrow of the constitutional monarchy, the US did neither abrogate its treaty with the Kingdom nor declare war against it. Furthermore, in annexing Hawai'i in 1898, the US failed to conclude an annexation resolution to substitute for an Satepetate "EY: and instead produced a domestic eS, internationally binding treaty. Hawa © Beginning in the 1970s and culminating in the 1990s, there emerged among Native Hawaiians, or Kanaka Maoli, the discourse of Hawaiian Sovereignty in the context of international jurisprudence. It is fostered by the awareness that the national sovereignty of Hawai'i remains in existence, as the alleged overthrow and the annexation by the US did not materialize due to the fact the US did not take proper steps required by the international law. Some Kanaka Maoli (“true human being” in the Hawaiian language) expressed this awareness in direct actions by reclaiming their ancestral lands, driving their cars with the word “Sovereign” on their license plates, and by nullifying the US citizenship to fully realize their Hawaiian citizenship, all based on the constitution of the Kingdom of Hawai'i. The jurisdictional questions, accordingly, began Continued on next page to enter the US district and federal courts. One case involving the Hawaiian subject Lance Larsen, who sued the Kingdom of Hawai‘i for the failure of the protection of its subject, made it to the Permanent Court of Arbitration in Hague in 2000 - 2001, thereby bringing the jurisdictional questions to the rightful domain of international jurisprudence.” This formation of international judicial discourse intermeshed with the recovery process of the Hawaiian nation is an indication of the ongoing deinstitutionalized decolonization process, transcending the formal yy decolonization mandated & Bove! by the United Nations. Particularly, this discourse reflects the decolonization in the mental universe demonstrated by ‘Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s works.’ For example, the Hawaiian language and cultural immersion programs initiated in the late 1980s have come to spread extensively throughout the archipelago merging both with public and charter schools, enabling a Kanaka Maoli to be educated in her native tongue from preschool to university, Against this background of linguistic and cultural retention, Kanaka Maoli scholars well versed in the native language have come to challenge the colonial historiography of Hawaii. Most notably, Noenoe K. Silva unearthed the history of nonviolent struggles against annexation when she located voluminous petitions that contained over 21,000 signatures (out of around 40,000 Kanaka Maoli population at that time) in protest against annexation, in the US For the Arbitral Award, see www.pea- /labkaward.htm. * Ngugi wa Thiong’O, Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature (London: James Currey, 1986); Writers in Polities: A Re- engagement with Issues of Literature and Society (Oxford: James Currey, 1997), Hawaii ‘The Independent Scholir oa National Archives in 1997.* An activist, musician, and educator, the late Didi Malie Lee Kwai, then converted this particular episode of the anti-colonial struggle into a theatrical format. Casting real life activists to various roles ~ some of whom were implanted in the audience — for its first performance in 2001 materialized the erosion of the boundary that separates history and the current movement for self-determina‘ion, constituting itself as a th decolonization fully uti sphere. Moreover, the most peculiar example of decolonization in the aesthetic sphere involves the perception of colors. July Around the same time the international arbitration of Lance Larsen’s case was initiated, a bumper sticker claimed to be one of the original flags of the Hawaiian Kingdom, prior to the adoption of the Union Jack and the Star Spangled Banner, began to appear in public. The flag holds the ancient triangular flag, the symbol of the first law of the Kingdom (Mamala Hoe Kanawai or “The Law of the Splintered Paddles”), at the center with the nine strips in green, red, and yellow colors in the background. A Kanaka Maoli flag historian, Eugene Simeona, who conducted his research at the Hawaii State Archives, discovered it. The flag became very popular among the younger generation of Kanaka Maoli and independence oriented groups and activists from the older generation. The existence of this original flag, which is closer to African flags than European flags, incidentally unraveled a deeper layer of colonization in the realm of the unconscious, represented by the colonizers’ aesthetic embodied in their * For details on the petitions and other historical instances of Kanaka Maoli’s decolonization struggles, see Noenoe K. Silva, Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism (Durham and London: Duke University Press,2004).. Continued on next page