Filamer Christian University (Secondary School) The Feasibility of Okra and Aloe Vera as An Homemade Shampoo

Ms. Jovelita Crizaldo Chemistry Teacher

By: Don Ezek Dollete

Chapter 1

Introduction This chapter presents the background of the study, the statement of the problem, hypothesis, significant of the study, scope and delimitations of the study and definition of terms. Background of the study Nowadays, there are many artificial and cosmetic things that is in the market. One of the most popular is shampoo. We think that we will produce a shampoo in a natural way. So that’s how we come up with okra and aloe vera to help replace other artificial products into an environmental one.

Statement of the Problem 1. Can okra and aloe vera be used as raw materials in making shampoo? 2. How effective are aloe vera and okra on the tensile of the hair? 3. Is there any significant difference in the effectivity of different conceration of okra and aloe vera in strengthening hair? Hypothesis There is significant difference in the effectively of different concentration of okra and aloe vera in strengthening hair. Scope and Delimitation This study

Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature

This chapter represents a review of related literature and studies about okra and gugo that can be made as an homemade shampoo and can strengthen the tensile of the hair. Okra Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Moench, known in many English-speaking countries as lady's fingers or gumbo) is a flowering plant in the mallow family. It is valued for its edible green seed pods. Originating in Africa, the plant is cultivated in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions around the world. The name "okra", most often used in the United States and the Philippines, is of West African origin and is cognate with "ọ́kụ̀rụ̀" in Igbo, a language spoken in Nigeria. Okra is often known as "Lady's Fingers" outside of the United States. In various Bantu languages, okra is called "kingombo" or a variant thereof, and this is the origin of its name in Portuguese ("quiabo"), Spanish, Dutch and French, and also of the name "gumbo", used in parts of the United States and English-speaking Caribbean for either the vegetable, or a stew based on it. In the United Kingdom it is often called as "bhindi", from its Hindi name "bhindi" or "bhendi". It is a tall-growing, warmseason, annual vegetable from the same family as hollyhock, rose of Sharon and hibiscus. The immature pods are used for soups, canning and stews or as a fried or boiled vegetable. The hibiscuses like flowers and upright plant (3 to 6 feet or more in height) have ornamental value for backyard gardens.

From Arabia, the plant spread around the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and eastward. The plant was introduced to the Americas by ships plying the Atlantic slave trade by 1658, when its presence was recorded in Brazil. It was further documented in Suriname in 1686. Okra may have been introduced to southeastern North America in the early 18th century. It was being grown as far north as Philadelphia by 1748. Thomas Jefferson noted that it was well established in Virginia by 1781. It was commonplace throughout the southern United States by 1800 and the first mention of different cultivars was in 1806. Okra seed pod In Caribbean islands, okra is eaten as soup, often with fish. In Haiti it is cooked with rice and maize, and also used as a sauce for meat. It became a popular vegetable in Japanese cuisine toward the end of the 20th century, served with soy sauce and katsuobushi, or as tempura. Okra forms part of several regional "signature" dishes. Frango com quiabo (chicken with okra) is a Brazilian dish that is especially famous in the region of Minas Gerais. Gumbo, a hearty stew whose key ingredient is okra, is found throughout the Gulf Coast of the United States and in the South Carolina Lowcountry. Breaded, deep fried okra is eaten in the southern United States. Okra is also an ingredient expected in callaloo, a Caribbean dish and the national dish of Trinidad and Tobago. Okra is also eaten in Nigeria, where draw soup is a popular dish, often eaten with garri or cassava. In Vietnam, okra is the important ingredient

in the dish canh chua. Okra slices can also be added to ratatouille, combining very well with the other ingredients of this French popular dish. Okra leaves may be cooked in a similar way to the greens of beets or dandelions. The leaves are also eaten raw in salads. Okra seeds may be roasted and ground to form a caffeinate-free substitute for coffee. When importation of coffee was disrupted by the American Civil War in 1861, the Austin State Gazette noted, "An acre of okra will produce seed enough to furnish a plantation of fifty negroes with coffee in every way equal to that imported from Rio. Okra oil is a pressed seed oil, extracted from the seeds of the okra. The greenish-yellow edible oil has a pleasant taste and odor, and is high in unsaturated fats such as oleic acid and linoleic acid. The oil content of the seed can be quite high at about 40%. Oil yields from okra crops are also high. At 794 kg/ha, the yield was exceeded only by that of sunflower oil in one trial. Common Okra seed is reported to contain only 15% oil. Nutritional Value & Health Benefits Okra is a powerhouse of valuable nutrients. Nearly half of which is soluble fiber in the form of gums and pectins. Soluble fiber helps to lower serum cholesterol, reducing the risk of heart disease. The other half is insoluble fiber which helps to keep the intestinal tract healthy decreasing the risk of some forms of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. Nearly 10% of the recommended levels of vitamin B6 and folic acid are also present in a half cup of cooked okra. Nutrition Facts (1/2 cup sliced, cooked okra) Calories 25 Dietary Fiber 2 grams

Protein 1.52 grams Carbohydrates 5.76 grams Vitamin A 460 IU Vitamin C 13.04 mg Folic acid 36.5 micrograms

Calcium 50.4 mg Iron 0.4 mg Potassium 256.6 mg Magnesium 46 mg Aloe vera

Aloe vera, also known as the true or medicinal aloe, is a species of succulent plant in the genus Aloe that is believed to have originated in the Sudan. Aloe vera grows in arid climates and is widely distributed in Africa, India, and other arid areas. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine. Many scientific studies of the use of aloe vera have been undertaken, some of them conflicting. Despite these limitations, there is some preliminary evidence that Aloe vera extracts may be useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, Sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. These positive effects are thought to be due to the presence of compounds such as polysaccharides, mannans, anthraquinones, and lectins. Claims of medical properties Scientific evidence for the cosmetic and therapeutic effectiveness of aloe vera is limited and when present is frequently contradictory.[1][2] Despite this, the cosmetic and alternative medicine industries regularly make claims regarding the soothing, moisturizing, and healing properties of aloe vera, especially via Internet advertising.[3][38][39][40][41] Aloe vera gel is used as an ingredient in commercially available lotion, yogurt, beverages, and some desserts.[42][43][44]

Aloe vera juice is used for consumption and relief of digestive issues such as heartburn and irritable bowel syndrome, although it bears significant potential to be toxic when taken orally. It is common practice for cosmetic companies to add sap or other derivatives from aloe vera to products such as makeup, tissues, moisturizers, soaps, sunscreens, incense, shaving cream, and shampoos.[42] Other uses for extracts of aloe vera include the dilution of semen for the artificial fertilization of sheep,[46] use as fresh food preservative,[47] and use in water conservation in small farms.[48] The supposed therapeutic uses of aloe vera are not exclusive to the species and may be found to a lesser or greater degree in the gels of all aloes, and indeed are shared with large numbers of plants belonging to the family Asphodelaceae. Bulbine frutescens, for example, is used widely for the treatment of burns and a host of skin afflictions. Aloe vera has a long association with herbal medicine, although it is not known when its medical applications were first suspected. Early records of aloe vera use appear in the Ebers Papyrus from 16th century BCE, in both Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and Pliny the Elder's Natural History written in the mid-first century CE along with the Juliana Anicia Codex produced in 512 CE. Aloe vera is non-toxic, with no known side effects, provided the aloin has been removed by processing. Taking aloe vera that contains aloin in excess amounts has been associated with various side-effects. However, the species is used widely in the traditional herbal medicine of China, Japan, Russia, South Africa, the United States, Jamaica, Latin America and India. Aloe vera may be effective in treatment of wounds. Evidence on the effects of its sap on wound healing, however, is limited and contradictory. Some studies, for

example, show that aloe vera promotes the rates of healing, while, in contrast, other studies show that wounds to which aloe vera gel was applied were significantly slower to heal than those treated with conventional medical preparations. A more recent review (2007) concludes that the cumulative evidence supports the use of aloe vera for the healing of first to second degree burns. In addition to topical use in wound or burn healing, internal intake of aloe vera has been linked in preliminary research with improved blood glucose levels in diabetics, and with lower blood lipids in hyperlipidaemic patients, but also with acute hepatitis (liver disease). In other diseases, preliminary studies have suggested oral aoe vera gel may reduce symptoms and inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis. Compounds extracted from aloe vera have been used as an immunostimulant that aids in fighting cancers in cats and dogs; however, this treatment has not been scientifically tested in humans. Topical application of aloe vera may be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. However, it is not effective for the prevention of radiation-induced injuries. Although anecdotally useful, it has not been proven to offer protection from sunburn or suntan. In a double-blind clinical trial, both the group using an aloe vera containing dentifrice and the group using a fluoridated dentifrice had a reduction of gingivitis and plaque, but no statistically significant difference was found between the two. Aloe vera extracts have antibacterial and antifungal activities, which may help in the treatment of minor skin infections, such as boils and benign skin cysts and have been shown to inhibit the growth of fungi that cause tinea. For bacteria, inner-leaf gel from aloe vera was shown to inhibit growth of Streptococcus and

Shigella species in vitro.In contrast, aloe vera extracts failed to show antibiotic properties against Xanthomonas species.

Shampoo

Shampoo is a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much sebum as to make hair unmanageable. Even though most modern shampoos include a conditioning component, shampooing is frequently followed by the use of conditioners which ease combing and styling.

Composition

Shampoo is generally made by combining a surfactant, most often sodium lauryl sulfate and/or sodium laureth sulfate with a co-surfactant, most often

cocamidopropyl betaine in water to form a thick, viscous liquid. Other essential ingredients include salt (sodium chloride), which is used to adjust the viscosity, a preservative and fragrance. Other ingredients are generally included in shampoo formulations to maximize the following qualities:

• • • • • • •

Pleasing foam Easy rinsing Minimal skin/eye irritation Feels thick and/or creamy Pleasant fragrance Low toxicity Good biodegradability

Slightly acidic (pH less than 7), since a basic environment weakens the hair by breaking the disulfide bonds in hair keratin.

No damage to hair

Many shampoos are pearlescent. This effect is achieved by addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials, e.g. glycol distearate, chemically derived from stearic acid, which may have either animal or vegetable origins. Glycol distearate is a wax. Many shampoos also include silicone to provide conditioning benefits.

Chapter 4 Results and Discussion

Hair Concentration Hair 1 Okra Hair 2 Aloe Vera Hair 3 Okra and Aloe Vera

Tear Strength

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